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2877_Modulo_S_443_458

11-12-2007

11:41

Pagina 443

U N I T 92 D I S C O R S O I N D I R E T T O

UNIT

92 DISCORSO INDIRETTO (He said he was tired.)


Il discorso indiretto
Il discorso indiretto (reported speech) si usa quando si vuole riferire a qualcuno ci che

stato detto in precedenza. Quando si trasforma il discorso diretto in discorso indiretto


occorre fare attenzione ai tempi verbali, ai pronomi personali e ai possessivi.
ATTENZIONE! A differenza dellitaliano, in inglese luso di that (che) nel discorso
indiretto opzionale.
Nel passaggio dal discorso diretto al discorso indiretto, i tempi verbali vengono trasformati

nel seguente modo:

il present simple diventa past simple


Tom said, My parents are at work.

They said (that) they were studying


astrophysics.

il past simple e il present perfect diventano past perfect


She said, I saw Jim in the pub.
You said, I havent been to the UK.

Tom said (that) his parents were at work.

il present continuous diventa past continuous


They said, Were studying
astrophysics.

She said (that) she had seen Jim in the pub.


You said (that) you hadnt been to the UK.

will, can e may/might diventano rispettivamente would, could e might.

You said (that) you would phone


when you were free.
He said (that) he couldnt come
to the cinema on Saturday.
We said (that) we might be able
to help.

You said, Ill phone when Im free.


He said, I cant come to the cinema
on Saturday.
We said, We may/might be able
to help.

Talvolta quando il verbo del discorso diretto al passato resta invariato nel discorso

indiretto.

We saw Julie in town, they said.


Paul said, Kelly still hadnt arrived
when I left.
They said, She was looking
for a new dress.

They said (that) they saw / had seen


Julie in town.
Paul said (that) Kelly still hadnt arrived
when he left.
They said (that) she was looking
for a new dress.

Quando il discorso diretto si riferisce a qualcosa che ancora vero nel presente oppure

non ancora accaduto, non si cambia il tempo verbale nel discorso indiretto.

I never walk to school, she said.


He said, Im having a party
next Saturday.
I wont be late again, said Helen.

She said (that) she never walks to school.


He said (that) hes having a party
next Saturday.
Helen said (that) she wont be late again.

443

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2877_Modulo_S_443_458

11-12-2007

11:41

Pagina 444

DISCORSO INDIRETTO

ATTENZIONE! Confronta le seguenti frasi.


He said, Im going to NY.
He said (that) hes going to NY. (= non ancora partito)
He said (that) he was going to NY. (= gi partito)

Altri cambiamenti nel discorso indiretto


Spesso nella trasformazione da discorso diretto a indiretto necessario apportare altri

cambiamenti.
Nel dettaglio:

pronomi personali

I hate you! she said.


Louisa lied to me, he said.

aggettivi e pronomi possessivi

You can borrow my pen, Mark,


Carrie said.
Its ours, the children said.

Carrie said (that) Mark could borrow


her pen.
The children said (that) it was theirs.

pronomi dimostrativi: this e that diventano it; these e those diventano they

This is a great book, he said.


Those aren't my gloves, she said.

Sue said (that) the bag was beautiful.


Miss Smith said (that) the boys
were very noisy.

She said (that) she would still be there at 9.

then / at that moment


that day
the following day / the next day
the previous day / the day before
the previous week/Wednesday
two months before
the following week/Saturday
that evening / that night

She said (that) John was going to the theatre


with her.

avverbi ed espressioni di tempo


now
today
tomorrow
yesterday
last week/Wednesday
two months ago
next week/Saturday
this evening / tonight

avverbi di luogo: here diventa there


Ill still be here at 9, she said.

He said (that) it was a great book.


She said (that) they weret her gloves.

aggettivi dimostrativi: this, that, these e those diventano the


This bag is beautiful, said Sue.
Miss Smith said, Those boys
are very noisy.

She said (that) she hated me.


He said (that) Louisa had lied to him.

verbi: come diventa go.


Johns coming to the theatre
with me, she said.

444

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Pagina 445

U N I T 92 D I S C O R S O I N D I R E T T O

E X E R C I S E S
Il discorso indiretto
Lultima volta che Jane ha visto Tom stato sei mesi fa. Adesso la ragazza racconta a un
amico, Rick, quello che Tom le aveva detto durante quellincontro. Leggi le affermazioni di
Tom e completa il racconto di Jane.

1.

6 months ago

JANE

Ive finished university. Im working in a bank now. Ive been there for one
year. I dont like it very much, so Im looking for a new job. Do you remember
my sister Tina? She got married last week. Now shes on her honeymoon
in the Caribbean. Ive met a nice girl, Linda. Weve been going out together
for six months now. This summer were going on holiday together.
Well probably go to Greece. Ill send you a postcard.

TOM

had finished university


I last saw Tom six months ago. He said he 0) ______________
and that he 1) ______________ in a bank. He said he 2) ______________

Now

there for one year, but that he 3) ______________ it very much so


he 4) ______________ for a new job. He said that his sister, Tina,
5) ______________ the week before, and that she 6) ______________ on
her honeymoon in the Caribbean. Then he said that he 7) ______________
a nice girl called Linda, and that they 8) ______________ together
for six months. He said they 9) ______________ on holiday together

NICK

in the summer. He said they 10) ______________ to Greece and that


he 11) ______________ me a postcard.

2. Completa la seconda frase in modo che abbia lo stesso significato della prima. Usa un
massimo di cinque parole.
0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

she was going home.


Gina said, Im going home.
Gina said that _______________
We cant find our cat, they said.
They said that _______________ cat.
You said, I have no idea what has happened. You said that you _____________ happened.
He left an hour ago, the woman said.
The woman said that he ___________ before.
Paula said, These arent my books.
Paula said that _______________ books.
Dan said, Ive been waiting here for an hour. Dan said that _______________ for an hour.
This is very silly, Barbara said.
Barbara said that ______________ very silly.
They have never been late before, Tom said. Tom said that _______________ before.
I can meet you tomorrow, Julie said.
Julie said that she _______________ day.

3. Traduci le seguenti frasi.


1. Yolanda ha detto che era stanca.
2. Hanno detto che si stavano preparando
per lesame.
3. Luke ha detto che non era andato a scuola
il giorno prima.
4. Abbiamo detto che non potevamo andare
alla festa.
5. Ho detto che sarei venuto alle otto.

445

6. Billy ha detto che non voleva andare


in piscina.
7. Lucy ha detto che non aveva mai visto
quelluomo.
8. Non hai detto che non avevi fame?
9. Dicono che vanno via la settimana
prossima.
10. Julie dice di non conoscere il signor Black.

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