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U N I T 92 D I S C O R S O I N D I R E T T O

UNIT 92 DISCORSO INDIRETTO (He said he was tired.)


• Il discorso indiretto
◆ Il discorso indiretto (reported speech) si usa quando si vuole riferire a qualcuno ciò che
è stato detto in precedenza. Quando si trasforma il discorso diretto in discorso indiretto
occorre fare attenzione ai tempi verbali, ai pronomi personali e ai possessivi.

ATTENZIONE! A differenza dell’italiano, in inglese l’uso di that (che) nel discorso


indiretto è opzionale.

◆ Nel passaggio dal discorso diretto al discorso indiretto, i tempi verbali vengono trasformati
nel seguente modo:
■ il present simple diventa past simple
Tom said, “My parents are at work.” ➔ Tom said (that) his parents were at work.
■ il present continuous diventa past continuous
They said, “We’re studying ➔ They said (that) they were studying
astrophysics.” astrophysics.
■ il past simple e il present perfect diventano past perfect
She said, “I saw Jim in the pub.” ➔ She said (that) she had seen Jim in the pub.
You said, “I haven’t been to the UK.” ➔ You said (that) you hadn’t been to the UK.
■ will, can e may/might diventano rispettivamente would, could e might.
You said, “I’ll phone when I’m free.” ➔ You said (that) you would phone
when you were free.
He said, “I can’t come to the cinema ➔ He said (that) he couldn’t come
on Saturday.” to the cinema on Saturday.
We said, “We may/might be able ➔ We said (that) we might be able
to help.” to help.
◆ Talvolta quando il verbo del discorso diretto è al passato resta invariato nel discorso
indiretto.
“We saw Julie in town,” they said. ➔ They said (that) they saw / had seen
Julie in town.
Paul said, “Kelly still hadn’t arrived ➔ Paul said (that) Kelly still hadn’t arrived
when I left”. when he left.
They said, “She was looking ➔ They said (that) she was looking
for a new dress.” for a new dress.”
◆ Quando il discorso diretto si riferisce a qualcosa che è ancora vero nel presente oppure
non è ancora accaduto, non si cambia il tempo verbale nel discorso indiretto.
“I never walk to school,” she said. ➔ She said (that) she never walks to school.
He said, “I’m having a party ➔ He said (that) he’s having a party
next Saturday.” next Saturday.
“I won’t be late again,” said Helen. ➔ Helen said (that) she won’t be late again.

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DISCORSO INDIRETTO

ATTENZIONE! Confronta le seguenti frasi.


He said, “I’m going to NY.”
He said (that) he’s going to NY. (= non è ancora partito)
He said (that) he was going to NY. (= è già partito)

• Altri cambiamenti nel discorso indiretto


◆ Spesso nella trasformazione da discorso diretto a indiretto è necessario apportare altri
cambiamenti.
Nel dettaglio:
■ pronomi personali
“I hate you!” she said. ➔ She said (that) she hated me.
“Louisa lied to me,” he said. ➔ He said (that) Louisa had lied to him.
■ aggettivi e pronomi possessivi
“You can borrow my pen, Mark,” ➔ Carrie said (that) Mark could borrow
Carrie said. her pen.
“It’s ours,” the children said. ➔ The children said (that) it was theirs.
■ pronomi dimostrativi: this e that diventano it; these e those diventano they
“This is a great book,” he said. ➔ He said (that) it was a great book.
“Those aren't my gloves,” she said. ➔ She said (that) they were’t her gloves.
■ aggettivi dimostrativi: this, that, these e those diventano the
“This bag is beautiful,” said Sue. ➔ Sue said (that) the bag was beautiful.
Miss Smith said, “Those boys ➔ Miss Smith said (that) the boys
are very noisy.” were very noisy.
■ avverbi di luogo: here diventa there
“I’ll still be here at 9,” she said. ➔ She said (that) she would still be there at 9.
■ avverbi ed espressioni di tempo
now ➔ then / at that moment
today ➔ that day
tomorrow ➔ the following day / the next day
yesterday ➔ the previous day / the day before
last week/Wednesday ➔ the previous week/Wednesday
two months ago ➔ two months before
next week/Saturday ➔ the following week/Saturday
this evening / tonight ➔ that evening / that night
■ verbi: come diventa go.
“John’s coming to the theatre ➔ She said (that) John was going to the theatre
with me,” she said. with her.

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U N I T 92 D I S C O R S O I N D I R E T T O

E X E R C I S E S
Il discorso indiretto
1. L’ultima volta che Jane ha visto Tom è stato sei mesi fa. Adesso la ragazza racconta a un
amico, Rick, quello che Tom le aveva detto durante quell’incontro. Leggi le affermazioni di
Tom e completa il racconto di Jane.

6 months ago
I’ve finished university. I’m working in a bank now. I’ve been there for one
year. I don’t like it very much, so I’m looking for a new job. Do you remember
my sister Tina? She got married last week. Now she’s on her honeymoon
in the Caribbean. I’ve met a nice girl, Linda. We’ve been going out together
for six months now. This summer we’re going on holiday together.
We’ll probably go to Greece. I’ll send you a postcard.

JANE TOM
had finished university
I last saw Tom six months ago. He said he 0) ______________
and that he 1) ______________ in a bank. He said he 2) ______________
Now there for one year, but that he 3) ______________ it very much so
he 4) ______________ for a new job. He said that his sister, Tina,
5) ______________ the week before, and that she 6) ______________ on
her honeymoon in the Caribbean. Then he said that he 7) ______________
a nice girl called Linda, and that they 8) ______________ together
for six months. He said they 9) ______________ on holiday together
NICK
in the summer. He said they 10) ______________ to Greece and that
he 11) ______________ me a postcard.

2. Completa la seconda frase in modo che abbia lo stesso significato della prima. Usa un
massimo di cinque parole.
0. Gina said, “I’m going home.” she was going home.
➔ Gina said that _______________
1. “We can’t find our cat,” they said. ➔ They said that _______________ cat.
2. You said, “I have no idea what has happened.” ➔ You said that you _____________ happened.
3. “He left an hour ago,” the woman said. ➔ The woman said that he ___________ before.
4. Paula said, “These aren’t my books.” ➔ Paula said that _______________ books.
5. Dan said, “I’ve been waiting here for an hour.” ➔ Dan said that _______________ for an hour.
6. “This is very silly,” Barbara said. ➔ Barbara said that ______________ very silly.
7. “They have never been late before,” Tom said. ➔ Tom said that _______________ before.
8. “I can meet you tomorrow,” Julie said. ➔ Julie said that she _______________ day.

3. Traduci le seguenti frasi.


1. Yolanda ha detto che era stanca. 6. Billy ha detto che non voleva andare
2. Hanno detto che si stavano preparando in piscina.
per l’esame. 7. Lucy ha detto che non aveva mai visto
3. Luke ha detto che non era andato a scuola quell’uomo.
il giorno prima. 8. Non hai detto che non avevi fame?
4. Abbiamo detto che non potevamo andare 9. Dicono che vanno via la settimana
alla festa. prossima.
5. Ho detto che sarei venuto alle otto. 10. Julie dice di non conoscere il signor Black.

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