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In italiano:

Henrico II

l'ultimo re normanno, Stefano fu succeduto dal primo re plantageneto, Enrico II. La prima cosa che fece
Enrico II fu ridurre il potere dei baroni. Inoltre i cavalieri potevano pagare al re una somma di denaro invece
di prestare servizio. Con questi soldi, il re poteva assumere i mercenari. Enrico volle stabilire un sistema
legale in Inghilterra. Inviò giudici itineranti a tenere tribunali nelle più grandi città di ogni paese della Terra.
La legge che amministravano divenne nota come Common Law, perché era usata ovunque. Ciò era in
contrasto con altre parti d'Europa, dove la pratica legale era ancora basata sul diritto civile dell'Impero
Romano e sul diritto canonico della Chiesa. Enrico II istituì anche un sistema per risolvere le controversie
terriere utilizzando una giuria di dodici uomini liberi che furono incaricati di arbitrare. Le basi che ha gettato
sono la base della legge inglese e del sistema di giuria ancora oggi. Il re voleva anche ridurre il potere della
chiesa. Henry pensava che il modo più semplice per controllare la Chiesa sarebbe stato quello di rendere
Thomas Becket, suo amico e cancelliere, capo della Chiesa in Inghilterra. Tuttavia, una volta nominato
arcivescovo di Canterbury, divenne un avversario del re. Il loro confitto durò a lungo e terminò con
l'assassinio di Becket da parte di quattro cavalieri nella Cattedrale di Canterbury il 29 dicembre 1170. Il suo
assassinio ha scioccato tutta l'Europa. Divenne martire e santo, e pellegrinaggi da tutta l'Inghilterra e
l'Europa visitarono il suo santuario nella Cattedrale di Canterbury.

In inglese:

the last Norman king, Stephen was succeeded by the first Plantagenet king, Henry II. The first thing Henry II
did was to reduce the power of the barons. In addition, knights could pay the king a sum of money in lieu of
service. With this money, the king could hire mercenaries. Henry wanted to establish a legal system in
England. He sent itinerant judges to hold courts in the largest cities in every country on earth. The law they
administered became known as Common Law because it was used everywhere. This was in contrast to
other parts of Europe, where legal practice was still based on the civil law of the Roman Empire and the
canon law of the Church. Henry II also established a system for settling land disputes using a jury of twelve
freemen who were appointed to arbitrate. The foundation he laid is the basis of English law and the jury
system to this day. The king also wanted to reduce the power of the church. Henry thought the easiest way
to control the church would be to make Thomas Becket, his friend and chancellor, head of the church in
England. However, once he was appointed archbishop of Canterbury, he became an opponent of the king.
Their quarrel lasted a long time and ended with Becket's assassination by four knights in Canterbury
Cathedral on December 29, 1170. His murder shocked all of Europe. He became a martyr and a saint, and
pilgrimages from all over England and Europe visited his shrine in Canterbury Cathedral.

Richard I  Succeded his father in 1189 and he was known as “Richard Lionheart” for his charm and
courage. He spent less than a year of his regin in England because he left and when he died in 1199 his
brother John became king

John Lackland  During his regin he lost Normandy and almost all other possessions in France. His many
taxes to finance the wars exausted thee barons’ incomes and increased their discontent and by 1215 civil
war broken out and the rebels occupied London. John agreed to meet then and sign the Magna Carta with
whom he agreed that no taxes could be demanded without the consent of the great council and that no
free man could be arrested without been judged by his equals.

Henry III  On John’s death in 1216, his nine-years-old son became king. England was governed by a group
of barons until he came of age. In 1258 he accepted a plan of reform that is often regarded as England’s
first constitution: the governament was placed under the joint control of the king and a council of fifteen
barons were to occur between the king and th council three times a year
Edward I  Henry’s eldest son became king in 1272. A meeting of his council, known as the model
parliamentof 1295, is regarded as the first representatives of the barons and knights, but also
representatives of the countries and towns and the lesser clergy. The ingredients for the future two Houses
of Parliament were all there.


The Normans built catles all over the country in order to control their territories. The first Norman castles
were made of wood and included a mound, or motte, of alternating layers of earth and stones. They had a
wooden tower on top and an enclosed residence surrounded by a bailey, a large ditch and bank enclosure.
A drowbridge could be used to prevent unwelcome visitors from climbing up the motte. Wooden castles
were quick to build but also couls be easily destroyed. Over time, stone castles replaced them. Therefore
castles also became centers for local government, administration and justice.


The Normans arrived in England with William the Conquer and ruled from 1066 to 1154. They introduced
the feudal system and values linked to chivalry. Anglo-saxon noblemen were replaced with french barons,
and French was the official language of the court. The Normans built strong castles, churches and
cathedrals. After the Normans came the Pla

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