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UNI CEN/TS
13001-3-1

SETTEMBRE 2005

Apparecchi di sollevamento

Criteri generali per il progetto

Parte 3-1: Stati limite e verica della sicurezza delle strutture di
acciaio

Cranes

General design

Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structures

La specica tecnica specica, con le parti 1 e 2, le condizioni gene-
rali, i requisiti e i metodi per prevenire pericoli di natura meccanica
degli apparecchi di sollevamento attraverso il progetto e le veriche

teoriche.

T TE ES ST TO O I I N NG GL LE ES SE E

La presente specica tecnica la versione ufciale in lingua
inglese della specica tecnica europea CEN/TS 13001-3-1 (edi-

zione dicembre 2004).
ICS 53.020.20
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UNI Pagina II
UNI CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005
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norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.

PREMESSA

La presente specica tecnica costituisce il recepimento, in lingua in-
glese, della specica tecnica europea CEN/TS 13001-3-1 (edizione
dicembre 2004), che assume cos lo status di specica tecnica na-
zionale italiana.
La scadenza del periodo di validit del CEN/TS 13001-3-1 stata
ssata inizialmente dal CEN per dicembre 2007. Eventuali osserva-
zioni sulla specica tecnica devono pervenire allUNI entro dicem-
bre 2006.
La presente specica tecnica stata elaborata sotto la competenza
della Commissione Tecnica UNI

Apparecchi di sollevamento e relativi accessori

La presente norma stata raticata dal Presidente dellUNI ed en-
trata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 14 settembre 2005.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
CEN/TS 13001-3-1
December 2004
ICS 53.020.20
English version
Cranes - General design - Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of
competence of steel structures
Appareils de levage charge suspendue - Conception
gnrale - Partie 3-1: Etats limites et vrification d'aptitude
des structures mtalliques
Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-1: Grenzzustnde
und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken
This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 25 November 2003 for provisional application.
The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their
comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.
CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available
promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)
until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMI T EUROPEN DE NORMALI SATI ON
EUROPI SCHES KOMI TEE FR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels
2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Ref. No. CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004: E
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
2
Contents Page
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................5
1 Scope...........................................................................................................................................5
2 Normative references...................................................................................................................5
3 Terms and definitions..................................................................................................................6
4 General ......................................................................................................................................10
4.1 Materials....................................................................................................................................10
4.1.1 Structural members...................................................................................................................10
4.1.2 Connecting devices...................................................................................................................13
4.2 Bolt connections........................................................................................................................13
4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................13
4.2.2 Shear and bearing connections.................................................................................................13
4.2.3 Slip resistant connections.........................................................................................................13
4.2.4 Connections loaded in tension..................................................................................................14
4.3 Pin connections.........................................................................................................................14
4.4 Welded connections..................................................................................................................14
4.5 Proofs of structural members and connections.........................................................................14
5 Proof of static strength..............................................................................................................14
5.1 General ......................................................................................................................................14
5.2 Limit design stresses and forces...............................................................................................15
5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................15
5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members................................................................................15
5.2.3 Limit design forces in bolt connections.....................................................................................16
5.2.4 Limit design forces in pins ........................................................................................................22
5.2.5 Limit design stresses in welded connections............................................................................24
5.3 Execution of the proof ...............................................................................................................25
5.3.1 Proof for structural members....................................................................................................25
5.3.2 Proof for bolt connections.........................................................................................................26
5.3.3 Proof for pin connections..........................................................................................................26
5.3.4 Proof for welded connections....................................................................................................27
6 Proof of fatigue strength............................................................................................................27
6.1 General ......................................................................................................................................27
6.2 Limit design stresses.................................................................................................................28
6.2.1 Characteristic values of the stress range..................................................................................28
6.2.2 Weld quality...............................................................................................................................30
6.2.3 Effect of test loads.....................................................................................................................30
6.2.4 Requirements for fatigue testing ...............................................................................................31
6.3 Classes S of stress history parameter s....................................................................................31
6.3.1 Simplified method based on service conditions........................................................................31
6.3.2 Selection based on experience..................................................................................................35
6.4 Execution of the proof ...............................................................................................................35
6.5 Determination of the permissible stress range..........................................................................36
6.5.1 Applicable methods...................................................................................................................36
6.5.2 Direct use of stress history parameter ......................................................................................36
6.5.3 Use of class S............................................................................................................................36
7 Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints..............................................................38
8 Proof of elastic stability.............................................................................................................38
Annex A (normative) Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and permissible stress range
c
,
c
..39
Annex B (informative) Guidance for selection of classes S due to experience .....................................54
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
3
Annex C (normative) Calculated values of permissible stress range
Rd
............................................55
Annex D (normative) Design weld stress
W,Sd
and
W,Sd
.......................................................................57
D.1 Butt joint ....................................................................................................................................57
D.2 Fillet weld and groove weld with uniform distributed load.........................................................58
D.3 Relevant distribution length under punctiform load ..................................................................59
Annex E (informative) Hollow Sections .................................................................................................60
Annex F (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application ...............71
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements
of EU Directive 98/37/EC ............................................................................................................72
Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................73
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
4
Foreword
This document (CEN/TS 13000-3.1:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 Cranes
Safety, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European
Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC.
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following
countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latavia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
This European Standard is one Part of EN 13001. The other parts are as follows:
Part 1: General principles and requirements
Part 2: Load actions
The annexes A, C and D are normative. The annexes B, E and F are informative.
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
5
Introduction
This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonised standard to provide one means for the mechanical
design and theoretical verification of cranes to conform with the essential health and safety requirements of the
Machinery Directive, as amended. This standard also establishes interfaces between the user (purchaser) and the
designer, as well as between the designer and the component manufacturer, in order to form a basis for selecting
cranes and components.
This European Standard is a type C standard as stated in EN 1070.
The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are covered are
indicated in the scope of this document.
When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the
provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that
have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C standard.
The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards are covered are indicated in the scope of this standard.
1 Scope
This European Standard is to be used together with Part 1 and Part 2 and as such they specify general conditions,
requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by design and theoretical verification.
NOTE Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for the particular
crane type.
The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons
during normal use and foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 8 of this standard are necessary to reduce or eliminate
the risks associated with the following hazards:
a) Exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b) Exceeding temperature limits of material or components;
c) Elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging).
This European Standard is applicable to cranes which are manufactured after the date of approval by CEN of this
standard and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types.
NOTE prCEN/TS 13001-3-1 deals only with limit state method according to EN 13001-1.
As an alternative to the herein presented limit state method using partial safety factors, the allowable stress method
using a global safety factor according to Part 1 and Part 2 may also be applied for special crane systems with linear
behaviour.
As crane structures are basically dynamically loaded only the linear theory of elasticity is applicable and only limited
local plasticity is allowed. The use of the theory of plasticity for calculation of ultimate load bearing capacity is not
allowed.
2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
6
normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of, any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the
publication referred to applies (including amendments).
EN 1070:1998, Safety of machinery Terminology.
EN 1990-1:2002, Eurocode Basic of structural design
EN 1993-1-1:1992: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.
EN 10025:1990/A1:1993, Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels Technical delivery conditions
(includes amendment A1:1993).
EN 10045-1:1989, Charpy impact test on metallic material Part 1: Test method.
EN 10113-1:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Part 1: General delivery conditions.
EN 10113-2:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Part 2: Delivery conditions for
normalized/normalized rolled steels.
EN 10113-3:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Part 3: Delivery conditions for
thermomechanical rolled steels.
EN 10137-2:1995, Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered
or precipitation hardened conditions Part 2: Delivery conditions for quenched and tempered steels.
EN 10149-1:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming Part 1: General
delivery conditions.
EN 10149-2:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming Part 2: Delivery
conditions for thermomechanically rolled steels.
EN 10149-3:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming Part 3: Delivery
conditions for normalized or normalized rolled steels.
EN 10164:1993, Steel products with improved deformation properties perpendicular to the surface of the product
Technical delivery conditions.
EN 12345:1996, Welding Multilingual terms for welding joints with illustrations (trilingual version).
EN 13001-1:2004, Cranes General Design Part 1:General principles and requirements.
EN 13001-2:2004, Cranes General Design Part 2: Load actions.
EN 22553:1994, Welded, brazed and soldered joints Symbolic representation on drawings (ISO 2553:1992).
EN 25817:1992, Arc-welded joints in steel Guidance on quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:1992).
EN ISO 898-1:1999, Mechanical properties of fasteners Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs (ISO 898-1:1999).
EN ISO 9013:2002, Thermal cutting Classification of thermal cuts Geometrical specification and quality
tolerances (ISO 9013:2002).
EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic
terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003).
EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 2: Technical
principles and specifications (ISO 12100-2:2003).
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
7
ISO 286-2:1990, ISO system of limits and fits Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance grades and limit deviations for
holes and shafts.
ISO 4306-1:1990, Cranes Vocabulary Part 1: General.
3 Terms and definitions
3.1
Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 292-1, EN 292-2 and EN 1070
and the basic list of definitions as provided in EN 1990-1 apply. For the definitions of loads, clause 6 of
ISO 4306-1:1990 applies.
3.2
Symbols and abbreviations
The symbols and abbreviations used in this Part of the EN 13001 are given in Table 1.
Table 1 Symbols and abbrevations
Symbols,
abbreviations
Description
A cross section
A
S
stress area of a bolt
a
r
relevant weld thickness
D
o
, D
i
outer, inner diameter of hollow pin
d diameter (shank of bolt, pin)
d
o
diameter of hole
e
1
, e
2
distances
F
b
tensile force in bolt
F
d
limit force
F
K
characteristic value (force)
F
p
preloading force in bolt
F
Rd
limit design force
F
t
external force (on bolted connection)
F
b, Rd
limit design bearing force
F
b, Sd
; F
bi, Sd
design bearing force
F
p, d
design preloading force
F
s, Rd
limit design slip force per bolt and friction interface
F
t, Rd
limit design tensile force in bolt
F
v, Rd
limit design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
F
v, Sd
design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
F
,
acting normal/shear force
f
d
limit stress
f
K
characteristic value (stress)
f
Rd
limit design stress
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
8
Table 1 (continued)
Symbols,
abbreviations
Description
f
u
ultimate strength of material
f
ub
ultimate strength of bolts
f
w, Rd
limit design weld stress
f
y
yield point of material
f
yb
yield point of bolts
f
yk
yield point (nominal value) of material or member
f
yp
yield point of pins
G
t
mass of the moving crane parts during a representative working cycle
h distance between weld and contact area of acting load
K
b
stiffness (slope) of bolt
K
c
stiffness (slope) of flanges
k* specific spectrum ratio factor
k
(m)
stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration
k
(m=3)
stress spectrum factor based on m = 3
l
r
relevant weld length
l
W
weld length
M
Rd
limit design bending moment
M
Sd
design bending moment
m
inverse slope of /N-curve
NC notch class
min , max extreme values of stresses
P
S
probability of survival
p
1
, p
2
distances
Q mass of the maximum hoist load
q impact toughness parameter
R
d
design resistance
r radius of wheel
S
d
design strain
s(m) stress history parameter
T temperature
t thickness
W
el
elastic section modulus

characteristic factor for bearing connection

w
characteristic factor for limit weld stress

m
general resistance coefficient

Mf
fatigue strength specific resistance factor
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
9
Table 1 (concluded)
Symbols,
abbreviations
Description

p
partial safety factor

R
resulting resistance coefficient

S
specific resistance factor

Rb
resulting resistance coefficient of bolt

sb specific resistance factor of bolt

Rm
resulting resistance coefficient of members

sm
specific resistance factor of members

Rp
resulting resistance coefficient of pins

sp
specific resistance factor of pins

Rs
resulting resistance coefficient of slip-resistance connection

ss
specific resistance factor of slip-resistance connection

Rw
resulting resistance coefficient of welding connection

sw specfic resistance factor of welding connection

2
dynamic factor
spread angle
width of contact area in weld direction

p
elongation from preloading
F
b
additional force
additional elongation
slip factor

c
characteristic value of stress range (normal stress)

c
characteristic value of stress range (shear stress)

Sd
design stress (normal)

Sd
design stress (shear)

w, Sd
design weld stress (normal)

w, Sd design weld stress (shear)

Rd
permissible (limit) stress range (normal)

Rd,1
permissible stress range for k* = 1

Rd
permissible (limit) stress range (shear)

Sd
design stress range (normal)

Sd
design stress range (shear)
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
10
4 General
4.1 Materials
4.1.1 Structural members
European Standards specify materials and specific values. This standard gives a preferred selection.
For structural members, steel according to following European Standards should be used:
Non-alloy structural steels EN 10025.
Weldable fine grain structural steels in conditions:
normalised (N) EN 10113-2;
thermomechanical (M) EN 10113-3.
High yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition EN 10137-2.
High yield strength steels for cold forming in conditions:
thermomechanical (M) EN 10149-2;
normalised (N) EN 10149-3.
Table 2 shows specific values for the nominal value of strength f
u
, f
y
and limit design stress f
Rd
(see 5.2). For more
information see the specific European Standard.
Grades and qualities other than those mentioned in the above standards and in Table 2 can be used if the
mechanical properties and the chemical composition are guaranteed by the manufacturer and conform to the
relevant European Standard. If necessary, the weldability shall be demonstrated by the steel manufacturer.
When selecting grade and quality of the steel for tensile members, the sum of impact toughness parameters q
i
shall
be taken into account. Table 3 gives the impact toughness parameters q
i
for various influences. Table 4 gives the
required steel quality and impact energy/test temperature in dependence of q
i
. Grades and qualities of steel other
than mentioned in Table 4 may be used, if the steel manufacturer guarantees and certifies an impact energy/test
temperature, tested according to EN 10045-1.
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
11
Table 2 Specific values of steels for structural members
Nominal strength
Limit design stress
for
Rm
=1,1
Steel Standard
Thickness t
(mm)
f
y
yield
(N/mm
2
)
f
u
ultimate
(N/mm
2
)
f
Rd
, normal
(N/mm
2
)
f
Rd
, shear
(N/mm
2
)
S235
t16
16<t40
40<t100
100<t150
235
225
215
195
340
214
205
195
177
123
118
113
102
S275
t16
16<t40
40<t63
63<t80
80<t100
100<t150
275
265
255
245
235
225
430
250
241
232
223
214
205
144
139
134
129
123
118
S355
EN 10025
t16
16<t40
40<t63
63<t80
80<t100
100<t150
355
345
335
325
315
295
490
323
314
305
296
287
268
186
181
176
171
166
155
S355
t<16
16<t40
40<t63
63<t80 (N)
80<t100 (N)
100<t150 (N)
355
345
335
325
315
295
450
323
314
305
295
286
268
186
181
176
171
165
155
S420
t<16
16<t40
40<t63
63<t80 (N)
80<t100 (N)
100<t150 (N)
420
400
390
370
360
340
500
382
364
355
336
327
309
220
210
205
194
189
178
S460
EN 10113-2
(N)
EN 10113-3
(M)
t<16
16<t40
40<t63
63<t80 (N)
80<t100 (N)
460
440
430
410
400
530
418
400
391
373
364
241
231
226
215
210
S460
3<t50
50<t100
460
440
550
418
400
241
231
S500
3<t50
50<t100
500
480
590
455
436
262
252
S550
3<t50
50<t100
550
530
640
500
482
289
278
S620
3<t50
50<t100
620
580
700
564
527
325
304
S690
3<t50
50<t100
690
650
770
760
627
591
362
341
S890
3<t50
50<t100
890
830
940
880
809
755
467
436
S960
EN 10137-2
3<t50 960 980 873 504
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
12
Table 2 (concluded)
Nominal strength
Limit design stress
for
Rm
=1,1
Steel Standard
Thickness
t (mm)
f
y
yield
(N/mm
2
)
f
u
ultimate
(N/mm
2
)
f
Rd
, normal
(N/mm
2
)
f
Rd
, shear
(N/mm
2
)
S315 315 390 286 165
S355 355 430 323 186
S420 420 480 382 220
S460 (M) 460 520 418 241
S500 (M)
500
550
455 262
S550 (M)
550
600
500 289
S600 (M)
all t
600 650 545 315
S650 (M)
t8
t>8
650
630
700
591
573
341
331
S700 (M)
EN 101492
(M)
EN 10149-3
(N)
t8
t>8
700
680
750
636
618
367
357
Table 3 Impact toughness parameters q
i
i Influence q
i
0 T
0
-20 T < 0 1
-40 T < -20 2
1 Temperature T (C)
-50 T < -40 4
f
y
300 0
300 < f
y
460 1
460 < f
y
700 2
700<f
y
1 000 3
2 Yield point f
y
(N/mm
2
)
1 000<f
y
4
Material thickness t (mm) t 10 0
Equivalent thickness t for solid bars: 10 < t 20 1
20 < t 50 2
50 < t 100 3
3
8 , 1
d
t for 8 , 1 <
h
b
:
8 , 1
b
t
t > 100 4

c
> 125 0
80 <
c
125 1
56<
c
80 2
4
Stress concentration and notch class
c
(N/mm
2
) (see annex A and annex E)

c
56 3
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
13
Table 4 Impact toughness requirement and corresponding steel quality for q
i
q
i
3 4 q
i
6 7 q
i
9 q
i
10
Impact energy/ test
temperature
requirement
27 J / +20C 27 J / 0C 27 J / -20C 27 J / -40C
EN 10025 JR J0 J2 a)
EN 10113 N, M N, M N, M NL, ML
EN 10137-2 Q Q Q QL
EN 10149 NC, MC NC, MC NC, MC a)
a)
May be used if the steel manufacturer guarantees and certifies an impact energy/test temperature of at least 27 J at
40 C, tested according to EN 10045-1.
4.1.2 Connecting devices
For bolt connections bolts of the property classes 4.6, 5.6, 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9 according to EN ISO 898-1 shall be
used. Nominal values of the strengths:
Table 5 Property classes
Property class 4.6 5.6 8.8 10.9 12.9
f
yb
(N/mm
2
) 240 300 640 900 1 080
f
ub
(N/mm
2
) 400 500 800 1 000 1 200
4.2 Bolt connections
4.2.1 General
For the purpose of this standard bolt connections are specified as connections, where
bolts are tightened and thus compress the joint surfaces together;
the joint surfaces are secured against rotation (e. g. by using multiple bolts).
4.2.2 Shear and bearing connections
Connections with fitted bolts, where
the loads act perpendicular to the bolt axis and cause shear and bearing stresses in the bolts;
clearance between bolt and hole shall be according to ISO 286-2 tolerances h13 and H11;
at maximum 10 % of the clamping length may be covered by the threaded part of the bolt;
special surface treatment of the contact surfaces is not required.
4.2.3 Slip resistant connections
Connections with high strength bolts of property classes 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9, where
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
14
the loads are transmitted by friction between the joint surfaces;
bolts are tightened by a controlled method to the full preloading state;
the surface condition of the contact surfaces shall be specified and taken into account accordingly.
4.2.4 Connections loaded in tension
Connections with high strength bolts of property classes 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9, where
the loads act in the direction of the bolt axis and cause axial stresses in the bolts;
bolts are tightened by a controlled method to the full preloading state;
fatigue assessment of the bolts shall be done considering the structural features of the joint, e. g. stiffness of
the connected parts and the leverage action caused by the joint geometry;
an even contact over the whole intended contact area of the joint shall be ensured.
4.3 Pin connections
Pin connections are regarded as connections that allow turning of the connected parts.
4.4 Welded connections
Terms for welded joints shall be as given in EN 12345. Symbolic representation on drawings shall be according to
EN 22553.
4.5 Proofs of structural members and connections
It has to be proven that the strains
d
S do not exceed the resistances
d
R :
d d
R S (1)
The strains S
d
shall be determined by applying the loads, load combinations and partial safety factors according
Table 10 of EN 13001-2.
In the following clauses, the resistances
d
R are presented as limit stresses
d
f or limit forces
d
F .
For the ultimate limit state, the following proofs shall be delivered:
proof of strength of structural members and connections under quasi-static stress according to 5;
proof of fatigue strength according to 6;
proof of strength of hollow section girder joints under quasi-static stress according to 7;
proof of elastic stability of structural members and special elements according to 8.
5 Proof of static strength
5.1 General
The proof of strength under quasi-static stress protects against excessive deformations due to yielding of the
material or sliding of friction-grip connections as well as against static rupture of structural members or connections.
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
15
The proof shall be delivered for structural members and connections taking into account the most unfavourable
load effects from the load combinations A, B or C according to Table 10 of EN 13001-2: and applying the
resistances according to 5.2.
5.2 Limit design stresses and forces
5.2.1 General
The limit design stresses and forces shall be calculated by:
Limit design stresses
Rd
f = function (
k
f ,
R
) or
(2)
Limit design forces
Rd
F = function (
k
F ,
R
)
where
k
f or
k
F are characteristic values (or nominal values)
R
is the resulting resistance coefficient
s m R

m
is the resistance coefficient 1 , 1
m
(see Table 10 of EN 13001-2)
s
is the general specific resistance coefficient for special parts of this standard
NOTE
Rd
f and
Rd
F are equivalent to
m
R / in Figure 2 of EN 13001-1.
5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members
The limit design stress
Rd
f , used for the design of structural members, shall be calculated by:
Rm
yk
Rd
f
f

for normal stresses (3)


3
Rm
yk
Rd
f
f

for shear stresses (4)


with
Rm
=
m

sm
where
yk
f is the nominal value of the yield point of the material (see Table 2)

sm
is the specific resistance coefficient for material as follows:
For non-rolled material
0 , 1
sm

For rolled materials (e. g. plates and profiles):


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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
16
sm
= 1,0 for stresses in the plane of rolling
sm
= 1,0 for compressive and shear stresses
For tensile stresses perpendicular to the plane of rolling (see Figure 1):
sm
= 1,0 for material in quality classes Z25 or Z35 according to EN 10164
sm
= 1,16 for material in quality class Z15 according to EN 10164
sm
= 1,34 without quality classification
Figure 1 Tensile load perpendicular to plane of rolling
Hence follow the limit design stresses, which are dependent on the material and the kind of stressing which are
given in Table 2.
5.2.3 Limit design forces in bolt connections
5.2.3.1 Shear and bearing connections
The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting devices.
The limit design shear force F
v,Rd
per bolt and per shear plane shall be calculated by:
3
,

Rb
yb
Rd v
A f
F

(5)
with
sb m b R

where
yb
f is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material
A is the cross-section of the bolt shank at the shear plane
sb
is the specific resistance factor for bolt connections
sb
= 1,0 for multiple shear plane connections
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
17
sb
= 1,3 for single shear plane connections
See Table 6 for limit design shear forces as an example.
Table 6 Limit design shear force F
v,Rd
per fitted bolt and per shear plane for multiple shear plane
connections
F
v,Rd
(kN)
Fitted bolt Hole diameter
Shank resp.
hole section
Fitted bolt material
for
Rb
= 1,1
(mm) (mm
2
) 4.6 5.6 8.8 10.9 12.9
M12 13 133 16,7 20,9 44,6 62,8 75,4
M16 17 227 28,6 35,7 76,2 107,2 128,6
M20 21 346 43,5 54,4 116,2 163,2 196,1
M22 23 415 52,2 65,3 139,4 196,0 235,2
M24 25 491 61,8 77,3 164,9 231,9 278,3
M27 28 616 77,6 97,0 206,9 291,0 349,2
M30 31 755 95,1 111,8 253,6 356,6 428,0
The limit design bearing force F
b,Rd
per bolt may be calculated by:
Rb
y
Rd b
t d f
F

,
(6)
with
sb m b R

where
0
1
3 d
e

4
1
3
0
1

d
p
u
ub
f
f
Min
1.0
e
1
2,0 d
o
e
2
1,5 d
o
(7)
p
1
3,0 d
o
p
2
3,0 d
o
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
18
Figure 2 Illustration for formula (7)
ub
f is the ultimate strength (nominal value) of the bolt (Table 5)
u
f is the ultimate strength (nominal value) of the basic material (Table 2)
y
f is the yield point (nominal value) of the basic material (Table 2)
d is the shank diameter of the bolt
t is the minimum of thicknesses of the basic material
sb
is the specific resistance factor for bolt connections
sb
= 0,7 for multiple shear plane connections
sb
= 0,9 for single shear plane connections
5.2.3.2 Slip-resistant connections
The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting devices.
For slip-resistant connections the limit design slip force F
s,Rd
per bolt and per friction interface shall be calculated
by:
Rs
t d p
Rd s
F F
F

) (
,
,

(8)
with
ss m Rs

where:
is the slip factor
= 0,50 for surfaces
blasted metallic bright with steel grit or sand, no unevennesses;
blasted with steel grit or sand and aluminised;
blasted with steel grit or sand and metallised with a product basing on zinc that
causes a friction coefficient of min. 0,5
= 0,40 for surfaces
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)
19
blasted with steel grit or sand and alkali-zinc-silicate coating of 50 m to 80 m
thickness
= 0,30 for surfaces
cleaned metallic bright with wire brush or scarfing
= 0,20 for surfaces
cleaned of loose rust, oil and dirt
d p
F
,
is the design preloading force.
t
F is an external tensile force in direction of the axis of the bolt (see Figure 3)
It shall be ensured that the used preloading force is greater than or equal to the design
preloading force.
ss
is the specific resistance factor for slip-resistant connections;
14 , 1
ss

See Table 7 for limit design slip forces using for example a design preloading force of
s yb d p
A f F 7 , 0
,
,
where
yb
f is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material (Table 5)
s
A is the stress area of the bolt.
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p
r
C
E
N
/
T
S

1
3
0
0
1
-
3
-
1
:
2
0
0
3

(
E
)
2
0
T
a
b
l
e

7


L
i
m
i
t

d
e
s
i
g
n

s
l
i
p

f
o
r
c
e

F
S
,
R
d

p
e
r

b
o
l
t

a
n
d

p
e
r

f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

d
e
s
i
g
n

p
r
e
l
o
a
d
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e

s
y
b
d
p
A
f
F

7
.
0
,
B
o
l
t
s
t
r
e
s
s
a
r
e
a
A
S
D
e
s
i
g
n

p
r
e
l
o
a
d
i
n
g
f
o
r
c
e

F
p
,
d

(
k
N
)
B
o
l
t

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
L
i
m
i
t

d
e
s
i
g
n

s
l
i
p

f
o
r
c
e

F
s
,
R
d

(
k
N
)
B
o
l
t

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
8
.
8
S
l
i
p

f
a
c
t
o
r

:
1
0
.
9
S
l
i
p

f
a
c
t
o
r

:
1
2
.
9
S
l
i
p

f
a
c
t
o
r

:
(
m
m
2
)
8
.
8
1
0
.
9
1
2
.
9
0
.
5
0
0
.
4
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
2
0
0
.
5
0
0
.
4
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
2
0
0
.
5
0
0
.
4
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
2
0
M
1
2
8
4
,
3
3
7
,
8
5
3
,
1
6
3
,
7
1
5
,
1
1
2
,
1
9
,
1
6
,
0
2
1
,
2
1
7
,
0
1
2
,
7
8
,
5
2
5
,
5
2
0
,
4
1
5
,
3
1
0
,
2
M
1
6
1
5
7
,
0
7
0
,
3
9
8
,
9
1
1
9
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
2
,
5
1
6
,
9
1
1
,
2
3
9
,
6
3
1
,
6
2
3
,
7
1
5
,
8
4
7
,
6
3
8
,
1
2
8
,
6
1
9
,
0
M
2
0
2
4
5
,
0
1
1
0
,
0
1
5
4
,
0
1
8
5
,
0
4
4
,
0
3
5
,
2
2
6
,
4
1
7
,
6
6
1
,
6
4
9
,
3
3
7
,
0
2
4
,
6
7
4
,
0
5
9
,
2
4
4
,
4
2
9
,
6
M
2
2
3
0
3
,
0
1
3
6
,
0
1
9
1
,
0
2
2
9
,
0
5
4
,
4
4
3
,
5
3
2
,
6
2
1
,
8
7
6
,
4
6
1
,
1
4
5
,
8
3
0
,
6
9
1
,
6
7
3
,
3
5
5
,
0
3
6
,
6
M
2
4
3
5
3
,
0
1
5
8
,
0
2
2
2
,
0
2
6
7
,
0
6
3
,
2
5
0
,
6
3
7
,
9
2
5
,
3
8
8
,
8
7
1
,
0
5
3
,
3
3
5
,
5
1
0
7
,
0
8
5
,
4
6
4
,
1
4
2
,
7
M
2
7
4
5
9
,
0
2
0
6
,
0
2
8
9
,
0
3
4
7
,
0
8
2
,
4
6
5
,
9
4
9
,
4
3
3
,
0
1
1
6
,
0
9
2
,
5
6
9
,
4
4
6
,
2
1
3
9
,
0
1
1
1
,
0
8
3
,
3
5
5
,
5
M
3
0
5
6
1
,
0
2
5
1
,
0
3
5
3
,
0
4
2
4
,
0
1
0
0
,
0
8
0
,
3
6
0
,
2
4
0
,
2
1
4
1
,
0
1
1
3
,
0
8
4
,
7
5
6
,
5
1
7
0
,
0
1
3
6
,
0
1
0
2
,
0
6
7
,
8
M
3
6
8
1
7
,
0
3
6
6
,
0
5
1
5
,
0
6
1
8
,
0
1
4
6
,
0
1
1
7
,
0
8
7
,
8
5
8
,
6
2
0
6
,
0
1
6
5
,
0
1
2
4
,
0
8
2
,
4
2
4
7
,
0
1
9
8
,
0
1
4
8
,
0
9
8
,
9
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
21
5.2.3.3 Connections loaded in tension
The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting
devices.
In principle the proof of competence has to take into account the stiffnesses of the bolt and the flanges to be
connected (see Figure 3).
F
p
Preloading force in bolt

p
Bolt elongation from preloading
F
t
External force
: Additional elongation
F
b
Tensile force in bolt
F
b
additional force in bolt
Slope K
b
Stiffness of bolt
Slope K
c
Stiffness of flanges
Figure 3 Force-elongation-diagram
For simplification the limit design tensile force per bolt F
t,Rd
may be calculated by:
Rb
d p
Rd t
F
F

,
,
(9)
with
Rb
=
m

sb
where
d p
F
,
is the design preloading force. It shall be ensured that the used preloading force is
greater than or equal to the design preloading force
sb
is the specific resistance factor for connections loaded in tension
sb
= 1,0
See Table 8 for limit design tensile forces according to formula (9) using for example a design preloading
force of
s yb d p
A f F 7 , 0
,
where
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
22
yb
f is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material (Table 5)
s
A is the stress area of the bolt.
Table 8 Limit design tensile force F
t,Rd
per bolt in direction of the bolt axis, using a design
preloading force
s yb d p
A f F 7 , 0
,
Design preloading
force F
p,d
(kN)
Bolt material
Limit design tensile force
per bolt
F
t,Rd
(kN)
for
Rb
= 1.1
Bolt material
Bolt
stress
area
A
S
(mm
2
)
8.8 10.9 12.9 8.8 10.9 12.9
M12 84,3 37,8 53,1 63,7 34,3 48,2 57,9
M16 157,0 70,3 98,9 119,0 63,9 88,9 108,1
M20 245,0 110,0 154,0 185,0 100,0 140,0 168,1
M22 303,0 136,0 191,0 229,0 123,6 173,6 208,1
M24 353,0 158,0 222,0 267,0 143,9 201,8 242,7
M27 459,0 206,0 289,0 347,0 187,2 262,7 315,4
M30 561,0 251,0 353,0 424,0 228,1 320,9 385,4
M36 817,0 366,0 515,0 618,0 332,7 468,1 561,8
5.2.4 Limit design forces in pins
The pin of a pin connection shall be designed taking into account bending, shearing and bearing. Therefore
the following simplified system may be assumed:
For pins the following limit design loads shall be taken into account:
Limit design bending moment
Rp
yp el
Rd
f W
M

(10)
with
sp m Rp

where
el
W is the elastic section modulus of the pin
yp
f is the yield point (nominal value) of the pin material
sp
is the specific resistance factor for pin connections bending moment
sp
= 1,0
Limit design shear force per shear plane for pins
Rp
yp
Rd v
f A
u
F


3
1
,
(11)
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23
with
sp m Rp

where
u
3
4
u for solid pins
2
2
1
1
3
4
v
v v
u
+
+ +
for hollow pins
where
O
i
D
D
,
i
D is the inner diameter of pin
O
D is the outer diameter of pin
A is the cross-section of the pin
sp
is the specific resistance factor for pin connections shear force
sp
= 1,0 for multiple shear plane connections
sp
= 1,3 for single shear plane connections
Limit design bearing force

Rp
y
Rd b
f t d
F

=
,

(12)
with
sp m Rp

where

0 , 1
y
yp
f
f
Min
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24
Figure 4 Pin connections
y
f is the yield point (nominal value) of basic material
d is the diameter of the pin
t is the minimum of thickness of the basic material
sp
is the specific resistance factor for pin connections bearing force
sp
= 0,7 for multiple shear plane connections
sp
= 0,9 for single shear plane connections
In case of significant movement between pin and bearing the limit bearing force shall be reduced in order to
reduce wear.
5.2.5 Limit design stresses in welded connections
The limit design weld stress f
w,Rd
used for the design of a welded connection depends on:
the parent metal to be welded;
the type of the weld;
the type of stress;
the weld quality;
the kind of welding process.
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25
The limit design weld stress f
w,Rd
shall be calculated by:

Rw
yk
w
Rd w
f
f

=
,

(13)
with
sw m Rw

where
w
is a factor given in Table 9 in dependence on the type of weld, the type of stress and the material
yk
f is the minimal nominal value of the yield points of the parent and weld consumable materials in the
weld joint
sw
is the specific resistance factor for welded connections
sw
= 1,0
Table 9 Factor
w
for limit weld stress

w
Direction of
stress
Penetration Type of stress
f
yk
< 690
(N/mm)
690 f
yk
< 960
(N/mm)
f
yk
960
(N/mm)
Tension 1,0 1,0 0,93 Weld with full
penetration or
backwelded
Compression 1,0 1,0 0,93
Tension 0,7 0,7 0,65
Weld without
full penetration
Compression 0,8 0,8 0,74
Stress across the
weld direction
Weld
with/without full
penetration
Shear 1/2 1/3 0,54
Tension/
Compression
1,0 1,0 0,93
Stress in weld
direction
Weld
with/without full
penetration
Shear 1/3 1/3 0,54
5.3 Execution of the proof
5.3.1 Proof for structural members
For the structural member to be designed it shall be proven that:
Rd Sd
f and
Rd Sd
f (14)
where
Sd Sd
, are the design stresses
Rd
f is the corresponding limit design stress according to 5.2.2.
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26
In case of plane states of stresses it shall additionally be proven that:
1
2
, ,
, ,
2
,
,
2
,
,

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
Rd
Sd
y Rd x Rd
y Sd x Sd
y Rd
y Sd
x Rd
x Sd
f f f f f


(15)
where
x, y indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses
Spatial states of stresses may be reduced to the most unfavourable plane state of stress.
5.3.2 Proof for bolt connections
For the most unfavourably loaded element of a connection it shall be proven that:
Rd Sd
F F (16)
where
Sd
F is the design force of the element
Rd
F is the limit design force according to 5.2.3, in dependence on the type of the connection
and its type of stress, i. e.
limit design shear force F
v,Rd
limit design bearing force F
b,Rd
limit design slip force F
s,Rd
limit design tensile force F
t,Rd
In particular for connections loaded in tension (see 5.2.3.3) the tensile force in the bolt F
b
shall always satisfy:
m
S yb
b
A f
F

(17)
5.3.3 Proof for pin connections
For pins, it shall be proven that:
Rd b Sd bi
Rd v Sd v
Rd Sd
F F
F F
M M
, ,
, ,

(18)
where
Sd
M is the design value of the bending moment in the pin
Rd
M is the limit design bending moment according to 5.2.4
Sd v
F
,
is the design value of the shear force in the pin
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27
Rd v
F
,
is the limit design shear force according to 5.2.4
Sd bi
F
,
is the decisive design value of the bearing force in the joining plate i of the pin connection
Rd b
F
,
is the limit design bearing force according to 5.2.4
5.3.4 Proof for welded connections
For the weld to be designed it shall be proven that:
sd w,
and
Rd w Sd w
f
, ,
(19)
where
Sd w Sd w , ,
, are the design weld stresses (see annex D)
Rd w
f
,
is the corresponding limit design weld stress according to 5.2.5
In case of plane states of stresses in welded connections it shall additionally be proven that:
1 , 1
2
,
,
, , , ,
, , , ,
2
, ,
, ,
2
, ,
, ,

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
Rd w
Sd w
y Rd w x Rd w
y Sd w x Sd w
y Rd w
y Sd w
x Rd w
x Sd w
f f f f f

(20)
where
x,y indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses.
Spatial states of stresses may be reduced to the most unfavourable plane state of stress.
6 Proof of fatigue strength
6.1 General
The proof of fatigue strength prevents failure or formation of critical cracks of structural members or
connections under cyclic loading.
In general, the proof shall be executed by applying the load combinations A according to Table 10 of
EN 13001-2, setting all partial safety factors
p
= 1, and the resistances (i. e. limit design stresses) according
to 6.2.
The stresses are calculated as nominal stress concept. A nominal stress is a stress in the parent material
adjacent to a potential crack location, calculated in accordance with simple elastic strength of materials theory,
excluding local stress concentration effects. Annex A and annex E contain the influences of constructional
details and thus include the effects of:
local stress concentrations due to the shape of the joint and the weld geometry;
size and shape of acceptable discontinuities;
the stress direction;
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
28
residual stresses;
metallurgical conditions;
in some cases, the welding process and post-weld improvement procedures.
The effect of additional geometric stress concentration (global stress concentration) shall be estimated with
appropriate methods. This standard does not use other methods like Hot Spot Stress Method. The
bibliography gives information on literature about Hot Spot Stress Method.
For the execution of the proof of fatigue strength the stress history parameters (see 4.3.4 of EN 13001-1) is
needed. Values for this parameter can be determined by simulation, testing or using classes S (see 6.3). Thus
the service conditions and their effect on the stressing of the structure are taken into account.
Mean-stress influence, as presented in EN 13001-1, in structures in as-welded condition (without stress
relieving) is negligible. Therefore the stress history parameter s is independent of the mean-stress and the
fatigue strength is based on the stress range only.
In non-welded details or stress relieved welded details, the effective stress range to be used in the fatigue
assessment may be determined by adding the tensile portion of the stress range and 60 % of the compressive
portion of the stress range or by special investigation (see 6.4).
Uncertainties in assuming the fatigue strength and possible consequences of a damage shall be taken into
consideration by a fatigue strength specific resistance factor
Mf
according to Table 10.
Table 10 Fatigue strength specific resistance factor
Mf

Mf
Non fail-safe components
Inspection and access
Fail-safe
components
without hazards
for persons
with hazards for
persons
Periodic inspection and maintenance
Accessible joint detail
1,0 1,15 1,25
Periodic inspection and maintenance
Poor accessibility
1,15 1,25 1,35
Fail-safe structural components are those with reduced consequences of failure, such that the local
failure of one component does not result in failure of the structure or falling of loads.
Non fail-safe structural components are those where local failure of one component leads rapidly to
failure of the structure or falling of loads.
6.2 Limit design stresses
6.2.1 Characteristic values of the stress range
The limit design stress of a constructional detail stressed by fatigue is characterised by the characteristic
value of the stress range
c
(notch condition).
c
represents the fatigue strength under
6
10 2 constant
stress range cycles and a probability of survival of P
s
= 97,7 % (mean value minus double standard deviation),
see Figure 5.
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The several values
c
are arranged in a sequence of notch classes (NC) with the constant ratio of 1,125
between the classes (see annex C, first column).
For shear stressing the above is also applicable and
c
is used instead of
c
.
The characteristic values of the stress range
c
resp.
c
and the related inverse slopes m of the /N-
curve are given in annex A (normative) and annex E (informative) as follows:
Table A.1: Basic material of structural members;
Table A.2: Bolted members, connecting devices;
Table A.3: Welded members;
Table E.1: Values of inverse slope of the /N-curve m and permissible stress range
c
for
connections and joints of hollow section girders;
Table E.2: Values of inverse slope of the /N-curve m and permissible stress range
c
for lattice type
connections of hollow section girders.
The given values apply for the defined basic conditions. For deviating conditions an appropriate notch class
(NC) shall be selected one or more notch classes above (+ 1 NC, + 2NC, ...) or below (- 1 NC, - 2 NC, ...) the
basic reference class. The effects of several deviating conditions shall be summed up.
Principle figure above
Simplification (see
EN 13001-1)
Key
1 Constant stress range fatigue limit
2 Cut-off limit
Figure 5 Illustration of s/N-curve and ?s
c
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6.2.2 Weld quality
c
-values in annex A and annex E depend on the quality level of the weld. Quality classes B, C, D shall be
according to EN 25817. In annex E class C is assumed. Usage of lower quality levels than D is not allowed.
For the purpose of this standard an additional quality level B* can be used. The requirements in addition to
those of level B given hereafter define quality level B*.
Additional requirements for quality level B
*
:
For the purpose of this standard 100 % NDT (non destructive testing) means inspection of the whole length of
the weld with an appropriate method to ensure that the specified quality requirements are met.
For butt welds:
full penetration without initial points;
both surfaces machined or flush ground down to plate surface; grinding in stress direction;
the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;
eccentricity of the joining plates less than 5 % of thickness of greater plate;
sum of lengths of concavities of weld less than 5 % of the total length of the weld;
100 % NDT.
For parallel and lap joints:
transition angle of the weld to the plate surface shall not exceed 25;
the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;
100 % NDT.
All other joints:
full penetration;
transition angle of the weld to the web surface shall not exceed 25;
the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;
100 % NDT;
eccentricity less than 10 % of thickness of greater plate.
If TIG dressing is used as a post treatment of the potential crack initialisation zone of a welded joint in order to
increase the fatigue strength, welds of quality class C for design purposes may be upgraded to quality class B
for any joint configuration.
6.2.3 Effect of test loads
The characteristic value of stress range
c
respective
c
of a welded detail that was subjected to a test
load (see EN 13001-2, 4.1.4.3) is higher than the value of that detail not subjected to a test load.
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
31
c
values of annex A and annex E are related to details as test loaded. Therefore application of these
values requires test loads as given in EN 13001-2.
6.2.4 Requirements for fatigue testing
Details not given in annex A and annex E or consideration of mean stress influence require special
investigation into
c
and m by tests.
Requirements for such tests are:
test specimen in real size (1:1);
test specimen produced under workshop conditions;
at least 7 tests per stress range level.
Requirements for determination of m and
c
are:

c
shall be determined from numbers of cycles based on mean value minus double standard deviation
in a log/log presentation;
at least one stress range level that results in a number of stress cycles to failure of less than 210
4
cycles;
at least one stress range level that results in a number of stress cycles to failure between 1,510
6
and
2,510
6
cycles.
A simplified method for the determination of m and
c
may be used:
m shall be set to m = 3;
only stress range levels that result in a number of stress cycles to failure of less than 110
5
cycles shall be
used.
6.3 Classes S of stress history parameter s
6.3.1 Simplified method based on service conditions
Determination of the class S (see EN 13001-1) decisively depends on:
the class U of working cycles;
the class Q of the load spectrum;
the factor
2
respective hoisting class HC.
The structure or parts of the structure can be related to a class S according to Table 11 and Table 12
dependent on the classes U, Q and a parameter G
t
/(
2
Q), under consideration of an average influence of
the class D
lin
and/or class D
ang
and class P,
where
t
G is the mass of the moving crane parts during a representative working cycle, such as:
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32
for a bridge crane: G
t
is the mass of the trolley and load lifting attachments;
for slewing cranes:
when considering load supporting slewing parts: G
t
is the mass of the jib
transformed to the load suspension point;
when considering non slewing parts: G
t
is the mass of the entire slewing parts,
transformed to the load suspension point;
Q is the mass of the maximum hoist load influencing the part under consideration; (i. e. if
the hoist load is of no influence, Q is set to 0);
2
is the dynamic factor (see EN 13001-2).
The derivation of Table 11 and Table 12 is based on the damage theory of Corten-Dolan and on the
assumption that the average horizontal displacement of the load centre is about 2/3 of the span or 2/3 of the
maximum working radius.
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Table 11 Class S for trolley frames and main girders between two supports, as well as for
structures of wall and slewing cranes with constant working radius of the load centre
Class of total number of working cycles
Class of load
spectrum
Q
G
t

2
U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0,25
0,5
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
1
2
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Q0

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
0,25
0,5
1
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
2
Q1

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0
0,25
0,5
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
1
2
Q2

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0
0,25
0,5
1
2
Q3

S0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0
0,25
0,5
1
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
2
Q4

S0
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0
0,25
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
0,5
1
2
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
S9
Q5

S0
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
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Table 12 Class S for stringers, supports and parts of main girders project over the supports, as well
as for structures of wall and slewing cranes with variable working radius of the load centre
Class of total number of working cycles
Class of load
spectrum
Q
G
t

U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
0,25
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0,5
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
1
2
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Q0

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0,25
0,5
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
1
2
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Q1

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0,25
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
0,5
1
2
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Q2

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
0,25
0,5
1
S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
2
Q3

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
0,25
0,5
1
2
Q4

S0 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0
0,25
0,5
1
2
Q5

S0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
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6.3.2 Selection based on experience
The members of crane structures may be related to classes S due to experience. If a single class S is used for
the whole structure the most severe class shall be used. Guidance is given in annex B.
6.4 Execution of the proof
For the detail under consideration it shall be proven that:
Rd Sd
(21)
min max
Sd
(22)
where
Sd
is the calculated maximum range of design stresses
max, min are the extreme values of design stresses resulting from load combinations A according
to Table 10 of EN 13001-2, by applying
P
= 1 (compression stresses with negative
sign). For design weld stress see annex D. For thermally stress relieved or non-welded
structural members the compressive portion of the stress range may be reduced to 60
%.
Rd
is the permissible stress range
Shear stresses are treated similarly.
For each stress component
x
,
y
and the proof shall be executed separately.
where
x,y indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses.
In case of non welded details, if the normal and shear stresses induced by the same loading event vary
simultaneously, or if the plane of the maximum principal stress does not change significantly in the course of a
loading event, the maximum principal stress range shall be used.
In case of non welded details with independently varying ranges of normal and shear stresses it shall be
proven that:
Mf
m
m
m
c
Sd
m y
m
y c
y Sd
m x
m
x c
x Sd
s s s
y
y
x
x

0 . 1
) ( ) (
,
,
) (
,
,

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

+
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

+
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

(23)
where
Sd
,
Sd
are the calculated maximum ranges of design stresses
c
,
c
are the characteristic values of stress range
s
(m)
is the stress history parameter
m inverse slope of /N-curve (the maximum value of m
x
, m
y
, m

shall be taken as radical


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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
36
index)
x, y indicate the orthogonal direction of normal stresses
indicate the respective shear stress
6.5 Determination of the permissible stress range
6.5.1 Applicable methods
The permissible stress ranges
Rd
for the detail under consideration shall be determined either by direct
use of stress history parameter s(m) or simplified by use of class S.
6.5.2 Direct use of stress history parameter
The permissible stress range shall be calculated by:
m
Mf
c
Rd
m s ) (

(24)
where
Rd
is the permissible stress range
c
, m are the characteristic values of stress range and the respective inverse slope of the log
/log N-curve (see annex A and annex E)
Mf
is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10)
) (m s is the stress history parameter (calculated according to the formula of 4.3.4 of EN 13001-
1:1997)
NOTE When s(m) is obtained on the basis of m = 3, the permissible stress range may be calculated using k
*
as
shown in formula (26).
6.5.3 Use of class S
6.5.3.1 Slope m
When the detail under consideration is related to a class S according to 6.3, the simplified determination of the
permissible stress range is dependent on the (negative inverse) slope m of the log /log N-curve.
6.5.3.2 Slope m = 3
In dependence on the S-classes the values of the classified stress history parameter ) 3 ( m s are as follows:
Table 13 s (m = 3) of classes S
Class SO S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
s(m=3) 0.008 0.016 0.032 0.063 0.125 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
37
The permissible stress range shall be calculated by:
3
) 3 (


m s
Mf
c
Rd

(25)
where
Rd
is the permissible stress range;
c
is the characteristic value of stress range of details with m = 3 (see annex A and annex E);
s(m=3) is the classified stress history parameter (see Table 13);
Mf
is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10).
For
Mf
= 1,25 Annex C gives the values of
Rd
in dependence on the class S and
c
.
6.5.3.3 Slope m 3
If the negative inverse slope m of the log /log N-curve is not equal to 3, the permissible stress range is
dependent on the class S and the stress spectrum factor k(m) (see 4.3.4 of EN 13001-1).
The permissible stress range
Rd
shall be calculated by:
*
1 ,
k
Rd Rd
(26)
m
m Mf
c
Rd
s
) 3 (
1 ,

(27)
1 *
) (
) 3 (


m
m
m
k
k
k (28)
where
Rd
is the permissible stress range
1 , Rd
is the permissible stress range for k* = 1
* k is the specific spectrum ratio factor
c
, m are the characteristic values of stress range and the respective inverse slope of the log
/log N-curve (see annex A and annex E)
) 3 ( m s is the classified stress history parameter (see Table 13)
Mf
is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10)
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
38
) 3 ( m
k is the stress spectrum factor based on m = 3
) (m
k is the stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration
k
(m=3)
and k
(m)
shall be based on the same stress spectrum that is derived either from calculation or
simulation
For
Mf
= 1,25 and m = 5. Annex C gives the values of
Rd
in dependence on the class S and
c
.
6.5.3.4 Simplified method for slope m 3
As k* = 1 covers the most unfavourable stress spectra,
1 , Rd
may be used as permissible stress range. The
value of k* may be calculated for k
(m=3)
and k
(m)
from the stress spectrum estimated by experience.
7 Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints
The proof of design strength of hollow section girder joints guards against failure due to:
plasticising of the boom member flange;
plasticising or instability of the boom member web;
shearing of the boom member cross-section;
punching-through of the boom member flange;
tearing-off of the web member with effective cross-section;
local bulging.
The proof shall be executed according to the rules of Eurocode 3, ENV 1993-1-1:1993, annex K.
8 Proof of elastic stability
The proof of elastic stability prevents structural members from the loss of stability by lateral deformation
(e. g. buckling, bulging).
NOTE This clause is still under consideration and will be given in a later revision. It is intended to follow the principles
of DIN 18800 and applicable literature.
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
39
Annex A
(normative)
Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and
permissible stress range
c
,
c
Table A.1 Basic material of structural members
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 5
Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under normal stresses
250 f
y
275
280 275 < f
y
355
1
315 355 < f
y
Rolled surfaces and
edges,
Surface condition
according to
EN 10163-A3/C3,
No thermal cutting,
No notches or
geometrical notch
effects (e. g.
cutouts)
m = 5
Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under normal stresses
2
200 f
y
275
225 275 < f
y
Flame cut edges,
quality according to
EN ISO 9013-IA
No geometrical
notch effects (e. g.
cutouts)
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
40
Table A.1 (concluded)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 5
Holes in a plate under normal stresses
200 f
y
275
3
225 275 < f
y
Nominal stress
calculated for the
net cross-section
Holes not flame cut,
Bolts may be
present, when these
are stressed
up to 20 % of
their strength
in shear/
bearing
connections
or
up to 100 %
of their
strength in
slip-resistant
connections
m = 5
Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under shear stress
140 f
y
275
160 275 < f
y
355
4
180 355 < f
y
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
41
Table A.2 Bolted members, connecting devices
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
Double shear
Supported single-shear
(example)
Single-shear
m = 5
Perforated parts in slip-resistant bolt connections under normal
stresses
200 f
y
275
1
225 275 < f
y
The proof of fatigue
strength is not
required for bolts of
slip resistant bolt
connections
Nominal stress
calculated for the net
cross-section
m = 5
Perforated parts in shear/bearing connections under normal stresses
double-shear and supported single-shear 2
180 Normal stress
Nominal stress
calculated for the net
cross-section
m = 5
Perforated parts in shear/bearing connections under normal stresses
single-shear joints, not supported 3
125 Normal stress
Nominal stress
calculated for the net
cross-section
m = 5 Fitted bolts in double-shear or supported single-shear joints
140 Shear stress (
c
)
4
355 Bearing stress (
c
)
Uniform distribution of
stresses is assumed
m = 5 Fitted bolts in single-shear joints, not supported
100 Shear stress (
c
)
5
250 Bearing stress (
c
)
Uniform distribution of
stresses is assumed
m=3 Threaded bolts loaded in tension
32 Machined thread
6
45 Rolled thread
calculated for
the stress-area of the
bolt, using
b
F (see
5.2.3.3)
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
42
Table A.3 Welded members
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
Basic conditions:
symmetric plate arrangement
fully penetrated weld
Manual or partially mechanized
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses
Angular misalignment < 1
t
1
= t
2
or
slope <1:3
1 m = 3
Symmetric butt joint, normal stress across the weld
Special conditions:
Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) - 1 NC
180 Butt weld, quality level B*
- 2 NC
160 Butt weld, quality level B
- 4 NC
140 Butt weld, quality level C
4 NC
m = 3
Symmetric butt joint, normal stress across the weld
2
90 Butt weld on remaining backing, quality level C
Basic conditions:
symmetric plate arrangement
fully penetrated weld
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses
Angular misalignment < 1
Special conditions:
Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) -1 NC
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
43
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
Basic conditions:
fully penetrated weld
Supported parallel to butt weld:
e < 2t
2
+ 10mm
Supported vertical to butt weld:
e < 12t
2
Manually or partially mechanized
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses
slope 1:3

1 2
t t 4 mm
Special conditions:
Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) -1 NC
Influence of slope and thickness
1 2
t t :
m = 3
Unsymmetrical supported butt joint, normal stress
across the butt weld
140 Butt weld, quality level B*
125 Butt weld, quality level B
3
112
Butt weld, quality level C
thickness
1 2
t t

slope 4 10 50 > 50
1:3 -1NC -1NC -2NC
1:2 -1NC -1NC -2NC -2NC
1:1 -1NC -2NC -2NC -3NC
>1:1 - 2NC -2NC -3NC -3NC
m = 3
Unsymmetrical supported butt joint, normal stress
across the butt weld
4
90
Butt weld on remaining backing, quality level C
Basic conditions:
fully penetrated weld
Supported parallel to butt weld:
e < 2t
2
+ 10mm
Supported vertical to butt weld:
e < 12t
2
Manually or partially mechanised
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses

1 2
t t 10 mm
Special conditions:
Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) -1 NC

1 2
t t > 10 mm -1 NC
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
44
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
Basic conditions:
fully penetrated weld
Manually or partially mechanised
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses
t
1
/t
2
> 0,84
slope 1:1
Slope in
weld or
parent
material
Special conditions:
Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) -1NC
m = 3
Unsymmetrical unsupported butt joint, stress across
the butt weld
-2 NC
112 Butt weld, quality level B*
100 Butt weld, quality level B
5
90
Butt weld quality level C
t
1
/t
2
> 0,74 -1 NC
t
1
/t
2
> 0,63 -2 NC
t
1
/t
2
> 0,50 -3 NC
m = 3
Butt joint with crossing welds, stress across the butt
weld
125 Butt weld, quality level B*
100 Butt weld, quality level B
6
90
Butt weld, quality level C
Basic conditions:
Manually or partially mechanised
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
45
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Normal stress in weld direction
180 Full penetration, continuous weld, quality level B
160 Full penetration, continuous weld, quality level C
140
Partial penetration, continuous welds, quality level C
7
90 Intermittent weld, quality level C
Basic conditions:
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Special conditions:
Automatic welding,
no initial points + 1 NC
Welding with restraint
of shrinkage - 1 NC
m = 3
Cross or T-Joint, groove weld, normal stress across
the weld
125 K-weld, quality level B
*
112 K-weld, quality level B
100
K-weld, quality level C
80 Semi V-weld on remaining backing quality level B
8
71 Semi V-weld on remaining backing quality level C
Basic conditions:
Continous weld
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Special conditions:
Automatic welding,
no initial points + 1 NC
Welding with
restraint of shrinkage - 1 NC
m = 3
Cross or T-Joint, symmetric double fillet weld, normal
stress across the weld
71
Quality level B
9
63 Quality level C
Basic conditions:
Continous weld
Manual or partially mechanized
welding
weld thickness a > 0,8 t
Special conditions:
Automatic welding,
no initial points + 1 NC
Welding with restraint
of shrinkage - 1 NC
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
46
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
T-Joint, normal stresses in the plate from bending
90 Quality level B
10
80
Quality level C
m = 3
Full penetration weld (double sided) with transverse
compressive load (e. g. wheel)
160 Quality level B
11
140 Quality level C
m = 3
Full penetration weld (with backing) with
transverse compressive load (e. g. wheel)
125 Quality level B
12
112 Quality level C
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
47
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Single fillet weld with transverse compressive
load (e. g. wheel)
13
63
Quality level C
m = 3
Single fillet weld with transverse load (e. g.
underslung crab)
14
63 Quality level C
m = 3
Continuous component with a welded cover plate
90 l 50 mm
80 50 mm < l 100 mm
15
71 l > 100 mm
Basic conditions:
Quality level C
Continuous weld
distance c between the weld toe
and rim of continuous component
greater than 10 mm
Special conditions:
Quality level B
*
+2 NC
Quality level B +1 NC
Quality level D - 1 NC
c < 10 mm - 1 NC
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
48
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Continuous component with load carrying flange
plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
16
125
Flange plate with end chamfer 1:3; edge weld and end
of flank weld in weld quality level B*
Basic conditions:
Continuous fillet or groove weld
m = 3
Continuous component with load carrying flange
plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
17
100 Edge weld and end of flank weld in weld quality level B*
Basic conditions:
Continuous fillet or groove weld
t
0
1,5 t
u
m = 3
Continuous component with load carrying flange
plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
80 Quality level B
18
71 Quality level C
Basic conditions:
Continuous fillet or groove weld
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
49
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Overlapped welded joint, main plate
80 Quality level B
*
71 Quality level B
19
63 Quality level C
Basic conditions:
Stressed area to be calculated by:

r s
l t A
) ( min
,
l b b l
L m r
+
m = 3
Overlapped welded joint, lap plates
20
50
Basic conditions:
Stressed area to be calculated by:
) (
2 1 L L L s
t t b A +
m = 3
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted
parts, Parts rounded or chamfered
100 Quality level B*
90 Quality level B
21
80 Quality level C
Basic conditions:
R 50 mm; 60
Groove weld or allround fillet weld
Special conditions:
R 100 mm; 45 +1 NC
End welds in a zone of
at least 5 t fully penetrated +2 NC
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
50
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Continuous component with parts ending
perpendicularly
80 l 50 mm
71 50 mm < l 100 mm
22
63 l > 100 mm
Basis conditions:
Allround fillet weld
Quality level B, C
Special conditions:
Single fillet weld -1 NC
Weld quality level B* +1 NC
Weld quality level D -1 NC
m = 3
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted
parts, welded to edge
100 Quality level B, weld ends in weld quality level B*
90 Quality level B
80 Quality level C
23
71 Quality level D
Basic conditions:
R 50 mm or 60
t
2
t
1
Butt weld or all-round fillet weld
Special conditions:
R 100 mm or 45 +1 NC
R < 50mm or > 60 -2 NC
End welds in a zone of at least 5 t
2
fully penetrated +1 NC
m = 3
Continuous component with overlapping parts
80 b 50 mm
71 50 mm < b 100 mm
24
63 b > 100 mm
Basic conditions
c 10 mm
Quality level C
Special conditions:
Quality level B
*
+2 NC
Quality level B +1 NC
Quality level D -1 NC
c < 10 mm -1 NC
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
51
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Continuous component to which parts are welded
transversally
125 Double fillet weld, quality level B*
112 Double fillet weld, quality level B
100 Double fillet weld, quality level C
90 Single fillet weld, quality level B, C
25
80 Semi V-weld on remaining backing, quality level B, C
Basic conditions:
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Plate thickness t 12 mm
c 10 mm
Quality level D not allowed for K
weld
Special conditions:
Plate thickness t > 12 mm
(Double fillet welds only) -1 NC
c < 10 mm -1 NC
K weld instead of double
fillet weld +1 NC
Quality level D instead
of C -1 NC
m = 3
Continuous component to which stiffeners are
welded transversally
125 Double fillet weld, quality level B*
112 Double fillet weld, quality level B
100 Double fillet weld, quality level C
80 Single fillet weld, quality level B, C
26
80 Semi V-weld on remaining backing, quality level B, C
Basic conditions:
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Plate thickness t 12 mm
c 10 mm
Special conditions:
Plate thickness t > 12 mm
(double fillets only) -1 NC
c< 10 mm -1 NC
K weld instead of
double fillet weld +1 NC
m = 3
Continuous component to which transverse parts or
stiffeners are welded intermittently
63 Quality level C
27
50 Quality level D
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
52
Table A.3 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 3
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted
parts, parts through hole
90 Parts rounded or chamfered
28
56 Parts ending perpendicularly
For parts rounded or chamfered:
Basic conditions:
R 50 mm, 60
Special conditions:
R 100 mm, 45 +1 NC
End welds in the zone
of at least 5 t fully
penetrated +2 NC
m = 3
Tubes, normal stress across the weld
90 Butt weld, cylindrical tube
63 Groove weld, cylindrical tube
56 Groove weld, rectangular tube
45 Double fillet weld, cylindrical tube
29
40 Double fillet weld, rectangular tube
Basic conditions:
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Quality level C
Groove weld fully penetrated
Fillet weld thickness a > 0,7 tube
thickness
Flange thickness greater than two
times tube thickness (for middle
figure)
Special conditions:
Quality B +1 NC
Quality B
*
+2 NC
m = 5
Continuous weld under uniform shear flow
Basic conditions:
Quality level C
Manual or partially mechanised
welding
Components with usual residual
stresses
Special conditions:
Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage -1 NC
No initial points +1 NC
112 With full penetration
30
90 Partial penetration
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
53
Table A.3 (concluded)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Constructional detail Requirements
m = 5
Weld in lap joint, shear with stress concentration
71 Quality level B
31
63 Quality level C
Basic conditions:
Load is assumed to be transferred
by longitudinal welds only
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
54
Annex B
(informative)
Guidance for selection of classes S due to experience
No. Type of crane Operation method S-class
1 Hand-operated cranes S0 S2
2 Assembly cranes S0 S2
3 Powerhouse cranes S1 S3
4 Warehouse cranes intermittent operation S4 S5
5
Warehouse cranes, lifting beam cranes,
scrapyard cranes
continuous operation S6 S8
6 Workshop cranes S3 S5
7 Bridge cranes, skull cracker cranes grabbing or magnet service S6 S8
8 Ladle cranes S6 S8
9 Pit cranes S7 S9
10 Stripper cranes, charging cranes S8 S9
11 Forging cranes S6 S8
12
Unloaders, stocking and reclaiming bridges,
semi-portal cranes, portal cranes with trolley or
slewing crane
hook service S4 S6
13
Unloaders, stocking and reclaiming bridges,
semi-portal cranes, portal cranes with trolley or
slewing crane
grabbing or magnet service S6 S8
14
Travelling conveyor gantries with fixed or sliding
conveyor(s)
S3 S5
15
Shipbuilding cranes, slipway cranes, fitting-out
cranes
hook service S3 S5
16 hook service S4 S6
17
Wharf cranes, slewing cranes, floating cranes,
level-luffing slewing cranes
grabbing or magnet service S6 S8
18
High-capacity floating cranes, high capacity
gantry cranes
S1 S3
19 Shipdeck cranes hook service S3 S5
20 Shipdeck cranes grabbing or magnet service S4 S6
21 Revolving tower cranes for construction service S1 S3
22 Erection cranes, derricks hook service S1 S3
23 Rail-mounted slewing cranes hook service S3 S5
24 Rail-mounted slewing cranes grabbing or magnet service S4 S6
25 Locomotive cranes, licensed for in-train haulage S4 S5
26 Loader cranes, mobile cranes hook service S2 S5
27 Loader cranes, mobile cranes grabbing or magnet service S4 S6
28 High capacity loader and mobile cranes S1 S3
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
55
Annex C
(normative)
Calculated values of permissible stress range
Rd
Table C.1 Details with m = 3 and
MF
= 1,25

Rd
(/mm
2
) NC,
c
(N/mm
2
) S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
355 1420,0 1127,1 894,5 713,7 568,0 450,8 357,8 284,0 225,4 178,9
315 1260,0 1000,1 793,8 633,3 504,0 400,0 317,5 252,0 200,0 158,8
280 1120,0 888,9 705,6 562,9 448,0 355,6 282,2 224,0 177,8 141,1
250 1000,0 793,7 630,0 502,6 400,0 317,5 252,0 200,0 158,7 126,0
225 900,0 714,3 567,0 452,4 360,0 285,7 226,8 180,0 142,9 113,4
200 800,0 635,0 504,0 402,1 320,0 254,0 201,6 160,0 127,0 100,8
180 720,0 571,5 453,6 361,9 288,0 228,6 181,4 144,0 114,3 90,7
160 640,0 508,0 403,2 321,7 256,0 203,2 161,3 128,0 101,6 80,6
140 560,0 444,5 352,8 281,5 224,0 177,8 141,1 112,0 88,9 70,6
125 500,0 396,9 315,0 251,3 200,0 158,7 126,0 100,0 79,4 63,0
112 448,0 355,6 282,2 225,2 179,2 142,2 112,9 89,6 71,1 56,4
100 400,0 317,5 252,0 201,1 160,0 127,0 100,8 80,0 63,5 50,4
90 360,0 285,7 226,8 180,9 144,0 114,3 90,7 72,0 57,1 45,4
80 320,0 254,0 201,6 160,8 128,0 101,6 80,6 64,0 50,8 40,3
71 284,0 225,4 178,9 142,7 113,6 90,2 71,6 56,8 45,1 35,8
63 252,0 200,0 158,8 126,7 100,8 80,0 63,5 50,4 40,0 31,8
56 224,0 177,8 141,1 112,6 89,6 71,1 56,4 44,8 35,6 28,2
50 200,0 158,7 126,0 100,5 80,0 63,5 50,4 40,0 31,7 25,2
45 180,0 142,9 113,4 90,5 72,0 57,1 45,4 36,0 28,6 22,7
40 160,0 127,0 100,8 80,4 64,0 50,8 40,3 32,0 25,4 20,2
36 144,0 114,3 90,7 72,4 57,6 45,7 36,3 28,8 22,9 18,1
32 128,0 101,6 80,6 64,3 51,2 40,6 32,3 25,6 20,3 16,1
28 112,0 88,9 70,6 56,3 44,8 35,6 28,2 22,4 17,8 14,1
25 100,0 79,4 63,0 50,3 40,0 31,7 25,2 20,0 15,9 12,6
22,5 90,0 71,4 56,7 45,2 36,0 28,6 22,7 18,0 14,3 11,3
20 80,0 63,5 50,4 40,2 32,0 25,4 20,2 16,0 12,7 10,1
18 72,0 57,1 45,4 36,2 28,8 22,9 18,1 14,4 11,4 9,1
16 64,0 50,8 40,3 32,2 25,6 20,3 16,1 12,8 10,2 8,1
14 56,0 44,4 35,3 28,1 22,4 17,8 14,1 11,2 8,9 7,1
12,5 50,0 39,7 31,5 25,1 20,0 15,9 12,6 10,0 7,9 6,3
11,5 46,0 36,5 29,0 23,1 18,4 14,6 11,6 9,2 7,3 5,8
10 40,0 31,7 25,2 20,1 16,0 12,7 10,1 8,0 6,3 5,0
9 36,0 28,6 22,7 18,1 14,4 11,4 9,1 7,2 5,7 4,5
8 32,0 25,4 20,2 16,1 12,8 10,2 8,1 6,4 5,1 4,0
7,1 28,4 22,5 17,9 14,3 11,4 9,0 7,2 5,7 4,5 3,6
6,3 25,2 20,0 15,9 12,7 10,1 8,0 6,4 5,0 4,0 3,2
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
56
Table C.2 Details with m = 5 and
MF
= 1,25
NC,
c

Rd, 1
(/mm
2
)
(N/mm
2
) S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
355 745,9 649,4 565,3 493,7 430,5 374,7 326,2 284,0 247,2 215,2
315 661,9 576,2 501,6 438,1 382,0 332,5 289,5 252,0 219,4 191,0
280 588,3 512,2 445,9 389,4 339,5 295,6 257,3 224,0 195,0 169,8
250 525,3 457,3 398,1 347,7 303,1 263,9 229,7 200,0 174,1 151,6
225 472,8 411,6 358,3 312,9 272,8 237,5 206,8 180,0 156,7 136,4
200 420,2 365,8 318,5 278,1 242,5 211,1 183,8 160,0 139,3 121,3
180 378,2 329,3 286,6 250,3 218,3 190,0 165,4 144,0 125,4 109,1
160 336,2 292,7 254,8 222,5 194,0 168,9 147,0 128,0 111,4 97,0
140 294,2 256,1 222,9 194,7 169,8 147,8 128,7 112,0 97,5 84,9
125 262,7 228,7 199,1 173,8 151,6 132,0 114,9 100,0 87,1 75,8
112 235,3 204,9 178,4 155,8 135,8 118,2 102,9 89,6 78,0 67,9
100 210,1 182,9 159,2 139,1 121,3 105,6 91,9 80,0 69,6 60,6
90 189,1 164,6 143,3 125,2 109,1 95,0 82,7 72,0 62,7 54,6
80 168,1 146,3 127,4 111,3 97,0 84,4 73,5 64,0 55,7 48,5
71 149,2 129,9 113,1 98,7 86,1 74,9 65,2 56,8 49,4 43,0
63 132,4 115,2 100,3 87,6 76,4 66,5 57,9 50,4 43,9 38,2
56 117,7 102,4 89,2 77,9 67,9 59,1 51,5 44,8 39,0 34,0
50 105,1 91,5 79,6 69,5 60,6 52,8 45,9 40,0 34,8 30,3
45 94,6 82,3 71,7 62,6 54,6 47,5 41,4 36,0 31,3 27,3
40 84,0 73,2 63,7 55,6 48,5 42,2 36,8 32,0 27,9 24,3
36 75,6 65,9 57,3 50,1 43,7 38,0 33,1 28,8 25,1 21,8
32 67,2 58,5 51,0 44,5 38,8 33,8 29,4 25,6 22,3 19,4
28 58,8 51,2 44,6 38,9 34,0 29,6 25,7 22,4 19,5 17,0
25 52,5 45,7 39,8 34,8 30,3 26,4 23,0 20,0 17,4 15,2
22,5 47,3 41,2 35,8 31,3 27,3 23,8 20,7 18,0 15,7 13,6
20 42,0 36,6 31,8 27,8 24,3 21,1 18,4 16,0 13,9 12,1
18 37,8 32,9 28,7 25,0 21,8 19,0 16,5 14,4 12,5 10,9
16 33,6 29,3 25,5 22,3 19,4 16,9 14,7 12,8 11,1 9,7
14 29,4 25,6 22,3 19,5 17,0 14,8 12,9 11,2 9,8 8,5
12,5 26,3 22,9 19,9 17,4 15,2 13,2 11,5 10,0 8,7 7,6
11,5 24,2 21,0 18,3 16,0 13,9 12,1 10,6 9,2 8,0 7,0
10 21,0 18,3 15,9 13,9 12,1 10,6 9,2 8,0 7,0 6,1
9 18,9 16,5 14,3 12,5 10,9 9,5 8,3 7,2 6,3 5,5
8 16,8 14,6 12,7 11,1 9,7 8,4 7,4 6,4 5,6 4,9
7,1 14,9 13,0 11,3 9,9 8,6 7,5 6,5 5,7 4,9 4,3
6,3 13,2 11,5 10,0 8,8 7,6 6,7 5,8 5,0 4,4 3,8
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
57
Annex D
(normative)
Design weld stress
W,Sd
and
W,Sd
D.1 Butt joint
Normal weld design stress
Sd W ,
and shear weld design stress
Sd W,
are calculated by:
r r
Sd W
l a
F

,
r r
Sd W
l a
F

,
(D.1)
where

F is the acting normal force (see Figure D.1);

F is the acting shear force (see Figure D.1);


r
a is the relevant weld thickness;
r
l is the relevant weld length.
Figure D.1 Butt weld
The relevant weld thickness
r
a is limited to:
( )
2 1
, min t t a
r
.
In general, the relevant weld length l
r
is given by:
r W r
a l l 2 (welded non intermittently)
( )


i
r Wi r
a l l 2 (welded intermittently)
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
58
where
W
l is the weld length (see Figure D.1);
Wi
l are the weld lengths when welded intermittently (see Figure D.1);
r
a is the relevant weld thickness.
D.2 Fillet weld and groove weld with uniform distributed load
Normal weld design stress
W,Sd
and shear weld design stress
W,Sd
are calculated by:
2 2 1 1
,
r r r r
Sd W
l a l a
F
+

2 2 1 1
,
r r r r
Sd W
l a l a
F
+


(D.2)
where

F is the acting normal force (see Figure D.2);

F is the acting shear force (see Figure D.2);


ri
a are the relevant weld thicknesses (see Figure D.2);
i ri
a a for case 1;
hi i ri
a a a + for case 2;
ri
l are the relevant weld lengths.
case 1
case 2
Figure D.2 Joint dimensions
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
59
The relevant weld thickness a
r
is limited to:
) , min( 7 , 0
2 1
t t a
r
.
For the relevant weld lengths see D.1.
Single sided welds may be used loaded with forces as shown in Figure D.2.
For single sided welds,
Sd W ,
and
Sd W ,
are calculated analogous using the relevant weld parameters.
D.3 Relevant distribution length under punctiform load
For simplification the normal weld design stress
w,Sd
and shear weld design stress
w,Sd
may be calculated
using the relevant distribution length under punctiform load:
+ tan 2 h l
r
(D.3)
where
r
l is the relevant distribution length ;
h is the distance between weld and contact area of acting load;
is the width of contact area in weld direction. For wheels may be set to :
r 2 , 0 with mm 50
max

where
r is the radius of wheel;
k 2 is the spread angle. k shall be set to 45 .
Figure D.3 Punctiform load
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
60
Annex E
(informative)
Hollow Sections
Table E.1 Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and permissible stress range
c
for connections
and joints of hollow sections girders, m = 5
For site welding the given values of
c
should be multiplied by the factor 0,9.
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
90 2 < t
0
25
90 8 < t
0
25 1
71 2 < t
0
8
Butt joint with I- or V-weld
a) with weld backing
b) without backing weld
The admissible
mismatch of the
sections due to a
change of the plate
thickness is t
0
/3, but
not more than max.
2 mm. In case of a
higher mismatch,
especially for a
transverse plate butt
of rectangle hollow
section girders of
different dimensions,

c
is reduced to
80 % of the given
values.
80 2 < t
0
25
80 8 < t
0
25 2
63 2 < t
0
8
Butt joint with I- or V-weld
a) with weld backing
b) without weld backing
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
61
Table E.1 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
63 2 < t
0
25
63 8 < t
0
25 3
56 2 < t
0
8
Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (t
p
2 t
o
)
a) with weld backing
b) without weld backing
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
56 2 < t
0
25
56 8 < t
0
25 4
50 2 < t
0
8
Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (t
p
2 t
o
)
a) with weld backing
b) without weld backing
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
5 45 2 < t
0
8
Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (t
p
2 t
o
)
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
62
Table E.1 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
6 40 2 < t
0
8
Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (t
p
2 t
o
)
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
80 l 50
71 50 < l 100 7
56 l > 100
Longitudinally welded outer fin not bearing transverse
loading in y-direction (2 < t
0
25)
Fillet weld thickness
a:
for
2 < t
0
3:a = 2
for
3 t
0
25:a = 0,7t
0
100 t 6
90 6 < t 12
8
80 12 < t 25
Transversally welded outer fin with projection, not
bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t
o
25),
(b > b
0
)
Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t
0
3:a = 2
for
3 t
0
25:a 0,7t
0
,
but not more than
a = 10
80 t 6
71 6 < t 12 9
63 12 < t 25
Transversally welded outer fin with projection, not
bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t
0
25),
(b > b
0
)
Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t
0
3:a = 2
for
3 t
0
25:a 0,7t
0
,
but not more than
a = 10
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
63
Table E.1 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
80 t 6
71 6 < t 12 10
63 12 < t 25
Transversally welded outer fin without projection, not
bearing transverse loading in y-direction
(2 < t
0
25), (b 0,8 d
0
)
Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t
0
3:a = 2
for
3 t
0
25:a 0,7t
0
,
but not more than
a = 10
100 t 6
90 6 < t 12 11
80 6 < t 12
Transversally welded outer fin without projections, not
bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t
0
25),
(b 0,8 b
0
)
Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t
0
3:a = 2
for
3 t
0
25:a 0,7t
0
,
but not more than
a = 10
12 63 2 < t
0
8
Welded-on hollow section girder, not bearing
transverse loading in y-direction (b,d b
0
,d
0
)
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
64
Table E.1 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
10
t
0
/t = 1
(b,d)/d
0
= 0,6
36
t
0
/t = 1
(b,d)/d
0
= 1
16
t
0
/t 1
(b,d)/d
0
= 0,6
13
50
t
0
/t 1
(b,d)/d
0
= 0,6
Welded-on hollow section girder, bearing transverse
loading F in y-direction (b,d d
0
), (2 < t
0
8)
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
6
t
0
/t = 1
(b,d)/b
0
= 0,6
32
t
0
/t = 1
(b,d)/b
0
= 1
12,5
t
0
/t 1
(b,d)/b
0
= 0,6
14
40
t
0
/t 1
(b,d)/b
0
= 0,6
Welded-on hollow section girder, bearing transverse
loading F in y-direction (b,d b
0
), (2 < t
0
8)
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
15 80 2 < t
0
8
Single butt strap at chamfered end of tube (d
0
/t
0
< 25)
Pinched end of tube
a = 2 t
0
16 80 2 < t
0
8
Welded double butt strap ((b
0
,d
0
)/t
0
< 25)
Hot-bended strap,
rounded slot milled at
end of tube
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
17 71 2 < t
0
8
Inserted dovetail strap ((b
0
,d
0
)/t
0
< 25)
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
65
Table E.1 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
18 56 2 < t
0
8
End face strap (d
0
/t
0
< 25), (t
P
2.5 t
0
) Fillet weld thickness
for the hollow section
girder:
a = t
0
for the strap:
a = 0,7 t
L
19 45 2 < t
0
8
End face strap (b
0
/t
0
< 25), (t
P
2,5 t
0
) Fillet weld thickness
for the hollow section
girder:
a = t
0
for the strap:
a = 0,7 t
L
20 45 2 < t
0
8
Inserted rectangular strap ((b
0
,d
0
)/t
0
< 25)
Fillet weld thickness
a = t
0
56 8 < t
0
25
21
50 2 < t
0
8
Mitre joint with I- or V-weld without weld backing,
stressed by bending (d
0
/t
0
< 25), ( 90)
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
50 8 < t
0
25
22
45 2 < t
0
8
Mitre joint with I- or V- weld without weld backing,
stressed by bending (b
0
/t
0
< 25), ( 90)
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
66
Table E.1 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Dimensions
(mm)
Constructional detail Requirements
50
Weld
thickness a:
2 < a 8
23
45 8 < a 14
Mitre joint with transverse plate and fillet welds,
stressed by bending (d
0
/t
0
< 25), ( 90), (t
P
2,5 t
0
)
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
45
Weld
thickness a:
2 < a 8
24
40 8 < a 14
Mitre joint with transverse plate and fillet welds,
stressed by bending (b
0
/t
0
< 25), ( 90), (t
P
2,5 t
0
)
Requirements
analogous to No. 1
45
Weld
thickness a:
2 < a 8
25
40 8 < a 14
Joint of column and transverse girder with fillet welds,
stressed by bending (b
0
/t
0
< 25), (b
0
b + 3 r)
Fillet weld thickness a
= t
0
where t
0
is the
existing
minimum plate
thickness
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
67
Table E.2 Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and permissible stress range
c
for lattice type
connections of hollow section girders, m = 5
Basic symbols for all items
with gap (e 0) with overlapping (e < 0)
Basic requirements for all items
Bending in individual members should be taken into account when calculating the nominal stress.

0 , 0
d b 120 mm. For
0 , 0
d b > 120 mm, the given values of
c
should be multiplied by the factor
) , /( 120
4
o o a
d b f

0
t 12,5 mm
Weld thickness a = min t
Incline of the diagonal members: 50 35
i
25 / ) (
0 0 , 0
< t d b ; 1 ) /( ) ( 6 , 0 ; 1 /
0 , 0 , , 0
d b d b t t
i i i
Eccentricity
in the plane of the lattice work: 25 , 0 ) /( 5 , 0
0 , 0
d h e
perpendicular to the plane of the lattice work: 0,02 ) (
0 , 0
d b
Welding under shop conditions. For site welding the given values of
c
should be multiplied by the
factor 0,9.
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
68
Table E.2 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!
Requirements
K-gussett with direct strut joint
a) with gap:
1 /
0

i
t t
2 /
0

i
t t
6 , 0 /
0
d d
i
36 80
1 /
0
d d
i
45 90
0
3 , 0 d g
i
d g 3 / 2
1 /
0

i
t t 2 /
0

i
t t
6 , 0 /
0
d d
i
50 80
1 /
0
d d
i
56 90
1 / 3 , 0 p q
1
b) with overlapping
K-T-gusset with direct strut joint
1 /
0

i
t t 2 /
0

i
t t
6 , 0 /
0
d d
i
36 71
1 /
0
d d
i
35 80
2
1 / 3 , 0 p q
N-gusset with direct strut joint
c) with gap:
1 /
0

i
t t
2 /
0

i
t t
6 , 0 /
0
d d
i
18 56
1 /
0
d d
i
25 63
0
3 , 0 d g
i
d g 3 / 2
1 /
0

i
t t 2 /
0

i
t t
6 , 0 /
0
d d
i
45 80
1 /
0
d d
i
50 90
1 / 3 , 0 p q
3
d) with overlapping
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
69
Table E.2 (continued)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!
Requirements
T- and X-gusset with direct strut joint
1 /
0

i
t t
2 /
0

i
t t 90 60
6 , 0 /
0
d d
i
10 16
1 /
0
d d
i
36 50
4
Bending of boom member should be
considered!
K-gusset with direct strut joint
e) with gap:
1 /
0

i
t t
2 /
0

i
t t
0
3 , 0 b g
i
b g 3 / 2
6 , 0 /
0
b b
i
32 63
1 /
0
b b
i
36 71
1 / 3 , 0 p q
5
f) with overlapping
K-T-gusset with direct strut joint
1 /
0

i
t t
2 /
0

i
t t
6 , 0 /
0
b b
i
32 56
1 /
0
b b
i
36 63
6
1 / 3 , 0 p q
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
70
Table E.2 (concluded)
No.

c
(N/mm
2
)
Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!
Requirements
N-gusset with direct strut joint
a) with gap:
1 /
0

i
t t
2 /
0

i
t t
0
3 , 0 b g
i
b g 3 / 2
6 , 0 /
0
b b
i
29 50
1 /
0
b b
i
36 56
1 / 3 , 0 p q
7
b) with overlapping
T- and X-gusset with direct strut joint
1 /
0

i
t t 2 /
0

i
t t 90 60
6 , 0 /
0
b b
i
6 12,5
1 /
0
b b
i
32 40
8
Bending of boom member should be
considered!
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
71
Annex F
(informative)
Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application
Is there a product standard in the following list that suits the application?
EN 13000:2004 Cranes Mobile cranes
prEN 14439:2002 Cranes Tower cranes
prEN 14985:2004 Cranes Slewing jib cranes
WI 00147 032 Cranes Bridge and gantry cranes
EN 13852-1:2004 Cranes Offshore cranes Part 1: General purpose offshore cranes
EN 13852-2:2004 Cranes Offshore cranes Part 2: Floating cranes
prEN 14492-1:2004 Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 1: Power driven winches
prEN 14492-2:2002 Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 2: Power driven hoists
EN 12999:2002 Cranes Loader cranes
EN 13157:2002 Cranes Hand powered cranes
prEN 13155:1998 Cranes Non-fixed load lifting attachments
EN 14238:2004 Cranes Manually controlled load manipulating devices
YES NO
Use it directly, plus the standards
that are referred to
Use the following:
EN 13001-1:2004 Cranes General design Part 1: General principles and requirements
EN 13001-2:2004 Cranes General design Part 2: Load effects
prCEN/TS 13001-3-1:2003 Cranes General design Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel
structures
prCEN/TS 13001-3-2:2003 Cranes General design Part 3.2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire
ropes
WI 00147 050 Cranes General design Part 3.3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel
/ rail contacts
EN 13135-1:2003 Cranes Equipment Part 1: Electrotechnical equipment
prEN 13135-2:2000 Cranes Equipment Part 2: Non-electrotechnical equipment
EN 13557:2003 Cranes Controls and control stations
EN 12077-2:1998 Cranes safety Requirements for health and safety Part 2: Limiting and
indicating devices
EN 13586:2003 Cranes Access
prEN 14502-1:2002 Cranes Equipment for the lifting of persons Part 1: Suspended baskets
prEN 14502-2:2002 Cranes Equipment for the lifting of persons Part 2: Moveable cabins
EN 12644-1:2001 Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Instructions
EN 12644-2:2000 Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Marking
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)
72
Bibliography
Selection of literature that contains information about Hot Spot Stress Method:

[1] prEN 1993-1-9: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1-9: Fatigue strength of steel structures.
[2] IIW International Institute of Welding. Subcommission XV-E-92-244: Recommended Fatigue Design
Procedure for Welded Hollow Section Joints, 2nd edition, June 1999.
[3] IIW XV-E: Recommended Fatigue Design Procedure for Welded Hollow Section Joints.
Part 1: Recommendations. 1999; Document XIII-1804-99.
Part 2: Commentary, 1999, Document XV-1035-99.
[4] I. HUTHER, H-P. LIEURADE, L. VELLUET, Contraintes admissibles dans les assemblages souds,
1A4085/1A4087, rapport CETIM, avril 2000.
[5] IIW document XIII-WG3-06-99, Designers guide for hot spot fatigue analysis, 6. Draft, E. Niemi,
May 2000.
[6] American Petroleum Institute - API RP 2A-WSD: Recommended practice for planning, designing and
constructing fixed offshore platforms, july 1, 1993, and supplement 1, December 1996.
[7] Romeijn, A., Stress and strain concentration factors of welded multiplanar tubular joints, Delft
University Press, Delft, 1994, ISBN 90-407-1057-0.

Selection of literature that contains information about hollow sections:
[8] Zhao, X-L., Herion, S. Packer, J. A., Puthli, R. S., Sedlacek, G. Wardenier, J. Weymand, K., Wingerde,
A. M., van, and Yeomans, N. F.: Design Guide for circular and rectangular hollow section welded joints
under fatigue loading, CIDECT and Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne, 2000, ISBN 3-8249-0565-5.
[9] Wardenier, J., Dutta, D., Yeomans, N., Packer, J. A., and Bucak, O.: Design Guide for structural
hollow sections in mechanical applications, CIDECT and Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne, 1995,
ISBN 3-8249-0302-4.
[10] Zirn, R.: Schwingfestigkeitsverhalten geschweiter Rohrknotenpunkte und Rohrlaschenverbindungen,
Techni. Wiss. Bericht MPA Stuttgart, 1975, Heft 75-01.
[11] DIN 18800, Stahlbauten Stabilittsflle.

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Li cenza d' uso concessa a ENEA CENTRO DI FRASCATI per l abbonament o anno 2005.
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Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.

UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano
di Unicazione

Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B
20133 Milano, Italia
Li cenza d' uso concessa a ENEA CENTRO DI FRASCATI per l abbonament o anno 2005.
Li cenza d' uso i nt er no su post azi one si ngol a. Ri pr oduzi one vi et at a. E' pr oi bi t o qual si asi ut i l i zzo i n r et e ( LAN, i nt er net , et c. . . )