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Apparecchi di sollevamento
SPECIFICA
TECNICA

Criteri generali per il progetto


Parte 3-1: Stati limite e verica della sicurezza delle strutture di
acciaio

UNI CEN/TS
13001-3-1
SETTEMBRE 2005

Cranes

General design
Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structures
La specica tecnica specica, con le parti 1 e 2, le condizioni generali, i requisiti e i metodi per prevenire pericoli di natura meccanica
degli apparecchi di sollevamento attraverso il progetto e le veriche
teoriche.

TESTO INGLESE

La presente specica tecnica la versione ufciale in lingua


inglese della specica tecnica europea CEN/TS 13001-3-1 (edizione dicembre 2004).

ICS

UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano
di Unicazione
Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B
20133 Milano, Italia

53.020.20

UNI
Riproduzione vietata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. Nessuna parte del presente documento
pu essere riprodotta o diffusa con un mezzo qualsiasi, fotocopie, microlm o altro, senza
il consenso scritto dellUNI.
www.uni.com
UNI CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005

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PREMESSA
La presente specica tecnica costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, della specica tecnica europea CEN/TS 13001-3-1 (edizione
dicembre 2004), che assume cos lo status di specica tecnica nazionale italiana.
La scadenza del periodo di validit del CEN/TS 13001-3-1 stata
ssata inizialmente dal CEN per dicembre 2007. Eventuali osservazioni sulla specica tecnica devono pervenire allUNI entro dicembre 2006.
La presente specica tecnica stata elaborata sotto la competenza
della Commissione Tecnica UNI
Apparecchi di sollevamento e relativi accessori
La presente norma stata raticata dal Presidente dellUNI ed entrata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 14 settembre 2005.

Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti
interessate e di conciliare ogni aspetto conittuale, per rappresentare il reale stato
dellarte della materia ed il necessario grado di consenso.
Chiunque ritenesse, a seguito dellapplicazione di questa norma, di poter fornire suggerimenti per un suo miglioramento o per un suo adeguamento ad uno stato dellarte
in evoluzione pregato di inviare i propri contributi allUNI, Ente Nazionale Italiano di
Unicazione, che li terr in considerazione per leventuale revisione della norma stessa.
Le norme UNI sono revisionate, quando necessario, con la pubblicazione di nuove edizioni o
di aggiornamenti.
importante pertanto che gli utilizzatori delle stesse si accertino di essere in possesso
dellultima edizione e degli eventuali aggiornamenti.
Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a vericare lesistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle
norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.
UNI CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005

UNI

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

CEN/TS 13001-3-1

SPCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION

December 2004

ICS 53.020.20

English version

Cranes - General design - Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of


competence of steel structures
Appareils de levage charge suspendue - Conception
gnrale - Partie 3-1: Etats limites et vrification d'aptitude
des structures mtalliques

Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-1: Grenzzustnde


und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 25 November 2003 for provisional application.
The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their
comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.
CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available
promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)
until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

2004 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved


worldwide for CEN national Members.

B-1050 Brussels

Ref. No. CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004: E

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Contents

Page

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................5
1

Scope...........................................................................................................................................5

Normative references...................................................................................................................5

Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................6

4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.3
4.4
4.5

General ......................................................................................................................................10
Materials ....................................................................................................................................10
Structural members...................................................................................................................10
Connecting devices ...................................................................................................................13
Bolt connections........................................................................................................................13
General ......................................................................................................................................13
Shear and bearing connections .................................................................................................13
Slip resistant connections .........................................................................................................13
Connections loaded in tension..................................................................................................14
Pin connections.........................................................................................................................14
Welded connections ..................................................................................................................14
Proofs of structural members and connections.........................................................................14

5
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4

Proof of static strength..............................................................................................................14


General ......................................................................................................................................14
Limit design stresses and forces...............................................................................................15
General ......................................................................................................................................15
Limit design stress in structural members ................................................................................15
Limit design forces in bolt connections.....................................................................................16
Limit design forces in pins ........................................................................................................22
Limit design stresses in welded connections............................................................................24
Execution of the proof ...............................................................................................................25
Proof for structural members ....................................................................................................25
Proof for bolt connections .........................................................................................................26
Proof for pin connections..........................................................................................................26
Proof for welded connections....................................................................................................27

6
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.4
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3

Proof of fatigue strength............................................................................................................27


General ......................................................................................................................................27
Limit design stresses.................................................................................................................28
Characteristic values of the stress range ..................................................................................28
Weld quality...............................................................................................................................30
Effect of test loads.....................................................................................................................30
Requirements for fatigue testing ...............................................................................................31
Classes S of stress history parameter s....................................................................................31
Simplified method based on service conditions ........................................................................31
Selection based on experience..................................................................................................35
Execution of the proof ...............................................................................................................35
Determination of the permissible stress range ..........................................................................36
Applicable methods...................................................................................................................36
Direct use of stress history parameter ......................................................................................36
Use of class S............................................................................................................................36

Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints..............................................................38

Proof of elastic stability.............................................................................................................38

Annex A (normative) Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and permissible stress range c, c ..39
Annex B (informative) Guidance for selection of classes S due to experience .....................................54
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Annex C (normative) Calculated values of permissible stress range Rd ............................................55


Annex D (normative) Design weld stress W,Sd and W,Sd .......................................................................57
D.1
Butt joint ....................................................................................................................................57
D.2
Fillet weld and groove weld with uniform distributed load.........................................................58
D.3
Relevant distribution length under punctiform load ..................................................................59
Annex E (informative) Hollow Sections .................................................................................................60
Annex F (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application ...............71
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements
of EU Directive 98/37/EC ............................................................................................................72
Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................73

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Foreword
This document (CEN/TS 13000-3.1:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 Cranes
Safety, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European
Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC.
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following
countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latavia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
This European Standard is one Part of EN 13001. The other parts are as follows:
Part 1:

General principles and requirements

Part 2:

Load actions

The annexes A, C and D are normative. The annexes B, E and F are informative.

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Introduction
This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonised standard to provide one means for the mechanical
design and theoretical verification of cranes to conform with the essential health and safety requirements of the
Machinery Directive, as amended. This standard also establishes interfaces between the user (purchaser) and the
designer, as well as between the designer and the component manufacturer, in order to form a basis for selecting
cranes and components.
This European Standard is a type C standard as stated in EN 1070.
The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are covered are
indicated in the scope of this document.
When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the
provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that
have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C standard.
The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards are covered are indicated in the scope of this standard.

Scope

This European Standard is to be used together with Part 1 and Part 2 and as such they specify general conditions,
requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by design and theoretical verification.
NOTE
Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for the particular
crane type.

The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons
during normal use and foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 8 of this standard are necessary to reduce or eliminate
the risks associated with the following hazards:
a) Exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b) Exceeding temperature limits of material or components;
c) Elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging).
This European Standard is applicable to cranes which are manufactured after the date of approval by CEN of this
standard and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types.
NOTE

prCEN/TS 13001-3-1 deals only with limit state method according to EN 13001-1.

As an alternative to the herein presented limit state method using partial safety factors, the allowable stress method
using a global safety factor according to Part 1 and Part 2 may also be applied for special crane systems with linear
behaviour.
As crane structures are basically dynamically loaded only the linear theory of elasticity is applicable and only limited
local plasticity is allowed. The use of the theory of plasticity for calculation of ultimate load bearing capacity is not
allowed.

Normative references

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of, any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the
publication referred to applies (including amendments).
EN 1070:1998, Safety of machinery Terminology.
EN 1990-1:2002, Eurocode Basic of structural design
EN 1993-1-1:1992: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.
EN 10025:1990/A1:1993, Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels Technical delivery conditions
(includes amendment A1:1993).
EN 10045-1:1989, Charpy impact test on metallic material Part 1: Test method.
EN 10113-1:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Part 1: General delivery conditions.
EN 10113-2:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Part 2: Delivery conditions for
normalized/normalized rolled steels.
EN 10113-3:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels Part 3: Delivery conditions for
thermomechanical rolled steels.
EN 10137-2:1995, Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered
or precipitation hardened conditions Part 2: Delivery conditions for quenched and tempered steels.
EN 10149-1:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming Part 1: General
delivery conditions.
EN 10149-2:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming Part 2: Delivery
conditions for thermomechanically rolled steels.
EN 10149-3:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming Part 3: Delivery
conditions for normalized or normalized rolled steels.
EN 10164:1993, Steel products with improved deformation properties perpendicular to the surface of the product
Technical delivery conditions.
EN 12345:1996, Welding Multilingual terms for welding joints with illustrations (trilingual version).
EN 13001-1:2004, Cranes General Design Part 1:General principles and requirements.
EN 13001-2:2004, Cranes General Design Part 2: Load actions.
EN 22553:1994, Welded, brazed and soldered joints Symbolic representation on drawings (ISO 2553:1992).
EN 25817:1992, Arc-welded joints in steel Guidance on quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:1992).
EN ISO 898-1:1999, Mechanical properties of fasteners Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs (ISO 898-1:1999).
EN ISO 9013:2002, Thermal cutting Classification of thermal cuts Geometrical specification and quality
tolerances (ISO 9013:2002).
EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic
terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003).
EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 2: Technical
principles and specifications (ISO 12100-2:2003).

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

ISO 286-2:1990, ISO system of limits and fits Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance grades and limit deviations for
holes and shafts.
ISO 4306-1:1990, Cranes Vocabulary Part 1: General.

Terms and definitions

3.1
Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 292-1, EN 292-2 and EN 1070
and the basic list of definitions as provided in EN 1990-1 apply. For the definitions of loads, clause 6 of
ISO 4306-1:1990 applies.
3.2
Symbols and abbreviations
The symbols and abbreviations used in this Part of the EN 13001 are given in Table 1.
Table 1 Symbols and abbrevations
Symbols,
abbreviations

Description

cross section

AS

stress area of a bolt

ar

relevant weld thickness

D o , Di

outer, inner diameter of hollow pin

diameter (shank of bolt, pin)

do

diameter of hole

e1, e2

distances

Fb

tensile force in bolt

Fd

limit force

FK

characteristic value (force)

Fp

preloading force in bolt

FRd

limit design force

Ft
Fb, Rd
Fb, Sd ; Fbi, Sd

external force (on bolted connection)


limit design bearing force
design bearing force

Fp, d

design preloading force

Fs, Rd

limit design slip force per bolt and friction interface

Ft, Rd

limit design tensile force in bolt

Fv, Rd

limit design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane

Fv, Sd

design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane

F,

acting normal/shear force

fd

limit stress

fK

characteristic value (stress)

fRd

limit design stress

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 1 (continued)
Symbols,
abbreviations
fu

ultimate strength of material

fub

ultimate strength of bolts

fw, Rd

limit design weld stress

fy

yield point of material

fyb

yield point of bolts

fyk

yield point (nominal value) of material or member

fyp

yield point of pins

Gt

mass of the moving crane parts during a representative working cycle

distance between weld and contact area of acting load

Kb

stiffness (slope) of bolt

Kc

stiffness (slope) of flanges

k*

specific spectrum ratio factor

k(m)
k(m=3)

stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration


stress spectrum factor based on m = 3

lr

relevant weld length

lW

weld length

MRd

limit design bending moment

MSd

design bending moment

inverse slope of /N-curve

NC

notch class

min , max
PS
p1, p2

extreme values of stresses


probability of survival
distances

mass of the maximum hoist load

impact toughness parameter

Rd

design resistance

radius of wheel

Sd

design strain

s(m)

stress history parameter

temperature

thickness

W el

Description

elastic section modulus

characteristic factor for bearing connection

characteristic factor for limit weld stress

general resistance coefficient

Mf

fatigue strength specific resistance factor

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 1 (concluded)
Symbols,
abbreviations

Description

partial safety factor

resulting resistance coefficient

specific resistance factor

Rb

resulting resistance coefficient of bolt

sb

specific resistance factor of bolt

Rm

resulting resistance coefficient of members

sm

specific resistance factor of members

Rp

resulting resistance coefficient of pins

sp

specific resistance factor of pins

Rs

resulting resistance coefficient of slip-resistance connection

ss

specific resistance factor of slip-resistance connection

Rw

resulting resistance coefficient of welding connection

sw

specfic resistance factor of welding connection

dynamic factor

spread angle

width of contact area in weld direction

elongation from preloading

Fb

additional force

additional elongation

slip factor

characteristic value of stress range (normal stress)

characteristic value of stress range (shear stress)

Sd

design stress (normal)

Sd

design stress (shear)

w, Sd

design weld stress (normal)

w, Sd

design weld stress (shear)

Rd

permissible (limit) stress range (normal)

Rd,1

permissible stress range for k* = 1

Rd

permissible (limit) stress range (shear)

Sd

design stress range (normal)

Sd

design stress range (shear)

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

General

4.1

Materials

4.1.1

Structural members

European Standards specify materials and specific values. This standard gives a preferred selection.
For structural members, steel according to following European Standards should be used:
Non-alloy structural steels EN 10025.
Weldable fine grain structural steels in conditions:

normalised (N)

thermomechanical (M) EN 10113-3.

EN 10113-2;

High yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition EN 10137-2.
High yield strength steels for cold forming in conditions:

thermomechanical (M) EN 10149-2;

normalised (N)

EN 10149-3.

Table 2 shows specific values for the nominal value of strength fu, fy and limit design stress fRd (see 5.2). For more
information see the specific European Standard.
Grades and qualities other than those mentioned in the above standards and in Table 2 can be used if the
mechanical properties and the chemical composition are guaranteed by the manufacturer and conform to the
relevant European Standard. If necessary, the weldability shall be demonstrated by the steel manufacturer.
When selecting grade and quality of the steel for tensile members, the sum of impact toughness parameters qi shall
be taken into account. Table 3 gives the impact toughness parameters qi for various influences. Table 4 gives the
required steel quality and impact energy/test temperature in dependence of qi. Grades and qualities of steel other
than mentioned in Table 4 may be used, if the steel manufacturer guarantees and certifies an impact energy/test
temperature, tested according to EN 10045-1.

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 2 Specific values of steels for structural members


Nominal strength
Steel

Standard

S235

S275
EN 10025

S355

S355

EN 10113-2
(N)
S420
EN 10113-3
(M)

S460

S460
S500
S550
S620
S690
S890
S960

EN 10137-2

Thickness t
(mm)

fy
yield
2
(N/mm )

fu
ultimate
2
(N/mm )

Limit design stress


for Rm=1,1
fRd, normal
2
(N/mm )

fRd, shear
2
(N/mm )

t16

235

214

123

16<t40

225

205

118

40<t100

215

195

113

100<t150

195

177

102

340

t16

275

250

144

16<t40

265

241

139

40<t63

255

232

134

63<t80

245

223

129

80<t100

235

214

123

100<t150

225

205

118

t16

355

323

186

16<t40

345

314

181

40<t63

335

305

176

63<t80

325

296

171

80<t100

315

287

166

100<t150

295

268

155

430

490

t<16

355

323

186

16<t40

345

314

181

40<t63

335

305

176

63<t80 (N)

325

295

171

80<t100 (N)

315

286

165

100<t150 (N)

295

268

155

450

t<16

420

382

220

16<t40

400

364

210

40<t63

390

355

205

63<t80 (N)

370

336

194

80<t100 (N)

360

327

189

100<t150 (N)

340

309

178

t<16

460

418

241

16<t40

440

400

231

40<t63

430

391

226

63<t80 (N)

410

373

215

80<t100 (N)

400

364

210

418

241

400

231

455

262

436

252

500

289

482

278

564

325

527

304

3<t50

460

50<t100

440

3<t50

500

50<t100

480

3<t50

550

50<t100

530

3<t50

620

50<t100

580

500

530

550
590
640
700

3<t50

690

770

627

362

50<t100

650

760

591

341

3<t50

890

940

809

467

50<t100

830

880

755

436

3<t50

960

980

873

504

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 2 (concluded)
Nominal strength
Steel

Standard

Thickness
t (mm)

Limit design stress


for Rm =1,1

fy
yield
(N/mm2)

fu
ultimate
(N/mm2)

fRd, normal
(N/mm2)

fRd, shear
(N/mm2)

S315

315

390

286

165

S355

355

430

323

186

S420

420

480

382

220

S460 (M)

460

520

418

241

455

262

500

289

545

315

591

341

573

331

636

367

618

357

EN 101492
(M)

S500 (M)

all t

500
550
550

S550 (M)

600

EN 10149-3
(N)

S600 (M)

600
t8

650

650

S650 (M)

700

S700 (M)

t>8

630

t8

700

t>8

680

750

Table 3 Impact toughness parameters qi


i

Influence

qi
0T

Temperature T (C)

Yield point fy (N/mm )

Material thickness t (mm)


Equivalent thickness t for solid bars:

t=

12

d
b
b
for < 1,8 : t =
1,8
1,8
h

Stress concentration and notch class c


2
(N/mm ) (see annex A and annex E)

-20 T < 0

-40 T < -20

-50 T < -40

fy 300

300 < fy 460

460 < fy 700

700<fy 1 000

1 000<fy

t 10

10 < t 20

20 < t 50

50 < t 100

t > 100

c > 125

80 < c 125

56< c 80

c 56

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Table 4 Impact toughness requirement and corresponding steel quality for qi

qi 3

4 qi 6

7 qi 9

qi 10

Impact energy/ test


temperature
requirement

27 J / +20C

27 J / 0C

27 J / -20C

27 J / -40C

EN 10025

JR

J0

J2

a)

EN 10113

N, M

N, M

N, M

NL, ML

EN 10137-2

QL

EN 10149

NC, MC

NC, MC

NC, MC

a)

a)

4.1.2

May be used if the steel manufacturer guarantees and certifies an impact energy/test temperature of at least 27 J at
40 C, tested according to EN 10045-1.

Connecting devices

For bolt connections bolts of the property classes 4.6, 5.6, 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9 according to EN ISO 898-1 shall be
used. Nominal values of the strengths:
Table 5 Property classes
Property class

4.6

5.6

8.8

10.9

12.9

240

300

640

900

1 080

400

500

800

1 000

1 200

fyb (N/mm )
fub (N/mm )

4.2
4.2.1

Bolt connections
General

For the purpose of this standard bolt connections are specified as connections, where
bolts are tightened and thus compress the joint surfaces together;
the joint surfaces are secured against rotation (e. g. by using multiple bolts).
4.2.2

Shear and bearing connections

Connections with fitted bolts, where


the loads act perpendicular to the bolt axis and cause shear and bearing stresses in the bolts;
clearance between bolt and hole shall be according to ISO 286-2 tolerances h13 and H11;
at maximum 10 % of the clamping length may be covered by the threaded part of the bolt;
special surface treatment of the contact surfaces is not required.
4.2.3

Slip resistant connections

Connections with high strength bolts of property classes 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9, where
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the loads are transmitted by friction between the joint surfaces;


bolts are tightened by a controlled method to the full preloading state;
the surface condition of the contact surfaces shall be specified and taken into account accordingly.
4.2.4

Connections loaded in tension

Connections with high strength bolts of property classes 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9, where
the loads act in the direction of the bolt axis and cause axial stresses in the bolts;
bolts are tightened by a controlled method to the full preloading state;
fatigue assessment of the bolts shall be done considering the structural features of the joint, e. g. stiffness of
the connected parts and the leverage action caused by the joint geometry;
an even contact over the whole intended contact area of the joint shall be ensured.

4.3

Pin connections

Pin connections are regarded as connections that allow turning of the connected parts.

4.4

Welded connections

Terms for welded joints shall be as given in EN 12345. Symbolic representation on drawings shall be according to
EN 22553.

4.5

Proofs of structural members and connections

It has to be proven that the strains S d do not exceed the resistances Rd :

S d Rd

(1)

The strains Sd shall be determined by applying the loads, load combinations and partial safety factors according
Table 10 of EN 13001-2.
In the following clauses, the resistances Rd are presented as limit stresses f d or limit forces Fd .
For the ultimate limit state, the following proofs shall be delivered:
proof of strength of structural members and connections under quasi-static stress according to 5;
proof of fatigue strength according to 6;
proof of strength of hollow section girder joints under quasi-static stress according to 7;
proof of elastic stability of structural members and special elements according to 8.

5
5.1

Proof of static strength


General

The proof of strength under quasi-static stress protects against excessive deformations due to yielding of the
material or sliding of friction-grip connections as well as against static rupture of structural members or connections.
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The proof shall be delivered for structural members and connections taking into account the most unfavourable
load effects from the load combinations A, B or C according to Table 10 of EN 13001-2: and applying the
resistances according to 5.2.

5.2

Limit design stresses and forces

5.2.1

General

The limit design stresses and forces shall be calculated by:


Limit design stresses

f Rd = function ( f k , R ) or

Limit design forces

FRd = function ( Fk , R )

(2)

where

f k or Fk

are characteristic values (or nominal values)

is the resulting resistance coefficient

is the resistance coefficient

is the general specific resistance coefficient for special parts of this standard

f Rd

NOTE

5.2.2

and

FRd

are equivalent to

R/ m

R = m s

m = 1,1 (see Table 10 of EN 13001-2)

in Figure 2 of EN 13001-1.

Limit design stress in structural members

The limit design stress f Rd , used for the design of structural members, shall be calculated by:

f Rd =

f Rd =

f yk

Rm
f yk

Rm 3

for normal stresses

(3)

for shear stresses

(4)

Rm = msm

with
where

f yk
sm

is the nominal value of the yield point of the material (see Table 2)
is the specific resistance coefficient for material as follows:
For non-rolled material

sm =1,0
For rolled materials (e. g. plates and profiles):
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sm = 1,0 for stresses in the plane of rolling


sm = 1,0 for compressive and shear stresses
For tensile stresses perpendicular to the plane of rolling (see Figure 1):

sm = 1,0 for material in quality classes Z25 or Z35 according to EN 10164


sm = 1,16 for material in quality class Z15 according to EN 10164
sm = 1,34 without quality classification

Figure 1 Tensile load perpendicular to plane of rolling


Hence follow the limit design stresses, which are dependent on the material and the kind of stressing which are
given in Table 2.
5.2.3

Limit design forces in bolt connections

5.2.3.1

Shear and bearing connections

The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting devices.
The limit design shear force Fv,Rd per bolt and per shear plane shall be calculated by:

Fv , Rd =

f yb A

(5)

Rb 3

R b = m sb

with
where

f yb

is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material

is the cross-section of the bolt shank at the shear plane

sb

is the specific resistance factor for bolt connections

sb = 1,0
16

for multiple shear plane connections

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sb = 1,3

for single shear plane connections

See Table 6 for limit design shear forces as an example.


Table 6 Limit design shear force Fv,Rd per fitted bolt and per shear plane for multiple shear plane
connections

Fitted bolt

Hole diameter

Fv,Rd (kN)

Shank resp.

Fitted bolt material

hole section
2

for Rb = 1,1

(mm)

(mm )

4.6

5.6

8.8

10.9

12.9

M12

13

133

16,7

20,9

44,6

62,8

75,4

M16

17

227

28,6

35,7

76,2

107,2

128,6

M20

21

346

43,5

54,4

116,2

163,2

196,1

M22

23

415

52,2

65,3

139,4

196,0

235,2

M24

25

491

61,8

77,3

164,9

231,9

278,3

M27

28

616

77,6

97,0

206,9

291,0

349,2

M30

31

755

95,1

111,8

253,6

356,6

428,0

The limit design bearing force Fb,Rd per bolt may be calculated by:

Fb, Rd =
with

fy d t

(6)

Rb

R b = m sb

where

e1
3 d 0

= Min

p1
1

3 d 0 4
f ub
fu

e1 2,0 do
e2 1,5 do

(7)

p1 3,0 do
p2 3,0 do

1.0

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Figure 2 Illustration for formula (7)

f ub

is the ultimate strength (nominal value) of the bolt (Table 5)

fu

is the ultimate strength (nominal value) of the basic material (Table 2)

fy

is the yield point (nominal value) of the basic material (Table 2)

is the shank diameter of the bolt

is the minimum of thicknesses of the basic material

sb

is the specific resistance factor for bolt connections

sb = 0,7 for multiple shear plane connections


sb = 0,9 for single shear plane connections
5.2.3.2

Slip-resistant connections

The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting devices.
For slip-resistant connections the limit design slip force Fs,Rd per bolt and per friction interface shall be calculated
by:

Fs , Rd =
with

( F p, d Ft )

(8)

Rs

Rs = m ss

where:

is the slip factor

= 0,50 for surfaces

blasted metallic bright with steel grit or sand, no unevennesses;

blasted with steel grit or sand and aluminised;

blasted with steel grit or sand and metallised with a product basing on zinc that
causes a friction coefficient of min. 0,5

= 0,40 for surfaces


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blasted with steel grit or sand and alkali-zinc-silicate coating of 50 m to 80 m


thickness

= 0,30 for surfaces

cleaned metallic bright with wire brush or scarfing

= 0,20 for surfaces

cleaned of loose rust, oil and dirt

F p ,d

is the design preloading force.

Ft

is an external tensile force in direction of the axis of the bolt (see Figure 3)
It shall be ensured that the used preloading force is greater than or equal to the design
preloading force.

ss

is the specific resistance factor for slip-resistant connections;

ss =1,14
See Table 7 for limit design slip forces using for example a design preloading force of

F p, d = 0,7 f yb As ,
where

f yb

is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material (Table 5)

As

is the stress area of the bolt.

19

20

84,3

157,0

245,0

303,0

353,0

459,0

561,0

817,0

M16

M20

M22

M24

M27

M30

M36

366,0

251,0

206,0

158,0

136,0

110,0

70,3

37,8

8.8

515,0

353,0

289,0

222,0

191,0

154,0

98,9

53,1

10.9

618,0

424,0

347,0

267,0

229,0

185,0

119,0

63,7

12.9

Bolt material

AS

(mm2)

Design preloading
force Fp,d (kN)

stress
area

M12

Bolt

146,0

100,0

82,4

63,2

54,4

44,0

28,1

15,1

0.50

117,0

80,3

65,9

50,6

43,5

35,2

22,5

12,1

87,8

60,2

49,4

37,9

32,6

26,4

16,9

9,1

0.30

0.20

0.50

58,6

40,2

33,0

25,3

21,8

17,6

11,2

6,0

206,0

141,0

116,0

88,8

76,4

61,6

39,6

21,2

165,0

113,0

92,5

71,0

61,1

49,3

31,6

17,0

0.40

124,0

84,7

69,4

53,3

45,8

37,0

23,7

12,7

0.30

Slip factor :

Slip factor :
0.40

10.9

8.8

Bolt material

82,4

56,5

46,2

35,5

30,6

24,6

15,8

8,5

0.20

Limit design slip force F s,Rd (kN)

247,0

170,0

139,0

107,0

91,6

74,0

47,6

25,5

0.50

198,0

136,0

111,0

85,4

73,3

59,2

38,1

20,4

0.40

148,0

102,0

83,3

64,1

55,0

44,4

28,6

15,3

0.30

Slip factor :

12.9

Table 7 Limit design slip force FS,Rd per bolt and per friction interface using a design preloading force F p, d = 0.7 f yb As

prCEN/TS 13001-3-1:2003 (E)

98,9

67,8

55,5

42,7

36,6

29,6

19,0

10,2

0.20

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

5.2.3.3

Connections loaded in tension

The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting
devices.
In principle the proof of competence has to take into account the stiffnesses of the bolt and the flanges to be
connected (see Figure 3).

Fp

Preloading force in bolt

Bolt elongation from preloading

Ft

External force

Additional elongation

Fb

Tensile force in bolt

Fb

additional force in bolt

Slope Kb Stiffness of bolt


Slope Kc Stiffness of flanges

Figure 3 Force-elongation-diagram
For simplification the limit design tensile force per bolt Ft,Rd may be calculated by:

Ft , Rd =

F p ,d

(9)

Rb

with Rb = m sb
where

F p ,d

is the design preloading force. It shall be ensured that the used preloading force is
greater than or equal to the design preloading force

sb

is the specific resistance factor for connections loaded in tension

sb = 1,0
See Table 8 for limit design tensile forces according to formula (9) using for example a design preloading
force of

F p, d = 0,7 f yb As
where

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f yb

is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material (Table 5)

As

is the stress area of the bolt.

Table 8 Limit design tensile force Ft,Rd per bolt in direction of the bolt axis, using a design
preloading force F p, d = 0,7 f yb As

Bolt

stress
area

Design preloading

Limit design tensile force


per bolt

force Fp,d (kN)

Ft,Rd (kN)

AS

Bolt material

for Rb = 1.1

(mm )

5.2.4

Bolt material
8.8

10.9

12.9

8.8

10.9

12.9

M12

84,3

37,8

53,1

63,7

34,3

48,2

57,9

M16

157,0

70,3

98,9

119,0

63,9

88,9

108,1

M20

245,0

110,0

154,0

185,0

100,0

140,0

168,1

M22

303,0

136,0

191,0

229,0

123,6

173,6

208,1

M24

353,0

158,0

222,0

267,0

143,9

201,8

242,7

M27

459,0

206,0

289,0

347,0

187,2

262,7

315,4

M30

561,0

251,0

353,0

424,0

228,1

320,9

385,4

M36

817,0

366,0

515,0

618,0

332,7

468,1

561,8

Limit design forces in pins

The pin of a pin connection shall be designed taking into account bending, shearing and bearing. Therefore
the following simplified system may be assumed:
For pins the following limit design loads shall be taken into account:
Limit design bending moment

with

M Rd =

Wel f yp

(10)

Rp

Rp = m sp

where

Wel

is the elastic section modulus of the pin

f yp

is the yield point (nominal value) of the pin material

sp

is the specific resistance factor for pin connections bending moment sp = 1,0

Limit design shear force per shear plane for pins

22

Fv ,Rd =

1 A f yp

u 3 Rp

(11)

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Rp = m sp

with
where

u=

4
3

for solid pins

4 1+ v + v 2
u=
3 1 + v2

for hollow pins

where

Di
,
DO

Di

is the inner diameter of pin

DO

is the outer diameter of pin

is the cross-section of the pin

sp

is the specific resistance factor for pin connections shear force

sp = 1,0 for multiple shear plane connections


sp = 1,3 for single shear plane connections
Limit design bearing force

Fb, Rd =

d t fy
Rp

(12)

Rp = m sp

with
where

f yp
f
y
= Min
1,0

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Figure 4 Pin connections

fy

is the yield point (nominal value) of basic material

is the diameter of the pin

is the minimum of thickness of the basic material

sp

is the specific resistance factor for pin connections bearing force

sp = 0,7 for multiple shear plane connections


sp = 0,9 for single shear plane connections
In case of significant movement between pin and bearing the limit bearing force shall be reduced in order to
reduce wear.
5.2.5

Limit design stresses in welded connections

The limit design weld stress fw,Rd used for the design of a welded connection depends on:
the parent metal to be welded;
the type of the weld;
the type of stress;
the weld quality;
the kind of welding process.

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The limit design weld stress fw,Rd shall be calculated by:

f w, Rd =

w f yk
Rw

(13)

Rw = m sw

with
where

w is a factor given in Table 9 in dependence on the type of weld, the type of stress and the material
f yk is the minimal nominal value of the yield points of the parent and weld consumable materials in the
weld joint

sw is the specific resistance factor for welded connections


sw = 1,0
Table 9 Factor w for limit weld stress

w
Direction of
stress

Penetration

Weld with full


penetration or
backwelded
Stress across the
weld direction

Weld without
full penetration
Weld
with/without full
penetration

Stress in weld
direction

5.3

Weld
with/without full
penetration

fyk < 690

690 fyk < 960

fyk 960

(N/mm)

(N/mm)

(N/mm)

Tension

1,0

1,0

0,93

Compression

1,0

1,0

0,93

Tension

0,7

0,7

0,65

Compression

0,8

0,8

0,74

Shear

1/2

1/3

0,54

Tension/
Compression

1,0

1,0

0,93

Shear

1/3

1/3

0,54

Type of stress

Execution of the proof

5.3.1

Proof for structural members

For the structural member to be designed it shall be proven that:

Sd f Rd and Sd f Rd

(14)

where

Sd , Sd
f Rd

are the design stresses


is the corresponding limit design stress according to 5.2.2.

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In case of plane states of stresses it shall additionally be proven that:


2

Sd , x Sd , y Sd , x Sd , y Sd

f Rd , x + f Rd , y f Rd , x f Rd , y + f Rd

(15)

where
x, y

indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses

Spatial states of stresses may be reduced to the most unfavourable plane state of stress.
5.3.2

Proof for bolt connections

For the most unfavourably loaded element of a connection it shall be proven that:

FSd FRd

(16)

where

FSd

is the design force of the element

FRd

is the limit design force according to 5.2.3, in dependence on the type of the connection
and its type of stress, i. e.
limit design shear force Fv,Rd
limit design bearing force Fb,Rd
limit design slip force Fs,Rd
limit design tensile force Ft,Rd

In particular for connections loaded in tension (see 5.2.3.3) the tensile force in the bolt Fb shall always satisfy:

Fb
5.3.3

f yb AS

(17)

Proof for pin connections

For pins, it shall be proven that:

M Sd M Rd
Fv , Sd Fv , Rd

(18)

Fbi ,Sd Fb ,Rd


where

26

M Sd

is the design value of the bending moment in the pin

M Rd

is the limit design bending moment according to 5.2.4

Fv , Sd

is the design value of the shear force in the pin

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Fv , Rd

is the limit design shear force according to 5.2.4

Fbi ,Sd

is the decisive design value of the bearing force in the joining plate i of the pin connection

Fb, Rd

is the limit design bearing force according to 5.2.4

5.3.4

Proof for welded connections

For the weld to be designed it shall be proven that:

w,sd and w, Sd f w, Rd

(19)

where

w,Sd , w, Sd
f w, Rd

are the design weld stresses (see annex D)


is the corresponding limit design weld stress according to 5.2.5

In case of plane states of stresses in welded connections it shall additionally be proven that:

w, Sd , x

f w, Rd , x

w,Sd , y
+
f w, Rd , y

w, Sd , x w,Sd , y w, Sd

+

f w, Rd , x f w, Rd , y f w, Rd

1,1

(20)

where
x,y

indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses.

Spatial states of stresses may be reduced to the most unfavourable plane state of stress.

6
6.1

Proof of fatigue strength


General

The proof of fatigue strength prevents failure or formation of critical cracks of structural members or
connections under cyclic loading.
In general, the proof shall be executed by applying the load combinations A according to Table 10 of
EN 13001-2, setting all partial safety factors p = 1, and the resistances (i. e. limit design stresses) according
to 6.2.
The stresses are calculated as nominal stress concept. A nominal stress is a stress in the parent material
adjacent to a potential crack location, calculated in accordance with simple elastic strength of materials theory,
excluding local stress concentration effects. Annex A and annex E contain the influences of constructional
details and thus include the effects of:
local stress concentrations due to the shape of the joint and the weld geometry;
size and shape of acceptable discontinuities;
the stress direction;

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residual stresses;
metallurgical conditions;
in some cases, the welding process and post-weld improvement procedures.
The effect of additional geometric stress concentration (global stress concentration) shall be estimated with
appropriate methods. This standard does not use other methods like Hot Spot Stress Method. The
bibliography gives information on literature about Hot Spot Stress Method.
For the execution of the proof of fatigue strength the stress history parameters (see 4.3.4 of EN 13001-1) is
needed. Values for this parameter can be determined by simulation, testing or using classes S (see 6.3). Thus
the service conditions and their effect on the stressing of the structure are taken into account.
Mean-stress influence, as presented in EN 13001-1, in structures in as-welded condition (without stress
relieving) is negligible. Therefore the stress history parameter s is independent of the mean-stress and the
fatigue strength is based on the stress range only.
In non-welded details or stress relieved welded details, the effective stress range to be used in the fatigue
assessment may be determined by adding the tensile portion of the stress range and 60 % of the compressive
portion of the stress range or by special investigation (see 6.4).
Uncertainties in assuming the fatigue strength and possible consequences of a damage shall be taken into
consideration by a fatigue strength specific resistance factor Mf according to Table 10.
Table 10 Fatigue strength specific resistance factor Mf
Mf
Inspection and access

Fail-safe
components

Periodic inspection and maintenance

Non fail-safe components


without hazards with hazards for
for persons
persons

1,0

1,15

1,25

1,15

1,25

1,35

Accessible joint detail


Periodic inspection and maintenance
Poor accessibility

Fail-safe structural components are those with reduced consequences of failure, such that the local
failure of one component does not result in failure of the structure or falling of loads.
Non fail-safe structural components are those where local failure of one component leads rapidly to
failure of the structure or falling of loads.

6.2
6.2.1

Limit design stresses


Characteristic values of the stress range

The limit design stress of a constructional detail stressed by fatigue is characterised by the characteristic
value of the stress range c (notch condition). c represents the fatigue strength under 2 10

constant

stress range cycles and a probability of survival of Ps = 97,7 % (mean value minus double standard deviation),
see Figure 5.

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The several values c are arranged in a sequence of notch classes (NC) with the constant ratio of 1,125
between the classes (see annex C, first column).
For shear stressing the above is also applicable and c is used instead of c .
The characteristic values of the stress range c resp. c and the related inverse slopes m of the /Ncurve are given in annex A (normative) and annex E (informative) as follows:
Table A.1:

Basic material of structural members;

Table A.2:

Bolted members, connecting devices;

Table A.3:

Welded members;

Table E.1:

Values of inverse slope of the /N-curve m and permissible stress range c for
connections and joints of hollow section girders;

Table E.2:

Values of inverse slope of the /N-curve m and permissible stress range c for lattice type
connections of hollow section girders.

The given values apply for the defined basic conditions. For deviating conditions an appropriate notch class
(NC) shall be selected one or more notch classes above (+ 1 NC, + 2NC, ...) or below (- 1 NC, - 2 NC, ...) the
basic reference class. The effects of several deviating conditions shall be summed up.

Principle figure above

Simplification (see
EN 13001-1)

Key
1
2

Constant stress range fatigue limit


Cut-off limit

Figure 5 Illustration of s/N-curve and ?s c

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6.2.2

Weld quality

c -values in annex A and annex E depend on the quality level of the weld. Quality classes B, C, D shall be
according to EN 25817. In annex E class C is assumed. Usage of lower quality levels than D is not allowed.
For the purpose of this standard an additional quality level B* can be used. The requirements in addition to
those of level B given hereafter define quality level B*.
Additional requirements for quality level B*:
For the purpose of this standard 100 % NDT (non destructive testing) means inspection of the whole length of
the weld with an appropriate method to ensure that the specified quality requirements are met.
For butt welds:
full penetration without initial points;
both surfaces machined or flush ground down to plate surface; grinding in stress direction;
the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;
eccentricity of the joining plates less than 5 % of thickness of greater plate;
sum of lengths of concavities of weld less than 5 % of the total length of the weld;
100 % NDT.
For parallel and lap joints:
transition angle of the weld to the plate surface shall not exceed 25;
the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;
100 % NDT.
All other joints:
full penetration;
transition angle of the weld to the web surface shall not exceed 25;
the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;
100 % NDT;
eccentricity less than 10 % of thickness of greater plate.
If TIG dressing is used as a post treatment of the potential crack initialisation zone of a welded joint in order to
increase the fatigue strength, welds of quality class C for design purposes may be upgraded to quality class B
for any joint configuration.
6.2.3

Effect of test loads

The characteristic value of stress range c respective c of a welded detail that was subjected to a test
load (see EN 13001-2, 4.1.4.3) is higher than the value of that detail not subjected to a test load.

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c values of annex A and annex E are related to details as test loaded. Therefore application of these
values requires test loads as given in EN 13001-2.
6.2.4

Requirements for fatigue testing

Details not given in annex A and annex E or consideration of mean stress influence require special
investigation into c and m by tests.
Requirements for such tests are:
test specimen in real size (1:1);
test specimen produced under workshop conditions;
at least 7 tests per stress range level.
Requirements for determination of m and c are:

c shall be determined from numbers of cycles based on mean value minus double standard deviation
in a log/log presentation;

at least one stress range level that results in a number of stress cycles to failure of less than 2104 cycles;
at least one stress range level that results in a number of stress cycles to failure between 1,5106 and
2,5106 cycles.
A simplified method for the determination of m and c may be used:
m shall be set to m = 3;
only stress range levels that result in a number of stress cycles to failure of less than 1105 cycles shall be
used.

6.3

Classes S of stress history parameter s

6.3.1

Simplified method based on service conditions

Determination of the class S (see EN 13001-1) decisively depends on:


the class U of working cycles;
the class Q of the load spectrum;
the factor 2 respective hoisting class HC.
The structure or parts of the structure can be related to a class S according to Table 11 and Table 12
dependent on the classes U, Q and a parameter Gt/( 2 Q), under consideration of an average influence of
the class Dlin and/or class Dang and class P,
where

Gt

is the mass of the moving crane parts during a representative working cycle, such as:

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for a bridge crane: Gt is the mass of the trolley and load lifting attachments;

for slewing cranes:

when considering load supporting slewing parts: Gt is the mass of the jib
transformed to the load suspension point;

when considering non slewing parts: Gt is the mass of the entire slewing parts,
transformed to the load suspension point;

is the mass of the maximum hoist load influencing the part under consideration; (i. e. if
the hoist load is of no influence, Q is set to 0);

is the dynamic factor (see EN 13001-2).

The derivation of Table 11 and Table 12 is based on the damage theory of Corten-Dolan and on the
assumption that the average horizontal displacement of the load centre is about 2/3 of the span or 2/3 of the
maximum working radius.

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Table 11 Class S for trolley frames and main girders between two supports, as well as for
structures of wall and slewing cranes with constant working radius of the load centre
Class of load
spectrum

Gt
2 Q

Class of total number of working cycles


U0

U1

U2

U3

U4

U5

U6

U7

U8

U9

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

0
0,25

Q0

0,5
1

S0
S0

S0

S0

S1

0
0,25

Q1

0,5
1

S0
S0

S0

0
0,25

Q2

0,5
1

S0

S0

0
0,25

Q3

0,5
1

S0

0
0,25

Q4

0,5
1

S0

0
0,25

Q5

S1

0,5
1
2

S9
S0
S8

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Table 12 Class S for stringers, supports and parts of main girders project over the supports, as well
as for structures of wall and slewing cranes with variable working radius of the load centre
Class of load
spectrum

Gt
2 Q

Class of total number of working cycles


U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9

S0

0,25

Q0

0,5
1

S0
S0

S0

S2

S3

S4

S5

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S0
S0

S0

S1

S0

0,25

Q2

0,5
1

S0

S0

S4

S3

S1

S0

S3

S1

Q1

S2

S2

0,25
0,5

S1

S1

S0

S0

S0

S1

0
0,25

Q3

0,5
1

S0
S0

S0

0
0,25

Q4

0,5
1

S0

S0

0
0,25

Q5

0,5
1
2

34

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6.3.2

Selection based on experience

The members of crane structures may be related to classes S due to experience. If a single class S is used for
the whole structure the most severe class shall be used. Guidance is given in annex B.

6.4

Execution of the proof

For the detail under consideration it shall be proven that:

Sd Rd

(21)

Sd = max min

(22)

where

Sd

is the calculated maximum range of design stresses

max, min

are the extreme values of design stresses resulting from load combinations A according
to Table 10 of EN 13001-2, by applying P = 1 (compression stresses with negative
sign). For design weld stress see annex D. For thermally stress relieved or non-welded
structural members the compressive portion of the stress range may be reduced to 60
%.

Rd

is the permissible stress range

Shear stresses are treated similarly.


For each stress component

x , y and the proof shall be executed separately.

where
x,y

indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses.

In case of non welded details, if the normal and shear stresses induced by the same loading event vary
simultaneously, or if the plane of the maximum principal stress does not change significantly in the course of a
loading event, the maximum principal stress range shall be used.
In case of non welded details with independently varying ranges of normal and shear stresses it shall be
proven that:

Sd , x

m

c, x

mx

s x ( mx )

Sd , y
+
c , y

my

s y( m y )


+ Sd
c

s ( m )

1.0
Mf

(23)

where

Sd , Sd

are the calculated maximum ranges of design stresses

c , c

are the characteristic values of stress range

s(m)

is the stress history parameter

inverse slope of /N-curve (the maximum value of mx, my, m shall be taken as radical

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index)
x, y

indicate the orthogonal direction of normal stresses

indicate the respective shear stress

6.5

Determination of the permissible stress range

6.5.1

Applicable methods

The permissible stress ranges Rd for the detail under consideration shall be determined either by direct
use of stress history parameter s(m) or simplified by use of class S.
6.5.2

Direct use of stress history parameter

The permissible stress range shall be calculated by:

Rd =

(24)

Mf m s(m )

where

Rd

is the permissible stress range

c , m

are the characteristic values of stress range and the respective inverse slope of the log
/log N-curve (see annex A and annex E)

Mf

is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10)

s (m)

is the stress history parameter (calculated according to the formula of 4.3.4 of EN 130011:1997)
*

NOTE
When s(m) is obtained on the basis of m = 3, the permissible stress range may be calculated using k as
shown in formula (26).

6.5.3

Use of class S

6.5.3.1

Slope m

When the detail under consideration is related to a class S according to 6.3, the simplified determination of the
permissible stress range is dependent on the (negative inverse) slope m of the log /log N-curve.
6.5.3.2

Slope m = 3

In dependence on the S-classes the values of the classified stress history parameter s (m = 3) are as follows:
Table 13 s (m = 3) of classes S

36

Class

SO

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9

s(m=3)

0.008

0.016

0.032

0.063

0.125

0.25

0.5

1.0

2.0

4.0

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The permissible stress range shall be calculated by:

Rd =

Mf s(m = 3)
3

(25)

where

For

Rd

is the permissible stress range;

is the characteristic value of stress range of details with m = 3 (see annex A and annex E);

s(m=3)

is the classified stress history parameter (see Table 13);

Mf

is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10).

Mf = 1,25 Annex C gives the values of Rd in dependence on the class S and c .

6.5.3.3

Slope m 3

If the negative inverse slope m of the log /log N-curve is not equal to 3, the permissible stress range is
dependent on the class S and the stress spectrum factor k(m) (see 4.3.4 of EN 13001-1).
The permissible stress range Rd shall be calculated by:

Rd = Rd ,1 k *
Rd ,1 =

k*=m

Mf m s ( m=3)

k ( m = 3)
k ( m)

(26)

(27)

(28)

where

Rd

is the permissible stress range

Rd ,1

is the permissible stress range for k* = 1

k*

is the specific spectrum ratio factor

c , m

are the characteristic values of stress range and the respective inverse slope of the log
/log N-curve (see annex A and annex E)

s (m = 3)

is the classified stress history parameter (see Table 13)

Mf

is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10)

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For

k ( m = 3)

is the stress spectrum factor based on m = 3

k (m)

is the stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration

k(m=3) and k(m)

shall be based on the same stress spectrum that is derived either from calculation or
simulation

Mf = 1,25 and m = 5. Annex C gives the values of Rd in dependence on the class S and c .

6.5.3.4

Simplified method for slope m 3

As k* = 1 covers the most unfavourable stress spectra, Rd ,1 may be used as permissible stress range. The
value of k* may be calculated for k(m=3) and k(m) from the stress spectrum estimated by experience.

Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints

The proof of design strength of hollow section girder joints guards against failure due to:
plasticising of the boom member flange;
plasticising or instability of the boom member web;
shearing of the boom member cross-section;
punching-through of the boom member flange;
tearing-off of the web member with effective cross-section;
local bulging.
The proof shall be executed according to the rules of Eurocode 3, ENV 1993-1-1:1993, annex K.

Proof of elastic stability

The proof of elastic stability prevents structural members from the loss of stability by lateral deformation
(e. g. buckling, bulging).
NOTE
This clause is still under consideration and will be given in a later revision. It is intended to follow the principles
of DIN 18800 and applicable literature.

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Annex A
(normative)
Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and
permissible stress range c, c

Table A.1 Basic material of structural members


c
c

No.

Constructional detail

Requirements

(N/mm )

m=5
1
Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under normal stresses

250

fy 275

280

275 < fy 355

315

355 < fy

Rolled surfaces and


edges,

Surface condition
according to
EN 10163-A3/C3,

No thermal cutting,

No notches or
geometrical notch
effects (e. g.
cutouts)

Flame cut edges,


quality according to
EN ISO 9013-IA

No geometrical
notch effects (e. g.
cutouts)

m=5

Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under normal stresses


200

fy 275

225

275 < fy

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Table A.1 (concluded)


c
No.

Constructional detail

Requirements

(N/mm )

m=5

Nominal stress
calculated for the
net cross-section

Holes not flame cut,

Bolts may be
present, when these
are stressed

up to 20 % of
their strength
in shear/
bearing
connections
or

Holes in a plate under normal stresses


200

fy 275

225

275 < fy

m=5
4

Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under shear stress

40

140

fy 275

160

275 < fy 355

180

355 < fy

up to 100 %
of their
strength in
slip-resistant
connections

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Table A.2 Bolted members, connecting devices


c
c

No.

Constructional detail

Requirements

(N/mm )

Double shear

Supported single-shear
m=5

The proof of fatigue


strength is not
required for bolts of
slip resistant bolt
connections

Nominal stress
calculated for the net
cross-section

Nominal stress
calculated for the net
cross-section

Nominal stress
calculated for the net
cross-section

Uniform distribution of
stresses is assumed

Uniform distribution of
stresses is assumed

calculated for
the stress-area of the

(example)

Single-shear

Perforated parts in slip-resistant bolt connections under normal


stresses

200

fy 275

225

275 < fy

m=5
180

m=5

Perforated parts in shear/bearing connections under normal stresses


double-shear and supported single-shear
Normal stress
Perforated parts in shear/bearing connections under normal stresses
single-shear joints, not supported

125

Normal stress

m=5

Fitted bolts in double-shear or supported single-shear joints

140

Shear stress ( c )

355

Bearing stress ( c )

m=5

Fitted bolts in single-shear joints, not supported

100

Shear stress ( c )

250

Bearing stress ( c )

m=3

Threaded bolts loaded in tension

32

Machined thread

45

Rolled thread

bolt, using

Fb

(see

5.2.3.3)

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Table A.3 Welded members


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements
Basic conditions:

symmetric plate arrangement

fully penetrated weld

Manual or partially mechanized


welding

Components with usual residual


stresses

Angular misalignment < 1

m=3

t1 = t2
or

slope <1:3
Symmetric butt joint, normal stress across the weld

Special conditions:

180

Butt weld, quality level B*

160

Butt weld, quality level B

140

Butt weld, quality level C

Components with considerable


residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage)
- 1 NC
- 2 NC

- 4 NC

4 NC
Basic conditions:

m=3

symmetric plate arrangement

fully penetrated weld

Manual or partially mechanised


welding

Components with usual residual


stresses

Angular misalignment < 1

Special conditions:

Symmetric butt joint, normal stress across the weld


90

42

Butt weld on remaining backing, quality level C

Components with considerable


residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage)
-1 NC

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements
Basic conditions:
fully penetrated weld

Supported parallel to butt weld:


e < 2t2 + 10mm

Supported vertical to butt weld:


e < 12t2

Manually or partially mechanized


welding

Components with usual residual


stresses

t 2 t1 4 mm

Special conditions:

Components with considerable


residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage)
-1 NC

Influence of slope and thickness

slope 1:3

m=3
3

Unsymmetrical supported butt joint, normal stress


across the butt weld

t 2 t1 :
thickness

140

Butt weld, quality level B*

125

Butt weld, quality level B

slope 4
1:3

1:2 -1NC
1:1 -1NC

112

Butt weld, quality level C

>1:1 - 2NC

t 2 t1

10
-1NC
-1NC
-2NC

50
-1NC
-2NC
-2NC

-2NC

-3NC -3NC

> 50
-2NC
-2NC
-3NC

Basic conditions:

m=3
4

fully penetrated weld


Supported parallel to butt weld:
e < 2 t2 + 10mm

Supported vertical to butt weld:


e < 12t2

Manually or partially mechanised


welding

Components with usual residual


stresses

t 2 t1 10 mm

Special conditions:
Unsymmetrical supported butt joint, normal stress
across the butt weld

90

Butt weld on remaining backing, quality level C

Components with considerable


residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage)
-1 NC

t 2 t1 > 10 mm

-1 NC

43

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements
Basic conditions:

fully penetrated weld

Manually or partially mechanised


welding
Components with usual residual
stresses

m=3

t1/t2 > 0,84


Special conditions:

slope 1:1
Slope in
weld or
parent
material

Components with considerable


residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage)
-1NC

Unsymmetrical unsupported butt joint, stress across


the butt weld

-2 NC

112

Butt weld, quality level B*

t1/t2 > 0,74

-1 NC

100

Butt weld, quality level B

90

Butt weld quality level C

t1/t2 > 0,63


t1/t2 > 0,50

-2 NC
-3 NC

Basic conditions:
m=3

Manually or partially mechanised


welding

Components with usual residual


stresses

Butt joint with crossing welds, stress across the butt


weld

44

125

Butt weld, quality level B*

100

Butt weld, quality level B

90

Butt weld, quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements

Basic conditions:

m=3

Normal stress in weld direction


180

Full penetration, continuous weld, quality level B

160

Full penetration, continuous weld, quality level C

140

Partial penetration, continuous welds, quality level C

90

Intermittent weld, quality level C

Manual or partially mechanised


welding

Special conditions:

Automatic welding,
no initial points
Welding with restraint
of shrinkage

+ 1 NC
- 1 NC

Basic conditions:

m=3

8
Cross or T-Joint, groove weld, normal stress across
the weld
*

125

K-weld, quality level B

112

K-weld, quality level B

100

K-weld, quality level C

80

Semi V-weld on remaining backing quality level B

71

Semi V-weld on remaining backing quality level C

Continous weld
Manual or partially mechanised
welding

Special conditions:
Automatic welding,
no initial points

Welding with
restraint of shrinkage

+ 1 NC
- 1 NC

Basic conditions:
Continous weld

m=3

Manual or partially mechanized


welding
weld thickness a > 0,8 t

9
Special conditions:

Cross or T-Joint, symmetric double fillet weld, normal


stress across the weld
71

Quality level B

63

Quality level C

Automatic welding,
no initial points
Welding with restraint
of shrinkage

+ 1 NC
- 1 NC

45

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

m=3
10

T-Joint, normal stresses in the plate from bending


90

Quality level B

80

Quality level C

m=3
11

Full penetration weld (double sided) with transverse


compressive load (e. g. wheel)
160

Quality level B

140

Quality level C

m=3
12

Full penetration weld (with backing) with


transverse compressive load (e. g. wheel)

46

125

Quality level B

112

Quality level C

Requirements

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

13

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements

m=3

Single fillet weld with transverse compressive


load (e. g. wheel)
63

14

Quality level C

m=3

Single fillet weld with transverse load (e. g.


underslung crab)
63

Quality level C

Basic conditions:
Quality level C

m=3

Continuous weld
distance c between the weld toe
and rim of continuous component
greater than 10 mm

15
Special conditions:

Continuous component with a welded cover plate


90

l 50 mm

80

50 mm < l 100 mm

71

l > 100 mm

Quality level B
Quality level B

+2 NC
+1 NC

Quality level D
c < 10 mm

- 1 NC
- 1 NC

47

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

m=3

Requirements

Basic conditions:

16

Continuous fillet or groove weld

Continuous component with load carrying flange


plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
125

17

Flange plate with end chamfer 1:3; edge weld and end
of flank weld in weld quality level B*

Basic conditions:
Continuous fillet or groove weld
t0 1,5 tu

m=3

Continuous component with load carrying flange


plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
100

Edge weld and end of flank weld in weld quality level B*

m=3

Basic conditions:
Continuous fillet or groove weld

18
Continuous component with load carrying flange
plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection

48

80

Quality level B

71

Quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements

Basic conditions:

m=3

19

Stressed area to be calculated by:

As = t l r

l r = min (bm ,b L + l )

Overlapped welded joint, main plate


*

80

Quality level B

71

Quality level B

63

Quality level C

Basic conditions:
20

m=3

Stressed area to be calculated by:

As = bL (t L1 + t L 2 )

Overlapped welded joint, lap plates


50

Basic conditions:
R 50 mm; 60

m=3

Groove weld or allround fillet weld


Special conditions:
R 100 mm; 45
+1 NC

21
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted
parts, Parts rounded or chamfered
100

Quality level B*

90

Quality level B

80

Quality level C

End welds in a zone of


at least 5 t fully penetrated +2 NC

49

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements

Basis conditions:

m=3
22

Allround fillet weld


Quality level B, C

Special conditions:

Continuous component with parts ending


perpendicularly
80

Single fillet weld


Weld quality level B*

-1 NC
+1 NC

Weld quality level D

-1 NC

l 50 mm

71

50 mm < l 100 mm

63

l > 100 mm

Basic conditions:
R 50 mm or 60
m=3
23
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted
parts, welded to edge
100

Quality level B, weld ends in weld quality level B*

90

Quality level B

80

Quality level C

71

Quality level D

t2 t1

Butt weld or all-round fillet weld

Special conditions:
R 100 mm or 45
R < 50mm or > 60

+1 NC
-2 NC

End welds in a zone of at least 5 t2


fully penetrated
+1 NC

Basic conditions
c 10 mm

m=3
24

Continuous component with overlapping parts

50

80

b 50 mm

71

50 mm < b 100 mm

63

b > 100 mm

Quality level C

Special conditions:
*
Quality level B

+2 NC

Quality level B
Quality level D

+1 NC
-1 NC

c < 10 mm

-1 NC

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements

Basic conditions:

m=3

25

Manual or partially mechanised


welding
Plate thickness t 12 mm
c 10 mm
Quality level D not allowed for K
weld

Special conditions:
Continuous component to which parts are welded
transversally
125

Double fillet weld, quality level B*

112

Double fillet weld, quality level B

100

Double fillet weld, quality level C

90

Single fillet weld, quality level B, C

80

Semi V-weld on remaining backing, quality level B, C

Plate thickness t > 12 mm


(Double fillet welds only)

c < 10 mm
K weld instead of double
fillet weld

-1 NC
-1 NC
+1 NC

Quality level D instead


of C

-1 NC

Basic conditions:

m=3

26

Continuous component to which stiffeners are


welded transversally

Manual or partially mechanised


welding
Plate thickness t 12 mm

c 10 mm

Special conditions:
Plate thickness t > 12 mm

125

Double fillet weld, quality level B*

112

Double fillet weld, quality level B

(double fillets only)


c< 10 mm

-1 NC
-1 NC

100

Double fillet weld, quality level C

80

Single fillet weld, quality level B, C

K weld instead of
double fillet weld

+1 NC

80

Semi V-weld on remaining backing, quality level B, C

m=3
27
Continuous component to which transverse parts or
stiffeners are welded intermittently
63

Quality level C

50

Quality level D

51

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

Requirements

For parts rounded or chamfered:


Basic conditions:
R 50 mm, 60
m=3
Special conditions:
R 100 mm, 45

28
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted
parts, parts through hole
90

Parts rounded or chamfered

56

Parts ending perpendicularly

End welds in the zone


of at least 5 t fully
penetrated

+1 NC

+2 NC

Basic conditions:

m=3

29

Manual or partially mechanised


welding

Quality level C
Groove weld fully penetrated

Fillet weld thickness a > 0,7 tube


thickness

Flange thickness greater than two


times tube thickness (for middle
figure)

Tubes, normal stress across the weld


90

Butt weld, cylindrical tube

63

Groove weld, cylindrical tube

56

Groove weld, rectangular tube

45

Double fillet weld, cylindrical tube

40

Double fillet weld, rectangular tube

Special conditions:
Quality B

Quality B

+1 NC
+2 NC

Basic conditions:
Quality level C

Manual or partially mechanised


welding

Components with usual residual


stresses

m=5
Special conditions:

30

Components with considerable


residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage
-1 NC

No initial points

Continuous weld under uniform shear flow

52

112

With full penetration

90

Partial penetration

+1 NC

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (concluded)


No.

c
c
2
(N/mm )

Constructional detail

m=5

Requirements

Basic conditions:

31

Load is assumed to be transferred


by longitudinal welds only

Weld in lap joint, shear with stress concentration


71

Quality level B

63

Quality level C

53

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex B
(informative)
Guidance for selection of classes S due to experience

No.

Operation method

S-class

Hand-operated cranes

S0 S2

Assembly cranes

S0 S2

Powerhouse cranes

S1 S3

Warehouse cranes

intermittent operation

S4 S5

Warehouse cranes, lifting beam cranes,


scrapyard cranes

continuous operation

S6 S8

Workshop cranes

Bridge cranes, skull cracker cranes

Ladle cranes

S6 S8

Pit cranes

S7 S9

10

Stripper cranes, charging cranes

S8 S9

11

Forging cranes

S6 S8

12

Unloaders, stocking and reclaiming bridges,


semi-portal cranes, portal cranes with trolley or
slewing crane

hook service

S4 S6

13

Unloaders, stocking and reclaiming bridges,


semi-portal cranes, portal cranes with trolley or
slewing crane

grabbing or magnet service

S6 S8

14

Travelling conveyor gantries with fixed or sliding


conveyor(s)

15

Shipbuilding cranes, slipway cranes, fitting-out


cranes

16
17

54

Type of crane

Wharf cranes, slewing cranes, floating cranes,


level-luffing slewing cranes

S3 S5
grabbing or magnet service

S6 S8

S3 S5
hook service

S3 S5

hook service

S4 S6

grabbing or magnet service

S6 S8

18

High-capacity floating cranes, high capacity


gantry cranes

19

Shipdeck cranes

hook service

S3 S5

20

Shipdeck cranes

grabbing or magnet service

S4 S6

21

Revolving tower cranes for construction service

S1 S3

S1 S3

22

Erection cranes, derricks

hook service

S1 S3

23

Rail-mounted slewing cranes

hook service

S3 S5

24

Rail-mounted slewing cranes

grabbing or magnet service

25

Locomotive cranes, licensed for in-train haulage

26

Loader cranes, mobile cranes

hook service

27

Loader cranes, mobile cranes

grabbing or magnet service

28

High capacity loader and mobile cranes

S4 S6
S4 S5
S2 S5
S4 S6
S1 S3

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex C
(normative)
Calculated values of permissible stress range Rd

Table C.1 Details with m = 3 and MF = 1,25


2

NC, c
2

(N/mm )

Rd (/mm )
S0

S1

355

1420,0

1127,1

894,5

S2

713,7

S3

568,0

S4

450,8

S5

357,8

S6

284,0

S7

225,4

S8

178,9

S9

315

1260,0

1000,1

793,8

633,3

504,0

400,0

317,5

252,0

200,0

158,8

280

1120,0

888,9

705,6

562,9

448,0

355,6

282,2

224,0

177,8

141,1

250

1000,0

793,7

630,0

502,6

400,0

317,5

252,0

200,0

158,7

126,0

225

900,0

714,3

567,0

452,4

360,0

285,7

226,8

180,0

142,9

113,4

200

800,0

635,0

504,0

402,1

320,0

254,0

201,6

160,0

127,0

100,8

180

720,0

571,5

453,6

361,9

288,0

228,6

181,4

144,0

114,3

90,7

160

640,0

508,0

403,2

321,7

256,0

203,2

161,3

128,0

101,6

80,6

140

560,0

444,5

352,8

281,5

224,0

177,8

141,1

112,0

88,9

70,6

125

500,0

396,9

315,0

251,3

200,0

158,7

126,0

100,0

79,4

63,0

112

448,0

355,6

282,2

225,2

179,2

142,2

112,9

89,6

71,1

56,4

100

400,0

317,5

252,0

201,1

160,0

127,0

100,8

80,0

63,5

50,4

90

360,0

285,7

226,8

180,9

144,0

114,3

90,7

72,0

57,1

45,4

80

320,0

254,0

201,6

160,8

128,0

101,6

80,6

64,0

50,8

40,3

71

284,0

225,4

178,9

142,7

113,6

90,2

71,6

56,8

45,1

35,8

63

252,0

200,0

158,8

126,7

100,8

80,0

63,5

50,4

40,0

31,8

56

224,0

177,8

141,1

112,6

89,6

71,1

56,4

44,8

35,6

28,2

50

200,0

158,7

126,0

100,5

80,0

63,5

50,4

40,0

31,7

25,2

45

180,0

142,9

113,4

90,5

72,0

57,1

45,4

36,0

28,6

22,7

40

160,0

127,0

100,8

80,4

64,0

50,8

40,3

32,0

25,4

20,2

36

144,0

114,3

90,7

72,4

57,6

45,7

36,3

28,8

22,9

18,1

32

128,0

101,6

80,6

64,3

51,2

40,6

32,3

25,6

20,3

16,1

28

112,0

88,9

70,6

56,3

44,8

35,6

28,2

22,4

17,8

14,1

25

100,0

79,4

63,0

50,3

40,0

31,7

25,2

20,0

15,9

12,6

22,5

90,0

71,4

56,7

45,2

36,0

28,6

22,7

18,0

14,3

11,3

20

80,0

63,5

50,4

40,2

32,0

25,4

20,2

16,0

12,7

10,1

18

72,0

57,1

45,4

36,2

28,8

22,9

18,1

14,4

11,4

9,1

16

64,0

50,8

40,3

32,2

25,6

20,3

16,1

12,8

10,2

8,1

14

56,0

44,4

35,3

28,1

22,4

17,8

14,1

11,2

8,9

7,1

12,5

50,0

39,7

31,5

25,1

20,0

15,9

12,6

10,0

7,9

6,3

11,5

46,0

36,5

29,0

23,1

18,4

14,6

11,6

9,2

7,3

5,8

10

40,0

31,7

25,2

20,1

16,0

12,7

10,1

8,0

6,3

5,0

36,0

28,6

22,7

18,1

14,4

11,4

9,1

7,2

5,7

4,5

32,0

25,4

20,2

16,1

12,8

10,2

8,1

6,4

5,1

4,0

7,1

28,4

22,5

17,9

14,3

11,4

9,0

7,2

5,7

4,5

3,6

6,3

25,2

20,0

15,9

12,7

10,1

8,0

6,4

5,0

4,0

3,2

55

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table C.2 Details with m = 5 and MF = 1,25


Rd, 1 (/mm2)

NC, c
2

(N/mm )

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9

355

745,9

649,4

565,3

493,7

430,5

374,7

326,2

284,0

247,2

215,2

315

661,9

576,2

501,6

438,1

382,0

332,5

289,5

252,0

219,4

191,0

280

588,3

512,2

445,9

389,4

339,5

295,6

257,3

224,0

195,0

169,8

250

525,3

457,3

398,1

347,7

303,1

263,9

229,7

200,0

174,1

151,6

225

472,8

411,6

358,3

312,9

272,8

237,5

206,8

180,0

156,7

136,4

200

420,2

365,8

318,5

278,1

242,5

211,1

183,8

160,0

139,3

121,3

180

378,2

329,3

286,6

250,3

218,3

190,0

165,4

144,0

125,4

109,1

160

336,2

292,7

254,8

222,5

194,0

168,9

147,0

128,0

111,4

97,0

140

294,2

256,1

222,9

194,7

169,8

147,8

128,7

112,0

97,5

84,9

125

262,7

228,7

199,1

173,8

151,6

132,0

114,9

100,0

87,1

75,8

112

235,3

204,9

178,4

155,8

135,8

118,2

102,9

89,6

78,0

67,9

100

210,1

182,9

159,2

139,1

121,3

105,6

91,9

80,0

69,6

60,6

90

189,1

164,6

143,3

125,2

109,1

95,0

82,7

72,0

62,7

54,6

80

168,1

146,3

127,4

111,3

97,0

84,4

73,5

64,0

55,7

48,5

71

149,2

129,9

113,1

98,7

86,1

74,9

65,2

56,8

49,4

43,0

63

132,4

115,2

100,3

87,6

76,4

66,5

57,9

50,4

43,9

38,2

56

117,7

102,4

89,2

77,9

67,9

59,1

51,5

44,8

39,0

34,0

50

105,1

91,5

79,6

69,5

60,6

52,8

45,9

40,0

34,8

30,3

45

94,6

82,3

71,7

62,6

54,6

47,5

41,4

36,0

31,3

27,3

40

84,0

73,2

63,7

55,6

48,5

42,2

36,8

32,0

27,9

24,3

36

75,6

65,9

57,3

50,1

43,7

38,0

33,1

28,8

25,1

21,8

32

67,2

58,5

51,0

44,5

38,8

33,8

29,4

25,6

22,3

19,4

28

58,8

51,2

44,6

38,9

34,0

29,6

25,7

22,4

19,5

17,0

25

52,5

45,7

39,8

34,8

30,3

26,4

23,0

20,0

17,4

15,2

22,5

47,3

41,2

35,8

31,3

27,3

23,8

20,7

18,0

15,7

13,6

20

42,0

36,6

31,8

27,8

24,3

21,1

18,4

16,0

13,9

12,1

18

37,8

32,9

28,7

25,0

21,8

19,0

16,5

14,4

12,5

10,9

16

33,6

29,3

25,5

22,3

19,4

16,9

14,7

12,8

11,1

9,7

14

29,4

25,6

22,3

19,5

17,0

14,8

12,9

11,2

9,8

8,5

12,5

26,3

22,9

19,9

17,4

15,2

13,2

11,5

10,0

8,7

7,6

11,5

24,2

21,0

18,3

16,0

13,9

12,1

10,6

9,2

8,0

7,0

10

21,0

18,3

15,9

13,9

12,1

10,6

9,2

8,0

7,0

6,1

18,9

16,5

14,3

12,5

10,9

9,5

8,3

7,2

6,3

5,5

16,8

14,6

12,7

11,1

9,7

8,4

7,4

6,4

5,6

4,9

7,1

14,9

13,0

11,3

9,9

8,6

7,5

6,5

5,7

4,9

4,3

6,3

13,2

11,5

10,0

8,8

7,6

6,7

5,8

5,0

4,4

3,8

56

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex D
(normative)
Design weld stress W,Sd and W,Sd
D.1 Butt joint
Normal weld design stress

W ,Sd =

F
ar l r

W , Sd =

F
a r lr

W ,Sd and shear weld design stress W , Sd are calculated by:

(D.1)

where

F is the acting normal force (see Figure D.1);


F is the acting shear force (see Figure D.1);
a r is the relevant weld thickness;
lr

is the relevant weld length.

Figure D.1 Butt weld


The relevant weld thickness a r is limited to:

a r min (t1 ,t 2 ) .
In general, the relevant weld length lr is given by:

l r = lW 2 a r

(welded non intermittently)

l r = (lWi 2 a r ) (welded intermittently)


i

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

where

lW is the weld length (see Figure D.1);


lWi are the weld lengths when welded intermittently (see Figure D.1);
a r is the relevant weld thickness.

D.2 Fillet weld and groove weld with uniform distributed load
Normal weld design stress W,Sd and shear weld design stress W,Sd are calculated by:

W ,Sd =

F
a r1 l r1 + a r 2 l r 2

W ,Sd =

F
a r1 lr1 + a r 2 lr 2

(D.2)

where

F is the acting normal force (see Figure D.2);


F is the acting shear force (see Figure D.2);
a ri are the relevant weld thicknesses (see Figure D.2);
a ri = a i

for case 1;

a ri = a i + a hi

for case 2;

l ri are the relevant weld lengths.

case 1

case 2

Figure D.2 Joint dimensions

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

The relevant weld thickness ar is limited to:

a r 0,7 min( t1 , t 2 ) .
For the relevant weld lengths see D.1.
Single sided welds may be used loaded with forces as shown in Figure D.2.
For single sided welds,

W ,Sd and W ,Sd are calculated analogous using the relevant weld parameters.

D.3 Relevant distribution length under punctiform load


For simplification the normal weld design stress w,Sd and shear weld design stress w,Sd may be calculated
using the relevant distribution length under punctiform load:

l r = 2 h tan +

(D.3)

where

lr

is the relevant distribution length ;

is the distance between weld and contact area of acting load;

is the width of contact area in weld direction. For wheels may be set to :

= 0, 2 r with max = 50 mm
where

is the radius of wheel;

2 k is the spread angle. k shall be set to 45 .

Figure D.3 Punctiform load

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex E
(informative)
Hollow Sections

Table E.1 Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and permissible stress range c for connections
and joints of hollow sections girders, m = 5
For site welding the given values of c should be multiplied by the factor 0,9.

No.

c
(N/mm2)

Dimensions
(mm)

Constructional detail
Butt joint with I- or V-weld

90

2 < t0 25

90

8 < t0 25

71

2 < t0 8

a)

with weld backing

b)

without backing weld

Requirements
The admissible
mismatch of the
sections due to a
change of the plate
thickness is t0/3, but
not more than max.
2 mm. In case of a
higher mismatch,
especially for a
transverse plate butt
of rectangle hollow
section girders of
different dimensions,
c is reduced to
80 % of the given
values.

Butt joint with I- or V-weld

80

2 < t0 25

80

8 < t0 25

63

2 < t0 8

a)

Requirements
analogous to No. 1

b)

60

with weld backing

without weld backing

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)


No.

c
(N/mm2)

Dimensions
(mm)

Constructional detail

Requirements

Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp 2 to )

a) with weld backing

63

2 < t0 25

63

8 < t0 25

56

2 < t0 8

Requirements
analogous to No. 1

b)

without weld backing

Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp 2 to )


a)

56

2 < t0 25

56

8 < t0 25

50

2 < t0 8

with weld backing

Requirements
analogous to No. 1

b)

without weld backing

Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp 2 to )

45

2 < t0 8

Requirements
analogous to No. 1

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)


No.

c
(N/mm2)

Dimensions
(mm)

Constructional detail

Requirements

Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp 2 to )

40

2 < t0 8

80

l 50

71

50 < l 100

Fillet weld thickness


a = t0

Longitudinally welded outer fin not bearing transverse


loading in y-direction (2 < t0 25)

Fillet weld thickness


a:
for
2 < t0 3:a = 2
for

56

100

3 t0 25:a = 0,7t0

l > 100

t6

Transversally welded outer fin with projection, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < to 25),
(b > b0)

Fillet weld
thickness a:
for

90

2 < t0 3:a = 2

6 < t 12

for
3 t0 25:a 0,7t0,

80

80

but not more than


a = 10

12 < t 25

t6

Transversally welded outer fin with projection, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t0 25),
(b > b0)

Fillet weld
thickness a:
for

71

6 < t 12

2 < t0 3:a = 2
for
3 t0 25:a 0,7t0,

63

62

12 < t 25

but not more than


a = 10

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)


No.

c
(N/mm2)

80

Dimensions
(mm)

t6

Constructional detail

Requirements

Transversally welded outer fin without projection, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction
(2 < t0 25), (b 0,8 d0)

Fillet weld
thickness a:
for

10

71

2 < t0 3:a = 2

6 < t 12

for
3 t0 25:a 0,7t0,

63

100

but not more than


a = 10

12 < t 25

t6

Transversally welded outer fin without projections, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t0 25),
(b 0,8 b0)

Fillet weld
thickness a:
for

11

90

2 < t0 3:a = 2

6 < t 12

for
3 t0 25:a 0,7t0,

80

but not more than


a = 10

6 < t 12

Welded-on hollow section girder, not


transverse loading in y-direction (b,d b0,d0)

12

63

2 < t0 8

bearing

Fillet weld thickness


a = t0

63

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)


No.

c
(N/mm2)
10

36
13
16

50

32

Dimensions
(mm)
t0/t = 1
(b,d)/d0 = 0,6

Constructional detail
Welded-on hollow section girder, bearing transverse
loading F in y-direction (b,d d0), (2 < t0 8)

t0/t = 1
Fillet weld thickness

(b,d)/d0 = 1
t0/t 1

a = t0

(b,d)/d0 = 0,6
t0/t 1
(b,d)/d0 = 0,6
t0/t = 1
(b,d)/b0 = 0,6

Welded-on hollow section girder, bearing transverse


loading F in y-direction (b,d b0), (2 < t0 8)

t0/t = 1
(b,d)/b0 = 1

Fillet weld thickness

14
12,5

40

Requirements

a = t0

t0/t 1
(b,d)/b0 = 0,6
t0/t 1
(b,d)/b0 = 0,6
Single butt strap at chamfered end of tube (d0/t0 < 25)

15

80

Pinched end of tube

2 < t0 8

a = 2 t0

Welded double butt strap ((b0,d0)/t0 < 25)

16

80

Hot-bended strap,
rounded slot milled at
end of tube

2 < t0 8

Fillet weld thickness


a = t0

Inserted dovetail strap ((b0,d0)/t0 < 25)

17

64

71

2 < t0 8

Fillet weld thickness


a = t0

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)


No.

c
(N/mm2)

Dimensions
(mm)

Constructional detail
End face strap (d0/t0 < 25), (tP 2.5 t0)

18

56

2 < t0 8

Requirements
Fillet weld thickness
for the hollow section
girder:
a = t0
for the strap:
a = 0,7 tL

End face strap (b0/t0 < 25), (tP 2,5 t0)

19

45

2 < t0 8

Fillet weld thickness


for the hollow section
girder:
a = t0
for the strap:
a = 0,7 tL

Inserted rectangular strap ((b0,d0)/t0 < 25)

20

45

Fillet weld thickness

2 < t0 8

a = t0

Mitre joint with I- or V-weld without weld backing,


stressed by bending (d0/t0 < 25), ( 90)
56

8 < t0 25
Requirements
analogous to No. 1

21

50

2 < t0 8

Mitre joint with I- or V- weld without weld backing,


stressed by bending (b0/t0 < 25), ( 90)
50

8 < t0 25
Requirements
analogous to No. 1

22

45

2 < t0 8

65

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)


No.

c
(N/mm2)

50

Dimensions
(mm)
Weld
thickness a:

Constructional detail

Requirements

Mitre joint with transverse plate and fillet welds,


stressed by bending (d0/t0 < 25), ( 90), (tP 2,5 t0)

2<a8
Requirements
analogous to No. 1

23

45

8 < a 14

Weld
thickness a:

Mitre joint with transverse plate and fillet welds,


stressed by bending (b0/t0 < 25), ( 90), (tP 2,5 t0)

45
2<a8
Requirements
analogous to No. 1

24

40

8 < a 14

Joint of column and transverse girder with fillet welds,


stressed by bending (b0/t0 < 25), (b0 b + 3 r)

45

Weld
thickness a:
2<a8

Fillet weld thickness a


= t0
where t0 is the
existing

25

minimum plate
thickness
40

66

8 < a 14

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 Values of inverse slope of /N-curve m and permissible stress range c for lattice type
connections of hollow section girders, m = 5
Basic symbols for all items
with gap (e 0)

with overlapping (e < 0)

Basic requirements for all items


Bending in individual members should be taken into account when calculating the nominal stress.

b0 , d 0 120 mm. For b0 , d 0 > 120 mm, the given values of c should be multiplied by the factor
f a = 4 120 /(bo , d o )

t 0 12,5 mm

Weld thickness a = min t


Incline of the diagonal members: 35 i 50

(b0, d 0 ) / t0 < 25 ; t 0, / ti 1; 0,6 (bi , d i ) /(b0, d 0 ) 1

Eccentricity

in the plane of the lattice work: 0,5 e /(h0 , d 0 ) 0,25

perpendicular to the plane of the lattice work: 0,02 (b0, d 0 )

Welding under shop conditions. For site welding the given values of c should be multiplied by the
factor 0,9.

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 (continued)


No.

c (N/mm2)
Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!

Requirements
K-gussett with direct strut joint
a) with gap:

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

d i / d 0 = 0,6

36

80

di / d0 =1

45

90

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

d i / d 0 = 0,6

50

80

di / d0 =1

56

90

g 0,3 d 0
g 2 /3di

0,3 q / p 1

b) with overlapping
K-T-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

d i / d 0 = 0,6

36

71

di / d0 =1

35

80

0,3 q / p 1

N-gusset with direct strut joint


c) with gap:

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

d i / d 0 = 0,6

18

56

di / d0 =1

25

63

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

d i / d 0 = 0,6

45

80

di / d0 =1

50

90

g 0,3 d 0
g 2 /3di

0,3 q / p 1

d) with overlapping

68

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 (continued)


No.

c (N/mm2)
Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!

Requirements
T- and X-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

d i / d 0 = 0,6

10

16

di / d0 =1

36

50

60 90

Bending of boom member should be


considered!
K-gusset with direct strut joint
e) with gap:

g 0,3 b0

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

bi / b0 = 0,6

32

63

bi / b0 = 1

36

71

g 2 / 3bi

0,3 q / p 1

f)

with overlapping

K-T-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

bi / b0 = 0,6

32

56

bi / b0 = 1

36

63

0,3 q / p 1

69

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 (concluded)


No.

c (N/mm2)
Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!

Requirements
N-gusset with direct strut joint
a) with gap:

g 0,3 b0

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

b i / b 0 = 0,6

29

50

bi / b0 = 1

36

56

g 2 / 3bi

0,3 q / p 1

b) with overlapping
T- and X-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1

t0 / ti 2

bi / b0 = 0,6

12,5

bi / b0 = 1

32

40

60 90

Bending of boom member should be


considered!

70

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex F
(informative)
Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application

Is there a product standard in the following list that suits the application?
EN 13000:2004

Cranes Mobile cranes

prEN 14439:2002

Cranes Tower cranes

prEN 14985:2004

Cranes Slewing jib cranes

WI 00147 032

Cranes Bridge and gantry cranes

EN 13852-1:2004

Cranes Offshore cranes Part 1: General purpose offshore cranes

EN 13852-2:2004

Cranes Offshore cranes Part 2: Floating cranes

prEN 14492-1:2004

Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 1: Power driven winches

prEN 14492-2:2002

Cranes Power driven winches and hoists Part 2: Power driven hoists

EN 12999:2002

Cranes Loader cranes

EN 13157:2002

Cranes Hand powered cranes

prEN 13155:1998

Cranes Non-fixed load lifting attachments

EN 14238:2004

Cranes Manually controlled load manipulating devices


YES

NO

Use it directly, plus the standards


that are referred to
Use the following:
EN 13001-1:2004

Cranes General design Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13001-2:2004

Cranes General design Part 2: Load effects

prCEN/TS 13001-3-1:2003

Cranes General design Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel
structures

prCEN/TS 13001-3-2:2003

Cranes General design Part 3.2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire
ropes

WI 00147 050

Cranes General design Part 3.3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel
/ rail contacts

EN 13135-1:2003

Cranes Equipment Part 1: Electrotechnical equipment

prEN 13135-2:2000

Cranes Equipment Part 2: Non-electrotechnical equipment

EN 13557:2003

Cranes Controls and control stations

EN 12077-2:1998

Cranes safety Requirements for health and safety Part 2: Limiting and
indicating devices

EN 13586:2003

Cranes Access

prEN 14502-1:2002

Cranes Equipment for the lifting of persons Part 1: Suspended baskets

prEN 14502-2:2002

Cranes Equipment for the lifting of persons Part 2: Moveable cabins

EN 12644-1:2001

Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Instructions

EN 12644-2:2000

Cranes Information for use and testing Part 1: Marking

71

Licenza d'uso concessa a ENEA CENTRO DI FRASCATI per labbonamento anno 2005.
Licenza d'uso interno su postazione singola. Riproduzione vietata. E' proibito qualsiasi utilizzo in rete (LAN, internet, etc...)

CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Bibliography

Selection of literature that contains information about Hot Spot Stress Method:
[1]

prEN 1993-1-9: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1-9: Fatigue strength of steel structures.

[2]

IIW International Institute of Welding. Subcommission XV-E-92-244: Recommended Fatigue Design


Procedure for Welded Hollow Section Joints, 2nd edition, June 1999.

[3]

IIW XV-E: Recommended Fatigue Design Procedure for Welded Hollow Section Joints.

Part 1: Recommendations. 1999; Document XIII-1804-99.

Part 2: Commentary, 1999, Document XV-1035-99.

[4]

I. HUTHER, H-P. LIEURADE, L. VELLUET, Contraintes admissibles dans les assemblages souds,
1A4085/1A4087, rapport CETIM, avril 2000.

[5]

IIW document XIII-WG3-06-99, Designers guide for hot spot fatigue analysis, 6. Draft, E. Niemi,
May 2000.

[6]

American Petroleum Institute - API RP 2A-WSD: Recommended practice for planning, designing and
constructing fixed offshore platforms, july 1, 1993, and supplement 1, December 1996.

[7]

Romeijn, A., Stress and strain concentration factors of welded multiplanar tubular joints, Delft
University Press, Delft, 1994, ISBN 90-407-1057-0.

Selection of literature that contains information about hollow sections:


[8]

Zhao, X-L., Herion, S. Packer, J. A., Puthli, R. S., Sedlacek, G. Wardenier, J. Weymand, K., Wingerde,
A. M., van, and Yeomans, N. F.: Design Guide for circular and rectangular hollow section welded joints
under fatigue loading, CIDECT and Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne, 2000, ISBN 3-8249-0565-5.

[9]

Wardenier, J., Dutta, D., Yeomans, N., Packer, J. A., and Bucak, O.: Design Guide for structural
hollow sections in mechanical applications, CIDECT and Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne, 1995,
ISBN 3-8249-0302-4.

[10]

Zirn, R.: Schwingfestigkeitsverhalten geschweiter Rohrknotenpunkte und Rohrlaschenverbindungen,


Techni. Wiss. Bericht MPA Stuttgart, 1975, Heft 75-01.

[11]

DIN 18800, Stahlbauten Stabilittsflle.

72

Licenza d'uso concessa a ENEA CENTRO DI FRASCATI per labbonamento anno 2005.
Licenza d'uso interno su postazione singola. Riproduzione vietata. E' proibito qualsiasi utilizzo in rete (LAN, internet, etc...)

Licenza d'uso concessa a ENEA CENTRO DI FRASCATI per labbonamento anno 2005.
Licenza d'uso interno su postazione singola. Riproduzione vietata. E' proibito qualsiasi utilizzo in rete (LAN, internet, etc...)

UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano
di Unicazione
Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B
20133 Milano, Italia

Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.