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UNI EN 15316-4-1
SETTEMBRE 2008
Impianti di riscaldamento degli edifici
Metodo per il calcolo dei requisiti energetici e dei
rendimenti dellimpianto
Parte 4-1: Sistemi di generazione per il riscaldamento degli
ambienti, sistemi a combustione (caldaie)
Heating systems in buildings
Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system
efficiencies
Part 4-1: Space heating generation systems, combustion systems (boilers)
La norma parte di una serie di norme sul metodo di calcolo dei
requisiti energetici e dei rendimenti degli impianti di riscaldamento
e di produzione di acqua calda sanitaria.
La norma definisce i dati di ingresso richiesti, il metodo di calcolo e
i dati in uscita per i sistemi di generazione del calore a combu-
stione (caldaie) inclusi i relativi sistemi di controllo.
La norma si applica anche ai casi di generazione combinata di
riscaldamento e acqua calda sanitaria. Il caso di sola produzione di
acqua calda sanitaria trattato nella UNI EN 15316-3-3.
TESTO INGLESE
La presente norma la versione ufficiale in lingua inglese della
norma europea EN 15316-4-1 (edizione maggio 2008).
ICS 91.140.10
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UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti
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Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a verificare lesistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle
norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.
PREMESSA NAZIONALE
La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, del-
la norma europea EN 15316-4-1 (edizione maggio 2008), che assu-
me cos lo status di norma nazionale italiana.
La presente norma stata elaborata sotto la competenza dellente
federato allUNI
CTI - Comitato Termotecnico Italiano
La presente norma stata ratificata dal Presidente dellUNI ed
entrata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 25 settembre 2008.
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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM
EN 15316-4-1
May 2008
ICS 91.140.10
English Version
Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system
energy requirements and system efficiencies - Part 4-1: Space
heating generation systems, combustion systems (boilers)
Systmes de chauffage dans les btiments - Mthode de
calcul des besoins nergtiques et des rendements des
systmes - Partie 4-1 : Systmes de gnration de
chauffage des locaux, systmes de combustion
(chaudires)
Heizanlagen in Gebuden - Berechnung und Bewertung
der Energieeffizienz von Systemen - Teil 4-1:
Wrmeerzeugung fr die Raumheizung,
Verbrennungssysteme
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 11 April 2008.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMI T EUROPEN DE NORMALI SATI ON
EUROPI SCHES KOMI TEE FR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels
2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Ref. No. EN 15316-4-1:2008: E
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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Contents Page
Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................5
Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................7
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................8
2 Normative references............................................................................................................................8
3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................9
3.1 Definitions ..............................................................................................................................................9
3.2 Symbols and units...............................................................................................................................12
4 Principle of the method.......................................................................................................................14
4.1 Heat balance of the generation sub-system, including control of heat generation .....................14
4.1.1 Physical factors taken into account ..................................................................................................14
4.1.2 Calculation structure (input and output data) ..................................................................................14
4.2 Generation sub-system basic energy balance .................................................................................16
4.3 Auxiliary energy...................................................................................................................................17
4.4 Recoverable, recovered and unrecoverable system thermal losses .............................................17
4.5 Calculation steps .................................................................................................................................18
4.6 Multiple boilers or generation sub-systems .....................................................................................18
4.7 Using net or gross calorific values....................................................................................................19
4.8 Boundaries between distribution and generation sub-system.......................................................20
5 Generation sub-system calculation...................................................................................................22
5.1 Available methodologies ....................................................................................................................22
5.2 Seasonal boiler performance method based on system typology (typology method) ................22
5.2.1 Principle of the method.......................................................................................................................22
5.2.2 Calculation procedure.........................................................................................................................23
5.3 Case specific boiler efficiency method .............................................................................................24
5.3.1 Principle of the method.......................................................................................................................24
5.3.2 Input data to the method.....................................................................................................................24
5.3.3 Load of each boiler..............................................................................................................................25
5.3.4 Generators with double service (space heating and domestic hot water production) ................27
5.3.5 Generator thermal losses ...................................................................................................................28
5.3.6 Total auxiliary energy..........................................................................................................................30
5.3.7 Recoverable generation system thermal losses ..............................................................................31
5.3.8 Fuel input..............................................................................................................................................32
5.3.9 Operating temperature of the generator ...........................................................................................32
5.4 Boiler cycling method .........................................................................................................................33
5.4.1 Principle of the method.......................................................................................................................33
5.4.2 Load factor ...........................................................................................................................................36
5.4.3 Specific thermal losses.......................................................................................................................36
5.4.4 Total thermal losses............................................................................................................................39
5.4.5 Auxiliary energy...................................................................................................................................40
5.4.6 Calculation procedure for single stage generators .........................................................................41
5.4.7 Multistage and modulating generators .............................................................................................41
5.4.8 Condensing boilers .............................................................................................................................44
5.4.9 Systems with multiple generators .....................................................................................................48
Annex A (informative) Sample seasonal boiler performance method based on system
typology (typology method) ..............................................................................................................50
A.1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................50
A.2 Limitations in use of this method ......................................................................................................50
A.3 Boiler typologies definition ................................................................................................................50
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A.4 Procedure............................................................................................................................................. 51
A.5 Declaring values of seasonal efficiency........................................................................................... 55
Annex B (informative) Additional formulas and default values for parametering the case
specific boiler efficiency method ...................................................................................................... 56
B.1 Information on the method................................................................................................................. 56
B.1.1 Basic assumptions and intended use............................................................................................... 56
B.1.2 Known approximations....................................................................................................................... 56
B.2 Polynomial interpolation formulas.................................................................................................... 56
B.3 Generator efficiencies and stand-by losses..................................................................................... 57
B.3.1 Default values for generator efficiency at full load and intermediate load as a function of
the generator power output ............................................................................................................... 57
B.3.2 Stand-by heat losses .......................................................................................................................... 59
B.3.3 Correction factor taking into account variation of efficiency depending on generator
average water temperature................................................................................................................. 60
B.4 Auxiliary energy .................................................................................................................................. 61
B.5 Recoverable generation thermal losses ........................................................................................... 62
B.5.1 Auxiliary energy .................................................................................................................................. 62
B.5.2 Generator envelope............................................................................................................................. 62
B.5.3 Default data according to boiler location ......................................................................................... 63
Annex C (informative) Default values for parametering the boiler cycling method................................ 64
C.1 Information on the method................................................................................................................. 64
C.1.1 Basic assumptions and intended use............................................................................................... 64
C.1.2 Known approximations....................................................................................................................... 64
C.2 Default specific losses........................................................................................................................ 64
C.2.1 Default data for calculation of thermal losses through the chimney with burner on .................. 64
C.2.2 Default values for calculation of thermal losses through the generator envelope...................... 65
C.2.3 Default values for calculation of thermal losses through the chimney with the burner off........ 66
C.3 Default values for calculation of auxiliary energy ........................................................................... 67
C.4 Additional default data for multistage and modulating burners .................................................... 68
C.5 Additional default data for condensing boilers ............................................................................... 69
Annex D (informative) General part default values and information........................................................ 71
D.1 Control factor....................................................................................................................................... 71
D.2 Intermediate load................................................................................................................................. 71
Annex E (informative) Calculation example for seasonal boiler performance method based on
system typology.................................................................................................................................. 72
E.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 72
E.2 Input data ............................................................................................................................................. 72
E.3 Calculation procedure ........................................................................................................................ 73
E.4 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)...................................................................... 74
Annex F (informative) Calculation examples for case specific boiler efficiency method ...................... 75
F.1 Condensing boiler example, data declared by the manufacturer .................................................. 75
F.1.1 Input data ............................................................................................................................................. 75
F.1.2 Calculation procedure ........................................................................................................................ 76
F.1.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)...................................................................... 77
F.1.4 Conversion of net values to gross values........................................................................................ 77
F.2 Standard boiler example, default data .............................................................................................. 78
F.2.1 Input data ............................................................................................................................................. 78
F.2.2 Calculation procedure ........................................................................................................................ 79
F.2.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)...................................................................... 81
Annex G (informative) Calculation examples for boiler cycling method .................................................. 82
G.1 Modulating condensing boiler ........................................................................................................... 82
G.1.1 Input data ............................................................................................................................................. 82
G.1.2 Calculation procedure ........................................................................................................................ 84
G.1.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)...................................................................... 88
G.2 Standard, on-off atmospheric boiler ................................................................................................. 88
G.2.1 Input data ............................................................................................................................................. 88
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G.2.2 Calculation procedure.........................................................................................................................90
G.2.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316) ......................................................................91
Annex H (informative) Boiler water temperature calculation.....................................................................92
H.1 Boiler flow temperature and return temperature..............................................................................92
H.2 Boiler flow rate is the same as the distribution flow rate (no by-pass) .........................................93
H.3 Boiler flow rate is not the same as the distribution flow rate (by-pass connection or
recirculation pump) .............................................................................................................................94
H.4 Parallel connection of boilers.............................................................................................................96
H.5 Boiler average water temperature......................................................................................................97
H.6 Example of water temperature calculation .......................................................................................98
Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................99
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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Foreword
This document (EN 15316-4-1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 228 Heating
systems in buildings, the secretariat of which is held by DS.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be
withdrawn at the latest by November 2008.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the
European Free Trade Association (Mandate M/343), and supports essential requirements of EU Directive
2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD). It forms part of a series of standards aimed at
European harmonisation of the methodology for calculation of the energy performance of buildings. An
overview of the whole set of standards is given in CEN/TR 15615, Explanation of the general relationship
between various CEN standards and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) ("Umbrella
document").'
The subjects covered by CEN/TC 228 are the following:
- design of heating systems (water based, electrical, etc.);
- installation of heating systems;
- commissioning of heating systems;
- instructions for operation, maintenance and use of heating systems;
- methods for calculation of the design heat loss and heat loads;
- methods for calculation of the energy performance of heating systems.
Heating systems also include the effect of attached systems such as hot water production systems.
All these standards are systems standards, i.e. they are based on requirements addressed to the system as
a whole and not dealing with requirements to the products within the system.
Where possible, reference is made to other European or International Standards, a.o. product standards.
However, use of products complying with relevant product standards is no guarantee of compliance with the
system requirements.
The requirements are mainly expressed as functional requirements, i.e. requirements dealing with the
function of the system and not specifying shape, material, dimensions or the like.
The guidelines describe ways to meet the requirements, but other ways to fulfil the functional requirements
might be used if fulfilment can be proved.
Heating systems differ among the member countries due to climate, traditions and national regulations. In
some cases requirements are given as classes so national or individual needs may be accommodated.
In cases where the standards contradict with national regulations, the latter should be followed.
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EN 15316, Heating systems in buildings Method for calculation of system energy requirements and
system efficiencies consists of the following parts:
Part 1: General
Part 2-1: Space heating emission systems
Part 2-3: Space heating distribution systems
Part 3-1: Domestic hot water systems, characterisation of needs (tapping requirements)
Part 3-2: Domestic hot water systems, distribution
Part 3-3: Domestic hot water systems, generation
Part 4-1: Space heating generation systems, combustion systems (boilers)
Part 4-2: Space heating generation systems, heat pump systems
Part 4-3: Heat generation systems, thermal solar systems
Part 4-4: Heat generation systems, building-integrated cogeneration systems
Part 4-5: Space heating generation systems, the performance and quality of district heating and large
volume systems
Part 4-6: Heat generation systems, photovoltaic systems
Part 4-7: Space heating generation systems, biomass combustion systems
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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Introduction
This European Standard presents methods for calculation of the additional energy requirements of a heat
generation system in order to meet the distribution and/or storage sub-system demand. The calculation is
based on the performance characteristics of the products given in product standards and on other
characteristics required to evaluate the performance of the products as included in the system.
This method can be used for the following applications:
judging compliance with regulations expressed in terms of energy targets;
optimisation of the energy performance of a planned heat generation system, by applying the method to
several possible options;
assessing the effect of possible energy conservation measures on an existing heat generation system,
by calculating the energy use with and without the energy conservation measure.
The user shall refer to other European Standards or to national documents for input data and detailed
calculation procedures not provided by this European Standard.
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1 Scope
This European Standard is part of a series of standards on the method for calculation of system energy
requirements and system efficiencies of space heating systems and domestic hot water systems.
The scope of this specific part is to standardise the:
required inputs;
calculation method;
resulting outputs;
for space heating generation by combustion sub-systems (boilers), including control.
This European Standard is the general standard on generation by combustion sub-systems (boilers). If a
combustion generation sub-system is within the scope of another specific part of the EN 15316 series (i.e.
part 4.x), the latter shall be used.
EXAMPLE Biomass combustion generation sub-systems are within the scope of prEN 15316-4-7.
This European Standard is also intended for the case of generation for both domestic hot water production
and space heating. The case of generation only for domestic hot water production is treated in EN 15316-3-
3.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 297, Gas-fired central heating boilers - Type B
11
and B
11Bs
boilers fitted with atmospheric burners of
nominal heat input not exceeding 70 kW
EN 303-5, Heating boilers Part 5: Heating boilers for solid fuels, hand and automatically stocked, nominal
heat output of up to 300 kW - Terminology, requirements, testing and marking
EN 304, Heating boilers Test code for heating boilers for atomizing oil burners
EN 656, Gas-fired central heating boilers Type B boilers of nominal heat input exceeding 70 kW but not
exceeding 300 kW
EN 15034:2006, Heating boilers - Condensing heating boilers for fuel oil
EN 15035, Heating boilers - Special requirements for oil fired room sealed units up to 70 kW
EN 15316-2-1, Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and
system efficiencies Part 2.1: Space heating emission systems
EN 15316-2-3:2007, Heating systems in building - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and
system efficiencies Part 2.3: Space heating distribution systems
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EN 15316-3-2, Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and
system efficiencies Part 3.2: Domestic hot water systems, distribution
EN 15456, Heating boilers Electrical power consumption for heat generators System boundaries
Measurements
EN 15603, Energy performance of buildings Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings
EN ISO 7345:1995, Thermal insulation - Physical quantities and definitions (ISO 7345:1987)
EN ISO 13790, Thermal performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for space heating (ISO
13790:2004)
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345:1995 and the following
apply.
3.1.1
space heating
process of heat supply for thermal comfort
3.1.2
domestic hot water heating
process of heat supply to raise the temperature of the cold water to the intended delivery temperature
3.1.3
heated space
room or enclosure which for the purposes of the calculation is assumed to be heated to a given set-point
temperature or set-point temperatures
3.1.4
system thermal loss
thermal loss from a technical building system for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, humidification,
dehumidification, ventilation or lighting or other appliances that does not contribute to the useful output of the
system
NOTE Thermal energy recovered directly in the sub-system is not considered as a system thermal loss but as heat
recovery and is directly treated in the related system standard.
3.1.5
auxiliary energy
electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and/or domestic hot
water to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs
NOTE 1 This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics, etc.
NOTE 2 In EN ISO 9488 [4], the energy used for pumps and valves is called "parasitic energy".
3.1.6
heat recovery
heat generated by a technical building system or linked to a building use (e.g. domestic hot water) which is
utilised directly in the related system to lower the heat input and which would otherwise be wasted (e.g.
preheating of the combustion air by flue gas heat exchanger)
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3.1.7
total system thermal loss
total of the technical system thermal loss, including recoverable system thermal losses
3.1.8
recoverable system thermal loss
part of the system thermal loss which can be recovered to lower either the energy need for heating or cooling
or the energy use of the heating or cooling system
3.1.9
recovered system thermal loss
part of the recoverable system thermal loss which has been recovered to lower either the energy need for
heating or cooling or the required energy use of the heating or cooling system
3.1.10
gross calorific value
quantity of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel, when it is burned completely with oxygen at a constant
pressure equal to 101 320 Pa, and when the products of combustion are returned to ambient temperature
NOTE 1 This quantity includes the latent heat of condensation of any water vapour contained in the fuel and of the
water vapour formed by the combustion of any hydrogen contained in the fuel.
NOTE 2 According to ISO 13602-2 [5], the gross calorific value is preferred to the net calorific value.
NOTE 3 The net calorific value does not take into account the latent heat of condensation.
3.1.11
net calorific value
gross calorific value minus latent heat of condensation of the water vapour in the products of combustion at
ambient temperature
3.1.12
calculation step
discrete time interval for the calculation of the energy needs and uses
NOTE Typical discrete time intervals are one hour, one month or one heating and/or cooling season, operating
modes, and bins.
3.1.13
calculation period
period of time over which the calculation is performed
NOTE The calculation period can be divided into a number of calculation steps.
3.1.14
external temperature
temperature of external air
NOTE 1 For transmission heat transfer calculations, the radiant temperature of the external environment is
supposedly equal to the external air temperature; long-wave transmission to the sky is calculated separately.
NOTE 2 The measurement of external air temperature is defined in EN ISO 15927-1, Hygrothermal performance of
buildings - Calculation and presentation of climatic data Part 1: Monthly means of single meteorological elements.
3.1.15
heat transfer coefficient
factor of proportionality of heat flow governed by a temperature difference between two environments
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3.1.16
boiler
gas, liquid or solid fuelled appliance designed to provide hot water for space heating. It may (but need not)
be designed to provide domestic hot water heating as well
3.1.17
combustion power
product of the fuel flow rate and the net calorific power of the fuel
3.1.18
low temperature boiler
non-condensing boiler designed as a low temperature boiler and tested as a low temperature boiler as
prescribed by the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1]
3.1.19
condensing boiler
boiler designed to make use of the latent heat released by condensation of water vapour in the combustion
flue products. The boiler must allow the condensate to leave the heat exchanger in liquid form by way of a
condensate drain
NOTE Boilers not so designed, or without the means to remove the condensate in liquid form, are called non-
condensing.
3.1.20
oil condensing boiler
boiler designed to make use of the latent heat released by condensation of water vapour in the combustion
flue products of a liquid fuel
[EN 15034:2006]
3.1.21
modes of operation
various modes in which the heating system can operate
EXAMPLES Set-point mode, cut-off mode, reduced mode, set-back mode, boost mode.
3.1.22
on/off boiler
boiler without the capability to vary the fuel burning rate whilst maintaining continuous burner firing. This
includes boilers with alternative burning rates set once only at the time of installation, referred to as range
rating
3.1.23
multistage boiler
boiler with the capability to vary the fuel burning rate stepwise whilst maintaining continuous burner firing
3.1.24
modulating boiler
boiler with the capability to vary continuously (from a set minimum to a set maximum) the fuel burning rate
whilst maintaining continuous burner firing
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3.2 Symbols and units
For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and units (Table 1) and indices (Table 2) apply.
Table 1 Symbols and units
Symbol Name of quantity Unit
b temperature reduction factor -
c coefficient various
c specific heat capacity J/kgK or
Wh/kgK
a)
d thickness mm
E
energy in general (except quantity of heat,
mechanical work and auxiliary (electrical)
energy)
J or
Wh
a)
e expenditure factor -
f factor -
H calorific value
J/mass unit or
Wh/mass unit
b)
H heat transfer coefficient W/K
k factor -
m mass kg
n exponent -
N number of items Integer
P power in general including electrical power W
Q quantity of heat
J or
Wh
a)
t time, period of time
s or
h
a)
V volume L
V' volume flow
m/s or
m/h
a)
W auxiliary (electrical) energy, mechanical work
J or
Wh
a)
x relative humidity %
X volume fraction %
loss factor %
load factor -
prefix for difference
efficiency factor %
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Table 1 Symbols and units
Symbol Name of quantity Unit
Celsius temperature C
density kg/m
heat flow rate, thermal power W
a)
If seconds (s) is used as the unit of time, the unit for energy shall be J.
If hours (h) is used as the unit of time, the unit for energy shall be Wh.
b)
Mass unit for fuel may be Stm, Nm or kg.
Table 2 Indices
add additional gnr generator plt pilot
air air grs gross pmp after the combustion
chamber
aux auxiliary H heating Pn at nominal load
avg average i, j, k indices Px at x load
br before generator in input to sub-system r return
brm boiler room ins insulation rbl recoverable
ch chimney lat latent ref reference
ci calculation step ls losses rvd recovered
cmb combustion m mean s gross (calorific value)
cond condensing max maximum sat saturation
corr corrected / correction mass massic sby in stand-by operation
ctr control min minimum st stoichiometric
dis distribution n nominal sto storage
dry dry gases net net test test conditions
em emission O2 oxygen th thermal
emr emitter off off W heating system water
f flow (temperature) on on w water
fg flue gas out output from sub-
system
wfg water to flue gas
ge generator envelope P0 at zero load z indices
gen generation sub-
system
Pint at intermediate load
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Table 2 Indices
The indices specifying symbols for sub-system energy balance quantities are in the following
order:
the first index represents the use (H = space heating, W = domestic hot water, etc.);
the second index represents the sub-system (gen = generation, dis = distribution, etc.);
the third index represents the balance item (ls = losses, in = input, aux = auxiliary, etc.).
Other indices may follow for more details (rvd = recovered, rbl = recoverable, etc.).
4 Principle of the method
4.1 Heat balance of the generation sub-system, including control of heat generation
4.1.1 Physical factors taken into account
The calculation method of the generation sub-system takes into account heat losses and/or recovery due to
the following physical factors:
heat losses to the chimney (or flue gas exhaust) during total time of generator operation (running and
stand-by);
heat losses through the generator(s) envelope during total time of generator operation (running and
stand-by);
auxiliary energy.
The relevance of these effects on the energy requirements depends on:
type of heat generator(s);
location of heat generator(s);
part load ratio;
operating conditions (temperature, control, etc.);
control strategy (on/off, multistage, modulating, cascading, etc.).
4.1.2 Calculation structure (input and output data)
The calculation method of this standard shall be based on the following input data from other parts of the EN
15316-X-X series of standards:
heat demand of the distribution sub-system(s) for space heating Q
H,dis,in
, calculated according to
EN15316-2-3;
heat demand of the distribution sub-system(s) for domestic hot water Q
W,dis,in
, calculated according to
EN 15316-3-2, where appropriate.
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The performance of the generation sub-system may be characterised by additional input data to take into
account:
type and characteristics of the generation sub-system;
generator settings;
type of the generation control system;
location of the generator;
operating conditions;
heat requirement.
Based on these data, the following output data are calculated by this standard:
fuel heat requirement, E
H,gen,in
;
total generation thermal losses (flue gas and generator envelope), Q
H,gen,ls
;
recoverable generation thermal losses, Q
H,gen,ls,rbl
;
generation auxiliary energy, W
H,gen,aux
.
Figure 1 shows the calculation inputs and outputs of the generation sub-system.
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Key
SUB Generation sub-system balance boundary
HF Heating fluid balance boundary (see equation (1))
QH,gen,out Generation sub-system heat output (input to distribution sub-system(s))
EH,gen,in Generation sub-system fuel input (energyware)
WH,gen,aux Generation sub-system total auxiliary energy
QH,gen,aux,rvd Generation sub-system recovered auxiliary energy
QH,gen,ls Generation sub-system total thermal losses
QH,gen,ls,rbl Generation sub-system thermal loss recoverable for space heating
QH,gen,ls,th,rbl Generation sub-system thermal loss (thermal part) recoverable for space heating
QH,gen,aux,rbl Generation sub-system recoverable auxiliary energy
QH,gen,ls,th,nrbl Generation sub-system thermal loss (thermal part) non recoverable
QH,gen,aux,nrbl Generation sub-system non recoverable auxiliary energy
NOTE Figures shown are sample percentages.
Figure 1 Generation sub-system inputs, outputs and energy balance
4.2 Generation sub-system basic energy balance
The basic energy balance of the generation sub-system is given by
ls gen, H, rvd aux, gen, H, out gen, H, in gen, H,
Q Q Q E + = (1)
where
E
H,gen,in
heat requirement of the generation sub-system (fuel input);
Q
H,gen,out
heat supplied to the distribution sub-systems (space heating and domestic hot water);
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Q
H,gen,aux,rvd
auxiliary energy recovered by the generation sub-system (i.e. pumps, burner fan, etc.);
Q
H,gen,ls
total losses of the generation sub-system (through the chimney, generator envelope, etc.).
NOTE QH,gen,ls takes into account flue gas and generator envelope losses, part of which may be recoverable
according to location. See 4.4, 5.3.5 and 5.4.4.
If there is only one generation sub-system
_ _
+ =
j
j in, dis, W,
i
i in, dis, H, ctrl out gen, H,
Q Q f Q (2)
where
f
ctrl
factor taking into account emission control losses. Default value of f
ctrl
is given in Table D.1.
Other values may be specified in a national annex, provided that emission control losses
has not been already taken into account in the emission part (EN 15316-2-1) or in the
distribution part (EN 15316-2-3).
If there are multiple generation sub-systems or multiple boilers, see 4.6, 5.3.3 and 5.4.9.
If the generator provides heat for heating and domestic hot water, the index H shall be replaced by HW. In
the following only H is used for simplicity.
4.3 Auxiliary energy
Auxiliary energy is the energy, other than fuel, required for operation of the burner, the primary pump and
any equipment whose operation is related to operation of the heat generation sub-system. Auxiliary energy is
counted in the generation part as long as no transport energy from the auxiliary equipment is transferred to
the distribution sub-system (example: zeropressure distribution array). Such auxiliary equipment can be
(but need not be) an integral part of the generator.
Auxiliary energy, normally in the form of electrical energy, may be partially recovered as heat for space
heating or for the generation sub-system.
Examples of recoverable auxiliary energy:
electrical energy transmitted as heat to the water of the primary circuit;
part of the electrical energy for the burner fan.
Example of non-recoverable auxiliary energy:
electrical energy for electric panel auxiliary circuits, if the generator is installed outside the heated
space.
4.4 Recoverable, recovered and unrecoverable system thermal losses
Not all of the calculated system thermal losses are necessarily lost. Some of the losses are recoverable and
part of the recoverable system thermal losses are actually recovered.
Example of recoverable system thermal losses are:
thermal losses through the envelope of a generator installed within the heated space.
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Examples of non-recoverable system thermal losses are:
thermal losses through the envelope of a generator installed outside the heated space;
thermal losses through the chimney installed outside the heated space.
Recovery of system thermal losses to the heated space can be accounted for:
either as a reduction of total system thermal losses within the specific part (simplified method);
or, by taking into account recoverable system thermal losses as gains (holistic method) or as a reduction
of the energy use according to EN 15603.
This European Standard allows both approaches.
Generation system thermal losses recovered by the generation sub-system are directly taken into account in
the generation performance.
EXAMPLE Combustion air preheating by flue gas losses.
4.5 Calculation steps
The objective of the calculation is to determine the energy input of the heating generation sub-system for the
entire calculation period (usually one year). This may be done in one of the following two different ways:
by using average (usually yearly) data for the entire calculation period;
by dividing the calculation period into a number of calculation steps (e.g. months, weeks, bins, operation
modes as defined in EN ISO 13790) and perform the calculations for each step using step-dependent
values and adding up the results for all the steps over the calculation period.
NOTE Generation efficiency is strongly dependent on the load factor and this relationship is not linear. To achieve
precision, the calculation steps should not be longer than 1 month.
4.6 Multiple boilers or generation sub-systems
The primary scope of this European Standard is to calculate losses, fuel requirement and auxiliary energy
requirements for an individual boiler.
If there are multiple generation sub-systems, the general part allows for a modular approach to take into
account cases where:
a heating system is split up in zones with several distribution sub-systems;
several heat generation sub-systems are available.
EXAMPLE 1 A separate circuit may be used for domestic hot water production.
EXAMPLE 2 A boiler may be used as a back-up for a solar and/or cogeneration sub-system(s).
In these cases, the total heat requirement of the connected distribution sub-systems
i
Q
X,dis,in,i
shall equal the
total heat output of the generation sub-systems
i
Q
X,gen,out,j
:
_ _
=
i
i in, dis, X,
j
j out, gen, X,
Q Q (3)
NOTE X is used as an index in equation (3) to mean space heating, domestic hot water heating or other building
services requiring heat from a generation sub-system.
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If there are several generation sub-systems, the total heat demand of the distribution sub-system(s) shall be
distributed among the available generation sub-systems. The calculation described in 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 and/or
other relevant parts of EN 15316-4 shall be performed independently for each heat generation device j, on
the basis of Q
H,gen,out,j
.
Criteria for distribution of the total heat demand among the available generation sub-systems may be based
on physical, efficiency or economic considerations.
EXAMPLE 3 Solar or heat pump sub-system maximum heat output.
EXAMPLE 4 Heat pumps or cogeneration optimum (either economic or energetic) performance range.
Appropriate criteria for specific types of generation sub-systems can be found in the relevant parts of the EN
15316-4-X series of standards.
Procedures to split the load among multiple combustion generators (boilers) are given for basic cases in
5.3.3 and 5.4.9.
EXAMPLE 5 Given QH,dis,in, the maximum output of a solar generation system QH,sol,out should be calculated first,
and subsequently the heat output that can be provided by a cogeneration system is added Qchp,gen,out.
The rest (QH,gen,out,boil = QH,dis,in - QH,sol,out - Qchp,gen,out, see Figure 2) is attributed to boilers and may
be further split among multiple boilers according to 5.3.3 and 5.4.9.
Figure 2 Example of load splitting among generation sub-systems
4.7 Using net or gross calorific values
Calculations described in 5 may be performed according to net or gross calorific values. All parameters and
data shall be consistent with this option.
If the calculation of the generation sub-system is performed according to data based on fuel net calorific
values H
i
, total losses Q
H,gen.ls,net
, non recoverable thermal losses Q
H,gen,ls,th,nrbl,net
and generation sub-system
energyware E
H,gen,in,net
(i.e. fuel input for combustion systems) based on net calorific values may be
converted to values Q
H,gen,ls,grs
, Q
H,gen,ls,th,nrbl,grs
and E
H,gen,in,grs
based on gross calorific values H
s
by addition of
the latent heat of condensation Q
lat
according to the following:
i
i s
net in, gen, H, lat
H
H H
E Q

= (4)
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lat net in, gen, H, grs in, gen, H,
Q E E + = (5)
lat net ls, gen, H, grs ls, gen, H,
Q Q Q + = (6)
lat net nrbl, th, ls, gen, H, grs nrbl, th, ls, gen, H,
Q Q Q + = (7)
4.8 Boundaries between distribution and generation sub-system
Boundaries between generation sub-system and distribution sub-system should be defined according to the
following principles.
If the generation sub-system includes the generator only (i.e. there is no pump within the generator), the
boundary with the distribution sub-system is represented by the hydraulic connection of the boiler, as shown
in Figure 3.
Key
gen generation sub-system
dis distribution sub-system
em emission sub-system
Figure 3 Sample sub-systems boundaries
A pump physically within the boiler is however considered part of the distribution sub-system if it contributes
to the flow of heating medium to the emitters. An example is shown in Figure 4.
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Key
gen generation sub-system
dis distribution sub-system
em emission sub-system
Figure 4 Sample sub-systems boundaries
Only pumps dedicated to generator requirements may be considered within the generation sub-system. An
example is shown in Figure 5.
Key
gen generation sub-system
dis distribution sub-system
em emission sub-system
Figure 5 Sample sub-systems boundaries
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5 Generation sub-system calculation
5.1 Available methodologies
In this standard, three performance calculation methods for the heat generation sub-system are described
corresponding to different use (simplified or detailed estimation, on site measurements, etc.). The calculation
methods differ with respect to:
required input data;
operating conditions taken into account;
calculation steps applied.
For the first method (see 5.2), the considered calculation step is the heating season. The performance
calculation is based on the data related to the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1]. The
operation conditions taken into account (climate, distribution sub-system connected to the generator, etc.)
are approximated by typology of the considered region and are not case specific. If this method is to be
applied, an appropriate national annex with the relevant values shall be available.
The second method (see 5.3) is also based on the data related to the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about
Boiler Efficiency [1], but supplementary data are needed in order to take into account the specific operation
conditions of the individual installation. The considered calculation step can be the heating season but may
also be a shorter period (month, week and/or the operation modes according to EN ISO 13790). The method
is not limited and can be used with the default values given in informative Annex B.
The third method (see 5.4) distinguishes in a more explicit way the losses of a generator which occurs during
boiler cycling (i.e. combustion losses). Some of the parameters can be measured on site. This method is well
adapted for existing buildings and to take into account condensation heat recovery according to operating
conditions.
The calculation method to be applied is chosen as a function of the available data and the objectives of the
calculation.
Further details on each method are given in the respective parametering informative Annexes (A, B and C).
5.2 Seasonal boiler performance method based on system typology (typology method)
5.2.1 Principle of the method
This method assumes that
climatic conditions,
operation modes,
typical occupancy patterns of the relevant building sector,
have been considered and are incorporated in a procedure to convert standard test results of boiler
efficiency (as used for the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1]) into a seasonal efficiency
for the relevant building sector.
The stages within the seasonal efficiency calculation procedure are:
a) adapt test results for uniformity, taking account of boiler type, fuel and specific conditions for testing
imposed by the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1] and the relevant standards;
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b) adjust for annual performance in installed conditions, taking account of regional climate, operation
modes and occupancy patterns typical of the relevant building sector;
c) perform the calculations and determine fuel heat requirement, total generation thermal loss (as an
absolute value), recoverable generation thermal loss, auxiliary energy, recoverable auxiliary energy.
The procedure allows for national characteristics of the relevant building sector.
5.2.2 Calculation procedure
5.2.2.1 Selection of appropriate seasonal efficiency procedure
A seasonal efficiency calculation procedure is selected from the appropriate national annex on the basis of
the following information:
region (climate) in which the building is situated;
building sector (housing, commercial, industrial, etc).
The procedure shall include limitation in use, relevant boundary conditions and reference to validation data.
The procedure shall be defined in a national annex. If there is no appropriate national annex, this method
cannot be used.
Annex A (informative) is an example of a seasonal efficiency calculation procedure, known as SEDB_UK,
and it represents conditions in the housing sector of the UK.
5.2.2.2 Input information required for the seasonal efficiency procedure
Input information for the procedure shall comprise:
heat demand of the distribution sub-system(s) for space heating Q
H,dis,in
calculated according to
EN15316-2-3;
heat demand of the distribution sub-system(s) for domestic hot water Q
W,dis,in
calculated according to
EN 15316-3-2, where appropriate.
Input information for the procedure may comprise:
full-load and 30 % part-load efficiency test results produced in accordance with standard tests as
required for the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1];
boiler type (condensing or not, combination or not, hot water store included or not, etc);
fuel used (natural gas, LPG, oil, etc);
boiler power output (maximum and minimum if a range);
ignition method (permanent pilot flame or not);
burner type (modulating, multistage or on/off);
internal store included in efficiency tests (yes/no);
store characteristics (volume, insulation thickness).
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5.2.2.3 Output information obtained from the seasonal efficiency procedure
Output information from the procedure shall comprise:
E
H,gen,in
fuel heat requirement;
W
H,gen,aux
auxiliary energy;
Q
H,gen,ls,rbl
recoverable system thermal losses for space heating.
5.3 Case specific boiler efficiency method
5.3.1 Principle of the method
This method is related to the Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1] and is based on the
following principle:
a) data are collected for three basic load factors or power outputs:

gnr,Pn
efficiency at 100 % load;

gnr,Pint
efficiency at intermediate load;

gnr,ls,P0
losses at 0 % load;
b) efficiency and losses data are corrected according to boiler operating conditions (temperature);
c) losses power at 100 % load
gnr,ls,Pn
and at intermediate load
gnr,ls,Pint
are calculated according to
corrected efficiencies;
d) calculation of losses power corresponding to the actual power output is made by linear or polynomial
interpolation between losses powers for the three basic power outputs;
NOTE For the case specific boiler efficiency method, all powers and the load factor gnr are referred to generation
sub-system output.
e) auxiliary energy is calculated taking into account the actual power output of the boiler;
f) recoverable generator envelope thermal losses are calculated according to a tabulated fraction of stand-
by heat losses and boiler location;
g) recoverable auxiliary energy is added to recoverable generator envelope thermal losses to provide total
recoverable thermal losses.
5.3.2 Input data to the method
5.3.2.1 Boiler data
The boiler is characterised by the following values:

Pn
generator output at full load;

gnr,Pn
generator efficiency at full load;

gnr,w,test,Pn
generator average water temperature at test conditions for full load;
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f
corr,Pn
correction factor of full-load efficiency;

Pint
generator output at intermediate load;

gnr,Pint
generator efficiency at intermediate load;

gnr,w,test,Pint
generator average water temperature at test conditions for intermediate load;
f
corr,Pint
correction factor of intermediate load efficiency;

gnr,ls,P0
stand-by heat loss at test temperature difference
gnr,test,P0
;

gnr,test,P0
difference between mean boiler temperature and test room temperature at test conditions;
P
aux,gnr,Pn
power consumption of auxiliary devices at full load;
P
aux,gnr,Pint
power consumption of auxiliary devices at intermediate load;
P
aux,gnr,P0
stand-by power consumption of auxiliary devices;

gnr,w,min
minimum operating boiler temperature.
Data to characterise the boiler shall be taken from one of the following sources, listed in priority order:
a) product data from the manufacturer, if the boiler has been tested according to EN 297, EN 303-5, EN
304, EN 656, EN 15034, EN 15035 and/or EN 15456 (auxiliary power data);
b) default data from the relevant national annex;
c) default data from Annexes B or D.
It shall be recorded whether or not the efficiency values include auxiliary energy recovery.
5.3.2.2 Actual operating conditions
Actual operating conditions are characterised by the following values:
Q
H,gen,out
heat output to the heat distribution sub-system(s);

gnr,w,m
average water temperature in the boiler;

gnr,w,r
return water temperature to the boiler (for condensing boilers);

i,brm
boiler room temperature;
b
brm
temperature reduction factor depending on the location of the generator.
5.3.3 Load of each boiler
5.3.3.1 Generation sub-system average power
Generation sub-system average power
H,gen,out
is given by:
gen
out gen, H,
out gen, H,
t
Q
= (8)
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where
t
gen
total time of generator(s) operation.
5.3.3.2 Single boiler generation sub-system
If there is only one generator installed, the load factor
gnr
is given by:
Pn
out gen, H,
gnr

= (9)
where

Pn
nominal power output of the generator.
5.3.3.3 Multiple boilers generation sub-system
5.3.3.3.1 General
If there are several boilers installed, distribution of the load among boilers depends on control. Two types of
control are distinguished:
without priority;
with priority.
5.3.3.3.2 Multiple generators without priority
All generators are running at the same time and therefore the load factor
gnr
is the same for all boilers
and is given by:
_
=
i
i Pn,
out gen, H,
gnr

(10)
where

Pn,i
nominal power output of generator i at full load.
5.3.3.3.3 Multiple generators with priority
The generators of higher priority are running first. A given generator in the priority list is running only if
the generators of higher priority are running at full load (
gnr,i
= 1).
If all boilers have the same power output
Pn
, the number of running generators N
gnr,on
is given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Pn
out gen, H,
on gnr,
int

N (11)
Otherwise running boilers have to be determined so that 0 <
gnr,j
< 1 (see equation (10))
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The load factor
gnr,j
for the intermittent running generator is calculated by:
j Pn,
N
1 i
i Pn, out gen, H,
j gnr,
on gnr,


_
=

= (12)
where

Pn,i
nominal power output of generator i running at full load;

Pn,j
nominal power output of intermittent running generator.
5.3.4 Generators with double service (space heating and domestic hot water production)
During the heating season, the heat generator can produce energy for the space heating installation and the
domestic hot water (double service).
Calculation of the thermal losses for a generator running for domestic hot water service only, is specified in
the domestic hot water part of this standard, EN 15316-3-3 [3].
The domestic hot water generation also influences the heating part of a double service generator in respect
of:
running temperature of the generator;
running time;
load.
The running temperature of the generator may be modified if domestic hot water production is required. The
dynamic effects of this temperature modification (heating up, cooling down) are neglected in this part of the
standard.
The needs for domestic hot water production may extend the heating up period, if the generator is already
running at nominal power. The impacts on the time periods (heating up, normal mode, etc.) defined in EN
ISO 13790 are neglected.
The domestic hot water production increases the load of the double service generator. This effect is taken
into account by increasing the generation sub-system load during the considered period by:
in dis, W, in dis, H, ctrl out gen, HW,
Q Q f Q + = (13)
and using Q
HW,gen,out
instead of Q
H,gen,out
in equation (8).
NOTE Equation (13) is the same as equation (2).
In general, the considered calculation period is the same for domestic hot water production and for space
heating.
However, if the domestic hot water is produced only during specific operation modes (e.g. only during normal
mode or if a priority control is fitted), the calculation may be performed independently for the two operation
modes:
once taking into account t
gnr,H
(operation time for space heating) and
Px,H
(calculated with Q
H,dis,in
and
t
gnr,H
) and operating conditions for space heating service;
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once taking into account t
gnr,W
(operation time for domestic hot water production) and
Px,W
(calculated
with Q
W,dis,in
and t
gnr,W
) and operating conditions for domestic hot water production.
Losses, auxiliary energy and fuel input for the two operation modes are summed up at the end of the
calculation.
5.3.5 Generator thermal losses
5.3.5.1 Generator thermal loss calculation at full load
The efficiency at full load
gnr,Pn
is measured at a reference generator average water temperature
gnr,w,test,Pn
.
This efficiency has to be adjusted to the actual generator average water temperature of the individual
installation.
The temperature corrected efficiency at full load
gnr,Pn,corr
is calculated by:
) (
m w, gnr, Pn test, w, gnr, Pn corr, Pn gnr, corr Pn, gnr,
f + = (14)
where

gnr,Pn
generator efficiency at full load. If the performance of the generator has been tested
according to relevant EN standards (see 5.3.2.1), it can be taken into account. If no values
are available, default values shall be found in the relevant national annex or in B.3.1;
f
corr,Pn
correction factor taking into account variation of the full load efficiency as a function of the
generator average water temperature. The value should be given in a national annex. In the
absence of national values, default values are given in B.3.3. If the performance of the
generator has been tested according to relevant EN standards (see 5.3.2.1), it can be taken
into account;

grn,w,test,Pn
generator average water temperature at test conditions for full load (see B.3.3);

gnr,w,m
generator average water temperature as a function of the specific operating conditions (see
5.3.9).
In order to simplify the calculations, the efficiencies and heat losses determined at test conditions are
adjusted to the actual generator average water temperature. It is allowed, as it is physically correct, to adjust
the performance at each load according to the actual generator average water temperature of each load.
The corrected generator thermal loss at full load
gnr,ls,Pn,corr
is calculated by:
Pn
corr Pn, gnr,
corr Pn, gnr,
corr Pn, ls, gnr,
) (100

= (15)
where

Pn
generator output at full load.
5.3.5.2 Generator thermal loss calculation at intermediate load
The efficiency at intermediate load
gnr,Pint
is measured at a reference generator average water temperature

gnr,w,test,Pint
. This efficiency has to be adjusted to the actual generator average water temperature of the
individual installation.
The temperature corrected efficiency at intermediate load
gnr,Pint,corr
is calculated by:
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) (
m w, gnr, Pint test, w, gnr, Pint corr, Pint gnr, corr Pint, gnr,
f + = (16)
where

gnr,Pint
generator efficiency at intermediate load. If the performance of the generator has been
tested according to relevant EN standards (see 5.3.2.1), it can be taken into account. If no
values are available, default values shall be found in the relevant national annex or in B.3.1;
f
corr,Pint
correction factor taking into account variation of the efficiency as a function of the generator
average water temperature. The value should be given in a national annex. In the absence
of national values, default values are given in B.3.3. If the performance of the generator has
been tested according to relevant EN standards (see 5.3.2.1), it can be taken into account;

gnr,w,test,Pint
generator average water temperature (or return temperature to the boiler for condensing
boilers) at test conditions for intermediate load (see B.3.3);

gnr,w,m
generator average water temperature (or return temperature to the generator for
condensing boilers) as a function of the specific operating conditions (see 5.3.9).
The intermediate load depends on the generator type. Default values are given in D.2.
The corrected generator thermal loss at intermediate load
gnr,ls,Pint,corr
is calculated by:
Pint
corr Pint, gnr,
corr Pint, gnr,
corr Pint, ls, gnr,
) (100

= (17)
where

Pint
generator output at intermediate load.
5.3.5.3 Generator thermal loss calculation at 0 % load
The generator stand-by heat loss at 0 % load
gnr,ls,P0
is determined for a test temperature difference
according to relevant testing standards (i.e. EN 297, EN 483/A2, EN 303, EN 13836 and EN 15043). If the
performance of the generator has been tested according to relevant EN standards (see 5.3.2.1), it can be
taken into account. If no manufacturer or national annex data are available, default values are given in B.3.2.
The temperature corrected generator thermal loss at 0 % load
gnr,ls,P0,corr
is calculated by:
25 , 1
P0 test, gnr,
brm i, m w, gnr,
P0 ls, gnr, corr P0, ls, gnr,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=


(18)
where

gnr,ls,PO
stand-by heat loss at 0 % load at test temperature difference
gnr,test,P0;

gnr,w,m
generator average water temperature (or return temperature to the generator for
condensing boilers) as a function of the specific operating conditions (see 5.3.9);

i,brm
indoor temperature of the boiler room. Default values are given in B.5.3;

gnr,test,P0
difference between generator average water temperature and test room temperature at test
conditions. Default values are given in B.3.2.
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5.3.5.4 Boiler thermal loss at specific load ratio
gnr
and power output
Px
The specific load ratio
gnr
of each boiler is calculated according to 5.3.3 and 5.3.4.
The actual power output
Px
of the boiler is given by
gnr Pn Px
= (19)
If
Px
is between 0 (
gnr
= 0) and
Pint
(intermediate load,
gnr
=
int
=
Pint
/
Pn
), the generator thermal loss

gnr,ls,Px
is calculated by:
corr P0, ls, gnr, corr P0, ls, gnr, corr Pint, ls, gnr,
Pint
Px
Px ls, gnr,
) (

+ = (20)
If
Px
is between
Pint
and
Pn
(full load,
gnr
= 1), the generator thermal loss
gnr,ls,Px
is calculated by:
corr Pint, ls, gnr, corr Pint, ls, gnr, corr Pn, ls, gnr,
Pint Pn
Pint Px
Px ls, gnr,
) (


+

= (21)

gnr,ls,Px
may also be calculated by 2
nd
order polynomial interpolation. A formula for such interpolation is given
in B.2.
The total boiler thermal loss Q
gnr,ls
during the considered operation time t
gnr
of the boiler is calculated by:
gnr Px ls, gnr, ls gnr,
t Q = (22)
5.3.5.5 Total generation thermal losses
Total generation sub-system thermal losses are the sum of boiler thermal losses:
_
=
ls gnr, ls gen, H,
Q Q (23)
5.3.6 Total auxiliary energy
The total auxiliary energy for a boiler is given by:
( )
gnr ci off aux, gnr Px aux, aux gnr,
t t P t P W + = (24)
where
P
aux,off
auxiliary power when the generation system is inactive. If the generator is electrically
isolated when inactive, P
aux,off
= 0. Otherwise P
aux,off
= P
aux,P0
;
t
ci
is the calculation interval;
t
gnr
is the operation time of the generator within the calculation interval t
ci
.
The average auxiliary power for each boiler P
aux,Px
is calculated by linear interpolation, according to the boiler
load
gnr
(calculated according to 5.3.3), between:
P
aux,Pn
auxiliary power of the boiler at full load (
gnr
= 1),
P
aux,Pint
auxiliary power of the boiler at intermediate load (
gnr
=
int
),
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P
aux,P0
auxiliary power of the boiler at stand-by (
gnr
= 0),
measured according to EN 15456.
If no declared or measured data is available, default values are given in B.4.
NOTE The corresponding symbols in EN 15456 are: Paux,Pn = Paux,100, Paux,Pint = Paux,30 and Paux,P0 = Paux,sb.
If 0
gnr

int
then P
aux,Px
is given by:
( )
P0 aux, Pint aux,
int
gnr
P0 aux, Px aux,
P P

P P + = (25)
If
int
<
gnr
1 then P
aux,Px
is given by:
( )
Pint aux, Pn aux,
int
int gnr
Pint aux, Px aux,
1
P P


P P

+ = (26)
The generation sub-system auxiliary energy W
H,gen,aux
is given by:
_
=
aux gnr, aux gen, H,
W W (27)
5.3.7 Recoverable generation system thermal losses
5.3.7.1 Auxiliary energy
For the recoverable auxiliary energy, a distinction is made between:
recoverable auxiliary energy transmitted to the heating medium (e.g. water). It is assumed that the
auxiliary energy transmitted to the energy vector is totally recovered;
recoverable auxiliary energy transmitted to the heated space.
The recovered auxiliary energy transmitted to the heating medium Q
gnr,aux,rvd
is calculated by:
aux rvd, aux gnr, rvd aux, gnr,
f W Q = (28)
where
f
rvd,aux
part of the auxiliary energy transmitted to the distribution sub-system. The value should be
given in a national annex. In the absence of national values, a default value is given in
B.5.1. If the performance of the generator has been declared by the manufacturer, it can be
taken into account.
Recovered auxiliary energy already taken into account in efficiency data shall not be calculated for recovery
again. It has to be calculated for auxiliary energy need only.
NOTE Measured efficiency according to relevant standards usually includes the effect of heat recovered from
auxiliary energy for oil heating, combustion air fan, primary pump (i.e. heat recovered from auxiliaries is measured with
the useful output).
The recoverable auxiliary energy transmitted to the heated space Q
gnr,aux,rbl
is calculated by:
aux rbl, brm aux gnr, rbl aux, gnr,
) (1 f b W Q = (29)
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where
f
rbl,aux
part of the auxiliary energy not transmitted to the distribution sub-system. The value should
be given in a national annex. In the absence of national values, a default value is given in
B.5.1. If the performance of the generator has been certified, it can be taken into account;
b
brm
temperature reduction factor depending on location of the generator. The value of b
brm
should be given in a national annex. In the absence of national values, a default value is
given in B.5.3.
5.3.7.2 Generator thermal loss (generator envelope)
Only the thermal losses through the generator envelope are considered as recoverable and depend on the
burner type. For oil and gas fired boilers, the thermal losses through the generator envelope are expressed
as a fraction of the total stand-by heat losses.
The recoverable thermal losses through the generator envelope Q
gnr,ls,env,rbl
are calculated by:
gnr env gnr, brm corr P0, ls, gnr, rbl env, ls, gnr,
) (1 t f b Q = (30)
where
f
gnr,env
thermal losses through the generator envelope expressed as a fraction of the total stand-by
heat losses. The value of f
gnr,env
should be given in a national annex. In the absence of
national values, default values are given in B.5.2. If the performance of the generator has
been tested, it can be taken into account;
b
brm
temperature reduction factor depending on location of the generator. The value of b
brm
should be given in a national annex. In the absence of national values, a default value is
given in B.5.3;
t
gnr
boiler operation time.
5.3.7.3 Total recoverable generation system thermal losses
The total recovered auxiliary energy Q
H,gen,aux,rvd
is calculated by:
_
=
rvd aux, gnr, rvd aux, gen, H,
Q Q (31)
The total recoverable generation system thermal losses Q
H,gen,ls,rbl
are calculated by:
_ _
+ =
rbl aux, gnr, rbl env, ls, gnr, rbl ls, gen, H,
Q Q Q (32)
5.3.8 Fuel input
Fuel heat input E
H,gen,in
is calculated according to equation (1).
5.3.9 Operating temperature of the generator
The operating temperature of the generator depends on:
type of control;
technical limit of the generator (taken into account by the temperature limitation);
temperature of the distribution sub-system connected to the generator.
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The effect of control on the boiler is assumed to be a varying average temperature of the heat emitters.
Therefore three types of boiler control are taken into account:
constant water temperature;
variable water temperature depending on the inside temperature;
variable water temperature depending on the outside temperature.
The operating temperature of the generator is calculated by:
) , max(
x w, gnr, min w, gnr, ltd x, w, gnr,
= (33)
where

gnr,,w,min
minimum operating boiler temperature for each generator. If the installation is equipped with
several generators, the running temperature limitation used for calculation is the highest
value of the temperature limitations of the generators running at the same time. The values
should be given in a national annex. In the absence of national values, default values are
given in B.3.1;

gnr,w,x
relevant water temperature during the considered period. A method to calculate this
temperature is given in informative Annex H and in Clauses 7 and 8 of EN 15316-2-3:2007.
If different heat distribution sub-systems are connected to the generator, the highest
temperature among the heat distribution sub-systems or the weighted average according to
the relevant annex is used for calculation.
5.4 Boiler cycling method
5.4.1 Principle of the method
This calculation method is based on the following principles.
The operation time is divided in two parts:
burner on operation t
ON
;
burner off operation (stand-by) t
OFF
.
The total time of operation of the generator is t
gnr
= t
ON
+ t
OFF
.
Thermal losses are taken into account separately for these two periods of time.
During burner on operation, the following thermal losses are taken into account:
heat of flue gas with burner on: Q
ch,on
;
thermal losses through the generator envelope: Q
ge
.
During burner off operation, the following thermal losses are taken into account:
heat of air flow to the chimney Q
ch,off
;
thermal losses through the generator envelope Q
ge
.
Auxiliary energy is considered separately for devices before and after the combustion chamber:
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W
br
is the auxiliary energy required by components and devices that are before the combustion chamber
following the energy path (typically burner fan, see Figure 6);
NOTE Typically these components and devices are running only when the burner is on, i.e. during tON.
W
pmp
is the auxiliary energy required by components and devices that are after the combustion chamber
following the energy path (typically primary pump, see Figure 6).
NOTE Typically these components and devices are running during the entire operation period of the heat generator,
i.e. during tgnr = tON + tOFF.
k
pmp
and k
br
express the fractions of the auxiliary energy for these appliances recovered to the heating
medium (typically the efficiency of the primary pumps and the burner fan). Therefore:
Q
br
= k
br
W
br
is the auxiliary energy recovered from appliances before the heat generator;
Q
pmp
= k
pmp
W
pmp
is the auxiliary energy recovered from appliances after the heat generator.
Auxiliary energy transformed into heat and emitted to the heated space may be considered separately and is
added to the recoverable thermal losses.
The basic energy balance of the generation sub-system is:
ge off ch, on ch, pmp br cmb out gen, H,
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q + + = (34)
NOTE This is the same as equation (1) where:
ge off ch, on ch, ls gen, H,
Q Q Q Q + + = (35)
cmb in gen, H,
Q E = (36)
pmp br rvd aux, gen, H,
Q Q Q + = (37)
A schematic diagram of the energy balance of the generation sub-system is shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6: Energy balance diagram of generation sub-system for boiler cycling method
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Heat losses at test conditions are expressed as a percentage (
ch,on
,
ch,off
and
ge
) of a reference power at
test conditions.
The heat generator is characterised by the following values:

cmb
combustion power of the generator, which is the reference power for
ch,on
(either design or
actual value);

ref
reference power for the heat loss factors
ch,off
and
ge
(usually
ref
=
cmb
);

ch,on
,
ch,off
,
ge
heat loss factors at test conditions;
P
br
electrical power consumption of auxiliary appliances (before the generator);
k
br
recovery factor of P
br
;
P
pmp
electrical power consumption of auxiliary appliances (after the generator);
k
pmp
recovery factor of P
pmp
;

gnr,w,m,test
average boiler water temperature at test conditions for
ch,on
;

i,brm,test
temperature of test room for
ge
and
ch,off
;

ge,test
=
gnr,w,m,test
-
i,brm,test
at test conditions for
ge
and
ch,off
;
n
ch,on
, n
ch,off
, n
ge
exponents for the correction of heat loss factors.
For multistage or modulating boilers, the following additional data is required:

cmb,min
minimum combustion power of the generator;

ch,on,min
heat loss factor
ch,on
at minimum combustion power
cmb,min
;
P
br,min
electrical power consumption of auxiliary appliances (before the generator) at minimum
combustion power
cmb,min
.
For condensing boilers, the following additional data is required:

wfg
temperature difference between boiler return water temperature and flue gas temperature;
X
O2,fg,dry
dry flue gas oxygen contents.
For condensing multistage or modulating boilers, the following additional data is required:

wfg,min
temperature difference between boiler return water temperature and flue gas temperature at
minimum combustion power;
X
O2,fg,dry,min
dry flue gas oxygen contents at minimum combustion power.
Actual operation conditions are characterised by the following values:
Q
H,gen,out
heat output to the heat distribution sub-system(s);

gnr,w,m
average water temperature in the boiler;

gnr,w,r
return water temperature to the boiler (for condensing boilers);
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i,brm
boiler room temperature;
k
ge,rvd
reduction factor taking into account recovery of thermal losses through the generator
envelope depending on location of the generator;

cmb
load factor.
NOTE 1 All powers and the load factor cmb are referred to generator input (combustion power).
NOTE 2 ref is kept formally separate from cmb to improve formulas clarity and to enable the use of measured data,
if and when available.
Data should be declared by the manufacturer or measured, where applicable. If no declared or measured
data is available, data shall be found in a relevant national annex. If no national annex is available, default
values can be found in Annex D.
5.4.2 Load factor
The load factor
cmb
is the ratio between the time with the burner on and the total time of generator operation
(running and stand-by):
OFF ON
ON
gnr
ON
cmb
t t
t
t
t

+
= = (38)
and also
( )
gnr cmb OFF ON cmb ON
t t t t = + = (39)
where
t
gnr
total time of generator operation;
t
ON
time with the burner on (fuel valve open, pre- and post-ventilation are not considered);
t
OFF
time with the burner off.
The load factor
cmb
shall either be calculated according to the actual energy Q
H,gen,out
to be supplied by the
generation sub-system or be measured (e.g. by time counters) on existing systems.
5.4.3 Specific thermal losses
5.4.3.1 General
Specific heat losses of the generator are given at standard test conditions.
Test values shall be adjusted according to actual operation conditions. This applies both to standard test
values and to field measurements.
5.4.3.2 Thermal losses through the chimney with the burner on
ch,on
The correction method for this loss factor takes into account the effects of:
average water temperature in the boiler;
load factor;
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burner settings (power and excess air changing the heat exchange efficiency).
Actual specific thermal losses through the chimney with the burner on
ch,on,corr
are given by:
( ) [ ]
on ch,
n
cmb on ch, corr, test m, w, gnr, m w, gnr, on ch, corr on, ch,
f + = (40)
where

ch,on
heat losses through the chimney at test conditions (complement to 100 of the combustion
efficiency).
ch,on
is measured with the average water temperature
gnr,w,m,test
. Heat losses
through the chimney shall be expressed as a percentage of the combustion power
cmb
.
For the design of new systems,
ch,on
is the value declared by the manufacturer.
For existing systems,
ch,on
is given by a measure of combustion efficiency. Combustion
efficiency measurement shall be realised according to national standards or recommenda-
tions. When combustion efficiency is measured, the corresponding average water tempe-
rature
gnr,w,m,test
and combustion power
cmb
shall be measured as well.
If no data is available, default values are given in C.2.1, Table C.1.
The source of data shall be clearly stated in the calculation report;

gnr,w,m,test
average water temperature in the boiler at test conditions (average of flow and return
temperature, usually flow temperature 80 C, return temperature 60 C).
For the design of new systems,
gnr,w,m,test
is the value declared by the manufacturer.
For existing systems,
gnr,w,m,test
is measured together with combustion efficiency.
If no data is available, default values are given in C.2.1, Table C.1.
The source of data shall be clearly stated in the calculation report.
For condensing boilers, return water temperature at test conditions
gnr,w,r,test
shall be used
in (40) instead of average water temperature
gnr,w,m,test;

gnr,w,m
average water temperature in the boiler at actual conditions (average of flow and return
temperature).
For condensing boilers, return water temperature
gnr,w,r
shall be used in (40) instead of
average water temperature
gnr,w,m;
f
corr,ch,on
correction factor for
ch,on
. Default values for this factor are given in C.2.1, Table C.1;
n
ch,on
exponent for the load factor
cmb
. Default values for this exponent are given in C.2.1, Table
C.2.
cmb
raised to n
ch,on
takes into account the reduction of losses with high intermittencies,
due to a lower average temperature of the flue gas (higher efficiency at start). An increasing
value of n
ch,on
corresponds to a higher value of c
mass
,
ch,on
, defined as the specific mass of the
heat exchange surface between flue gas and water per kW nominal power.
NOTE 1 Equation (40) takes into account variation in combustion efficiency depending on average temperature of
water in the generator by a linear approximation. The assumption is that temperature difference between water and flue
gas is approximately constant (i.e. a 20 C increase of average water temperature causes a 20 C increase of flue gas
temperature). A 22 C increase of flue gas temperature corresponds to 1 % increase of losses through the chimney with
burner on, hence the default value 0,045 for fcorr,ch,on.
Equation (40) does not include the effect of any latent heat recovery. This is done separately (see 5.4.8).
NOTE 2 Equation (40) does not take into account explicitly the effect of varying air/fuel ratio. The default constant
0,045 is valid for standard excess air (XO2 = 3 % in dry flue gas). For new systems, a correct setting is assumed. For
existing systems, the air/fuel ratio contributes to ch,on. If required, the constant 0,045 may be recalculated according to
the actual air/fuel ratio.
NOTE 3 Equation (40) does not take into account explicitly the effect of varying combustion power cmb. If the
combustion power is significantly reduced, the procedure for existing systems shall be followed (i.e. ch,on shall be
measured).
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
38
5.4.3.3 Thermal losses through the generator envelope
ge
Actual specific thermal losses through the generator envelope
ge,corr
are given by:
( )
( )
ge
n
cmb
test brm, i, test m, w, gnr,
brm i, m w, gnr,
rvd ge, ge corr ge,



k

= (41)
where

ge
heat losses through the generator envelope at test conditions.
ge
is expressed as a fraction
of the reference power
ref
(usually nominal combustion power of the generator).
For the design of new systems,
ge
is the value declared by the manufacturer.
If no data is available, default values are given in C.2.2.
The source of data shall be clearly stated in the calculation report;
k
ge,rvd
reduction factor taking into account the location of the generator. k
ge,rvd
takes into account
recovery of thermal losses as a reduction of total losses. Default values are given in C.2.2,
Table C.4;

brm,test
temperature of the test room. Default values are given in C.2.2, Table C.4;

i,brm
actual temperature of the room where the generator is installed. Default values are given in
C.2.2, Table C.4;
n
ge
exponent for the load factor
cmb
. Default values for this exponent are given in C.2.2, Table
C.5 depending on the parameter c
ge
, defined as the ratio between the total weight of the
boiler (metal + refractory materials + insulating materials) and the nominal combustion
power
cmb
of the boiler.
NOTE 1 The factor cmb raised to nge takes into account the reduction of heat losses through the generator envelope if
the generator is allowed to cool down during stand-by. This reduction applies only to the specific control option, where
the room thermostat stops directly the burner and the circulation pump (in series with the boiler thermostat, solution
adopted on small systems only). In all other cases nge = 0 inhibits this correction.
NOTE 2 It is assumed that heat losses through the envelope are related to the temperature difference between the
average water temperature in the boiler and the temperature of the boiler surroundings. The relation is assumed to be
linear (heat conduction through the boiler insulation).
NOTE 3 ge can be determined as the difference between the combustion efficiency and the net efficiency of the
generator at test conditions (continuous operation).
Recovery of thermal losses through the generator envelope is taken into account as a reduction of total
losses (by the reduction factor k
ge,rvd
).
As an alternative, it is possible to determine the actual total generator envelope thermal losses
ge,corr
from
the total heat losses at test conditions
ge
by:
( )
( )
ge
n
cmb
test brm, i, test m, w, gnr,
brm i, m w, gnr,
ge corr ge,



= (42)
and determine the actual recoverable thermal losses factor,
ge,rbl
by:
( )
rvd ge, corr ge, rbl ge,
1 k = (43)
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
39
5.4.3.4 Thermal losses through the chimney with the burner off
ch,off
This thermal loss takes into account the stack effect of the chimney, which causes a flow of cold air through
the boiler when the burner is off.
A correction according to the average water temperature in the boiler and the boiler room temperature is
required. A second correction is required when the room thermostat shuts down the circulation pump at the
same time as the burner. With this control option, the actual average temperature of the water in the boiler
decreases with the load factor. During each burner off period, the maximum energy which can be lost is the
heat stored in the boiler (in the metallic parts and in the water). Therefore, the load factor is a function of the
heat capacity of the boiler.
Actual specific thermal losses through the chimney when the burner is off
ch,off,corr
are given by:
( )
( )
of ch,
n
cmb
test brm, i, test m, w, gnr,
brm i, m w, gnr,
off ch, corr off, ch,



= (44)
where

ch,off
heat losses through the chimney when the burner is off at test conditions.
ch,off
is expressed as a
percentage of the reference power
ref
(usually nominal combustion power of the generator).
For the design of new systems,
ch,off
is the value declared by the manufacturer.
For existing systems,
ch,off
can be calculated by measuring the flow rate and the temperature at
the boiler flue gas outlet.
If no data is available, default values are given in C.2.3, Table C.6.
The source of data shall be clearly stated in the calculation report;
n
ch,off
exponent for the load factor
cmb
. Default values for this exponent are given in C.2.3, Table C.7
depending on the parameter c
ch,off
, defined as the ratio between the total weight of the boiler
(metal + refractory materials + insulating materials) and the nominal combustion power
cmb
of
the boiler.
NOTE The factor cmb raised to nch,off takes into account the reduction of heat losses through the chimney with the
burner off if the generator is allowed to cool down during stand-by. This reduction applies only to the specific control
option, where the room thermostat stops directly the burner and the circulation pump (in series with the boiler thermostat,
solution adopted on small systems only). In all other cases nch,off = 0 inhibits this correction.
5.4.4 Total thermal losses
Thermal losses through the chimney with the burner on Q
ch,on
are given by:
ON cmb
corr on, ch,
on ch,
100
t

Q = (45)
Thermal losses through the chimney with the burner off Q
ch,off
are given by:
OFF ref
corr off, ch,
off ch,
100
t

Q = (46)
Thermal losses through the generator envelope Q
ge
are given by:
( )
ON OFF ref
corr ge,
ge
100
t t

Q + = (47)
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
40
5.4.5 Auxiliary energy
For each auxiliary device i of the generator, the following data shall be determined:
Electrical power consumption P
i
. Values can be:
declared by the manufacturer;
measured;
or default values calculated according to C.3.
The source of data shall be clearly stated in the calculation report.
Running time t
on,i
, as a function of load factor
cmb
where appropriate (i.e. burner auxiliaries).
EXAMPLE 1 Burner fan: ton = cmb tgnr
Part of the electrical energy converted to heat and recovered to the system before the combustion
chamber k
br,i
(auxiliary energy recovery factor). The default value for k
br
is given in C.3, Table C.9.
EXAMPLE 2 Examples of such auxiliaries are combustion air fan, fuel pump, fuel heaters.
Part of the electrical energy converted to heat and recovered to the system after the generator k
pmp,i
(auxiliary energy recovery factor). The default value for k
pmp
is given in C3, Table C.9.
EXAMPLE 3 Examples of such auxiliaries are primary pumps.
Variable electrical power consumption should be approximated by an equivalent constant average electrical
power consumption.
The total auxiliary energy required by the generation sub-system W
H,gen,aux
is given by:
_
=
i
on,i aux,i gnr, aux gen, H,
t P W (48)
The auxiliary energy of devices j before the combustion chamber (i.e. combustion air fan, fuel heater, etc.)
which is converted to heat and recovered, is given by:
_
=
j
br j on, j br, br
k t P Q (49)
If t
on,j
= t
on
for all devices j and assuming P
br
= P
br,j
:
ON br br br
t k P Q = (50)
NOTE tON = tgnr cmb
The auxiliary energy of devices k after the combustion chamber (i.e. primary pump) which is converted to
heat and recovered to the system is given by:
_
=
k
pmp k on, k pmp, pmp
k t P Q (51)
If t
on,k
= t
gnr
for all devices k and assuming P
pmp
= P
pmp,k
:
gnr pmp pmp pmp
t k P Q = (52)
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41
The total auxiliary energy required by the generation sub-system W
H,gen,aux
is given by:
pmp
pmp
br
br
aux gen, H,
k
Q
k
Q
W + = (53)
5.4.6 Calculation procedure for single stage generators
a) Determine the total heat output Q
H,gen,out
of the generation sub-system, which is equal to Q
H,dis,in
,
total heat to be supplied to the distribution sub-system in the calculation period.
For multiple interconnected distribution and/or generation sub-systems, refer to 4.6 and 5.4.9 and
then proceed with the present procedure using Q
H,gen,out,i
for each generator.
b) Determine the total time t
gnr
of operation of the generator (t
gnr
= t
ON
+ t
OFF
).
c) Set the load factor
cmb
= 1.
The calculation requires iterations with the load factor
cmb
approaching the final value.
If the value of
cmb
is known (measured on an existing system), perform step d) and e), skip step f)
and g) and proceed to step h) (no iteration required).
d) Determine the values of
ch,on,corr
,
ch,off,corr
and
ge,corr
according to 5.4.3 for the current load factor

cmb
.
e) Determine the values of Q
pmp
, Q
br
and W
H,gen,aux
according to 5.4.5 for the current load factor
cmb
.
f) Calculate a new load factor
cmb
by:
corr off, ch, corr on, ch,
ref
cmb
ref
br br cmb
corr ge, corr off, ch,
ref gnr
pmp out gen, H,
cmb
100
100

P k

t
Q Q

+
+

+ +

=
(54)
g) Repeat steps d), e) and f) until
cmb
converges. Typically one iteration is enough.
More iterations may be required if
cmb
approaches 0.
h) Calculate the energy to be supplied by the fuel by:
cmb gnr cmb gen,in H,
t E = (55)
i) Calculate the total thermal losses by:
pmp br out gen, H, in gen, H, ls gen, H,
Q Q Q E Q + + = (56)
There are no recoverable thermal losses, since heat recovery has been taken into account as a reduction of
thermal losses through the generator envelope:
0
rbl ls, gen, H,
= Q (57)
5.4.7 Multistage and modulating generators
5.4.7.1 General
A multistage or modulating generator is characterised by 3 possible states:
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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burner off;
burner on at minimum power;
burner on at maximum power.
It is assumed that only two situations are possible:
the generator is operating intermittently as a single stage generator at minimum power;
the generator is operating at a constant average power between minimum and maximum power.
5.4.7.2 Additional data required
The following additional data are required to characterise a multistage or modulating generator:

cmb,min
minimum combustion power of the generator;

ch,on,min
heat loss factor
ch,on
at minimum combustion power
cmb,min
, as a fraction of
cmb,min
;
P
br,min
electrical power consumption of burner auxiliaries at minimum combustion power.
If data from the manufacturer or default values from a national annex are not available, default values are
calculated according to C.4.
It is assumed that nominal values correspond to maximum power output, therefore:

cmb,max
=
cmb
maximum combustion power of the generator;

ch,on,max
=
ch,on
heat loss factor at maximum combustion power
cmb,max
.
5.4.7.3 Calculation procedure for multistage or modulating generators
The procedure begins following the method described in 5.4.6 for single stage generators, using:

cmb,min
instead of
cmb
;

ch,on,min
instead of
ch,on
;

gnr,w,test,min
instead of
gnr,w,test
;
P
br,min
instead of P
br
.
If the load factor
cmb
converges to a value which is not greater than 1, the procedure for single stage
generators is followed up to the end.
If the load factor
cmb
converges to a value greater than 1, then t
ON
= t
gnr
and the average combustion power

cmb,avg
is calculated as follows:
a) Determine the total heat output Q
H,gen,out
of the generation sub-system, which is equal to Q
H,dis,in
,
total heat to be supplied to the distribution sub-system in the calculation period.
For multiple interconnected distribution and/or generation sub-systems, refer to 4.6 and 5.4.9 and
then proceed with the present procedure using Q
H,gen,out,i
for each generator.
b) Calculate
ge,corr
according to equation (41) and load factor
cmb
= 1.
c) Calculate
ch,on,min,corr
and
ch,on,max,corr
according to equation (40) and load factor
cmb
= 1.
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d) Calculate Q
br
and Q
br,min
according to equation (50) using P
br
, P
br,min
and
cmb
= 1.
e) Set
cmb,avg
=
cmb.
f) Calculate
ch,on,avg,corr
by:
( )
min cmb, max cmb,
min cmb, avg cmb,
corr min, on, ch, corr max, on, ch, corr min, on, ch, corr avg, on, ch,


+ = (58)
g) Calculate Q
br,avg
by:
( )
min cmb, max cmb,
min cmb, avg cmb,
min br, max br, min br, avg br,


Q Q Q Q

+ = (59)
h) Calculate a new
cmb,avg
by:
100
1
100
corr avg, on, ch,
ref
corr ge,
gnr
avg br, pmp out gen, H,
avg cmb,

t
Q Q Q

+

=
(60)
i) Repeat steps f), g) and h) until
cmb,avg
converges. Typically one iteration is enough.
j) Calculate the energy to be supplied by the fuel by:
gnr avg cmb, gen,in H,
t E = (61)
k) Calculate average power of auxiliaries before the combustion chamber
br,avg
by:
( )
min cmb, max cmb,
min cmb, avg cmb,
min br, max br, min br, avg br,


+ = (62)
l) Calculate auxiliary energy by:
( )
pmp avg br, gnr aux gen, H,
t W + = (63)
m) Calculate recovered auxiliary energy by:
( )
pmp pmp br avg br, gnr rvd aux, gen, H,
k k t W + = (64)
n) Calculate total thermal losses by:
rvd aux, gen, H, out gen, H, in gen, H, ls gen, H,
W Q E Q + = (65)
There are no recoverable thermal losses, since recovery has been taken into account as a reduction of
thermal losses through the generator envelope:
0
rbl ls, gen, H,
= Q (66)
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
44
5.4.8 Condensing boilers
5.4.8.1 Principle of the method
The effect of recovery of latent heat of condensation is taken into account as a reduction of
ch,on
(losses
through the chimney with burner on).
Recovery of latent heat of condensation is calculated taking into account flue gas temperature and excess
air.
The connection between return water temperature and flue gas temperature is given by the
wfg
between
flue gas and return water, which characterises the boiler.
For multistage boilers,
wfg
and excess air are specified separately for minimum and maximum combustion
power.
For modulating boilers, it is assumed that
wfg
and oxygen contents X
O2,fg,dry
(excess air) vary linearly
between maximum and minimum combustion power.
5.4.8.2 Boiler data
To characterise a single stage (on-off) condensing boiler, the following additional data is required:

wfg
temperature difference between boiler return water temperature and flue gas temperature.
Value should be given by the appliance manufacturer. If this data is not available, it can be
either measured on existing system or taken from tables in a national annex. If such
information is missing, default values are given in C.5, Table C.14;
X
O2,fg,dry
flue gas oxygen contents. Value shall be given by the appliance manufacturer. If this data is
not available, it can be either measured on existing systems or taken from tables in a
national annex. If such information is missing, default values are given in C.5, Table C.14.
For multistage or modulating burners, the following additional data is required:

wfg,min
temperature difference between boiler return water temperature and flue gas temperature at
minimum combustion power.
wfg,min
shall be given by the appliance manufacturer. If this
data is not available, it can be either measured on existing system or taken from tables in a
national annex. If such information is missing, default values are given in C.5, Table C.14;
X
O2,fg,dry,min
flue gas oxygen contents at minimum combustion power
cmb,min
. Value shall be given by
the appliance manufacturer. If this data is not available, it can be either measured on existing
system or taken from tables in a national annex. If such information is missing, default values
are given in C.5, Table C.14;

wfg,max
temperature difference between boiler return water temperature and flue gas temperature at
maximum combustion power instead of
wfg
.
wfg,max
shall be given by the appliance
manufacturer. If this data is not available, it can be either measured on existing system or
taken from tables in a national annex. If such information is missing, default values are given
in C.5, Table C.14;
X
O2,fg,dry,max
flue gas oxygen contents at maximum combustion power instead of X
O2,fg,dry
. Value shall be
given by the appliance manufacturer. If this data is not available, it can be either measured
on existing system or taken from tables in a national annex. If such information is missing,
default values are given in C.5, Table C.14.
NOTE wfg,max and XO2,fg,dry,max are the same values as wfg and XO2,fg,dry for single stage boilers.
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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5.4.8.3 Data on fuel
The following data on fuel is required for calculation of recovery of latent heat of condensation:
H
s
Gross calorific value of the fuel unit;
H
i
Net calorific value of the fuel unit;
V
air,st,dry
Stoichiometric dry air as standard volume per unit of fuel ([Nm/kg] or [Nm/Nm]);
V
fg,st,dry
Stoichiometric dry flue gas as standard volume per unit of fuel ([Nm/kg] or [Nm/Nm]);
m
H2O,st
Stoichiometric water production per unit of fuel ([kg/kg] or [kg/Nm]).
Data should be given in a national annex. If no national annex is available, default data is given in C.5, Table
C.13.
5.4.8.4 Single stage (on-off) boilers
Condensing, single stage, boiler fuel energy, auxiliary energy and thermal losses shall be calculated with the
same procedure as in 5.4.6 where
ch,on,corr
is replaced by
ch,on,cond
given by:

ch,on,cond
=
ch,on,corr

cond
(67)
where

cond
recovered latent heat of condensation at nominal power, as a percentage of
cmb
, calculated
according to 5.4.8.7.
5.4.8.5 Multi stage (stepping) boilers
The procedure set out in 5.4.7 shall be followed, where
ch,on,max,corr
and
ch,on,min,corr
are replaced by

ch,on,max,cond
and
ch,on,min,cond
given by:

ch,on,max,cond
=
ch,on,max,corr

cond,max
(68)

ch,on,min,cond
=
ch,on,min,corr

cond,min
(69)
where

cond,min
recovered latent heat of condensation at minimum combustion power, as a percentage of

cmb,min
;

cond,max
recovered latent heat of condensation at maximum combustion power, as a percentage of

cmb,max
.

cond,min
is calculated according to 5.4.8.7 using:
X
O2,fg,dry,min
instead of X
O2,fg,dry
;

wfg,min
instead of
wfg
.

cond,max
is calculated according to 5.4.8.7 using:
X
O2,fg,dry,max
instead of X
O2,fg,dry
;

wfg,max
instead of
wfg
.
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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5.4.8.6 Modulating boilers
The procedure set out in 5.4.7 shall be followed, where
ch,on,min,corr
is replaced by
ch,on,min,cond
given by:

ch,on,min,cond
=
ch,on,min,corr

cond,min
(70)
and
ch,on,avg
is replaced by
ch,on,avg,cond
given by:

ch,on,avg,cond
=
ch,on,avg,corr

cond,avg
(71)
where

cond,min
recovered latent heat of condensation at minimum combustion power, as a percentage of

cmb,min
;

cond,avg
recovered latent heat of condensation at average combustion power, as a percentage of

cmb,avg
.

cond,min
is calculated according to 5.4.8.7 using:
X
O2,fg,dry,min
instead of X
O2,fg,dry
;

wfg,min
instead of
wfg
.

cond,avg
is calculated according to 5.4.8.7 using:
X
O2,fg,dry,avg
instead of X
O2,fg,dry
;

wfg,avg
instead of
wfg
.

wfg,avg
is calculated (linear interpolation of
wfg
according to combustion power) by:
( )
min cmb, max cmb,
min cmb, avg cmb,
min wfg, max wfg, min wfg, avg wfg,


+ =
(72)
X
O2,fg,dry,avg
is calculated (linear interpolation of X
O2,fg,dry
according to combustion power) by:
( )
min cmb, max cmb,
min cmb, avg cmb,
min dry, fg, O2, max dry, fg, O2, min dry, fg, O2, avg dry, fg, O2,


X X X X

+ =
(73)
5.4.8.7 Calculation procedure of
cond
NOTE ch,on,cond may be negative when values are based on fuel net calorific value.
Total losses will always be positive when referred to gross calorific values according to 4.7.
Flue gas temperature (at boiler outlet connection to flue gas) is calculated by:
wfg r w, gnr, fg
+ = (74)
where

gnr,w,r
boiler return water temperature, calculated according to Annex H.
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Combustion air temperature
air
is assumed either equal to installation room temperature for type B
appliances or to external air temperature for type C appliances.
Actual amount of dry flue gas V
fg,dry
is calculated by:
dry fg, O2,
dry fg,st, dry fg,
20,94
20,94
X
V V

= (75)
Actual amount of dry combustion air V
air,dry
is calculated by:
V
air,dry
= V
air,st,dry
+ V
fg,dry
V
fg,st,dry
(76)
NOTE Vfg,dry Vfg,st,dry is excess air.
Saturation humidity of air m
H2O,air,sat
and flue gas m
H2O,fg,sat
shall be calculated according to
air
(combustion
air temperature) and
fg
(flue gas temperature) respectively and expressed as kg of humidity per Nm of dry
air or dry flue gas. Data can be found in the following Table 3. Linear or polynomial interpolation shall be
used for intermediate temperatures.
Table 3 Saturation humidity as a function of temperature
Temperature
(air or fg)
C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Saturation humidity
mH2O,air,sat or mH2O,fg,sat
kg/Nmdry
0,00493 0,00986 0,01912 0,03521 0,06331 0,1112 0,1975 0,3596
NOTE Saturation humidity is expressed as kg of water vapour per Nm of dry gas (either air or flue gas).
Total humidity of combustion air m
H2O,air
is calculated by:
100
air
dry air, sat air, H2O, air H2O,
x
V m m = (77)
where
x
air
combustion air relative humidity. Default value is given in C.5, Table C.14.
Total humidity of flue gas m
H2O,fg
is calculated by:
100
fg
dry fg, sat fg, H2O, fg H2O,
x
V m m = (78)
where
x
fg
flue gas relative humidity. Default value is given in C.5, Table C.14.
The amount of condensing water m
H2O,cond
is calculated by:
m
H2O,cond
= m
H2O,st
+ m
H2O,air
- m
H2O,fg
(79)
If m
H2O,cond
is negative, there is no condensation. Then m
H2O,cond
= 0 and
cond
= 0.
The specific latent heat of condensation h
cond,fg
is calculated by:
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h
cond,fg
= 2 500 600 J/kg
fg
x 2 435 J/kgC (80)
or
h
cond,fg
= 694,61 Wh/kg
fg
x 0,676 4 Wh/kgC (81)
NOTE Use equation (80) or (81) according to the choice of units for energy and time.
The condensation heat Q
cond
is calculated with:
Q
cond
= m
H2O,cond
h
cond.fg
(82)
If the calculation is based on net calorific values, then the recovered latent heat of condensation
cond
is
calculated by:
i
cond
cond
100
H
Q
= (83)
If the calculation is based on gross calorific values, then the recovered latent heat of condensation
cond
is
calculated by:
s
cond
cond
100
H
Q
= (84)
NOTE Default values in Annex C are based on net calorific values.
5.4.9 Systems with multiple generators
5.4.9.1 General
In general, sub-systems with multiple generators can be calculated as separated generation sub-systems in
parallel. Criteria similar to those given in 5.3.3 can be used to split Q
H,gen,out
amongst available generators.
5.4.9.2 Modular systems
A modular system consists of N
gnr
identical modules or generators, each characterized by a maximum and a
minimum combustion power
cmb,i,max
and
cmb,i,min
, assembled as a single unit or connected to the same
mains.
The combustion power of the entire system is calculated by:

cmb
=
cmb,i,max
N
gnr
(85)
5.4.9.3 Modular systems with hydraulic shutdown of stand-by modules
If there is an automatic control system applied, which shuts down and insulates stand-by generators and/or
modules from the distribution network, the following procedure shall be followed.
The number N
gnr,on
of running generators and/or modules is calculated as:
( ) 1 int
cmb gnr on gnr,
+ = N N (86)
where the load factor
cmb
is calculated for a single stage generator of combustion power
cmb
.
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The actual performance of the modulating generator is calculated following the procedure for multistage
generators and assuming:

cmb,max
=
cmb,i,max
N
gnr,on

cmb,min
=
cmb,i,min
5.4.9.4 Modular systems without hydraulic shutdown of stand-by modules
If there is no control system applied, which shuts down and insulates stand-by generators and/or modules
from the distribution network, the following procedure shall be followed.
The actual performance of the modulating generator is calculated following the procedure for multistage
generators and assuming:

cmb,max
=
cmb,i,max
N
tot
;

cmb,min
=
cmb,i,min
N
tot
.
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Annex A
(informative)
Sample seasonal boiler performance method
based on system typology
(typology method)
A.1 Scope
This Annex is an example of a national annex defining a typology method. The example is based on the
Seasonal efficiency calculation procedure (SEDB_UK) intended for use in the housing sector of the UK.
If there is no such appropriate national annex, this method (system typology) cannot be used.
A.2 Limitations in use of this method
This procedure is used to determine the seasonal efficiency of gas and oil boilers installed in the UK housing
sector. It is named SEDB_UK (Seasonal Efficiency of Domestic Boilers in the UK).
This method of calculation is applicable only to boilers for which the full load efficiency and the 30 % part
load efficiency values, obtained by the methods deemed to satisfy Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler
Efficiency [1], are available.
These are net efficiency values (higher efficiency values, referenced to the lower heat value of fuels).
It is essential that both test results are available and that the tests are appropriate to the type of boiler as
defined in Council Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1], otherwise the calculation cannot proceed.
If SEDB_UK values are declared, they should be accompanied by the wording given in A.5, which is
necessary to avoid confusion with efficiency values calculated by other methods.
A.3 Boiler typologies definition
For the purpose of this method, the following boiler typologies are defined.
regular boiler
boiler which does not have the capability to provide domestic hot water directly (i.e. not a combination
boiler). It may nevertheless provide domestic hot water indirectly via a separate hot water storage cylinder
combination boiler
boiler with the ability to provide domestic hot water directly, in some cases containing an internal hot water
store
instantaneous combination boiler
combination boiler without an internal hot water store, or with an internal hot water store of capacity less than
15 litres
storage combination boiler
combination boiler with an internal hot water store of capacity at least 15 litres but less than 70 litres, or a
combination boiler with an internal hot water store of capacity at least 70 litres, in which the feed to the space
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heating circuit is not taken directly from the store. If the store is at least 70 litres and the feed to the space
heating circuit is taken directly from the store, refer to definition of combined primary storage unit (CPSU)
combined primary storage unit (CPSU)
single appliance designed to provide both space heating and domestic hot water, in which there is a burner
that heats a thermal store which contains mainly primary water which is in common with the space heating
circuit. Capacity of the hot water store is at least 70 litres and the feed to the space heating circuit is taken
directly from the store
on/off boiler
boiler without the capability to vary the fuel burning rate whilst maintaining continuous burner firing. This
includes boilers with alternative burning rates set once only at the time of installation, referred to as range
rating
modulating boiler
boiler with the capability to vary the fuel burning rate whilst maintaining continuous burner firing
condensing boiler
boiler designed to make use of the latent heat released by condensation of water vapour in the combustion
flue products. The boiler must allow the condensate to leave the heat exchanger in liquid form by way of a
condensate drain. Boilers not so designed, or without the means to remove the condensate in liquid form are
called non-condensing
A.4 Procedure
In the procedure, the data are first converted to gross efficiency (lower efficiency values, referenced to the
higher heat value of fuels) under test conditions, and then converted to a seasonal efficiency, which applies
under typical conditions of use in a dwelling, allowing for standing losses.
In this Annex, efficiencies are expressed in percent. Intermediate calculations should be done to at least four
decimal places of a percentage, and the final result should be rounded off to one decimal place.
The steps are as follows:
a) Determine fuel for boiler type. The fuel for boiler type must be one of natural gas, LPG (butane or
propane) or oil (kerosene or gas oil).
b) Obtain test data. Retrieve the full-load net efficiency
Pn,net
and 30 % part-load net efficiency
Pint,net
test results. Tests must have been carried out using the same fuel as the fuel for boiler type.
c) Reduce to maximum net efficiency values
Pn,net,max
and
Pint,net,max
. Table A.1 gives the maximum
values of net efficiency depending on the type of boiler. Reduce any higher net efficiency test values
to the appropriate value given in Table A.1.
Table A.1 Maximum net efficiency values
Boiler type
Efficiency at
full load

Pn,net,max
%
Efficiency at
30 % load

Pint,net,max
%
Condensing boilers 101,0 107,0
Non-condensing boilers 92,0 91,0
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d) Convert the full load efficiency and the 30 % part load efficiency from net values to gross values.
Use the following equation (A1) with the appropriate factor from Table A.2.
net Px, ntg gross Px,
f = (A1)
Table A.2 Efficiency conversion factors
Fuel Net-to-gross conversion factor f
ntg
Natural gas 0,901
LPG (propane or butane) 0,921
Oil (kerosene or gas oil) 0,937
e) Categorise the boiler.
i) Select the appropriate category for the boiler according to the definitions (see A.3).
ii) For a gas or LPG boiler, determine whether or not it has a permanent pilot light:
if it has a permanent pilot light, set f
plt
= 1;
if not, set f
plt
= 0.
iii) For a storage combination boiler (either on/off or modulating), determine from the test report
whether or not the losses from the store are included in the test values reported (this depends
on whether or not the store was connected to the boiler during the tests):
if the store loss is included, set f
sto
= 1;
if not, set f
sto
= 0.
iv) For a condensing combined primary storage unit (CPSU, either on/off or modulating),
set f
sto
= 1.
v) For a storage combination boiler or a CPSU, obtain the store volume, V
sto
, in litres from the
specification of the device and the stand-by loss factor H
sby
, using the following equations:
if d
ins,sto
< 10 mm then H
sby
= 0,0945 0,0055 x d
ins,sto
;
if d
ins,sto
10 mm then H
sby
= 0,394 / d
ins,sto
;
where d
ins,sto
is the thickness of the insulation of the store in mm.
f) Calculate seasonal efficiency.
i) Use the boiler category and other characteristics as defined in A.3 (non-condensing or
condensing, gas or LPG or oil, on/off or modulating) to look up the appropriate SEDB_UK
equation number in Table A.3 and select the appropriate equation from Table A.4 or Table A.5,
as applicable. If no equation number is given in Table A.3, the calculation cannot proceed.
ii) Substitute the gross full load efficiency
Pn,gross
and part load efficiency
Pint,gross
(found in step
4) and f
plt
, f
sto
, V
sto
and H
sby
(found in step 5) in the equation found in step 6i. Round off the
result to one decimal place, i.e. to the nearest 0,1 %. Note the result for the purpose of the
declaration in A.5.
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iii) Convert the gross seasonal efficiency back to net seasonal efficiency using:
gross Px,
ntg
net Px,
1

f
= (A2)
Table A.3 Equation numbers for different boiler types
Non-condensing Condensing
Gas or LPG Oil
L
o
w
-
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Gas or LPG Oil
Boiler type
O
n
/
o
f
f
M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
n
g
O
n
/
o
f
f
M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
n
g
O
n
/
o
f
f
M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
n
g
O
n
/
o
f
f
M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
n
g
Regular boiler 101 102 201 X X 101 102 201 X
Istantaneous combi boiler 103 104 202 X X 103 104 202 X
Storage combi boiler 105 106 203 X X 105 106 203 X
Combined primary storage
unit
107 107 X X X 105 106 X X
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Table A.4 Seasonal efficiency calculation equations
gen
for natural gas boilers and LPG boilers
Gas or LPG boiler type
Eq.
no.
Equation
On/off regular 101
plt
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 2,5
2
f


|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
Modulating regular 102
plt
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 2,0
2
f


|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
On/off instantaneous combination 103
plt
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 2,8
2
f


|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
Modulating instantaneous
combination
104
plt
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 2,1
2
f


|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
On/off storage combination
On/off combined primary storage unit
(condensing only)
105 ( )
plt sto sby sto
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 0,209 2,8
2
f V H f

+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
Modulating storage combination
Modulating combined primary
storage unit (condensing only)
106 ( )
plt sto sby sto
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 0,209 7 , 1
2
f V H f

+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
On/off combined primary storage unit
(non-condensing only)
Modulating combined primary
storage unit (non-condensing only)
107
( )
plt sto sby
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 0,539
2
f V H


|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
Table A.5 Seasonal efficiency calculation equations
gen
for oil boilers
Oil boiler type
Eq.
No.
Equation
Regular 201
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
2
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,

Instantaneous combination 202 8 , 2


2
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,

|
|
.
|

\
| +
=

Storage combination 203 ( )


sto sby sto
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
0,209 2,8
2
V H f

+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
g) Calculate generation thermal loss.
The SEDB_UK method is based on a typological approach using correlations on efficiency values.
Therefore it is necessary to express the seasonal performance of generation in absolute values in
order to fit the general structure of EN 15316.
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The total generation thermal loss Q
H,gen,ls
is calculated by:
net gen,
net gen,
out gen, H, ls gen, H,
1

Q Q

= (A3)
h) Calculate fuel heat requirement.
The fuel heat requirement E
H,gen,in
is calculated by:
net gen,
out gen, H,
gen,in H,

Q
E = (A4)
i) Calculate auxiliary energy W
H,gen,aux
.
The auxiliary energy is calculated according to 5.3.6.
j) Calculate total recoverable thermal loss.
No recoverable generation thermal loss is taken into account.
A.5 Declaring values of seasonal efficiency
a) Manufacturers wishing to declare the seasonal efficiency of their products as SEDB_UK values can
do so provided that:
i) they use the SEDB_UK calculation procedure given in A.2 above;
ii) and the necessary boiler test data are independently certified.
b) Where a manufacturer declares the SEDB_UK, it shall be expressed as:
Seasonal Efficiency (SEDB_UK) = [x] %
The test data from which it has been calculated have been certified by
[insert name and/or identification of Notified Body].
Data for several products may be presented in tabulated form, in which case the second paragraph
of the declaration should be incorporated as a note to the table.
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Annex B
(informative)
Additional formulas and default values for parametering the case
specific boiler efficiency method
B.1 Information on the method
B.1.1 Basic assumptions and intended use
This method is intended for use with boilers where data declared according to Council Directive 92/42/EEC
[1] are known.
This methodology assumes that losses power and auxiliary power are linearly dependant on boiler load in
two ranges:
from 0 to intermediate power;
from intermediate power to nominal (maximum) load.
The intermediate load is assumed to be the same as defined by Council Directive 92/42/EEC on Boiler
Efficiency [1], that is 30 % of maximum load.
It is also assumed that efficiencies determined according to testing standards can be corrected using linear
functions of the actual boiler operating temperature or boiler installation room temperature.
B.1.2 Known approximations
The intermediate power should be the minimum power with burner on. The intermediate load of 30 % is kept
to facilitate use of data declared according to Council Directive 92/42/EEC. Polynomial interpolation may be
used to reduce the influence of this approximation.
The assumption of the linear dependence of efficiencies according to boiler temperature is not true when
condensation (which is inherently a non linear phenomenon) occurs. Variable values of f
corr
according to
boiler typology have been introduced to reduce the influence of this approximation.
The influence of installation room temperature on boiler efficiency at 30 % and 100 % load is neglected.
Installation room temperature has an influence only on stand-by losses and therefore on performance in the
range from 0 to intermediate load.
B.2 Polynomial interpolation formulas
The following equation may replace linear interpolation equations (20) and (21):
+


+ =
) (
) ( ) (
Pint Pn Pint Pn
corr P0, ls, gnr, corr Pint, ls, gnr, Pn corr P0, ls, gnr, corr Pn, ls, gnr, Pint 2
Px corr P0, ls, gnr, Px ls, gnr,



) (
) ( ) (
Pint Pn Pint Pn
corr P0, ls, gnr, corr Pn, ls, gnr,
2
Pint corr P0, ls, gnr, corr Pint, ls, gnr, 2
Pn Px





+ (B1)
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B.3 Generator efficiencies and stand-by losses
B.3.1 Default values for generator efficiency at full load and intermediate load as a
function of the generator power output
The generator efficiency at full load and intermediate load as a function of the generator power output is
given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W 000 1
log
ltd Pn,
2 1 Pn gnr,

c c (B2)
The generator efficiency at intermediate load as a function of the generator power output is given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W 000 1
log
ltd Pn,
4 3 Pint gnr,

c c (B3)
The generator efficiency at intermediate load for oil-condensing boilers as a function of the generator power
output is given by:
1,05
W 000 1
log
ltd Pn,
4 3
Pint gnr,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

c c
(B4)
where

Pn,ltd
nominal power output, limited to a maximum value of 400 kW. If the nominal power output of
the generator is higher than 400 kW, then the value of 400 kW is adopted in equations (B2),
(B3) and (B4);
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
, c
4
coefficients given in Table B.1.
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Table B.1 Parameters for calculation of generator efficiency and temperature limitation
Boiler type Build year
c
1
%
c
2
%
c
3
%
c
4
%

gnr,w,min
C
before 1978 77,0 2,0 70,0 3,0 50 C
Change-fuel boilers
1978 to 1987 79,0 2,0 74,0 3,0 50 C
before 1978 78,0 2,0 72,0 3,0 50 C
1978 to 1994 80,0 2,0 75,0 3,0 50 C Solid fuel boilers (fossil fuel)
after 1994 81,0 2,0 77,0 3,0 50 C
Standard boilers
before 1978 79,5 2,0 76,0 3,0 50 C
1978 to 1994 82,5 2,0 78,0 3,0 50 C Atmospheric gas boilers
after 1994 85,0 2,0 81,5 3,0 50 C
before 1978 80,0 2,0 75,0 3,0 50 C
1978 to 1986 82,0 2,0 77,5 3,0 50 C
1987 to 1994 84,0 2,0 80,0 3,0 50 C
Heating boiler with forced draught
burner
after 1994 85,0 2,0 81,5 3,0 50 C
before 1978 82,5 2,0 78,0 3,0 50 C
Burner replacement (only heating
boiler with forced draught burner)
1978 to 1994 84,0 2,0 80,0 3,0 50 C
Low temperature boilers
1978 to 1994 85,5 1,5 86,0 1,5 35 C
Atmospheric gas boilers
after 1994 88,5 1,5 89,0 1,5 35 C
before 1987 86,0 0,0 84,0 0,0 35 C
Circulation water heater
(11 kW, 18 kW and 24 kW)
1987 to 1992 88,0 0,0 84,0 0,0 35 C
before 1987 84,0 1,5 82,0 1,5 35 C
1987 to 1994 86,0 1,5 86,0 1,5 35 C
Heating boiler with forced draught
burner
after 1994 88,5 1,5 89,0 1,5 35 C
before 1987 86,0 1,5 85,0 1,5 35 C
Burner replacement (only heating
boiler with forced draught burner)
1987 to 1994 86,0 1,5 86,0 1,5 35 C
Condensing boilers
before 1987 89,0 1,0 95,0 1,0 20 C
1987 to 1994 91,0 1,0 97,5 1,0 20 C Condensing boilers
after 1994 92,0 1,0 98,0 1,0 20 C
Condensing boilers, improved
1)
from 1999 94,0 1,0 103 1,0 20 C
1) If standard values for "condensing boilers improved" are used for the calculation, the product
value for the boiler installed must at least exhibit the above given efficiency.
NOTE Test temperatures are given in Tables B.3 and B.4.
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B.3.2 Stand-by heat losses
Default value for the stand-by heat losses
gnr,ls.P0
depending on the generator power output is calculated by:
6
Pn 5
Pn P0 ls, gnr,
W 000 1 100
c
c

|
|
.
|

\
|
= (B5)
where

Pn
nominal power output,
c
5
, c
6
parameters given in Table B.2.
Table B.2 Parameters for calculation of stand-by heat losses
Boiler type Build year
c5
%
c6
-
gnr,test,P0
C
Change-fuel boilers until 1987 12,5 0,28 50
before 1978 12,5 0,28 50
1978 to 1994 10,5 0,28 50
Solid fuel boiler
after 1994 8,0 0,28 50
Standard boilers
before 1978 8,0 0,27 50
1978 to 1994 7,0 0,3 50 Atmospheric gas boilers
after 1994 8,5 0,4 50
before 1978 9,0 0,28 50
1978 to 1994 7,5 0,31 50
Heating boiler with forced
draught burner (oil/gas)
after 1994 8,5 0,4 50
Low temperature boilers
until 1994 7,5 0,30 50
Atmospheric gas boilers
after 1994 6,5 0,35 50
Circulation water heaters
(combination boilers 11 kW,
18 kW and 24 kW)
until 1994 3,0 0,0 50
Combination boilers KSp
a)
after 1994 3,0 0,0 50
Combination boilers DL
b)
after 1994 2,4 0,0 50
until 1994 8,0 0,33 50
Heating boiler with forced
draught burner (oil/gas)
after 1994 5,0 0,35 50
Condensing boilers
until 1994 8,0 0,33 50
Condensing boilers (oil/gas)
after 1994 4,8 0,35 50
Combination boilers KSp (11
kW, 18 kW and 24 kW)
a) after 1994 3,0 0,0 50
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Boiler type Build year
c5
%
c6
-
gnr,test,P0
C
Combination boilers DL (11
kW, 18 kW and 24 kW)
b) after 1994 2,4 0,0 50
a) KSp: Boiler with integrated domestic hot water heating working on the
instantaneous principle with small storage tank (2 < V < 10 l).
b) DL: Boiler with integrated domestic hot water heating working on the
instantaneous principle with heat exchanger (V < 2 l).
B.3.3 Correction factor taking into account variation of efficiency depending on
generator average water temperature
B.3.3.1 Default values
Table B.3 Default values for full load correction factor f
corr,Pn
Generator type
Boiler average water temperature
at boiler test conditions for full load
gnr,w,test,Pn
Correction
factor
fcorr,Pn
Standard boiler 70 C 0,04 %/C
Low temperature boiler 70 C 0,04 %/C
Gas condensing boiler 70 C 0,20 %/C
Oil Condensing boiler 70 C 0,10 %/C
Table B.4 Intermediate load correction factor f
corr,Pint
Generator type
Generator average water temperature
at boiler test conditions for intermediate load
gnr,w,test, Pint
Correction
factor
fcorr,Pint
Standard boiler 50 C 0,05 %/C
Low temperature boiler 40 C 0,05 %/C
Gas condensing boiler 30 C (*) 0,20 %/C
Oil Condensing boiler 30 C (*) 0,10 %/C
(*) Return temperature
For a condensing boiler, testing is not made with a defined generator average water temperature (average of
the supply and return temperature), but with a return temperature of 30 C. The efficiency corresponding to
this return temperature can be applied for the generator average water temperature of 35 C.
B.3.3.2 Calculated values
Correction factor f
corr,Pn
may be calculated using efficiency data from additional tests performed at a lower
average water temperature, using the following equation:
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Pn test, w, gnr, add Pn, test, w, gnr,
add Pn, Pn
Pn corr,


f

= (B6)
where

Pn
full load efficiency at standard test conditions with average water temperature
gnr,w,test,Pn;

Pn,add
full load efficiency with average water temperature
gnr,w,test,Pn,add
.
Correction factor f
corr,Pint
may be calculated using efficiency data from additional tests performed at a higher
average water temperature, using the following equation:
Pint test, w, gnr, add Pint, test, w, gnr,
add Pint, Pint
Pint corr,


f

= (B7)
where

Pint
intermediate load efficiency at standard test conditions with average water temperature

gnr,w,test,Pint;

Pint,add
intermediate load efficiency with average water temperature
gnr,w,test,Pint,add
.
B.4 Auxiliary energy
Default value for the power consumption of auxiliary equipment is calculated by:
n

c c P
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W 000 1
Pn
8 7 Px aux,
(B8)
where

Pn
nominal power output;
c
7
, c
8
, n parameters given in Table B.5.
Table B.5 Parameters for calculation of power consumption of auxiliary equipment
Boiler type Load
c7
W
c8
W
n
Pn 0 45 0,48
Pint 0 15 0,48 Change-fuel boilers
P0 15 0 0
Pn 40 2 1
Pint 40 1,8 1
Automatically-fed pellet central
boiler
1)
P0 15 0 0
Pn 60 2,6 1
Pint 70 2,2 1
Automatically-fed wood chips
central boiler
1)
P0 15 0 0
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Boiler type Load
c7
W
c8
W
n
Standard boiler
Pn 40 0,148 1
Pint 40 0,148 1 Atmospheric gas boilers
P0 15 0 0
Pn 0 45 0,48
Pint 0 15 0,48
Heating boiler with forced draught
burner (oil/gas)
P0 15 0 0
Low temperature boilers
Pn 40 0,148 1
Pint 40 0,148 1 Atmospheric gas boilers
P0 15 0 0
Pn 0 45 0,48
Pint 0 15 0,48 Circulation water heaters
P0 15 0 0
Pn 0 45 0,48
Pint 0 15 0,48
Heating boiler with forced draught
burner (oil/gas)
P0 15 0 0
Condensing boilers
Pn 0 45 0,48
Pint 0 15 0,48 Condensing boilers (oil/gas)
P0 15 0 0
1) With the use of fan-assisted firing, the values for Pn and Pint shall be
increased by 40 %.
B.5 Recoverable generation thermal losses
B.5.1 Auxiliary energy
Default value of the part of the auxiliary energy transmitted to the distribution sub-system f
rvd,aux
is 0,75.
The part of the auxiliary energy transmitted to the heated space f
rbl,aux
is calculated by:
aux rvd, aux rbl,
1 f f = (B9)
B.5.2 Generator envelope
The part of stand-by heat losses attributed to heat losses through the generator envelope is given by f
gnr,env
.
Default values of f
gnr,env
are given in Table B.6.
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Table B.6 Part of stand-by heat losses attributed to losses through the generator envelope
Burner type fgnr,env
Atmospheric burner 0,50
Fan assisted burner 0,75
B.5.3 Default data according to boiler location
Table B.7 Temperature reduction factor and default installation room temperature
Generator location
Temperature reduction
factor bbrm
-
Installation room
temperature i,brm
C
Outdoors 1 ext
In the boiler room 0,3 13
Under roof 0,2 5
Inside heated space 0,0 20
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
64
Annex C
(informative)
Default values for parametering the boiler cycling method
C.1 Information on the method
C.1.1 Basic assumptions and intended use
This method is intended:
for use with existing boilers where data declared according to Council Directive 92/42/EEC [1] are not
known;
to determine the effect of operating conditions on performances of condensing boilers.
This methodology is based on a physical analysis of losses (indirect method) and takes into account two
operating conditions:
boiler with burner on;
boiler with burner off (stand-by).
Latent heat recovery is calculated separately from sensible heat losses. Data for heating system operating
conditions, boiler and fuel are kept separate.
This methodology is suitable for on-off, modulating, modular and condensing boilers, as well as for their
combinations (like modulating, condensing boilers).
All data given in this Annex are based on net calorific values H
i
. If losses are to be calculated with respect to
gross calorific value H
s
, this is done with the procedure given in 4.7.
C.1.2 Known approximations
Additional losses during ignition cycles (ventilation before ignition) are not taken into account.
Losses through the chimney with burner off are not easily measured. However, this loss factor has a reduced
impact in modern boilers with air intake closure at stand-by.
C.2 Default specific losses
C.2.1 Default data for calculation of thermal losses through the chimney with burner on
Table C.1 Default value of
gnr,w,m,test
,
ch,on
and f
corr,ch,on
Description

gnr,w,m,test
C

ch,on
%
f
corr,ch,on
%/C
Atmospheric boiler 70 12 0,045
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Description

gnr,w,m,test
C

ch,on
%
f
corr,ch,on
%/C
Force draught gas boiler 70 10 0,045
Liquid fuel boiler 70 11 0,045
Condensing boiler 60
1)
6 0,045
1) Return temperature for condensing boilers.
Table C.2 Default value of exponent n
ch,on
Description
c
mass,ch,on
kg/kW
n
ch,on
-
Wall mounted boiler < 1 0,05
Steel boiler 1 to 2 0,1
Cast iron boiler > 2 0,15
NOTE cmass,ch,on is the ratio between the mass of the heat exchange surface between flue gas and water
and nominal combustion power in kg/kW.
C.2.2 Default values for calculation of thermal losses through the generator envelope
The default losses through the boiler envelope
ge
are given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
W 000 1
log
cmb
2 1 ge

c c (C1)
where
c
1
, c
2
parameters given in Table C.3;

cmb
boiler nominal combustion power.
Table C.3 Default value of parameters c
1
and c
2
Boiler insulation type
c
1
%
c
2
%
Well insulated, high efficiency new boiler 1,72 0,44
Well insulated and maintained 3,45 0,88
Old boiler with average insulation 6,90 1,76
Old boiler, poor insulation 8,36 2,2
No insulation 10,35 2,64
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Table C.4 Default value of factor k
ge,rvd
and installation room temperature
i,brm
Boiler type and location
k
ge,rvd
-

i,brm,test
C

i,brm
C
Boiler installed within the heated space 0,1 20
Atmospheric boiler installed within the heated space 0,2 20
Boiler installed within a boiler room 0,7 13
Under roof 0,8 5
Boiler installed outdoors 1,0
20
External
temperature
Default value for
gnr,w,m,test
is 70 C.
Table C.5 Default value of exponent n
ge
Description
c
ge
kg/kW
n
ge
-
The primary pump is always running 0,0
The primary pump stops when the burner turns off and both are
controlled by the room thermostat:
wall mounted boiler
steel boiler
cast iron boiler
< 1
1 to 3
> 3
0,15
0,10
0,05
NOTE cge is the ratio between the total weight of the boiler (metal + refractory materials + insulating
materials) and the nominal combustion power cmb of the boiler in kg/kW.
C.2.3 Default values for calculation of thermal losses through the chimney with the
burner off
Table C.6 Default value of
ch,off
Description

ch,off
%
Liquid fuel or gas fired boiler with the fan before the combustion
chamber and automatic closure of air intake with burner off:
Premixed burners
0,2
0,2
Wall mounted, gas fired boiler with fan and wall flue gas exhaust 0,4
Liquid fuel or gas fired boiler with the fan before the combustion
chamber and no closure of air intake with burner off:
Chimney height 10 m
Chimney height > 10 m
1,0
1,2
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Description

ch,off
%
Atmospheric gas fired boiler:
Chimney height 10 m
Chimney height > 10 m
1,2
1,6
Table C.7 Default value of exponent n
ch,off
Description
c
ch,off
kg/kW
n
ch,off
-
The primary pump is always running 0,0
The primary pump stops when the burner turns
off and both are controlled by the room thermostat
wall mounted boiler
steel boiler
cast iron boiler
< 1
1 to 3
> 3
0,15
0,10
0,05
NOTE cch,off is the ratio between the total weight of the boiler (metal + refractory materials + insulating
materials) and the nominal combustion power cmb of the boiler in kg/kW.
Default value for
i,brm,test
is 20 C.
Default value for
gnr,w,m,test
is 70 C.
C.3 Default values for calculation of auxiliary energy
The default auxiliary power P
br
and P
pmp
are given by
n

c c P
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W 1000
cmb
4 3 x
(C2)
where
cmb
is the boiler nominal combustion power.
Table C.8 Default value of c
3
and c
4
for the calculation of electrical power consumption of auxiliary
devices
Description
c
3
W
c
4
W
n
-
P
br
, atmospheric gas boilers 40 0,148 1
P
br
, forced draught burners 0 45 0,48
P
br
, automatically-fed pellet central boiler
1)
40 2 1
P
br
, automatically-fed wood chips central boiler
1)
60 2,6 1
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Description
c
3
W
c
4
W
n
-
P
pmp
, primary pump (all boilers) 100 2 1
1) With the use of fan-assisted firing, the values for Pn and Pint shall be increased by 40 %.
NOTE If there is no primary pump or if it is taken into account in the distribution part (see Figures 3 and 4)
then Ppmp = 0
Table C.9 Default value of auxiliary energy recovery factors
Description
Value
-
k
br
0,8
k
pmp
0,8
C.4 Additional default data for multistage and modulating burners
The default minimum combustion power of the boiler is given by:

cmb,min
=
cmb
f
min
(C3)
where
f
min
parameter given in Table C.10;

cmb
boiler nominal (maximum) combustion power.
Table C.10 Parameter f
min
for multistage and modulating burners
Description
f
min
-
Gas boiler 0,3
Liquid fuel boiler 0,5
Table C.11 Default value of
gnr,w,m,test,min
and
ch,on,min
Description

gnr,w,m,test,min
C

ch,on,min
%
Atmospheric boiler 70 11
Force draught gas boiler 70 9
Oil boiler 70 10
Condensing boiler 50
1)
5
1) Return temperature for condensing boilers.
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The default auxiliary power P
br,min
is calculated with equation (C2) using c
3
, c
4
and n given in Table C.12.
Table C.12 Default value of c
3
, c
4
and n for the calculation of electrical power consumption of
auxiliary devices at minimum combustion power
Description
c
3
W
c
4
W
n
-
P
br
, atmospheric gas boilers 20 0,148 1
P
br
, forced draught burners 0 15 0,48
P
br
, automatically-fed pellet central boiler
1)
60 1,8 1
P
br
, automatically-fed wood chips central boiler
1)
70 2,2 1
1) With the use of fan-assisted firing, the values for Pn and Pint shall be increased by 40 %.
C.5 Additional default data for condensing boilers
Table C.13 Default fuel data for condensation heat recovery calculation
Fuel
Property Symbol Unit
Natural gas
(Groningen)
Propane Butane Light oil EL
Unit mass of fuel 1 Nm 1 Nm 1 Nm 1 kg
Gross calorific value Hs
kJ/kg
or
kJ/Nm
35 169
kJ/Nm
101 804
kJ/Nm
131 985
kJ/Nm
45 336
kJ/kg
Net calorific value Hi
kJ/kg
or
kJ/Nm
31 652
kJ/Nm
93 557
kJ/Nm
121 603
kJ/Nm
42 770
kJ/kg
Stoichiometric dry air Vair,st,dry
Nm/kg
or
Nm/Nm
8,4
Nm/Nm
23,8
Nm/Nm
30,94
Nm/Nm
11,23
Nm/kg
Stoichiometric dry flue gas Vfg,st,dry
Nm/kg
or
Nm/Nm
7,7
Nm/Nm
21,8
Nm/Nm
28,44
Nm/Nm
10,49
Nm/kg
Stoichiometric water production mH2O,st
kg/kg
or
kg/Nm
1,405
kg/Nm
3,3
kg/Nm
4,03
kg/Nm
1,18
kg/kg
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Table C.14 Default values for the calculation of
cond
Description Symbol Unit Case Value
Combustion air relative humidity x
air
% All cases 50
Flue gas relative humidity x
fg
% All cases 100

gnr,Pn
102 20
Temperature difference between boiler return
water temperature and flue gas temperature

wfg
C

gnr,Pn
< 102 60

gnr,Pmin
106 5 Temperature difference between boiler return
water temperature and flue gas temperature at
minimum power

wfg,min
C

gnr,Pn
< 106 20
Flue gas oxygen contents at maximum
combustion power
X
O2,fg,dry
- All cases 6
Modulation of both air
and gas
6
Flue gas oxygen contents at minimum
combustion power
X
O2,fg,dry,min
-
Only gas modulation 15
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Annex D
(informative)
General part default values and information
D.1 Control factor
Table D.1 Default values for control factor f
ctrl
in equation (2)
Description f
ctrl
All control types 1,0
Other values may be specified in a national annex, provided that emission control losses have not been
taken into account in the emission part (EN 15316-2-1).
NOTE In the EN 15316-X-X series of standards, the effect of heat emission control is taken into account in the
emission and control part (EN 15316-2-1). The effect of the control of generation is taken into account through losses
and efficiency corrections according to the operating temperature of the generator.
Table D.2 is an example of such table to be given in a national annex.
Table D.2 Sample default national table for control factor in equation (2)
Boiler type Control type f
ctrl
Floor standing boiler Outdoor temperature controlled 1,00
Outdoor temperature controlled 1,03
Wall hanged boiler
Room temperature controlled 1,06
D.2 Intermediate load
Intermediate load
int
is given by:

int
=
Pn

int
(D1)
For gas and oil fuelled generators, the default value of
int
is 0,3.
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Annex E
(informative)
Calculation example for seasonal boiler performance method based on
system typology
E.1 Introduction
This example is based on the method described in Annex A.
E.2 Input data
Table E.1 Boiler data
Description Symbol Value
Boiler type Condensing boiler
Nominal power Pn 70 kW
gnr,Pn 96 % (full-load net efficiency) Efficiency test results produced in accordance
with standard tests as required for the Council
Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1]
gnr,Pint 106 % (30 % part-load net efficiency)
Auxiliary electric power at full load Paux,Pn 210 W
Auxiliary electric power at intermediate load Paux,Pint 60 W
Auxiliary electric power at zero load Paux,P0 10 W
Fuel used Natural gas
Ignition method No permanent pilot flame
Burner type Modulating, fan assisted
Table E.2 Data according to other parts of this standard
Description Symbol Value
Heat output QH,gen,out 465,7 GJ = 129,36 MWh
NOTE Example estimated as 220 days x 86 400 s/day x 70 000 W x 0,35 = 465,7 GJ.
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
73
E.3 Calculation procedure
Table E.3 Calculation procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
1 Determine fuel for boiler type Natural gas
2 Obtain test data gnr,Pn = 96 %; gnr,Pint = 106 %
3 Reduce to maximum net
efficiency values (Table A.1)
Table A.1 Pn,net,max = 101 % hence gnr,Pn,net = 96 %
Pint,net,max = 107 % hence gnr,Pint,net = 106 %
4 Convert the efficiencies from
net to gross values
Table A.2
Eq. (A1)
Net-to-gross conversion factor: fntg = 0,901
gnr,Pn,gross = 96 % x 0,901 = 86,5 %
gnr,Pint,gross = 106 % x 0,901 = 95,5 %
5 Categorise the boiler
(i) Select the boiler category condensing, natural gas fuelled, modulating, regular boiler
(ii) If a gas or LPG boiler,
permanent pilot light
fplt = 0 (no permanent pilot light)
(iii) For a storage combination
boiler
Not a storage combination boiler
(iv) For a condensing combined
primary storage unit
Not a CPSU
(v) For a storage combination
boiler or a CPSU
Not a storage combination boiler or a CPSU
6 Calculate seasonal efficiency
(i) Choose appropriate SEDB_UK
equation
Table A.3
Table A.4
Table A.5
Equation n 102 selected
plt
gross Pint, gross Pn,
gross gen,
4 2,0
2
f


|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
(ii) Substitute values
0 4 2,0
2
% 95,5 % 86,5
gross gen,
|
.
|

\
| +
=
= 89,0 %
(iii) Convert back to net seasonal
efficiency
Eq. (A2)
% 89
0,901
1
net gen,
=
= 98,8 %
7 Calculate total generation
thermal loss
Eq. (A3)
98,8%
98,8% 100
GJ 465,7
ls gen, H,

= Q
= 5,75 GJ = 1,6 MWh
8 Calculate fuel heat requirement Eq. (A4)
% 98,8
100 GJ 465,7
in gen, H,

= E
= 471,4 GJ = 130,96 MWh
9 Calculate auxiliary energy
Calculate generation average
power
5.3.3.1
Eq. (8)
s 000 008 19
GJ 465,7
out gen, H,
=
= 24,5 kW
Calculate load factor 5.3.3.2
Eq. (9)
kW 70
kW 24,5
gnr
=
= 0,35
Select equation 5.3.6 gnr > int then use equation (26)
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Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculate actual auxiliary power 5.3.6
Eq. (26)
( ) W 60 W 210
0,3 1
0,3 0,35
W 60
Px aux,

+ = P
= 70,7 W
Calculate total auxiliary energy 5.3.6
Eq. (24)
s 0 W 0 s 000 008 19 W 70,7
aux gnr,
+ = W = 1,034 GJ = 373 kWh
10 Calculate total recoverable
thermal loss
QH,gen,ls,rbl = 0
No recoverable generation thermal loss is taken into account
E.4 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)
Table E.4 Output data
Description Symbol Value
Fuel heat requirement EH,gen,in 471,4 GJ = 130 960 kWh
Total generation thermal loss QH,gen,ls 5,75 GJ = 1 600 kWh
Auxiliary energy WH,gen,aux 1,034 GJ = 373 kWh
Recoverable thermal loss QH,gen,ls,rbl 0 J = 0 kWh
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
75
Annex F
(informative)
Calculation examples for case specific boiler efficiency method
F.1 Condensing boiler example, data declared by the manufacturer
F.1.1 Input data
Table F.1 Boiler data
Description Symbol Value
Boiler type Condensing boiler
Nominal power (heat output) Pn 70 kW
gnr,Pn 96 % (full-load net efficiency)
gnr,w,test,Pn = 70 C
Efficiency test results produced in accordance
with standard tests as required for the Council
Directive 92/42/EEC about Boiler Efficiency [1]
gnr,Pint 106 % (30 % part-load net efficiency)
gnr,w,test,Pint = 30 C (return temperature)
Auxiliary electric power at full load Paux,Pn 210 W
Auxiliary electric power at intermediate load Paux,Pint 60 W
Auxiliary electric power at zero load Paux,P0 10 W
Fuel used Natural gas
Burner type Modulating, fan assisted
Boiler location Boiler room
Type of control Depending on outside temperature
Generation circuit typology Direct connection of boiler
Table F.2 Data according to design or to other parts of this standard
Description Symbol Value
Operation time of the generator tgen 2 592 000 s = 720 h (*)
Generator heat output QH,gen,out 80,9 GJ = 22 472 kWh
Generation average temperature (**) gen,f
48,9 C
Generation return temperature (**) gen,r
37,7 C
Distribution flow rate V'dis 1 207 l/h
(*) Example estimated as 30 days, continuous operation
(**) Generation temperatures are equal to distribution temperatures. See calculation example in H.6.
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F.1.2 Calculation procedure
Table F.3 Calculation procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of boiler average and
return temperature
H.2
Direct connection of the generator
gnr,w,m = gen,m = 48,9 C
gnr,w,r = gen,r = 37,7 C
Calculation of generation
average power
5.3.3.1
Eq. (8)
s 000 592 2
GJ 80,9
out gen, H,
=
= 31,2 kW
Calculation of load factor
5.3.3.2
Eq. (9)
kW 70
kW 31,2
gnr
=
= 0,446 (single boiler, only heating load)
Calculation of corrected boiler
efficiency at full load
5.3.5.1
Table B.3
Eq. (14)
fcorr,Pn = 0,20 %/C (Table B.3, gas condensing boiler)
gnr,w,test,Pn = 70 C (Table B.3, gas condensing boiler)
C) 48,9 C (70 C %/ 0,20 % 96
corr Pn, gnr,
+ =
= 102,4 %
Calculation of corrected thermal
losses at full load
5.3.5.1
Eq. (15)
kW 70
102,4%
102,4%) (100%
corr Pn, ls, gnr,

=
= - 1 674 W
Calculation of corrected boiler
efficiency at intermediate load
5.3.5.2
Table B.4
Eq. (16)
fcorr,Pint = 0,20 %/C (Table B.4, gas condensing boiler)
gnr,test,Pint = 30 C (Table B.4, gas condensing boiler)
C) 37,7 C (30 C %/ 0,20 106%
corr Pint, gnr,
+ =
= 104,45 %
Calculation of corrected thermal
losses at intermediate load
5.3.5.2
Eq. (17)
21kW
104,45%
104,45%) (100%
corr Pint, ls, gnr,

=
= - 895 W
Calculation of boiler stand-by
heat loss at 0 % load
B.3.2
Table B.2
Eq. (B5)
c5 = 4,8 % (Table B.2, gas condensing boiler, after 1994)
c6 = - 0,35 (Table B.2, gas condensing boiler, after 1994)
gnr,test,P0 = 50 C (Table B.2, gas condensing boiler, after 1994)
0,35
W 000 1
W 000 70
100
4,8
W 000 70
P0 ls, gnr,

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= 760 W
Calculation of corrected thermal
losses at 0 % load
5.3.5.3
Table B.7
Eq. (18)
i,brm = 13 C (Table B.7, in the boiler room)
1,25
corr P0, ls, gnr,
C 50
C 13 C 48,9
W 760
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
= 502 W
Calculation of corrected thermal
losses at actual load
5.3.5.4
Eq. (21)
Equation (21) because Px = H,gen,out > Pint
W 895 W) 895 W 674 1 (
kW 21 kW 70
kW 21 kW 31,2
Px ls, gnr,
+

=
= - 1 057 W
Calculation of total generator
thermal loss
5.3.5.4
Eq. (22)
Qgnr,ls = - 1,026 kW x 720 h = - 761 kWh = - 2 740 MJ
Calculation of total generation
thermal loss
5.3.5.5
Eq. (23)
_
=
ls gnr, ls gen, H,
Q Q = - 761 kWh = - 2 740 MJ
Calculation of auxiliary power at
actual load
5.3.6
Eq. (26)
Equation (26) because gnr > int
( ) W 60 W 210
0,30 1
0,30 0,446
W 60
Px aux,

+ = P
= 91,3 W
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Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of generator total
auxiliary energy
5.3.6
Eq. (24)
Wgnr,aux = 91,3 W x 720 h + 0 W x (720 h 720 h) = 65,7 kWh
Calculation of generation total
auxiliary energy
5.3.6
Eq. (27)
_
=
aux gnr, aux gen, H,
W W = 65,7 kWh = 236,5 MJ
Calculation of generator
recovered auxiliary energy
5.3.7.1
No recovered auxiliary energy is explicitly taken into account because it
is already included in test data
Qgnr,aux,rvd = 0
Calculation of generator
recoverable auxiliary energy (to
the heated space)
B.5.1
Eq. (B9)
Table B.7
5.3.7.1
Eq. (29)
frvd,aux = 0,75
frbl,aux = 1 0,75 = 0,25
bbrm = 0,3 (Table B.7, in the boiler room)
Qgnr,aux,rbl = 65,7 kWh x (1 0,3) x 0,25 = 11,5 kWh = 41,4 MJ
Calculation of generator thermal
losses (generator envelope)
5.3.7.2
Table B.6
Eq. (30)
fgnr,env = 0,75 (Table B.6, fan assisted burner)
Qgnr,ls,env,rbl = 502 W x (1 0,3) x 0,75 x 720 h = 73,1 kWh = 263,3 MJ
Calculation of total generation
recovered auxiliary energy
5.3.7.3
Eq. (31)
No recovered auxiliary energy is explicitly taken into account because it
is already included in test data, hence QH,gen,aux,rvd = 0
Calculation of total generation
recoverable thermal losses
5.3.7.3
Eq. (32)
QH,gen,ls,rbl = 73,1 kWh + 11,5 kWh = 84,6 kWh = 304,7 MJ
Calculation of total generation
heat input
5.3.8
Eq. (1)
EH,gen,in = 22 472 kWh 0 kWh 761 kWh = 21 711 kWh = 78 160 MJ
F.1.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)
Table F.4 Output data
Description Symbol Value
Fuel heat requirement EH,gen,in 21 711 kWh = 78 160 MJ
Total generation thermal loss QH,gen,ls - 761 kWh = - 2 740 MJ
Auxiliary energy WH,gen,aux 65,7 kWh = 236,5 MJ
Recoverable thermal loss QH,gen,ls,rbl 84,6 kWh = 304,7 MJ
F.1.4 Conversion of net values to gross values
If losses are to be calculated according to gross calorific value, then the following procedure applies.
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Table F.5 Net to gross conversion procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of the latent heat of
condensation
4.7
Eq. (4)
Table C.13
Default values from Table C.13 for natural gas:
Hs = 35,17 MJ/Nm
Hi = 31,65 MJ/Nm
3
3 3
lat
31,65MJ/Nm
31,65MJ/Nm MJ/Nm 35,17
MJ 160 78

= Q
= 8 693 MJ = 2 415 kWh
Correction of fuel input
4.7
Eq. (5)
EH,gen,in,grs = 78 160 MJ + 8 693 MJ = 86 852 MJ = 24 126 kWh
Correction of total losses
4.7
Eq. (6)
QH,gen,ls,grs = - 2 740 MJ + 8 693 MJ = 5 952 MJ = 1 653 kWh
F.2 Standard boiler example, default data
F.2.1 Input data
Table F.6 Boiler data
Description Symbol Value
Boiler type Standard, atmospheric boiler
Nominal power (heat output) Pn 70 kW
Build year 1988
Fuel used Natural gas
Burner type Single stage, on-off
Burner location Boiler room
Type of control Constant temperature = 70 C
Generation circuit typology Independent flow rate
Table F.7 Data according to design or to other parts of this standard
Description Symbol Value
Operation time of the generator tgen 2 592 000 s = 720 h (*)
Generator heat output QH,gen,out 80,9 GJ = 22 472 kWh
Generation flow temperature gen,f
70 C
Generation return temperature (**) gen,r
37,7 C
Distribution flow rate V'dis 1 207 l/h
Generation flow rate V'gen 6 000 l/h
(*) Example estimated as 30 days, continuous operation.
(**) Generation return temperature is equal to return distribution. See calculation example in H.6.
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F.2.2 Calculation procedure
Table F.8 Calculation procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of generation
average power
5.3.3.1
Eq. (8)
s 000 592 2
GJ 80,9
out gen, H,
=
= 31,2 kW
Calculation of boiler flow, return
and average temperature
H.3
Eq. (H4)
Eq. (H5)
H.5
Eq. (H11)
Independent flow rate. Generation flow rate is higher than distribution
flow rate
gnr,w,f = 70 C (design and set value)

gnr,w,r
=
m/s 10 1,67 C J/kg 186 4 kg/m 1000
W 200 31
C 70
3

= 65,5 C
gnr,w,m =
2
C 65,5 C 70 +
= 67,8 C
Calculation of load factor
5.3.3.2
Eq. (9)
kW 70
kW 31,2
gnr
=
= 0,446 (single boiler, only heating load)
Calculation of full load efficiency
B.3.1
Table B.1
Eq. (B2)
c1 = 82,5 % (Table B.1, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
c2 = 2,0 % (Table B.1, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
gnr,Pn =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
W 000 1
W 000 70
log 2,0% 82,5%
= 86,2 %
Calculation of corrected boiler
efficiency at full load
5.3.5.1
Table B.3
Eq. (14)
fcorr,Pn = 0,04 %/C (Table B.3, standard boiler)
gnr,w,test,Pn = 70 C (Table B.3, standard boiler)
gnr,Pn,corr = 86,2 % + 0,04 %/C x (70 C - 67,8 C) = 86,3 %
Calculation of corrected boiler
thermal losses at full load
5.3.5.1
Eq. (15)
kW 70
% 86,3
%) 86,3 (100%
corr Pn, ls, gnr,

=
= 11 132 W
Calculation of intermediate load
efficiency
B.3.1
Table B.1
Eq. (B3)
c3 = 78,0 % (Table B.1, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
c4 = 3,0 % (Table B.1, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
gnr,Pint =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
W 000 1
W 000 70
log 3,0% 78% = 83,5 %
Calculation of corrected boiler
efficiency at intermediate load
5.3.5.2
Table B.4
Eq. (16)
fcorr,Pint = 0,05 %/C (Table B.4, standard boiler)
gnr,w,test,Pint = 50 C (Table B.4, standard boiler)
gnr,Pint,corr = 83,5 % + 0,05 %/C x (50 C - 67,8 C) = 82,6 %
Calculation of corrected boiler
thermal losses at intermediate
load
5.3.5.2
Eq. (17)
Pint = 30 % x Pn = 21 kW
kW 21
% 82,6
%) 82,6 % (100
corr Pint, ls, gnr,

= = 4 409 W
Calculation of boiler stand-by
heat loss at 0 % load
B.3.2
Table B.2
Eq. (B5)
c5 = 7,0 % (Table B.2, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
c6 = - 0,30 (Table B.2, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
gnr,test,P0 = 50 C (Table B.2, atmospheric gas boiler, 1978 to 1994)
0,30
W 000 1
W 000 70
100
7,0
W 000 70
P0 ls, gnr,

|
|
.
|

\
|
= = 1 370 W
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Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of corrected thermal
losses at 0 % load
5.3.5.3
Table B.7
Eq. (18)
i,brm = 13 C (Table B.7, in the boiler room)
1,25
corr P0, ls, gnr,
C 50
C 13 C 67,8
W 370 1
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
= 1 535 W
Calculation of corrected thermal
losses at actual load
5.3.5.4
Eq. (21)
Equation (21) because Px = H,gen,out > Pint
W 810 5 W 409 4 W) 409 4 W 132 (11
kW 21 kW 70
kW 21 kW 31,2
Px ls, gnr,
= +

=
Calculation of total generator
thermal loss
5.3.5.4
Eq. (22)
Qgnr,ls = 5,81 kW x 720 h = 4 183 kWh = 15 060 MJ
Calculation of total generation
thermal loss
5.3.5.5
Eq. (23)
_
=
ls gnr, ls gen, H,
Q Q = 4 183 kWh = 15 060 MJ
Calculation of auxiliary power at
full load
B.4
Table B.5
Eq. (B8)
c7 = 40 W (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
c8 = 0,148 W (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
n = 1 (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
1
,
000 1
000 70
148 , 0 40
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W
W
W W P
Pn aux
= 50 W
Calculation of auxiliary power at
intermediate load
B.4
Table B.5
Eq. (B8)
c7 = 40 W (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
c8 = 0,148 W (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
n = 1 (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
1
int ,
000 1
000 21
148 , 0 40
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W
W
W W P
P aux
= 43 W
Calculation of auxiliary power at
zero load
B.4
Table B.5
Eq. (B8)
c7 = 15 W (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
c8 = 0 W (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
n = 0 (Table B.5, boiler with atmospheric burner up to 250 kW)
0
0 ,
000 1
000 21
0 15
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W
W
W P
P aux
= 15 W
Calculation of auxiliary power at
actual load
5.3.6
Eq. (26)
Equation (26) because gnr > int
( ) W W W P
Px aux
43 50
30 , 0 1
30 , 0 446 , 0
43
,

+ =
= 44,6 W
Calculation of generator total
auxiliary energy
5.3.6
Eq. (24)
Wgnr,aux = 44,6 W x 720 h + 0 W x (720 h 720 h) = 32,1 kWh
Calculation of generation total
auxiliary energy
5.3.6
Eq. (27)
_
=
aux gnr aux gen H
W W
, , ,
= 32,1 kWh = 115,7 MJ
Calculation of generator
recovered auxiliary energy
5.3.7.1
No recovered auxiliary energy is explicitly taken into account because it is
already included in default data
Qgnr,aux,rvd = 0
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Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of generator
recoverable auxiliary energy (to
the heated space)
B.5.1
Eq. (B9)
Table B.7
5.3.7.1
Eq. (29)
frvd,aux = 0,75
frbl,aux = 1 0,75 = 0,25
bbrm = 0,3 (Table B.7, in the boiler room)
Qgnr,aux,rbl = 32,1 kWh x (1 0,3) x 0,25 = 5,6 kWh = 20,2 MJ
Calculation of generator thermal
losses (generator envelope)
5.3.7.2
Table B.6
Eq. (30)
fgnr,env = 0,50 (Table B.6, atmospheric burner)
Qgnr,ls,env,rbl = 1 535 W x (1 0,3) x 0,50 x 720 h = 149,2 kWh = 537,2 MJ
Calculation of total generation
recovered auxiliary energy
5.3.7.3
Eq. (31)
No recovered auxiliary energy is explicitly taken into account because it is
already included in default data, hence QH,gen,aux,rvd = 0
Calculation of total generation
recoverable thermal losses
5.3.7.3
Eq. (32)
QH,gen,ls,rbl = 149,2 kWh + 5,6 kWh = 154,8 kWh = 557,4 MJ
Calculation of total generation
heat input
5.3.8
Eq. (1)
EH,gen,in = 22 472 kWh 0 kWh + 4 183 kWh = 26 656 kWh = 95 960 MJ
F.2.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)
Table F.9 Output data
Description Symbol Value
Fuel heat requirement EH,gen,in 26 656 kWh = 95 960 MJ
Total generation thermal loss QH,gen,ls 4 183 kWh = 15 060 MJ
Auxiliary energy WH,gen,aux 32,1 kWh = 115,7 MJ
Recoverable thermal loss QH,gen,ls,rbl 154,8 kWh = 557,4 MJ
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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Annex G
(informative)
Calculation examples for boiler cycling method
G.1 Modulating condensing boiler
G.1.1 Input data
Table G.1 Boiler data
Description Symbol
References
Value
Boiler type Modulating condensing boiler
Nominal power (heat input) cmb 74 kW
Heat losses through the chimney with burner
on (full load)
ch,on 4 %
Boiler return water temperature at test
conditions for ch,on
gnr,w,r,test
60 C
Electrical power consumption of boiler
auxiliaries at full load (before the burner)
Pbr 210 W
Electrical power consumption of boiler
auxiliaries (after the burner)
Ppmp 0 W (direct connection to distribution sub-system, no
primary pump)
Data from default tables
Reference power ref 74 kW
If not specified, it is assumed equal to cmb
Correction factor for calculation of ch,on,corr
fcorr,ch,on
Table C.1
0,045 %/C
Condensing boiler
Exponent for the load factor for calculation of
ch,on,corr
nch,on
Table C.2
0,1
Steel boiler
Heat losses through the boiler envelope ge
Table C.3
Eq. (C1)
High efficiency well insulated boiler
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
W 000 1
W 000 74
log % 0,44 % 1,72
ge

= 0,90 %
Reduction factor of boiler envelope thermal
losses
kge,rvd
Table C.4
0,7
Boiler located inside boiler room
Exponent for the load factor for calculation of
ge,corr
nge
Table C.5
0
Continuous circulation of water
Heat losses through the chimney with the
burner off
ch,off
Table C.6
0,2 %
Boiler with automatic closure of air intake at burner off
Exponent for the load factor for calculation of
ch,off,corr
nch,off
Table C.7
0
Continuous circulation of water
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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83
Description Symbol
References
Value
Temperature of test room for ge and ch,off i,brm,test
C.2.2
C.2.3
20 C
Boiler average water temperature at test
conditions for ge and ch,off
gnr,w,m,test
C.2.2
C.2.3
70 C
Recovery factor of Pbr kbr
Table C.9
0,8
Default
Recovery factor of Ppmp kpmp
Table C.9
0,8
Default
Additional data for modulating burner
Minimum combustion power of the boiler cmb,min 18 kW
Heat losses through the chimney with burner
on (minimum load)
ch,on,min 3 %
Electrical power consumption of boiler
auxiliaries at minimum combustion power
Pbr,min 60 W
Additional data for condensing boiler
Temperature difference between boiler return
water temperature and flue gas temperature
(full load)
wfg 25 C
Dry flue gas oxygen contents (full load) XO2 fg,dry 3 %
Additional data from default tables for condensing boiler
Combustion air relative humidity xair
Table C.14
50 %
Flue gas relative humidity xfg
Table C.14
100 %
Additional data for condensing multistage or modulating boiler
Temperature difference between boiler return
water temperature and flue gas temperature at
minimum combustion power
wfg,min 6 C
Flue gas oxygen contents at minimum
combustion power
XO2,fg,dry,min 4 %
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
84
Table G.2 Data according to design or to other parts of this standard
Description Symbol Value
Operation time of the generator tgen 2 592 000 s = 720 h (*)
Generator heat output QH,gen,out 80,9 GJ = 22 472 kWh
Generation average temperature (**) gen,f
48,9 C
Generation return temperature (**) gen,r
37,7 C
Distribution flow rate V'dis 1 207 l/h
Installation room temperature i,brm
13 C (default value for boiler room, Table C.4)
Combustion air temperature air 8 C (monthly external average temperature)
(*) Example estimated as 30 days, continuous operation.
(**) Generation temperature is equal to average distribution. See calculation example in H.6.
Table G.3 Data according to fuel
Description Symbol Value
Fuel Natural gas (Groningen)
Gross calorific value Hs 35 169 kJ/Nm
Net calorific value Hi 31 652 kJ/Nm
Stoichiometric dry air Vair,st,dry 8,4 Nm/Nm
Stoichiometric dry flue gas Vfg,st,dry 7,7 Nm/Nm
Stoichiometric water production mH2O,st 1,405 kg/Nm
NOTE Data from Table C.13
G.1.2 Calculation procedure
Table G.4 Calculation procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of boiler
average and return
temperature
H.2
Direct connection of the generator
gnr,w,m = gen,m = 48,9 C
gnr,w,r = gen,r = 37,7 C
Selection of calculation
procedure
The boiler is modulating and is equipped with a condensing boiler, therefore
the calculation procedure of 5.4.7 applies with extensions specified in 5.4.8.
Calculation of cond,min (*)
Calculate flue gas
temperature
5.4.8.7
Eq. (74)
fg = 37,7 C + 6 C = 43,7 C (wfg,min applied in eq. (74))
Calculate actual flue gas
volume
5.4.8.7
Eq. (75) 4% 20,94%
20,94%
m 7,7
3
dry fg,

= N V
= 9,52 Nm (XO2,fg,dry,min applied in eq. (75))
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
85
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculate actual
combustion air
5.4.8.7
Eq. (76)
Vair,dry = 8,4 m + 9,52 m 7,7 m = 10,22 m
Calculate air and flue gas
saturation humidity
5.4.8.7
Table 3
mH2O,air,sat = 9,45 g/m with air = 8 C
mH2O,fg,sat = 77,84 g/m with fg = 43,7 C
Calculate combustion air
absolute humidity
5.4.8.7
Eq. (77) 100%
50%
10,2m 9,45g/m
3 3
air H2O,
= m
= 48 g
Calculate flue gas absolute
humidity
5.4.8.7
Eq. (78) 100%
100%
9,52m 77,84g/m
3 3
fg H2O,
= m
= 741 g
Condensate balance
5.4.8.7
Eq. (79)
mH2O,cond,min = 1 405 g + 48 g 741 g = 712 g
Calculate specific latent
heat of condensation
5.4.8.7
Eq. (80)
hcond,fg,min = 2 500 600 J/kg 43,7 C x 2 435 J/kgC = 2,394 kJ/g
Calculate actual latent heat
of condensation
5.4.8.7
Eq. (81)
Qcond,min = 712 g x 2,394 kJ/g = 1,71 MJ
Calculate the condensation
recovery factor
5.4.8.7
Eq. (83)
MJ 31,6
MJ 1,71
100
min cond,
=
= 5,39 %
Try single stage procedure using minimum power output data
Step 1 5.4.6 Single generator: QH,gen,out = 80,9 GJ
Step 2 5.4.6 Operation time: tgen = 720 h
Step 3 5.4.6 Set cmb = 1
Step 4
5.4.3
Eq. (40)
Eq. (41)
Eq. (44)
( ) [ ] 5,39% 1 C %/ 0,045 C 60 C 37,7 3%
0,1
cond min, on, ch,
+ =
= - 3,39
0
corr ge,
1
C 20 C 70
C 13 C 48,9
0,7 % 0,9


=
= 0,45 %
0
corr off, ch,
1
C 20 C 70
C 13 C 48,9
% 0,2


=
= 0,14 %
Step 5
5.4.5
Eq. (50)
Eq. (52)
Eq. (53)
Qbr = 60 W x 0,80 x 720 h = 34,6 kWh
Qpmp = 0 W x 0,80 x 720 h = 0 kWh
WH,gen,aux = 34,6 kWh / 0,80 = 43,2 kWh
Step 6
5.4.6
Eq. (54)
( )
1,687
% 0,14 % 3,39
kW 74
kW 18
kW 74
kW 0,06 0,8 kW 18
% 100
% 0,45 % 0,14
kW 74 h 720
kWh 0 kWh 472 22
% 100
cmb
=
+
+

+ +

=
Step 7 5.4.6
After each iteration, the results are:
cmb = 1,685 1,685 1,685
Since the final value is greater than 1, the burner is modulating between minimum and maximum power and
cmb,avg has to be calculated according to the procedure in 5.4.7.3.
Step 1 5.4.7.3 Single generator: QH,gen,out = 80,9 GJ
Step 2
5.4.3
Eq. (41)
( )
( )
0
corr ge,
1
C 50
C 13 C 48,9
0,7 0,9%


=
= 0,45
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Step 3
5.4.3
Eq. (40)
( ) [ ]
0,1
corr min, on, ch,
1 C %/ 0,045 C 60 C 37,7 % 3 + =
= 2 %
( ) [ ]
0,1
corr max, on, ch,
1 C %/ 0,045 C 60 C 37,7 4% + =
= 3 %
Step 4
5.4.5
Eq. (50)
Qbr = 210 W x 0,80 x 720 h = 121 kWh
Qbr,min = 60 W x 0,80 x 720 h = 34,6 kWh
Step 5 5.4.7.3 cmb,avg = 74 kW
Step 6a
5.4.7.3
Eq. (58)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 74
% 2 % 3 % 2
corr avg, on, ch,

+ =
= 3 %
Step 6b
5.4.8.6
Eq. (72)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 74
C 6 C 25 C 6
avg wfg,

+ = = 25 C
Step 6c
5.4.8.6
Eq. (73)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 74
% 4 % 3 % 4
avg dry, fg, O2,

+ = X
= 3 %
Step 6d 5.4.8.7
Calculation of cond using fg = 37,7 C + 25 C = 62,7 C and XO2,fg,dry = 3 %
yields:
Vfg,dry = 8,99 m
Vair,dry = 9,69 m
mH2O,air,sat = 9,45 g/m with air = 8 C
mH2O,fg,sat = 226,11 g/m with fg = 62,7 C
mH2O,air = 46 g
mH2O,fg = 2 032 g
mH2O,cond = - 581 g
cond,avg = 0 % because mH2O,cond < 0.
Step 6e
5.4.8.6
Eq.(71)
ch,on,avg,cond = 3 % - 0 % = 3 %
Step 7
5.4.7.3
Eq. (59)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 74
kWh 34,6 kWh 121 kWh 34,6
avg br,

+ = Q = 121 kWh
Step 8
5.4.7.3
Eq. (60)
100
% 3
1
kW 74
100
0,45
h 720
kWh 121 kWh 0 kWh 472 22
avg cmb,

+

= = 32,347 kW
Step 9 5.4.7.3 Iterate againg from step 6 with cmb,avg = 32,347 kW
Step 6a (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.7.3
Eq. (58)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 32,35
% 2 % 3 % 2
corr avg, on, ch,

+ =
= 2,26 %
Step 6b (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.8.6
Eq. (72)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 32,35
C 6 C 25 C 6
avg wfg,

+ =
= 10,9 C
Step 6c (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.8.6
Eq. (73)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 32,35
% 4 % 3 % 4
avg dry, fg, O2,

+ = X
= 3,74 %
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
87
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Step 6d (2
nd
iteration) 5.4.8.7
Calculation of cond using fg = 37,7 C + 10,9 C = 48,6 C and XO2,fg,dry =
3,74 % yields
Vfg,dry = 9,38 m
Vair,dry = 10,08 m
mH2O,air,sat = 9,45 g/m with air = 8 C
mH2O,fg,sat = 103,98 g/m with fg = 48,6 C
mH2O,air = 48 g
mH2O,fg = 975 g
mH2O,cond = 478 g
hcond,fg = 2,382 kJ/g
cond,avg = 3,59 %
Step 6e (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.8.6
Eq. (71)
ch,on,avg,cond = 2,26 % - 3,59 % = - 1,34 %
Step 7 (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.7.3
Eq. (59)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 32,35
kWh 34,6 kWh 121 kWh 34,6
avg br,

+ = Q = 56,74 kWh
Step 8 (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.7.3
Eq. (60)
100
% 1,34
1
kW 74
100
0,45
h 720
kWh 56,7 kWh 0 kWh 472 22
avg cmb,

+

= = 31,05 kW
Step 9 (further iterations) 5.4.7.3
Iterations starting again from step 6 yield the following values for cmb,avg:
30,991 kW 30,988 kW and converges to 30,988 kW
Step 10
5.4.7.3
Eq. (61)
EH,gen,in = 30,988 kW x 720 h = 22 311 kWh = 80 321 MJ
Step 11
5.4.7.3
Eq. (62)
( )
kW 18 kW 74
kW 18 kW 30,988
W 60 W 210 W 60
avg br,

+ = = 94,8 W
Step 12
5.4.7.3
Eq. (63)
WH,gen,aux = 720 h x (94,8 W + 0 W) = 68,2 kWh
Step 13
5.4.7.3
Eq. (64)
WH,gen,aux,rvd = 720 h x (94,8 W x 0,8 + 0 W x 0,8) = 54,6 kWh = 197 MJ
Step 14
5.4.7.3
Eq. (65)
QH,gen,ls = 22 311 kWh 22 472 kWh + 55 kWh = - 106 kWh = - 382 MJ
(*) Calculation referred to the unit mass of fuel (Nm in this example).
NOTE All iterations shown converge in 2 or 3 runs.
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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G.1.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)
Table G.5 Output data
Description Symbol Value
Fuel heat requirement EH,gen,in 22 311 kWh = 80 321 MJ
Total generation thermal loss QH,gen,ls - 106 kWh = - 382 MJ
Auxiliary energy WH,gen,aux 68,2 kWh
Recoverable thermal loss QH,gen,ls,rbl 0 kWh = 0 MJ
G.2 Standard, on-off atmospheric boiler
G.2.1 Input data
Table G.6 Boiler data
Description Symbol
References
Value
Boiler type Single stage atmospheric boiler
Nominal power (heat input) cmb 74 kW
Boiler average water temperature at test
conditions for ch,on
gnr,w,m,test
70 C
Data from default tables
Reference power ref
5.4.2
74 kW
If not specified, it is assumed equal to cmb
Heat losses through the chimney with burner
on (full load)
ch,on
Table C.1
12 %
Atmospheric boiler
Correction factor for calculation of ch,on,corr
fcorr,ch,on
Table C.1
0,045 %/C
Atmospheric boiler
Exponent for the load factor for calculation of
ch,on,corr
nch,on
Table C.2
0,15
Cast iron boiler
Heat losses through the boiler envelope ge
Table C.3
Eq. (C1)
Old boiler with average insulation
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
W 000 1
W 000 74
log % 1,76 % 6,79
ge

= 3,61 %
Reduction factor of boiler envelope thermal
losses
kge,rvd
Table C.4
0,7
Boiler located inside boiler room
Exponent for the load factor for calculation of
ge,corr
nge
Table C.5
0
Continuous circulation of water
Heat losses through the chimney with the
burner off
ch,off
Table C.6
1,6 %
Atmospheric gas fired boiler, chimney height > 10 m
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Description Symbol
References
Value
Exponent for the load factor for calculation of
ch,off,corr
nch,off
Table C.7
0
Continuous circulation of water
Temperature of test room for ge and ch,off i,brm,test
C.2.2
C.2.3
20 C
Boiler average water temperature at test
conditions for ge and ch,off
gnr,w,m,test
C.2.2
C.2.3
70 C
Auxiliary power before the combustion
chamber
Pbr
C.3
Table C.8
Eq. (C2)
c3 = 40 W (atmospheric burner)
c4 = 0,148 W (atmospheric burner)
n = 1 (atmospheric burner)
1
br
W 000 1
W 000 74
W 0,148 W 40
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = P
= 51 W
Auxiliary power after the combustion chamber Ppmp
C.3
Table C.8
Eq. (C2)
c3 = 100 W (all boilers)
c4 = 2 W (all boilers)
n = 1 (all boilers)
1
pmp
W 000 1
W 000 74
W 2 W 100
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = P
= 248 W
Recovery factor of Pbr
kbr
Table C.9
0,8
Default
Recovery factor of Ppmp
kpmp
Table C.9
0,8
Default
Table G.7 Data according to design or to other parts of this standard
Description Symbol Value
Operation time of the generator tgen 2 592 000 s = 720 h (*)
Generator heat output QH,gen,out 80,9 GJ = 22 472 kWh
Generation average temperature (**) gen,f
48,9 C
Generation return temperature (**) gen,r
37,7 C
Distribution flow rate V'dis 1 207 l/h
Installation room temperature i,brm
13 C (default value for boiler room, Table C.4)
(*) Example estimated as 30 days, continuous operation.
(**) Generation temperature is equal to average distribution. See calculation example in H.6.
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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G.2.2 Calculation procedure
Table G.8 Calculation procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Calculation of generation
average power
s 000 592 2
GJ 80,9
out gen, H,
=
= 31,2 kW
Calculation of boiler flow,
return and average
temperature
H.3
Eq. (H4)
Eq. (H5)
H.5
Eq. (H11)
Independent flow rate. Generation flow rate is higher than distribution flow
rate
gnr,w,f = 70 C (design and set value)
gnr,w,r =
m/s 10 1,67 C J/kg 186 4 kg/m 1000
W 200 31
C 70
3


= 65,5 C
gnr,w,m =
2
C 65,5 C 70 +
= 67,8 C
Single stage procedure according to 5.4.6
Step 1 5.4.6 Single generator: QH,gen,out = 80,9 GJ
Step 2 5.4.6 Operation time: tgen = 720 h
Step 3 5.4.6 Set cmb = 1
Step 4
5.4.3
Eq. (40)
Eq. (41)
Eq. (44)
( ) [ ]
0,15
corr on, ch,
1 C %/ 0,045 C 67,8 C 70 12% + =
= 11,9 %
0
corr ge,
1
C 20 C 70
C 13 C 67,8
0,7 % 3,61


=
= 2,77 %
0
corr ch.off,
1
C 20 C 70
C 13 C 67,8
% ,6 1


=
= 1,75 %
Step 5
5.4.5
Eq. (50)
Eq. (52)
Eq. (53)
Qbr = 51 W x 0,80 x 720 h x 1 = 29,4 kWh
Qpmp = 248 W x 0,80 x 720 h = 142,8 kWh
WH,gen,aux = 29,4 kWh / 0,8 + 142,8 kWh / 0,8 = 215 kWh
Step 6
5.4.6
Eq. (54)
% 1,75 % 11,9
kW 74
kW 74
kW 74
kW 0,051 0,8 kW 74
% 100
% 2,77 % 1,75
kW 74 h 720
kWh 142,8 kWh 472 22
% 100
cmb
+
+

+ +

=
= 0,516
Step 7 5.4.6 Iterate again from step 4 with cmb = 0,516
Step 4 (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.3
Eq. (40)
Eq. (41)
Eq. (44)
( ) [ ]
0,15
corr on, ch,
0,516 C %/ 0,045 C 67,8 C 70 12% + =
= 10,8 %
0
corr ge,
0,516
C 20 C 70
C 13 C 67,8
0,7 % 3,61


=
= 2,77 %
0
corr off, ch,
0,516
C 20 C 70
C 13 C 67,8
% 1,6


=
= 1,75 %
Step 5 (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.5
Eq. (50)
Eq. (52)
Eq. (53)
Qbr = 51 W x 0,80 x 720 h x 0,516 = 15,2 kWh
Qpmp = 248 W x 0,80 x 720 h = 142,8 kWh
WH,gen,aux = 15,2 kWh / 0,8 + 142,8 kWh / 0,8 = 197,5 kWh
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Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Step 6 (2
nd
iteration)
5.4.6
Eq. (54)
% 1,75 % 10,8
kW 74
kW 74
kW 74
kW 0,051 0,8 kW 74
% 100
% 2,77 % 1,75
kW 74 h 720
kWh 142,8 kWh 472 22
% 100
cmb
+
+

+ +

=
= 0,510
Step 7 (further iterations) 5.4.6
After each iteration, further results are:
cmb = 0,510 0,510 0,510
and cmb converges to 0,510 (WH,gen,aux converges to197,3 kWh)
Step 8
5.4.6
Eq. (55)
EH,gen,in = 74 kW x 720 h x 0,51 = 27 169 kWh = 97 808 MJ
Step 9
5.4.6
Eq. (56)
QH,gen,ls = 27 169 kWh 22 472 kWh + 15 kWh + 143 kWh = 4 855 kWh
= 17 478 MJ
NOTE All iterations shown converge in 2 or 3 runs.
G.2.3 Output data (connection to other parts of EN 15316)
Table G.9 Output data
Description Symbol Value
Fuel heat requirement EH,gen,in 27 169 kWh = 97 808 MJ
Total generation thermal loss QH,gen,ls 4 855 kWh = 17 478 MJ
Auxiliary energy WH,gen,aux 197,3 kWh
Recoverable thermal loss QH,gen,ls,rbl 0 kWh = 0 MJ
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
92
Annex H
(informative)
Boiler water temperature calculation
H.1 Boiler flow temperature and return temperature
The following data:

gnr,w,m
average water temperature in the boiler;

gnr,w,r
average return water temperature to the boiler;
are required to correct heat loss coefficients and calculate condensate production according to actual
operation conditions.
Calculation of flow rates is not fully detailed in this standard. Any design flow rate value shall be calculated
separately with appropriate methods.
Calculation is performed starting with the emission sub-system and taking into account the hydraulic design
or the actual hydraulic layout as well as the operation of the heating system. Subsequently, the effect of the
type of generation circuit is taken into account.
A generation circuit may include mixing, recirculation or buffer connections. Therefore, generation circuit flow
rate and temperatures may differ from boiler flow rate and temperatures.
In this annex, the following indices are applied:
gnr for boiler values (generator);
gen for generation circuit values.
An example of a generation circuit is shown in Figure H1.
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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Figure H1 - Sample generation circuit
Key
GNR generator (boiler)
PMP primary pump
BV balancing valve
gen,f generation circuit flow temperature, which is also the distribution flow temperature dis,f
gen,r generation circuit return temperature, which is also the distribution return temperature dis,r
V'gen generation circuit flow rate, which is also the distribution flow rate V'dis
H,gen,out heat power output of the generation circuit
V'gnr boiler flow rate
gnr,w,f boiler flow temperature
gnr,w,r boiler return temperature
gnr,w,m boiler average water temperature
H.2 Boiler flow rate is the same as the distribution flow rate (no by-pass)
If the boiler flow rate V'
gnr
is the same as the generation circuit flow rate V'
gen
, then
f gen, f w, gnr,
= (H1)
r gen, r w, gnr,
= (H2)
gen gnr
' ' V V = (H3)
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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Examples of such circuits are given in Figure H2.
NOTE Flow in the buffer is controlled and not allowed to cool or heat completely.
Key
GNR generator (boiler)
PMP primary pump
BV balancing valve
BUF buffer
Figure H2 - Boiler flow rate is the same as generation circuit flow rate
H.3 Boiler flow rate is not the same as the distribution flow rate (by-pass
connection or recirculation pump)
If the boiler flow rate V'
gnr
is greater than the generation circuit flow rate V'
gnr
(V'
gnr
> V'
gen
), then:
f gen, f w, gnr,
= (H4)
gnr w w
out gnr,
f w, gen, r w, gnr,
' V c


= (H5)
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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where

w
density of water;
c
w
specific heat of water;

gnr,out
boiler heat output.
NOTE gnr,w,r is higher than gen,w,r.
If the boiler flow rate V'
gen
is less than the generation circuit flow rate V'
gen
(V'
gnr
< V'
gen
), then:
r gen, r w, gnr,
= (H6)
gnr w w
out gnr,
r w, gen, f w, gnr,
' V c


+ = (H7)
NOTE gnr,f is higher than gen,f.

gnr,w,r
and
gnr,w,f
are in any case given by:
(
(


=
gnr w w
out gnr,
f w, gen, r gen, r w, gnr,
; max
V' c

(H8)
(
(


+ =
gnr w w
out gnr,
r w, gen, f gen, f w, gnr,
'
; max
V c

(H9)
which combine equations (H4) to (H7).
Examples of such circuits are given in Figure H3.
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
96
Key
GNR generator (boiler)
PMP primary pump
BV balancing valve
BUF buffer
Figure H3 Boiler flow rate is not the same as generation circuit flow rate
NOTE 1 The flow rate Vgnr through the boiler is the average flow rate. Using a buffer allows low flow rate operation of
the generation circuit through intermittent operation of the boiler pump.
NOTE 2 Some old systems incorporate a condensate prevention pump. Its flow rate adds to the generation circuit
flow rate to give the boiler flow rate.
H.4 Parallel connection of boilers
If more boilers are connected in parallel, the common return temperature
gnr,r
and the resulting flow
temperature
gnr,f
are calculated according to H.3 using the total flow rate and the total heat output.
The average heat power output
gnr,out,i
and flow rate V'
gnr,i
of each boiler have to be determined.
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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Then the flow temperature
gnr,w,f,i
of each boiler i is calculated with:
i gnr, w w
i out, gnr,
r w, gnr, i f, w, gnr,
' V c


+ = (H10)
An example of a parallel connection is given in Figure H4.
Key
GNR1, GNR2 generators (boilers)
PMP1, PMP2 primary pumps
BV balancing valve
Figure H4 - Parallel connection of boilers
H.5 Boiler average water temperature
The boiler average water temperature
gnr,w,m
is given by:
2
r w, gnr, f w, gnr,
m w, gnr,
+
= (H11)
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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H.6 Example of water temperature calculation
Table H.1 Input data
Description
Symbol
References
Value
Distribution sub-system output QH,dis,out
EN15316-2-3
75 125 MJ = 20 868 kWh
Distribution sub-system input QH,dis,in
EN15316-2-3
80 900 MJ = 22 472 kWh
Type of heat emitters radiators
Nominal power of installed heat emitters emr,n 70 000 W
Design temperature difference between
emitters and room temperature
em,des 50 C
Exponent of the emitters nemr 1,3
Internal temperature of heated space i 20 C
Calculation period tci 720 h
Operation time of distribution tdis 720 h (continuous operation)
Type of heat emitter control Thermostatic valves
Set emitters flow temperature emr,f 53 C
Type of distribution circuit Mixing valve
Set distribution flow temperature dis,f 60 C
Table H.2 Calculation procedure
Procedure step References Calculation details and results
Emitters temperature calculation according to EN 15316-2-3:2007, Clauses 7 and 8.1.
Emitters load
EN 15316-2-3
Eq. (38)
h 720 kW 70
kWh 472 22
dis

=
= 0,414
Calculation of the emitters
average temperature
EN 15316-2-3
Eq. (43)
emr,m = 20 C + 50 C x 0,414
1/1,3
= 45,4 C
Calculation of the emitters
return temperature
EN 15316-2-3
Eq. (45)
emr,r = max (2 x 45,4 C 53 C; 2 C) = 37,7 C
Distribution circuit temperature calculation according to EN 15316-2-3:2007, Clause 8.3.
Distribution circuit flow
temperature
dis,f = 60 C (set value)
Distribution circuit return
temperature
EN 15316-2-3
Eq. (49)
dis,r = 37,7 C (the same as emitters flow temperature)
Distribution input power dis,in = 22 472 kWh/720 h = 31,21 kW
Distribution circuit flow rate
EN 15316-2-3
Eq. (50)
( ) C 37,7 C 60 C J/kg 4186 kg/m 1000
W 211 31
.

=
dis
V
= 0,33 kg/s = 1 207 kg/h
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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EN 15316-4-1:2008 (E)
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Bibliography
[1] Council Directive 92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 about the efficiency requirements of the new gas or oil
boilers
[2] EN 15316-1, Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and
system efficiencies Part 1: General
[3] EN 15316-3-3, Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and
system efficiencies Part 3.3: Domestic hot water systems, generation
[4] EN ISO 9488, Solar energy Vocabulary (ISO 9488:1999)
[5] ISO 13602-2, Technical energy systems Methods for analysis Part 2: Weighting and aggregation of
energywares
UNI EN 15316-4-1:2008
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Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.
UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano
di Unificazione
Via Sannio, 2
20137 Milano, Italia
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