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UNI EN 15316-2-3:2008
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UNI EN 15316-2-3
MAGGIO 2008
Impianti di riscaldamento degli edifici
Metodo per il calcolo dei requisiti energetici e dei
rendimenti dellimpianto
Parte 2-3: Sistemi di distribuzione del calore negli ambienti
Heating systems in buildings
Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system
efficiencies
Part 2-3: Space heating distribution systems
La norma ha lo scopo di fornire una metodologia per calcolare/sti-
mare le perdite termiche delle reti di distribuzione degli impianti di
riscaldamento ad acqua e il relativo fabbisogno di energia elettrica
ausiliaria.
TESTO INGLESE
La presente norma la versione ufficiale in lingua inglese della
norma europea EN 15316-2-3 (edizione luglio 2007).
La presente norma, unitamente alla UNI/TS 11300-2:2008 sostitui-
sce la UNI 10347:1993.
ICS 91.140.10
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UNI Pagina II
UNI EN 15316-2-3:2008
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PREMESSA NAZIONALE
La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, del-
la norma europea EN 15316-2-3 (edizione luglio 2007), che assume
cos lo status di norma nazionale italiana.
La presente norma stata elaborata sotto la competenza dellente
federato allUNI
CTI - Comitato Termotecnico Italiano
La presente norma stata ratificata dal Presidente dellUNI ed
entrata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 28 maggio 2008.
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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM
EN 15316-2-3
July 2007
ICS 91.140.10
English Version
Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system
energy requirements and system efficiencies - Part 2-3: Space
heating distribution systems
Systmes de chauffage dans les btiments - Mthode de
calcul des besoins nergtiques et des rendements des
systmes - Partie 2-3: Systmes de distribution de
chauffage des locaux
Heizsysteme in Gebuden - Verfahren zur Berechnung der
Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der Anlagen -
Teil 2-3: Wrmeverteilungssysteme
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 June 2007.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMI T EUROPEN DE NORMALI SATI ON
EUROPI SCHES KOMI TEE FR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels
2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Ref. No. EN 15316-2-3:2007: E
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EN 15316-2-3:2007 (E)
2
Contents Page
Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................4
Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................6
1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7
2 Normative references............................................................................................................................7
3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7
4 Symbols, units and indices ..................................................................................................................9
5 Principle of the method and definitions............................................................................................10
6 Auxiliary energy demand....................................................................................................................12
6.1 General..................................................................................................................................................12
6.2 Design hydraulic power ......................................................................................................................12
6.3 Detailed calculation method...............................................................................................................13
6.3.1 Input/output data..................................................................................................................................13
6.3.2 Calculation method..............................................................................................................................14
6.3.3 Correction factors................................................................................................................................15
6.3.4 Expenditure energy factor ..................................................................................................................17
6.3.5 Intermittent operation..........................................................................................................................21
6.4 Deviations from the detailed calculation method.............................................................................23
6.5 Monthly auxiliary energy demand......................................................................................................23
6.6 Recoverable auxiliary energy.............................................................................................................24
7 System thermal loss of distribution systems...................................................................................24
7.1 General..................................................................................................................................................24
7.2 Detailed calculation method...............................................................................................................24
7.2.1 Input/output data..................................................................................................................................24
7.2.2 Calculation method..............................................................................................................................25
7.2.3 Thermal losses of accessories...........................................................................................................26
7.2.4 Recoverable and un-recoverable system thermal loss ...................................................................27
7.2.5 Total system thermal loss...................................................................................................................27
7.3 Calculation of linear thermal transmittance (W/mK):.......................................................................27
7.4 Calculation of mean part load of distribution per zone...................................................................28
8 Calculation of supply and return temperature depending on mean part load of distribution.....28
8.1 Temperature calculation of heat emitters .........................................................................................28
8.1.1 General..................................................................................................................................................28
8.1.2 Continuous control depending on outdoor temperature ................................................................29
8.1.3 Continuous control with thermostatic valves...................................................................................29
8.1.4 On-Off control with room thermostat ................................................................................................30
8.2 Effect of by-pass connections............................................................................................................30
8.3 Effect of mixing valves........................................................................................................................31
8.4 Parallel connection of distribution circuits.......................................................................................32
8.5 Primary circuits....................................................................................................................................33
Annex A (informative) Preferred procedures .................................................................................................34
A.1 Simplified calculation method for determination of annual auxiliary energy demand ................34
A.1.1 Input/output data..................................................................................................................................34
A.1.2 Calculation method..............................................................................................................................35
A.1.3 Correction factors................................................................................................................................37
A.1.4 Expenditure energy factor ..................................................................................................................37
A.1.5 Intermittent operation..........................................................................................................................38
A.1.6 Monthly auxiliary energy demand and recoverable auxiliary energy ............................................38
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A.2 Tabulated calculation method for determination of annual auxiliary energy demand ................ 39
A.2.1 Input/output data .................................................................................................................................39
A.2.2 Calculation method, tabulated values............................................................................................... 39
A.2.3 Monthly auxiliary energy demand and recoverable auxiliary energy............................................ 41
A.3 Simplified calculation method for determination of annual system thermal loss........................ 41
A.3.1 Input/output data .................................................................................................................................41
A.3.2 Calculation method .............................................................................................................................42
A.3.3 Approximation of the length of pipes per zone in distribution systems.......................................42
A.3.4 Default values of the outer total surface coefficient of heat transfer (convection and
radiation) ..............................................................................................................................................43
A.3.5 Approximation of -values .............................................................................................................. 43
A.3.6 Equivalent length of valves................................................................................................................44
A.3.7 Default values for the exponent of the heat emission system....................................................... 44
A.4 Tabulated calculation method for determination of annual system thermal loss........................ 44
A.4.1 Input/output data .................................................................................................................................44
A.4.2 Calculation method, tabulated values............................................................................................... 45
A.5 Example................................................................................................................................................46
Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................49
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EN 15316-2-3:2007 (E)
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Foreword
This document (EN 15316-2-3:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 228 Heating
systems in buildings, the secretariat of which is held by DS.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by January 2008.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the
European Free Trade Association (Mandate M/343), and supports essential requirements of EU Directive
2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD). It forms part of a series of standards aimed at
European harmonisation of the methodology for calculation of the energy performance of buildings. An
overview of the whole set of standards is given in prCEN/TR 15615,.
The subjects covered by CEN/TC 228 are the following:
design of heating systems (water based, electrical etc.);
installation of heating systems;
commissioning of heating systems;
instructions for operation, maintenance and use of heating systems;
methods for calculation of the design heat loss and heat loads;
methods for calculation of the energy performance of heating systems.
Heating systems also include the effect of attached systems such as hot water production systems.
All these standards are systems standards, i.e. they are based on requirements addressed to the system as a
whole and not dealing with requirements to the products within the system.
Where possible, reference is made to other European or International Standards, a.o. product standards.
However, use of products complying with relevant product standards is no guarantee of compliance with the
system requirements.
The requirements are mainly expressed as functional requirements, i.e. requirements dealing with the function
of the system and not specifying shape, material, dimensions or the like.
The guidelines describe ways to meet the requirements, but other ways to fulfil the functional requirements
might be used if fulfilment can be proved.
Heating systems differ among the member countries due to climate, traditions and national regulations. In
some cases requirements are given as classes so national or individual needs may be accommodated.
In cases where the standards contradict with national regulations, the latter should be followed.
EN 15316 Heating systems in buildings Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system
efficiencies consists of the following parts:
Part 1: General
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Part 2-1: Space heating emission systems
Part 2-3: Space heating distribution systems
Part 3-1: Domestic hot water systems, characterisation of needs (tapping requirements)
Part 3-2: Domestic hot water systems, distribution
Part 3-3: Domestic hot water systems, generation
Part 4-1: Space heating generation systems, combustion systems (boilers)
Part 4-2: Space heating generation systems, heat pump systems
Part 4-3: Heat generation systems, thermal solar systems
Part 4-4: Heat generation systems, building-integrated cogeneration systems
Part 4-5: Space heating generation systems, the performance and quality of district heating and large volume
systems
Part 4-6: Heat generation systems, photovoltaic systems
Part 4-7: Space heating generation systems, biomass combustion systems
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
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EN 15316-2-3:2007 (E)
6
Introduction
In a distribution system, energy is transported by a fluid from the heat generation to the heat emission. As the
distribution system is not adiabatic, part of the energy carried is emitted to the surrounding environment.
Energy is also required to distribute the heat carrier fluid within the distribution system. In most cases this is
electrical energy required by the circulation pumps. This leads to additional thermal and electrical energy
demand.
The thermal energy emitted by the distribution system and the electrical energy required for the distribution,
may partially be recovered as heat, if the distribution system is placed inside the heated envelope of the
building.
This European Standard provides three methods of calculation.
The detailed calculation method describes the basics and the physical background of the general calculation
method. The required input data are part of the detailed project data assumed to be available (such as length
of pipes, type of insulation, manufacturer's data for the pumps etc.). The detailed calculation method provides
the most accurate energy demand and heat emission.
For the simplified calculation method, some assumptions are made for the most relevant cases, reducing the
required input data (e.g. the lengths of pipes are calculated by approximations depending on the outer
dimensions of the building and efficiency of pumps is approximated). This method may be applied if only few
data are available (in general at an early stage of design). With the simplified calculation method, the
calculated energy demand is generally higher than the calculated energy demand by the detailed calculation
method. The assumptions made for the simplified method depend on national design, and therefore this
method is part of informative Annex A.
The tabulated calculation method is based on the simplified calculation method, with some further
assumptions being made. Only input data for the most important influences are required with this method. The
further assumptions made for this method depend on national design as well, and therefore the tabulated
method is also part of informative Annex A.
Other influences, which are not reflected by the tabulated values, shall be calculated by the simplified or the
detailed calculation method. The energy demand determined from the tabulated calculation method is
generally higher than the calculated energy demand by the simplified calculation method. Use of this method
is possible with a minimum of input data.
The general calculation method for the electrical energy demand of pumps consists of two parts. The first part
is calculation of the hydraulic demand of the distribution system, and the second part is calculation of the
expenditure energy factor of the pump. Here, it is possible to combine the detailed and the simplified
calculation method. For example, calculation of pressure loss and flow may be done by the detailed
calculation method and calculation of the expenditure energy factor may be done by the simplified calculation
method (when the data of the building are available and the data of the pump are not available) or vice versa.
In national annexes, the simplified calculation method as well as the tabulated calculation method could be
applied through a.o. relevant boundary conditions of each country, thus facilitating easy calculations and quick
results. In national annexes, it is only allowed to change the boundary conditions and other assumptions. The
calculation methods as described are to be applied.
The recoverable part of the auxiliary energy demand is given as a fixed ratio and is therefore also easy to
determine.
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1 Scope
This European Standard provides a methodology to calculate/estimate the system thermal loss of water based
distribution systems for heating and the auxiliary energy demand, as well as the recoverable part of each. The
actual recovered energy depends on the gain to loss ratio. Different levels of accuracy, corresponding to the
needs of the user and the input data available at each design stage of the project, are provided in this
European Standard by different calculation methods, i.e. a detailed calculation method, a simplified calculation
method and a method based on tabulated values. The general method of calculation can be applied for any
time-step (hour, day, month or year).
Pipework lengths for the heating of decentralised, non-domestic ventilation systems equipment are to be
calculated in the same way as for water based heating systems. For centralised, non-domestic ventilation
systems equipment, the length is to be specified in accordance with its location.
NOTE It is possible to calculate the system thermal loss and auxiliary energy demand for cooling systems with the
same calculation methods as shown in this European Standard. Specifically, determination of auxiliary energy demand is
based on the same assumptions for efficiency of pumps, because the efficiency curve applied is an approximation for
inline and external motors. It needs to be decided by the standardisation group of CEN, whether or not the extension for
cooling systems should be made in this European Standard. This is also valid for distribution systems in HVAC (in ducts)
and also for special liquids.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 12831, Heating systems in buildings Method for calculation of the design heat load
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
technical building system
technical equipment for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting and electricity production
composed by sub-systems
NOTE 1 A technical building system can refer to one or to several building services (e.g. heating system, heating and
domestic hot water system).
NOTE 2 Electricity production can include cogeneration and photovoltaic systems.
3.2
technical building sub-system
part of a technical building system that performs a specific function (e.g. heat generation, heat distribution,
heat emission)
3.3
space heating
process of heat supply for thermal comfort
3.4
auxiliary energy
electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and/or domestic hot water
to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs
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NOTE 1 This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics etc. Electrical energy input to a ventilation system for air
transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but as energy use for ventilation.
NOTE 2 In EN ISO 9488, the energy used for pumps and valves is called "parasitic energy".
3.5
heat recovery
heat generated by a technical building system or linked to a building use (e.g. domestic hot water) which is
utilised directly in the related system to lower the heat input and which would otherwise be wasted (e.g.
preheating of the combustion air by flue gas heat exchanger)
3.6
system thermal loss
thermal loss from a technical building system for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, humidification,
dehumidification, ventilation or lighting that does not contribute to the useful output of the system
NOTE Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system thermal loss but as heat
recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.
3.7
recoverable system thermal loss
part of a system thermal loss which can be recovered to lower either the energy need for heating or cooling or
the energy use of the heating or cooling system
3.8
recovered system thermal loss
part of the recoverable system thermal loss which has been recovered to lower either the energy need for
heating or cooling or the energy use of the heating or cooling system
3.9
calculation step
discrete time interval for the calculation of the energy needs and uses for heating, cooling, humidification and
dehumidification
NOTE Typical discrete time intervals are one hour, one month or one heating and/or cooling season, operating
modes and bins.
3.10
calculation period
period of time over which the calculation is performed
NOTE The calculation period can be divided into a number of calculation steps.
3.11
heating or cooling season
period of the year during which a significant amount of energy for heating or cooling is needed
NOTE The season lengths are used to determine the operation period of technical systems.
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4 Symbols, units and indices
For the purposes of this document, the symbols, units and indices given in Table 1 apply.
Table 1 Symbols, units and indices
z h
A
,
Heated floor in the zone [m]
c Specific heat capacity [J/kg K]
dis
e Expenditure energy factor for operation of circulation pump [-]
S
f Correction factor for supply flow temperature control [-]
NET
f Correction factor for hydraulic networks (layout) [-]
des S
f
,
Correction factor for heating surface design [-]
HB
f Correction factor for hydraulic balance [-]
PM G
f
,
Correction factor for generators with integrated pump management [-]
PL
f Correction factor for partial load characteristics [-]
C
f Correction factor for control of the pump [-]
PSP
f Correction factor for selection of design point [-]

f Correction factor for differential temperature dimensioning [-]


q
f
&
Correction factor for surface related heating load [-]

f Correction factor for efficiency [-]


lev
h Floor height [m]
L
L Building length [m]
max
L Maximum length of pipe [m]
W
L Building width [m]
by
k Ratio of flow over the heat emitter to flow in the ring [-]
n Exponent of the heat emission system [-]
lev
N Number of floors [-]
des
p Differential pressure at design point [kPa]
HS
p Differential pressure of heating surfaces [kPa]
CV
p Differential pressure of control valves for heating surfaces [kPa]
ZV
p Differential pressure of zone valves [kPa]
G
p Differential pressure of heat supply [kPa]
FH
p Differential pressure of floor heating systems [kPa]
ADD
p Differential pressure of additional resistances [kPa]
des hydr
P
,
Hydraulic power at design point [W]
pmp el
P
,
Actual power input [W]
ref pmp el
P
, ,
Reference power input [W]
H
Design heating load [kW]
rbl aux dis H
Q
, , ,
Recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating [kWh/time step]
rvd aux dis H
Q
, , ,
Recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system [kWh/time step]
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an ls dis H
Q
, , ,
Annual system thermal loss of the distribution system [kWh/year]
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
Recoverable system thermal losses for space heating [kWh/year]
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
Unrecoverable system thermal losses [kWh/year]
R Pressure loss in pipes [kPa/m]
an op
t
,
Heating hours per year [h/year]
Linear thermal transmittance [W/mK]
des
V
&
Flow at design point [m/h]
min
V
&
Minimum volume flow [m/h]
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
Annual auxiliary energy demand [kWh/year]
m aux dis H
W
, , ,
Monthly auxiliary energy demand [kWh/month]
an hydr dis H
W
, , ,
Annual hydraulic energy demand [kWh/year]
comp
f Resistance ratio of components [-]
k Time factor [-]
b
k Boost mode time factor [-]
r
k Regular mode time factor [-]
setb
k Set back mode time factor [-]
des dis,
Design heating system temperature difference [K]
P
Efficiency of pump at design point [-]
dis
Mean part load of the distribution [-]
Specific density [kg/m]
i
Surrounding temperature [C]
m
Mean medium temperature [C]
u
Temperature in unheated space [C]
s
Supply temperature [C]
r
Return temperature [C]
des s,
Design supply temperature [C]
des r,
Design return temperature [C]
5 Principle of the method and definitions
The method allows the calculation of the system thermal loss and the auxiliary energy demand of water based
distribution systems for heating circuits (primary and secondary), as well as the recoverable system thermal
losses and the recoverable auxiliary energy.
As shown in Figure 1, a heating system can be divided in three parts emission and control, distribution and
generation. A simple heating system has no buffer-storage, no distributor/collector, and only one pump is
applied. Larger heating systems comprise more than one secondary heating circuit with different emitters.
Often, such larger heating systems comprise also more than one heat generator with either one common
primary heating circuit or individual primary heating circuits (in Figure 1, only one primary heating circuit is
shown).
The subdivision of the heating system into primary and secondary circuits is given by any hydraulic separator,
which can be a buffer-storage with a large volume or a hydraulic separator with a small volume. Anyhow, the
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calculation method is valid for a closed heating circuit, and therefore the equations have to be applied for each
circuit taking into account the corresponding values.
Key
1 next heating circuit
2 pump
3 room
4 emission
5 buffer-storage
6 pump
7 generator
8 generation
9 distribution
10 primary heating circuits
11 secondary heating circuits
Figure 1 Scheme distribution and definitions of heating circuits
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12
Controls in distribution systems are thermostatic valves at the emitter which throttles the flow or room
thermostats which shut on/off the pump. Only if the flow is throttled the control of the pump (speed control) is
valid.
6 Auxiliary energy demand
6.1 General
The auxiliary energy demand of hydraulic networks depends on the distributed flow, the pressure drop and the
operation condition of the circulation pump. While the design flow and pressure drop is important for
determining the pump size, the part load factor determines the energy demand in a time step.
The hydraulic power at the design point can be calculated from physical basics. However, for calculation of
the hydraulic power during operation, this can only be achieved by a simulation. Therefore, for the detailed
calculation method in this standard, correction factors are applied, which represent the most important
influences on auxiliary energy demand, such as part load, controls, design criteria.
The general calculation approach is to separate the hydraulic demand, which depends on the design of the
network, and the expenditure energy for operation of the circulation pump, which takes into account the
efficiency of the pump in general. However, for calculation of the expenditure energy during operation,
knowledge of the efficiency of the pump at each operation point is required, Therefore, for the detailed
calculation method in this European Standard, correction factors are applied, which represent the most
important influences on expenditure energy, such as efficiency, part load, design point selection and control.
All the calculations are made for a zone of the building with the affiliated area, length, width, floor height and
number of floors.
6.2 Design hydraulic power
For all the calculations, the hydraulic power and the differential pressure of the distribution system at the
design point are important. The hydraulic power is given by:
des des des hydr
V p P
&
= 2778 , 0
,
[W] (1)
where
des
V
&
is the flow at design point [m/h];
des
p is the differential pressure at design point [kPa].
The flow is calculated from the heat load
out em H , ,
of the zone (the design heat load shall be according to
EN 12831) and the design temperature difference
des dis,
of the heating system:
des dis
out em H
des
c
V
,
. ,
3600


=
&
[m/h] (2)
where
c is the specific heat capacity [kJ/kg K];

is the density [kg/m];


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des dis,
is the design temperature difference [K].
The differential pressure for a zone at the design point is determined by the resistance in the pipes (including
components) and the additional resistances (the most important are listed below):
( )
ADD G ZV CV HS comp des
p p p p p L R f p + + + + + + =
max
1 [kPa] (3)
where
comp
f is the resistance ratio of components [-];
R
is the pressure loss per m [kPa/m];
max
L
is the maximum pipe length of the heating circuit [m];
HS
p is the differential pressure of heating surface [kPa];
CV
p is the differential pressure of control valve for heating surface [kPa];
ZV
p is the differential pressure of zone valves [kPa];
G
p is the differential pressure of heat supply [kPa];
ADD
p is the differential pressure of additional resistances [kPa].
6.3 Detailed calculation method
6.3.1 Input/output data
The input data for the detailed calculation method are listed below. These are all part of the detailed project
data.
des hydr
P
,
hydraulic power at the design point for the zone [in W]
- by calculation according to Equations (1) and (2)
out em H , ,
design heat load of the zone according to EN 12831;
des dis,
design temperature difference for the distribution system in the zone [K];
max
L maximum pipe length of the heating circuit in the zone [m];
p differential pressure of the circuit in the zone [kPa];
dis
mean part load of the distribution [-];
an op
t
,
heating hours per year [h/year];
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S
f correction factor for supply flow temperature control [-];
NET
f correction factor for hydraulic networks [-];
SD
f correction factor for heating surface dimensioning [-];
HB
f correction factor for hydraulic balance [-];
dis
e expenditure energy factor for operation of the circulation pump [-]
- by calculation according to 6.3.4;

f correction factor for efficiency [-];


PL
f correction factor for part load [-];
PSP
f correction factor for design point selection [-];
C
f correction factor for control of the pump [-].
Type of pump control
Design temperature level
Heat emitter type
Intermittent operation
The output data of the detailed calculation method are:
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
annual auxiliary energy demand [kWh/year];
m aux dis H
W
, , ,
monthly auxiliary energy demand [kWh/month];
rvd aux dis H
Q
, , ,
recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system [kWh/time step];
rbl aux dis H
Q
, , ,
recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating [kWh/time step].
6.3.2 Calculation method
The annual auxiliary energy demand for circulation pumps for water based heating systems is calculated by:
dis an hydr dis H an aux dis H
e W W =
, , , , , ,
[kWh/year] (4)
where
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
is the annual auxiliary energy demand [kWh/year];
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an hydr dis H
W
, , ,
is the annual hydraulic energy demand [kWh/year];
dis
e is the expenditure energy factor for operation of circulation pump [-].
The hydraulic energy demand for the circulation pumps in heating systems, is determined from the hydraulic
power at the design point (
des hydr
P
,
), the mean part load of the distribution (
dis
) and the heating hours in the
time step (
an op
t
,
):
PM G HB SD NET S an op dis
des hydr
an hydr dis H
f f f f f t
P
W
, ,
,
, , ,
1000
= [kWh/year] (5)
where
des hydr
P
,
is the hydraulic power at design point [W];
dis
is the mean part load of the distribution [-];
an op
t
,
are the heating hours per year [h/year];
S
f is the correction factor for supply flow temperature control [-];
NET
f is the correction factor for hydraulic networks [-];
SD
f is the correction factor for heating surface dimensioning [-];
HB
f is the correction factor for hydraulic balance [-];
PM G
f
,
is the correction factor for generators with integrated pump management [-].
The correction factors,
S
f ,
NET
f and
SD
f include the most important parameters related to dimensioning of
the heating system. The factor
HB
f takes into account the hydraulic balance of the distribution system. The
correction factor
PM G
f
,
for generators with integrated pump management, takes into account the reduction of
operation time in relation to the heating time.
6.3.3 Correction factors
6.3.3.1 General
The correction factors are based on a wide range of simulations of different networks. Some of the correction
factors can not be changed without changing the method. Correction factors, which are based on
assumptions, may be changed on a national level in a national annex (see A.1.3).
6.3.3.2 Correction factor for supply flow temperature control
S
f
1 =
S
f for systems with outdoor temperature compensation;
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S
f see Figure 2, for systems without outdoor temperature compensation (i.e. constant flow
temperature) or very much higher flow temperature than necessary.
Key
1 correction factor
S
f [-]
2 ground plan A
N
[m]
3 flow temperature characteristics
Figure 2 Correction factor
S
f for constant flow temperature and very much higher flow temperature
6.3.3.3 Correction factor for hydraulic networks
NET
f
1 =
NET
f for a two-pipe ring line horizontal layout (on each floor);
NET
f see Table 2 for other types of layout.
Table 2 Correction factor
NET
f for hydraulic network
Network design
One family
house
Dwellings
2 pipe system
Ring line 1,0 1,0
Ascending pipe 0,93 0,92
Star-shaped 0,98 0,98
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The star-shaped network design is also valid for floor heating systems.
For one-pipe heating systems, the correction factor
NET
f is given by:
7 , 0 6 , 8 + =
by NET
k f [-] (6)
where
by
k is the ratio of flow over the heat emitter to flow in the ring [-].
6.3.3.4 Correction factor for heating surface dimensioning
SD
f
1 =
SD
f for dimensioning according to design heat load;
96 , 0 =
SD
f in case of additional over-sizing of the heating surfaces.
6.3.3.5 Correction factor for hydraulic balance
HB
f
See A.1.3.
6.3.3.6 Correction factor for generators with integrated pump management
PM G
f
,
See A.1.3.
6.3.4 Expenditure energy factor
6.3.4.1 General
For assessment of partial load conditions and control performance of the circulation pump, the expenditure
energy factor is determined by:
C PSP PL dis
f f f f e =

[-] (7)
where

f is the correction factor for efficiency [-];


PL
f is the correction factor for part load [-];
PSP
f is the correction factor for design point selection [-];
C
f is the correction factor for control [-].
With these four correction factors, the expenditure energy factor take into account the most important
influences on the energy demand, representing the design, the efficiency of the pump, the part load and the
control.
The physical relations are shown in Figure 3.
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Key
1 pressure head H [m] 2 power P
1
[W]
3 flow rate [m/h] 4 H
0,max
5 H
pmp
6 H
des
7 H
PL
8 P
hydr,des
9 P
PL
10 P
el,pmp
11 P
el,pmp,max
12 P
PL,C
13 P
el,pmp,ref
14
PL
V
&
15 V
&
16
PL
C PL
PL
P
P
f
,
= 17
ref pump el
pump el
PSP
P
P
f
, ,
,
=
18
des hydr
ref pump el
P
P
f
,
, ,
=

19
pump el dis
PL
PL
P
P
f
,

Figure 3 Expenditure energy factor - physical interpretation of the correction factors


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6.3.4.2 Correction factor for efficiency

f
The correction factor for efficiency is given by the relation between the reference power input at the design
point and the hydraulic power at the design point:
des hydr
ref pmp el
P
P
f
,
, ,
=

[-] (8)
The reference power input is calculated by means of the hydraulic characteristics of the pump:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
5 , 0
,
, , ,
200
25 , 1
des hydr
des hydr ref pmp el
P
P P [W] (9)
6.3.4.3 Correction factor for part load
PL
f
The correction factor for part load takes into account the reduction of pump efficiency by partial load. It also
takes into account the hydraulic characteristics of non-controlled pumps. The impact of the partial load on the
pipe system, and thus on the hydraulic energy demand, is taken into account by the mean part load of the
distribution
dis
, according to 6.3.2.
Figure 4 shows the correction factor for part load of the pump, depending on the mean part load of the
distribution.
Key
1 correction factor f
PL
[-]
2 mean part load of distribution
dis
3 mean part load ratio (PLR)
Figure 4 Correction factor for part load of the pump
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6.3.4.4 Correction factor for design point selection
PSP
f
The correction factor for design point selection
PSP
f is given by the relation between the actual power input of
the pump and the reference power input at the design point:
ref pmp el
pmp el
PSP
P
P
f
, ,
,
= [-] (10)
where
pmp el
P
,
is the actual power input of pump at design point [W];
ref pmp el
P
, ,
is the reference power input of pump at design point [W].
6.3.4.5 Correction factor for control of the pump
C
f
1 =
C
f for non-controlled pumps;
C
f see Figure 5 for controlled pumps.
Key
1 correction factor for control of the pump f
C
[-]
2 P
el,pmp,max
/ P
el,pmp
3
const
p - control
4
i
p
var
- control
5 pump control
Figure 5 Correction factor for control of the pump
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The constant differential pressure control of the pump, keeps the differential pressure of the pump constant at
the design value within the whole flow area. The variable differential pressure control varies the differential
pressure of the pump from the design value at design flow to often half of the design value at zero flow.
If a wall hanging generator, with integrated pump management, has a modulation control of the pump
depending on the temperature difference between supply and return, then the correction factor for
i
p
var
is
valid.
6.3.5 Intermittent operation
For intermittent operation, there are three different phases (see Figure 6):
set back mode;
boost period;
regular mode.
Key
1 room temperature
2 time
3 set back
4 boost
5 regular mode
6 set back
Figure 6 Intermittent operation, phases
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The annual auxiliary energy demand for intermittent operation is given by the sum of auxiliary energy demand
for each phase:
boost an aux dis H setb an aux dis H reg an aux dis H im an aux dis H
W W W W
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
+ + = [kWh/year] (11)
For the regular mode operation, the auxiliary energy demand is determined from Equation (4) in 6.3.2 and by
multiplication with a time factor for the proportional time of regular mode operation,
r
k :
dis an hydr dis H r reg an aux dis H
e W k W =
, , , , , , ,
[kWh/year] (12)
For the set back operation, it is necessary to distinguish between:
turn off mode, for which the auxiliary energy demand of the pump is zero - 0
, , , ,
=
setb an aux dis H
W ;
set back of supply temperature and minimum speed of the pump. When the pump is operated at
minimum speed, the power is assumed to be constant as follows:
max , , , ,
3 , 0
pmp el setb pmp el
P P = [W] (13)
and the auxiliary energy demand is determined by multiplication with a time factor for the proportional time
of set back operation,
setb
k :
an op
setb pmp el
setb setb an aux dis H
t
P
k W
,
, ,
, , , ,
1000
= [kWh/year] (14)
set back of supply temperature. If thermostatic valves in this mode are not set back, the flow
compensates the lower supply temperature and the auxiliary energy demand is not reduced. For this type
of set back operation, the auxiliary energy demand is calculated as for the regular mode operation. The
correction factor for control to be applied is 1 =
C
f in case of room temperature control with constant
value (no changes between regular mode and set back mode). In case of room temperature control with
set back,
C
f depends on the type of pump control (see Figure 5).
For the boost mode operation, the power
boost pmp el
P
, ,
is equal to the power
des pmp el
P
, ,
at the design point. The
auxiliary energy demand for the boost mode operation is determined by multiplication with a time factor for the
proportional time of boost mode operation,
b
k :
an op
boost pmp el
b boost an aux dis H
t
P
k W
,
, ,
, , , ,
1000
= [kWh/year] (15)
The time factors can be calculated according to ratios of time periods.
The regular mode time factor,
r
k , expresses the number of hours of regular mode operation
r op
t
,
per total
number of hours per time period
P
t (period could be day, week, month or year):
P
r op
r
t
t
k
,
= [-] (16)
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The boost mode time factor,
b
k , expresses the number of hours of boost mode operation per total number of
hours per time period
P
t . The number of hours of boost mode operation is typically one or two hours per day,
as an average over the year, and may be calculated in accordance with EN ISO 13790:
P
boost op
b
t
t
k
,
= [-] (17)
The set back mode time factor,
setb
k , expresses the number of hours of set back mode operation per total
number of hours per time period
P
t and is determined from
r
k and
b
k :
b r setb
k k k =1 [-] (18)
6.4 Deviations from the detailed calculation method
For some applications, deviations from the detailed calculation method are taken into account:
One-pipe heating systems
The total flow in the heating circuit and in the pump is constant. The pump is always working at the design
point. The mean part load of distribution is 1 =
dis

Overflow valves
Overflow valves are used to ensure a minimum flow at the heat generator or a maximum differential
pressure at the heat emitter. The function of the overflow valve is given by the interaction between the
pressure loss of the system, the characteristics of the pump and the set point of the overflow valve. The
influence on hydraulic energy demand can be estimated by applying a corrected mean part load of
distribution,
dis
:
( )
des
dis dis dis
V
V
&
&
min
1 + = [-] (19)
where
dis
is the mean part load of distribution;
des
V
&
is the design volume flow [m/h];
min
V
&
is the minimum volume flow [m/h].
The minimum volume flow takes into account the requirements of the heat generator or the maximum
pressure loss of the heat emitter.
6.5 Monthly auxiliary energy demand
In the detailed calculation method, as well as in the simplified and tabulated calculation methods, the annual
auxiliary energy demand
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
is determined. Where necessary, the monthly auxiliary energy demand
is calculated by:
an op an dis
m op m dis
an aux dis H m aux dis H
t
t
W W
, ,
, ,
, , , , , ,

[kWh/month] (20)
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where
m dis,
is the mean part load of distribution for the month;
an dis,
is the mean part load of distribution for the year;
m op
t
,
is the heating hours per month;
an op
t
,
is the heating hours per year.
Calculation of
dis
is given in 7.4.
6.6 Recoverable auxiliary energy
For pumps operated in heating circuits, part of the auxiliary energy demand is converted to thermal energy.
One part of the thermal energy is recovered in the distribution system, as heat transferred to the water, and
another part of the thermal energy is recoverable for space heating, as heat transferred to the surrounding air.
Recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system:
an aux dis H rbl aux rvd aux dis H
W f Q
, , , , , , ,
= [kWh/year] (21)
Recoverable energy for space heating:
an aux dis H rbl aux rbl aux dis H
W f Q
, , , , , , ,
) 1 ( = [kWh/year] (22)
where
rbl aux
f
,
is the factor for recoverable auxiliary energy. Values of
rbl aux
f
,
are given in A.1.3.4.
7 System thermal loss of distribution systems
7.1 General
The system thermal loss of a distribution system depends on the mean temperature of the supply and return
and the temperature of the surroundings. Also the kind of insulation has an important influence on the system
thermal loss.
7.2 Detailed calculation method
7.2.1 Input/output data
The input data for the detailed calculation method are listed below. These are all part of the detailed project
data:
L length of pipes in the zone;
linear thermal transmittance in W/mK for each pipe in the zone;
m
mean medium temperature in the zone in C;
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i
surrounding temperature in the zone (unheated and heated space) in C;
op
t heating hours in the time step in h/(time step).
Number of valves and hangers taken into account
The output data of the detailed calculation method are:
an ls dis H
Q
, , ,
annual system thermal loss of the distribution system in the zone [kWh/year];
rbl ls dis H
Q
, , ,
recoverable system thermal loss for space heating in the zone [kWh/timestep];
nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , ,
unrecoverable system thermal loss in the zone [kWh/timestep].
7.2.2 Calculation method
The thermal losses for all of the pipes j in a time step is given by:
( )
an op j j i m j L
j
an ls dis H
t L Q
, , , , , ,
=
_
[kWh/year] (23)
where
is the linear thermal transmittance in W/mK;
m
is the mean medium temperature in C;
i
is the surrounding temperature in C;
L is the length of the pipe;
j is the index for pipes with the same boundary conditions;
an op
t
,
is the heating hours in the time step in h/year.
For parts of the distribution system with the same linear thermal transmittance, the same mean medium
temperature and the same surrounding temperature, the thermal losses are given by a shorter term:
_
=
j
an op j j an ls dis H an ls dis H
t L q Q
, , , , , , , ,
& [kWh/year] (24)
where
j an ls dis H
q
, , , ,
& is the thermal loss per length of pipe depending on ,
m
and
i

The mean medium temperature of heating circuits, with outdoor temperature compensation of the supply
temperature, depends on the mean part load of distribution and the temperature difference between mean
emission system design temperature and room temperature. Calculation of the mean medium temperature is
given in Clause 8.
Therefore, the thermal losses per length in a space with surrounding temperature
i
, depends on the mean
part load of distribution and is given by:
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( ) ( ) ( )
j i dis m j L dis j an ls dis H
q
, , , , , ,
= & [kWh/(m*year)] (25)
For distribution systems characterised by:
constant supply temperature
m
, not depending on the mean part load of distribution,
a given temperature difference between a heated and an unheated space,
u i U
= [K] (26)
linear thermal transmittance and
U
per length for pipes in heated and unheated spaces,
respectively,
the thermal losses in unheated spaces are given as a function of the thermal losses in heated spaces (so the
thermal losses of the pipes has to be calculated only once for parts with the same boundary conditions):
( ) ( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=
dis an ls dis H
U
U
U
dis an ls dis H dis an u ls dis H
q
q q


, , ,
, , , , , , ,
&
& & [kWh/(m*year)] (27)
The expression in the brackets of Equation (27) can be written as a factor
U
f
( )
dis an ls dis H
U
U
U
u
q
f

, , ,
&

= [-] (28)
and the thermal losses in unheated spaces depend only on the thermal losses in heated spaces and a factor,
which contains the relation between the different U-Values per length and the temperature difference in
heated and unheated spaces:
( ) ( )
U dis an ls dis H dis an u ls dis H
f q q =
, , , , , , ,
& & [kWh/(m*year)] (29)
Given the sum of pipe length
H
L in heated spaces and
U
L in unheated spaces, for parts of the distribution
system with the same values of linear thermal transmittance in heated spaces and
U
in unheated
spaces, the recoverable part of the system thermal loss is given by:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
i dis m
U
U
U
H
H
rbl
L L
L
f

1
[-] (30)
7.2.3 Thermal losses of accessories
The system thermal loss of a distribution system is not only given by the thermal losses of the pipes. The
thermal losses of accessories such as valves and hangers are also taken into account.
To take the thermal losses of hangers into account, an additional equivalent pipe length of 15 % could be
used as an approximation. If special insulated pipe hangers are used, with thermal resistance equal to the one
of the pipe insulation, the additional thermal losses due to the hangers should not be taken into account.
NOTE The equivalent length of valves including flanges is given in A.3.6.
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7.2.4 Recoverable and un-recoverable system thermal loss
In heated rooms, the thermal losses of the pipes may be re covered for space heating and is thus recoverable.
In unheated rooms, the thermal losses of pipes are not recoverable.
Given the sum of pipe length
j rbl
L
,
in heated spaces, the recoverable system thermal loss for space heating
of the time step,
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
, is calculated by:
_
=
j
an op j rbl j an ls dis H an rbl ls dis H
t L q Q
, , , , , , , , , ,
& [kWh/year] (31)
Given the sum of pipe length
j ls
L
,
in uncontrolled or unheated spaces, the unrecoverable system thermal loss
of the time step,
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
, is calculated by:
_
=
j
an op j ls j an u ls dis H an nrbl ls dis H
t L q Q
, , , , , , , , , , ,
& [kWh/year] (32)
7.2.5 Total system thermal loss
The total system thermal loss is given by:
an nrbl ls dis H an rbl ls dis H an ls dis H
Q Q Q
, , , , , , , , , , ,
+ = [kWh/year] (33)
7.3 Calculation of linear thermal transmittance (W/mK):
The linear thermal transmittance for insulated pipes in air with a total heat transfer coefficient including
convection and radiation at the outside is given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
a a i
a
D
d h d
d 1
ln
2
1

[W/(mK)] (34)
where
a i
d d
,
is the inner diameter (without insulation), outer diameter of the pipe (with insulation) (m);
a
h is the outer total surface coefficient of heat transfer (convection and radiation) (W/mK);
D
is the thermal conductivity of the insulation (material) (W/mK).
For embedded pipes, the linear thermal transmittance is given by:
(


+
=
a E i
a
D
em
d
z
d
d 4
ln
1
ln
1
2
1

[W/(mK] (35)
where
z is the depth of pipe from surface;
E

is the thermal conductivity of the embedded material (W/mK).


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For non-insulated pipes, the linear thermal transmittance is given by:
a p a i p
a p
P
non
d h d
d
, ,
,
1
ln
2
1

[W/mK] (36)
where
a p i p
d d
, , ,
is the inner diameter, outer diameter of the pipe (m);
P
is the thermal conductivity of the pipe (material) (W/mK).
As an approximation, the linear thermal transmittance for non-insulated pipes is given by:
a p a non
d h
,
= [W/mK] (37)
For heating systems, the inner total heat transfer coefficient needs not to be taken into account.
NOTE Additional information can be found in ISO 12241. Default values of outer total surface coefficients of heat
transfer are given in A.3.4.
7.4 Calculation of mean part load of distribution per zone
The mean part load of distribution is given by:
op em
out dis H
dis
t
Q

=
, ,
[-] (38)
where
out dis H
Q
, ,
is the heat output of the distribution system per calculation interval;
em
is the nominal power of the installed heat emitters per zone
or design heat load per zone at design stage;
op
t are the heating hours in the zone per calculation interval.
8 Calculation of supply and return temperature depending on mean part load of
distribution
8.1 Temperature calculation of heat emitters
8.1.1 General
There are three basic cases for the temperature calculation of heat emitters:
1. Continuous control depending on outdoor temperature (constant flow rate, variable temperature).
2. Continuous control with thermostatic valves (set flow temperature, variable flow rate).
3. On-Off operation (typical: room thermostat control).
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8.1.2 Continuous control depending on outdoor temperature
For emission subsystems with constant flow rate and supply temperature control depending on the outdoor
temperature, the supply temperature
s
and the return temperature
r
, as well as the mean emission system
temperature
m
, are given as functions of the mean part load of distribution in each zone:
( )
i
n
dis des dis m
+ =
1
[C] (39)
( )
i
n
dis i des s dis s
+ =
1
,
) ( [C] (40)
( )
i
n
dis i des r dis r
+ =
1
,
) ( [C] (41)
where
dis
is the part load of the distribution system in the zone;
des
is the temperature difference in C between mean emission system design temperature and room
temperature
i
des r des s
des



+
=
2
, ,
[K] (42)
n is the exponent of the emission system;
des s,
is the design supply temperature in C;
des r,
is the design return temperature in C;
i
is the room temperature in C.
NOTE Default values for the exponent of the heat emission system are given in A.3.7.
8.1.3 Continuous control with thermostatic valves
For emission subsystems with continuous control with thermostatic valves (constant or set flow temperature,
variable flow rate), the average temperature of the emitters
m
is given by:
( )
i
n
dis des dis m
+ =
1
[C] (43)
where
i
is the part load of the distribution system in the zone;
des
is the temperature difference in C between mean emission system design temperature and room
temperature
i
des r des s
des



+
=
2
, ,
[K] (44)
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n is the exponent of the emission system.
The flow temperature
s
is the design or set value.
The return temperature is given by:
( )
i s m r
; 2 max = [C] (45)
8.1.4 On-Off control with room thermostat
In this case, the operating conditions are the same as the design conditions, that is:
des s s ,
= [C] (46)
des r r ,
= [C] (47)
NOTE The design condition may vary according to the calculation interval.
8.2 Effect of by-pass connections
If there is a by-pass control, the return temperature of the distribution circuit
r
is generally higher than that of
the heat emitter and is given by:
.
86 , 0
V
out
f r

= [C] (48)
where
V
&
is the distribution circuit flow rate, either the design value or the set value;
f
is the distribution circuit supply temperature, which is the same as that of the mains and the same as
the heat emitter supply (flow) temperature.
Examples of such circuits are given in Figure 7.
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Key
1 emitter
2 balancing valve
3 three-way control valve
Figure 7 Sample by-pass type distribution circuits
8.3 Effect of mixing valves
With a mixing valve circuit, return temperature of the distribution circuit
r
is the same as the heat emitter
return temperature:
r em r ,
= [C] (49)
The distribution circuit supply temperature
f
is the same as that of the mains and is higher than or equal to
the heat emitter supply (flow) temperature.
The distribution circuit flow V
&
(supplied from the mains) is given by:
r f
in
V


=
86 , 0
.
[kg/h] (50)
Examples of such circuits are given in Figure 8.
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Key
1 emitter
2 balancing valve
3 three-way control valve
4 control valve
Figure 8 Sample mixing type distribution circuits
8.4 Parallel connection of distribution circuits
If there are several distribution circuits i connected together, the resulting flow rate and return temperature are
calculated as follows.
The flow temperature is the same for all distribution circuits:
f dis i f dis , , ,
= [C] (51)
The total flow rate
dis
V
&
is the sum of the flow rates of the distribution circuits:
_
=
i
i dis dis
V V
,
& &
[m/h] (52)
The resulting return temperature
tot r dis , ,
is given by:
dis
out dis
f dis tot r dis
V
.
,
, , ,
86 , 0
= [C] (53)
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8.5 Primary circuits
For heating systems, where the temperature of the decoupling system or a storage vessel does not depend
on the supply temperature of the emission system, the thermal losses of the pipes between the heat generator
and the storage vessel has to be calculated with design values.
NOTE The design value may be a variable value.
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Annex A
(informative)
Preferred procedures
A.1 Simplified calculation method for determination of annual auxiliary energy
demand
A.1.1 Input/output data
For the simplified calculation method, some assumptions are made for the most relevant cases, reducing the
required input data (e.g. the lengths of pipes are calculated by approximations depending on the outer
dimensions of the building and efficiency of pumps is approximated). This method may be applied if only few
data are available (in general at an early stage of design). The assumptions made in A.1.2 through A.1.5 may
be changed on a national level in a national annex, but the calculation method as given by A.1.2.1, A.1.2.3,
A.1.5 and A.1.6 is to be applied.
The input data for the simplified calculation method are listed below. These are all part of the detailed project
data.
des hydr
P
,
hydraulic power at the design point for the zone [in W]
- by calculation according to Equations (1) and (2);
out em H , ,
design heat load according to EN 12831 of the zone;
des dis,
design temperature difference [K] for the distribution system in the zone;
des
p differential pressure of the circuit in the zone [kPa]
- by simplified calculation according to A.1.2.2;
max
L maximum pipe length of the heating circuit in the zone [m];
dis
mean part load of distribution [-];
an op
t
,
heating hours per year [h/year];
NET
f correction factor for hydraulic networks [-];
HB
f correction factor for hydraulic balance [-];
PM G
f
,
correction factor for generators with integrated pump management [-];
rbl aux
f
,
factor for recoverable auxiliary energy [-];
dis
e expenditure energy factor for operation of circulation pump [-]
- by simplified calculation according to A.1.4.
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Type of pump control
Design temperature level
Heat emitter type
Intermittent operation
The output data of the simplified calculation method are:
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
annual auxiliary energy demand [kWh/year];
m aux dis H
W
, , ,
monthly auxiliary energy demand [kWh/month];
rvd aux dis H
Q
, , ,
recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system [kWh/time step];
rbl aux dis H
Q
, , ,
recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating [kWh/time step].
A.1.2 Calculation method
A.1.2.1 Hydraulic energy demand
For given values of correction factors (and assuming ) 0 , 1 =
SD S
f f , the hydraulic energy demand can be
expressed as a function of heating hours per time step and the mean part load of distribution:
PM G HB NET an op dis
des hydr
an hydr dis H
f f f t
P
W
, ,
,
, , ,
1000
= (A.1)
Correction factors are given in A.1.3. The correction factor for hydraulic networks
NET
f is only necessary to
distinguish between one-pipe and two-pipe heating systems.
A.1.2.2 Differential pressure at the design point
An approximation for the differential pressure at the design point can be made with a fixed pressure loss per
length of heating circuit (100 Pa/m) and an additional pressure loss ratio for components of 0,3. Variables for
determining the differential pressure at the design point are thus only the maximum length of the heating
circuit in the zone and the pressure losses of the heat emission system and the heat generation system:
G FH des
p p L p + + + = 2 13 , 0
max
(kPa) (A.2)
where
max
L is the maximum length of the heating circuit [m];
FH
p is the additional pressure loss for floor heating systems [kPa];
G
p is the pressure loss of heat generators [kPa].
This approximation is applicable for the primary heating circuit as well as for the secondary heating circuit.
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If the manufacturer's data for
FH
p and/or
G
p is not available, the following default values can be applied:
FH
p = 25 kPa including valves and distributor;
G
p see Table A.1.
Table A.1 Pressure loss of heat generators
Type of heat generator
G
p [kPa]
Generator with water content > 0,3 l/kW 1
kW
out em H
35
max , , ,
<
( )
2
20
des
V
&

Generator with
water content
0,3 l/kW
kW
out em H
35
max , , ,
80
where
max , , , out em H
is the maximum heat load [kW];
des
V
&
is the design flow [m/h].
The maximum length of the heating circuit in a zone can be calculated approximately from the outer
dimensions of the zone:
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
c lev lev
W
L
l h N
L
L L
2
2
max
(m) (A.3)
where
L
L is the length of the zone (part of building) [m];
W
L is the width of the zone (part of building) building [m];
lev
N is the number of heated floors in the zone (part of building) [-];
lev
h is the mean height of the floors in the zone (part of building) [m];
c
l = 10 m for two-pipe heating systems;
=
W L
L L + for one-pipe heating systems.
A.1.2.3 Auxiliary energy demand
The annual auxiliary energy demand
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
is determined from the annual hydraulic energy demand
an hydr dis H
W
, , ,
by multiplication with the expenditure energy factor
dis
e , according to Equation (4) in 6.3.2.
For the simplified calculation method, the expenditure energy factor is given in A.1.4.
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A.1.3 Correction factors
A.1.3.1 Correction factor for hydraulic networks
NET
f
1 =
NET
f for two-pipe heating systems;
7 , 0 6 , 8 + =
by NET
k f for one-pipe heating systems, where
by
k is the ratio of flow over the heat emitter to flow
in the ring [-].
A.1.3.2 Correction factor for hydraulic balance
HB
f
1 =
HB
f for hydraulic balanced systems;
15 , 1 =
HB
f for hydraulic non-balanced systems.
A.1.3.3 Correction factor for generators with integrated pump management
PM G
f
,
1
,
=
PM G
f for outdoor temperature controlled standard generator (OTC);
75 , 0
,
=
PM G
f for outdoor temperature controlled wall hanging generator (OTC);
45 , 0
,
=
PM G
f for room temperature controlled wall hanging generator (RTC).
A.1.3.4 Recoverable auxiliary energy
rbl aux
f
,
75 , 0
,
=
rbl aux
f for non-insulated pump;
90 , 0
,
=
rbl aux
f for insulated pump.
A.1.4 Expenditure energy factor
For the simplified calculation method, the expenditure energy factor is calculated similarly as for the detailed
calculation method, according to Equation (7) in 6.3.4.1, with the following additional assumptions:
correction factor for control,
C
f , is determined from Figure 5 with 11 , 1
,
max , ,
=
pmp el
pmp el
P
P
;
correction factor for design point selection 5 , 1 =
PSP
f (see Figure 3);
efficiency factor
PSP e
f f f =

;
approximation of the efficiency curve of the pump.
Thus, the expenditure energy factor is simplified to:
) (
1
2 1

+ =
dis P P e dis
C C f e (A.4)
where
2 1
,
P P
C C are constants, according to Table A.2 [-];
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dis
is the mean part load of the distribution [-];
e
f is the efficiency factor, given by:
des hydr
pmp el
e
P
P
f
,
,
= (A.5)
or for pumps where
pmp el
P
,
is not available
b
P
f
des hydr
e

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 5 , 1
200
25 , 1
5 . 0
,
(A.6)
where b = 1 for new buildings and b = 2 for existing buildings, and
des hydr
P
,
is given in W.
Table A.2 Constants
2 1
,
P P
C C for calculation of
the expenditure energy factor (simplified method)
Pump control
1 P
C
2 P
C
Pump not controlled
0,25 0,75
const
p 0,75 0,25
i
p
var
0,90 0,10
For existing installations, it is approximately correct to use the power rating given on the label at the pump for
pmp el
P
,
. (In case of non-controlled pumps with more than one speed level,
pmp el
P
,
shall be taken from the
speed level at which the pump is operated).
A.1.5 Intermittent operation
For the simplified calculation method, the boost mode time factor
b
k is assumed to be 3 %, and the annual
auxiliary energy demand is given by:
( )
b setb r an aux dis H im an aux dis H
k k k W W + + = 6 , 0
, , , , , , ,
( )
b setb r dis an hydr dis H
k k k e W + + = 6 , 0
, , ,
[kWh] (A.7)
The difference between unity and the expression in the brackets represents the energy savings ratio by
intermittent operation.
The time factors should be calculated according to 6.3.5.
A.1.6 Monthly auxiliary energy demand and recoverable auxiliary energy
For the simplified calculation method, the monthly auxiliary energy demand is calculated according to 6.5 and
the recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating (as well as the recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution
system) is calculated according to 6.6.
The factor for recoverable auxiliary energy is given in A.1.3.4.
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A.2 Tabulated calculation method for determination of annual auxiliary energy
demand
A.2.1 Input/output data
The input data for the tabulated calculation method are listed below. These are all part of the detailed project
data.
z h
A
,
heated floor area in the zone [m].
Type of heat generator
One-pipe/two-pipe heating system
Type of pump control
The output data of the tabulated calculation method are:
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
annual auxiliary energy demand [kWh/year];
m aux dis H
W
, , ,
monthly auxiliary energy demand [kWh/month];
rvd aux dis H
Q
, , ,
recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system [kWh/time step];
rbl aux dis H
Q
, , ,
recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating [kWh/time step].
The tabulated calculation method combines all the assumptions of the simplified method and provides, with
additional assumptions for specific types of heating systems, values for annual auxiliary energy demand.
National annexes providing tabulated values for this method may be elaborated. The simplified calculation
method shall form the basis for determination of tabulated values on a national level and the tables should
follow the same structure as in A.2.2. The various boundary conditions, which may be changed on a national
level, are given in A.2.2 as well.
A.2.2 Calculation method, tabulated values
Annual auxiliary energy demand is given in Table A.3. The values have been calculated from the simplified
method (see A.1) with some additional assumptions:
mean part load of distribution
dis
= 0,4;
heating hours
an op
t
,
= 5 000 hours per year;
design heat load per m
out em H , ,
= 40 W/m (new buildings);
A
h,z
= m of the zone (one pump for a maximum of 1 000 m per zone);
length of the zone depending on the heated floor area:
z h L
A L
,
0059 , 0 4 , 11 + = ;
width of the zone depending on the heated floor area: 62 , 6 ) ln( 72 , 2
,
+ =
z h W
A L ;
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number of floors in the zone: ) /(
, W L z h lev
L L A N = ;
floor height
lev
h = 3 m.
Table A.3 Annual auxiliary energy demand, tabulated calculation method
Annual auxiliary energy demand,
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
[kWh/year]
(
an op
t
,
= 5 000 heating hours)
Generators with standard water volume Generators with small water volume
Two-pipe-system with radiators
Type of pump control:
Two-pipe-system with radiators
Type of pump control:
A
h,z
[m]
pump not controlled dpconst dpvariabel pump not controlled dpconst dpvariabel
100
99 64 53 105 68 57
150
126 82 68 151 98 82
200
151 98 82 206 134 112
300
196 127 106 349 226 189
400
238 154 129 544 352 294
500
278 180 150 799 517 432
600
316 205 171 915 592 495
700
354 229 192 1 021 661 553
800
391 253 211 1 125 728 609
900
427 276 231 1 226 794 664
1 000
463 299 250 1 326 858 718
Two-pipe-system with floor-heating
Type of pump control:
Two-pipe-system with floor-heating
Type of pump control: A
h,z
[m]
pump not controlled dpconst dpvariabel pump not controlled dpconst dpvariabel
100
193 125 105 198 128 107
150
246 159 133 263 170 142
200
294 190 159 333 215 180
300
379 245 205 497 322 269
400
458 296 248 709 459 384
500
532 344 288 979 634 530
600
602 390 326 1 122 726 607
700
671 434 363 1 254 812 679
800
738 477 399 1 384 895 749
900
803 520 435 1 510 977 817
1 000
867 561 469 1 635 1 058 885
One-pipe-system with radiators
Type of pump control:
One-pipe-system with radiators
Type of pump control: A
h,z
[m]
pump not controlled pump not controlled
100
109 115

150
141 164

200
170 222

300
224 369

400
274 568

500
323 827

600
370 950

700
417 1 063

800
463 1 174

900
509 1 283

1 000
554

1 390

UNI EN 15316-2-3:2008
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For a different number of heating hours per year than given in Table A.3, the annual auxiliary energy demand
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
is determined from the tabulated values in Table A.3 by multiplication with a factor
5000
,an op
t
f = ,
where
an op
t
,
is the number of heating hours per year (h/year).
To take into account intermittent heating, the annual auxiliary energy demand
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
is determined from
the tabulated values in Table A.3 by multiplication with a factor
im
f as follows:
Regular mode 06:00 22:00 h every day and set back mode for the remaining time: 87 , 0 =
im
f ;
If the pump is turned off during the set back mode: 69 , 0 =
im
f
Regular mode 06:00 22:00 h on Monday Friday and set back mode for the remaining time: 87 , 0 =
im
f ;
If the pump is turned off during the set back mode: 60 , 0 =
im
f
A.2.3 Monthly auxiliary energy demand and recoverable auxiliary energy
For the tabulated calculation method, the monthly auxiliary energy demand is calculated according to 6.5.
For the tabulated calculation method, the recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system is given by:
an aux dis H rvd aux dis H
W Q
, , , , , ,
75 , 0 = [kWh] (A.8)
and the recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating is given by:
an aux dis H rbl aux dis H
W Q
, , , , , ,
25 , 0 = [kWh] (A.9)
A.3 Simplified calculation method for determination of annual system thermal loss
A.3.1 Input/output data
For the simplified calculation method, some assumptions are made for the most relevant cases, reducing the
required input data (e.g. the lengths of pipes are calculated by approximations depending on the outer
dimensions of the building). This method may be applied if only few data are available (in general at an early
stage of design). The assumptions made in A.3.3 through A.3.7 may be changed on a national level in a
national annex, but the calculation method as given by A.3.2 is to be applied.
The input data for the simplified calculation method are listed below. These are all part of the detailed project
data:
L
L length of the zone [m];
W
L width of the zone [m];
lev
h height of the floor in the zone [m];
lev
N number of floors in the zone [-];
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tabulated U-Values per length for each part of the distribution system in the zone [W/mK];
m
mean medium temperature in the zone [C];
a
surrounding temperature in the zone (unheated and heated space) [C];
op
t heating hours in the time step [h/time step];
Number of valves and hangers taken into account
The output data of the simplified calculation method are:
an ls dis H
Q
, , ,
annual system thermal loss of the distribution system in the zone [kWh/year];
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
recoverable system thermal loss for space heating in the zone [kWh/year];
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
unrecoverable system thermal loss in the zone [kWh/year].
A.3.2 Calculation method
The annual system thermal loss is determined from the calculation method given in 7.2.2 (for the detailed
calculation method), which is simplified through the assumptions and approximations given in the following.
The recoverable and (unrecoverable) system thermal losses are determined according to 7.2.4.
A.3.3 Approximation of the length of pipes per zone in distribution systems
For the simplified calculation method, approximations of the length of the pipes in a building or a zone (see
Figure A.1) are made, based on the length (L
L
) and width (L
W
) of the building or zone, the floor height (h
lev
)
and the number of floors (N
lev
), see Table A.4 and Table A.5.
L
V
Pipe length between generator and vertical shafts.
These (horizontal) pipes could be in unheated spaces
(basement, attic) or in heated spaces.
L
S
Pipe length in shafts (e.g. vertical). These pipes are
either in heated spaces, in outside-walls or in the
inside of the building. The heating medium is always
circulating.
L
A
Connection pipes. These pipes are flow controlled by
the emission system in heated spaces.
Figure A.1 Type of pipes in a distribution system
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Table A.4 Approximation of pipe lengths (two-pipe heating systems)
Values Result Unit Part V
(from the generator
to the shafts)
Part S
(vertical shafts)
Part A
(connection
pipes)
Mean
surrounding
temperature
C 13 respectively 20 20 20
Pipe length in
case of shafts in
outside walls
L
i
m 2
.
L
L
+
0,01625
.
L
L
.
L
W
2
0,025
.
L
L
.
L
W
.
h
lev
.
N
lev
0,55
.
L
L
.
L
W
.
N
lev
Pipe length in
case of shafts
inside the
building
L
i
m 2
.
L
L
+
0,0325
.
L
L
.
L
W
+ 6
0,025
.
L
L
.
L
W
.
h
lev
.
N
lev
0,55
.
L
L
.
L
W
.
N
lev
Table A.5 Approximation of pipe length (one-pipe heating systems)
Values Result Unit Part V
(from the generator
to the shafts)
Part S
(vertical shafts)
Part A
(connection
pipes)
Pipe length in
case of shafts
inside of the
building
L m 2
.
L
L
+
0,0325
.
L
L
.
L
W
+ 6
0,025
.
L
L
.
L
W
.
h
lev
.
N
lev
+ 2
.
(L
L
+ L
W
)
.
N
lev
0,1
.
L
L
.
L
W
.
N
lev
A.3.4 Default values of the outer total surface coefficient of heat transfer (convection and
radiation)
a
h outer total surface coefficient of heat transfer (convection and radiation) (W/mK)
value for insulated pipes = 8 W/m
2
K
value for un-insulated pipes = 14 W/m
2
K
A.3.5 Approximation of -values
For the simplified calculation method, approximations of the -values are made for the different types of
pipes (see Table A.6). These should be constant values.
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Table A.6 Default values of linear thermal transmittance [W/mK]
for new and existing buildings
Age or class of building Distribution part
Part V Part S Pars A
From 1995 assumed that insulation
thickness is approximately equal to pipe
external diameter
0,2 0,3 0,3
1980 to 1995 - assumed that insulation
thickness is approximately equal to half of
pipe external diameter
0,3 0,4 0,4
Up to 1980 0,4 0,4 0,4

Non-insulated pipes
A 200 m 1,0 1,0 1,0
200 m < A 500 m 2,0 2,0 2,0
A > 500 m 3,0 3,0 3,0

Pipes laid in external walls total /
recoverable
a
External wall non-insulated 1,35 / 0,80
External wall external insulated 1,00 / 0,90
External wall without insulation
but low thermal transmittance (U=0,4 W/mK)
0,75 / 0,55
a
(total = total thermal loss of the pipe, recoverable = recoverable thermal loss of
the pipe).
A.3.6 Equivalent length of valves
Table A.7 provides the equivalent length of valves, including flanges, depending on the kind of insulation.
Table A.7 Equivalent length of valves
Valves including flanges
Equivalent length in m
(diameter d 100 mm)
Equivalent length in m
(diameter d > 100 mm)
not insulated 4,0 6,0
insulated 1,5 2,5
A.3.7 Default values for the exponent of the heat emission system
Radiators: n = 1,33.
Floor heating systems n = 1,1.
A.4 Tabulated calculation method for determination of annual system thermal loss
A.4.1 Input/output data
The input data for the tabulated calculation method are listed below. These are all part of the detailed project
data:
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EN 15316-2-3:2007 (E)
45
z h
A
,
heated floor area in the zone [m];
m
mean medium temperature (supply/return temperature) in the zone [C];
an op
t
,
heating hours in the time step [h/year].
The output data of the tabulated calculation method are:
an ls dis H
Q
, , ,
annual system thermal loss of the distribution system in the zone [kWh/year];
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
recoverable system thermal loss for space heating in the zone [kWh/year];
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
unrecoverable system thermal loss in the zone [kWh/year].
The tabulated calculation method combines all the assumptions of the simplified method and provides, with
additional assumptions regarding the design system temperature, values for annual system thermal loss.
National annexes providing tabulated values for this method may be elaborated. The simplified calculation
method shall form the basis for determination of tabulated values on a national level and the tables should
follow the same structure as in A.4.2. The various boundary conditions, which may be changed on a national
level, are given in A.4.2 as well.
A.4.2 Calculation method, tabulated values
Annual system thermal loss is given in Table A.8 for two-pipe heating systems. The values have been
calculated from the simplified method in A.3, with some additional assumptions:
mean part load of distribution
dis
= 0,4;
heating hours
an op
t
,
= 5 000 hours per year;
A
h,z
= m of the zone;
length of the zone depending on the heated floor area:
z h L
A L
,
0059 , 0 4 , 11 + = ;
width of the zone depending on the heated floor area: 62 , 6 ) ln( 72 , 2
,
+ =
z h W
A L ;
number of floors in the zone: ) /(
, W L z h lev
L L A N = ;
floor height
lev
h = 3,0 m;
-value for pipes of part V of the distribution system, in unheated spaces = 0,2 W/mK;
-value for shafts and connecting pipes of the distribution system, in heated spaces = 0,255 W/mK;
shafts inside the zone.
UNI EN 15316-2-3:2008
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EN 15316-2-3:2007 (E)
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Table A.8 Annual system thermal loss in kWh/year at design temperature
For a different number of heating hours per year than given in Table A.8, the annual system thermal losses,
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
and
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
are determined from the tabulated values in Table A.8 by multiplication with a
factor
5000
,an op
t
f = , where
an op
t
,
is the number of heating hours per year (h/year).
A.5 Example
In this example, application of the simplified calculation method is shown.
Given:
building: Length:
L
L =10 m, width:
W
L = 8 m, number of floors:
lev
N = 2, floor height:
lev
h = 3 m;
heated floor:
z h
A
,
= 160 m;
design heat load:
H
= 8 000 W;
mean part load of distribution
dis
=0,4, Heating hours
an op
t
,
= 5 000 h/year;
design supply temperature:
des s,
= 55 C, Design return temperature:
des r,
= 45 C;
two-pipe heating system:
NET
f =1, hydraulic balanced:
HB
f =1,
c
l = 10 m;
Annual system thermal loss in kWh/year
(
an op
t
,
= 5 000 heating hours)
Design temperatures (supply/return)
Heated
area
90 C / 70 C 70 C / 55 C 55 C / 45 C 35 C / 28 C
A
h,z
[m]
unheated
space
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
heated
space
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
unheated
space
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
heated
space
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
unheated
space
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
heated
space
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
unheated
space
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
heated
space
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
100 1 133 2 375 865 1 681 674 1 187 388 446
150 1 265 3 562 966 2 522 753 1 781 433 669
200 1 383 4 749 1 056 3 363 823 2 375 473 893
300 1 592 7 124 1 216 5 044 948 3 562 545 1 339
400 1 783 9 499 1 362 6 726 1 061 4 749 611 1 785
500 1 964 11 873 1 499 8 407 1 169 5 937 672 2 231
600 2 138 14 248 1 632 10 088 1 272 7 124 732 2 678
700 2 308 16 623 1 762 11 770 1 373 8 311 790 3 124
800 2 475 18 998 1 890 13 451 1 473 9 499 847 3 570
900 2 641 21 372 2 016 15 133 1 572 10 686 904 4 016
1 000 2 805 23 747 2 142 16 814 1 669 11 873 961 4 463
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heat emitters: standard radiators:
FH
p = 0 , generator:
G
p = 1 kPa, new building: b = 1;
pump controlled:
i
p
var
,
1 P
C = 0,90;
2 P
C = 0,10.
Calculations:
Annual auxiliary energy demand:
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
c lev lev
W
L
l h N
L
L L
2
2
max
=> Lmax = 60 m
WE FBH des
p p L p + + + = 2 13 . 0
max
=>
des
p = 10,8 kPa
des
V
&
= 0,713 m/h
des hydr
P
,
= 2,141 W
hydr d
W
,
= 4,282 kWh/year
e
f = 16,373
dis
e = 18,829
an aux dis H
W
, , ,
= 80,6 kWh/year
Intermittent operation: regular mode: 15 h/day, boost mode: 3 % =>
r
k = 0,625,
b
k = 0,03,
setb
k = 0,345
im an aux dis H
W
, , , ,
= 69,5 kWh/year
Monthly energy demand:
Example: January: mean part load of distribution
J dis,
= 0,8, heating hours = 744 h/month
Jan aux dis H
W
, , ,
= 24,0 kWh/month, by intermittent operation:
im Jan aux dis H
W
, , , ,
= 20,7 kWh/month
Recoverable auxiliary energy:
75 , 0
,
=
rbl aux
f (pump not insulated)
Recovered auxiliary energy in the distribution system:
an aux dis H rvd aux dis H
W Q
, , , , , ,
75 , 0 = = 60,4 kWh/year
Recoverable auxiliary energy for space heating:
an aux dis H rbl aux dis H
W Q
, , , , , ,
) 75 , 0 1 ( = = 20,2 kWh/year
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System thermal loss:
Given:
-values: in heated spaces: 0,255 W/mK, in unheated spaces: 0,200 W/mK;
with the outer dimensions of the building:
Lv = 28,6 m;
Ls = 12 m;
La = 88 m;
mean temperature of the distribution:
m
= 35,06 C;
heating hours:
an op
t
,
= 5 000 h/year;
temperature in heated space = 20 C and temperature in unheated space = 13 C.
Calculations:
nrbl ls dis H
q
, , ,
& = 4,413 W/m,
rbl ls dis H
q
, , ,
& = 3,841 W/m
Lu = Lv = 28,6 m, Lh = Ls + La = 100 m
an nrbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
= 631 kWh/year,
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
= 1 921 kWh/year
Annual system thermal loss:
an ls dis H
Q
, , ,
= 2 552 kWh/year
Recoverable system thermal loss:
an rbl ls dis H
Q
, , , ,
= 1 921 kWh/year
UNI EN 15316-2-3:2008
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EN 15316-2-3:2007 (E)
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Bibliography
[1] prCEN/TR 15615
1
)
, Explanation of the general relationship between various CEN standards and the
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) ("Umbrella document")
[2] EN ISO 9488, Solar energy Vocabulary (ISO 9488:1999)
[3] ISO 12241, Thermal insulation for building equipment and industrial installations Calculation rules
[4] EN ISO 13790, Thermal performance of buildings Calculation of energy use for space heating (ISO
13790:2004)

1
)
To be published.
UNI EN 15316-2-3:2008
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Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.
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di Unificazione
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