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Giuseppina Abis

Sally Davies

TEACHER’S BOOK
GET ON BOARD
2nd Edition
Fully revised and updated
Realizzazione editoriale:
ART Servizi Editoriali S.r.l. – Bologna

Progetto editoriale: Massimo Manzoni


Coordinamento editoriale: Cinzia Bisognin
Redazione: Silvia Magi
Impaginazione: Pietro Genna

Incisione lastre mediante CTP:


Fotoincisa Effegi, Savigliano (CN)
Stampa: Edizioni Il Capitello, Torino

PROPRIETÀ LETTERARIA RISERVATA

L’Editore, nell’ambito delle leggi internazionali


sul copyright, è a disposizione degli aventi diritto
non potuti rintracciare.

I diritti di traduzione, di riproduzione


e di adattamento, totale o parziale, con qualsiasi
mezzo, compresi microfilm e copie fotostatiche,
sono riservati per tutti i paesi.

1ª edizione: settembre 2013

Ristampa:
5 4 3 2 1
2018 2017 2016 2015 2014

L’Editore e gli Autori hanno rispettato


le indicazioni di Progetto Polite,
“Pari opportunità e libri di testo”.

© Edizioni il Capitello
Via Sansovino, 243/22/R
10151 Torino
tel. 011-4513611

2
TEACHER’S BOOK

Struttura del corso


Questo testo di inglese tecnico è rivolto agli studenti degli istituti tecnici dell’indirizzo “Trasporti
e Logistica”. L’obiettivo principale è quello di far acquisire agli studenti conoscenze e competenze
nell’uso della lingua inglese mirate al loro specifico ambito professionale: struttura, contenuti ed
esercizi proposti sono quindi funzionali alla consultazione e comprensione di testi specialistici,
come manuali e istruzioni d’uso di macchinari, così come alla ricezione e trasmissione di messaggi
radio, e all’introduzione alle problematiche della logistica dei trasporti.
Nell’organizzazione e nello sviluppo delle unità si è cercato di rispondere alle seguenti esigenze
didattiche:

significatività dei contenuti: gli argomenti delle unità didattiche sono stati scelti mantenendo
come linee guida i temi che gli studenti affrontano nelle discipline d’indirizzo del corso di studi;
utilità delle attività proposte: l’elaborazione didattica dei testi e l’insieme degli esercizi
proposti per sviluppare le quattro abilità sono strettamente finalizzati al raggiungimento
dell’obiettivo legato alla microlingua;
flessibilità didattica: le singole unità didattiche sono autonome tra loro e consentono
all’insegnante la massima libertà di scelta nel tracciare un eventuale percorso modulare adatto
alle esigenze delle proprie classi; questa organizzazione permette altresì di trovare, all’interno
dell’ampia offerta di argomenti sviluppati nelle diverse unità didattiche, agevoli spunti per
percorsi interdisciplinari.

Si è cercato di rendere le attività proposte in ciascuna unità didattica il più possibile varie e
motivanti. Esse includono tipologie diverse di esercizi, finalizzate sia all’acquisizione delle quattro
abilità, sia all’acquisizione di abilità di studio come la capacità di riassumere e sintetizzare.
All’interno delle unità didattiche si trovano quindi:

esercizi rivolti a facilitare la comprensione del testo – come answer the questions;
esercizi rivolti a facilitare l’acquisizione del lessico – come gli esercizi di matching tra termini
italiani e inglesi che hanno lo stesso significato;
esercizi di listening per completare un paragrafo, intesi sia a motivare l’attività di ascolto, sia
a esercitare la comprensione e il riconoscimento di singoli termini chiave;
esercizi di guided summary intesi a facilitare la sintesi dei contenuti.

Non mancano attività di speaking – realizzate spesso come pair-work – e momenti di riflessione
grammaticale su strutture tipiche della lingua tecnica, per esempio l’uso delle forme passive.
Oltre agli esercizi di ascolto finalizzati al completamento di un breve testo, sono stati selezionati
diversi paragrafi per un’attività di listen and read.

Ciascuna unità didattica si conclude con un project work. Questi consistono in attività varie di
ricerca guidata su Internet, per le quali vengono indicate le pagine specifiche e i relativi link. Tali
attività potranno offrire l’occasione per lavorare nel laboratorio informatico e approfondire,
attraverso il web, i contenuti appresi.

3
TEACHER’S BOOK

In appendice al testo si trovano la sezione di grammatica e il glossario.


La sezione di grammatica (Grammar notes) è costituita da spiegazioni ed esercizi, utili a superare
le principali difficoltà concrete che gli studenti incontrano nello studio della lingua tecnica; questa
sezione è completata da una tavola dei verbi irregolari inglesi. Il glossario (Glossary) riporta la
traduzione dei termini tecnici più frequenti nei brani proposti.

Il testo è corredato da un CD audio che contiene la registrazione di tutti i brani finalizzati


all’ascolto. I brani contraddistinti dal simbolo sono invece disponibili nel sito dell’editore.

Guida per l’insegnante


Nella guida, l’insegnante trova i seguenti supporti didattici:
keys: la soluzione di tutti gli esercizi proposti nelle unità didattiche e nella sezione di
grammatica;
tapescripts: la trascrizione di tutti i brani d’ascolto che lo studente deve completare;
32 tests: i test per la verifica scritta alla conclusione di ciascuna unità didattica, con le relative
soluzioni per agevolare la correzione.

I test sono impostati su varie tipologie di esercizi, sia di produzione sia di riconoscimento.
All’interno dei test è assegnato un punteggio per ogni risposta corretta nei vari esercizi; la somma
dei punteggi di ciascun test è di 30 punti. L’insegnante potrà ricavare il voto in decimi dividendo
per 3 il punteggio totale ottenuto da ciascuno studente.

4
key to unit exercises

Key to unit exercises

UNIT 1 Under = sotto


The main parts of a ship Towards = verso, in direzione di
Fore end = estremità anteriore
Ex 1 Listen to the names that refer to the
After end = estremità posteriore
main parts of the hull and repeat them
Upper deck = ponte superiore
after the recording.
Rearmost part = parte posteriore
amidships, bottom, bow, upper works,
Foremost part = parte anteriore
starboard amidships, main deck, port,
sides, starboard, stern, port bow, waterline Ex 5 Match the terms you have learned so
far with their definitions.
Ex 2 Listen to the recording and complete
1d, 2h, 3j, 4g, 5l, 6i, 7e, 8f, 9b, 10c, 11a, 12k
the text with the missing words, as in the
example 4 . Ex 6 Study the picture and choose the
1 The main body of a ship is the hull. correct option.
This is the area between the 1 main deck, 1 amidships
the 2 sides and the 3 bottom. The main 2 after end
deck is the upper deck, which completely 3 forward
covers the hull. 4 aft
2 The hull is divided into three parts: 5 abeam
the 4 bow, the 5 stern and the 6 amidships.
The bow is the fore end of the ship, the Ex 7 Study the diagram and use the terms
stern is the after end. The amidships is the to complete the text, then listen to the
part in the middle. recording and check.
3 The sides of the hull are divided by the 7 Decks and bulkheads divide the hull into a
waterline, which is a line parallel to the number of watertight compartments.
surface of the water. Decks divide the hull horizontally.
The part above the surface of the water is 1 Bulkheads are vertical steel walls going
called the upper works, the part under the across and along the ship. The hull contains
water is called the 8 bottom. the Engine Room, cargo space, and a
4 An imaginary vertical plane called the number of tanks.
central line divides the hull into two halves: In dry cargo ships the cargo space is
the right side of the hull is called the 9 divided into 2 holds; in liquid cargo ships it
starboard side, the left side is called the 10 is divided into tanks. In the multi-deck
port side. vessel, a particular type of dry-cargo ship,
5 We can distinguish three areas on each the holds are divided up by 3 ’tween decks.
side of the hull and divide it into six At the fore end of the hull are the fore
sections. 4 peak tanks, at the after end are the
On the starboard side there is the starboard 5 after peak tanks. They are used for
bow, the 11 starboard amidships and the freshwater and water ballast.
starboard quarter. The space between the holds and the
On the port side there is the 12 port bow, bottom of the hull contains double
the port amidships, and the port quarter. 6 bottom tanks. These are used for ballast
6 When you go towards the bow you go water and fuel.
forward, when you go towards the stern Ex 8 See what you can remember and
you go aft. answer the questions.
From side to side across the ship is known as 1 It is the permanent housing above the
abeam or athwartships. main deck.
Ex 3 Use a bilingual dictionary and 2 It consists of three parts: the forecastle,
complete the table with the Italian the bridge and the poop.
meanings. 3 The forecastle is situated forward, above
Above = al di sopra the bow.
Below = al di sotto 4 The poop is located aft, above the stern.

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Teacher’s book

5 It contains the Engine Room, cargo space Ex 10 Match each English term with its
and a number of tanks. Italian equivalent and copy the pairs into
6 It is divided into a number of watertight your exercise book.
compartments. 1k, 2m, 3e, 4g, 5h, 6n, 7b, 8d, 9i, 10a, 11l,
7 The hull is divided by decks and 12c, 13f, 14j, 15o
bulkheads.
8 In a dry-cargo ship, the cargo space is
divided into holds. UNIT 2
9 In a liquid cargo ship the cargo space is Ships’ measurements and specifications
divided into tanks. Ex 4 Match each measurement with its
10 ’Tween decks are horizontal divisions of definition.
the holds. 1e, 2d, 3g, 4c, 5f, 6b, 7a
11 Fore and after peak tanks are used for
fresh water and water ballast. Ex 5 Complete the description of “Lucky 3”
12 Double bottom tanks are used for water with the missing information from the
ballast or fuel. chart.
Lucky 3 was built by 1 Landers & Sons.
Ex 9 Listen to the recording and complete She has an overall length of 2 203.92 m
the first passage. Then read and complete and a 3 breadth of 37.3 m. Her draft is
the second passage. 4 16.34 m and she has a 5 deadweight of
Passage 1 21,441 t. Her gross tonnage is 6 30,457.
The diagram shows the layout of a modern She has a diesel engine which develops a
dry cargo ship. The hull is divided up power of 7 21,000 kW. She can sail at a
into a number of watertight 1 8 service speed of 25 knots.
compartments by decks and steel 2
bulkheads. At the fore and after ends Project Work
of the hull are the 3 fore peak tanks
AMERIGO VESPUCCI – SPECIFICATIONS
and the 4 after peak tanks.
The 5 Engine Room is situated at the after Name AMERIGO VESPUCCI
end of the ship to leave more room for Building shipyard Castellammare di Stabia (Naples)
Type of ship Sailing vessel (with auxiliary
cargo. The cargo space is divided up into engine propulsion)
6 watertight compartments. These also have Launched 22nd February 1931
7 ’tween decks. Above the main deck is the Number of masts 3
Number of sails 26
8 superstructure. At the fore end is the Length overall 101 m
9 forecastle. At the after end the bridge LBP (length between perpendiculars) 82.38 m
Extreme breadth 15.50 m
superstructure and the 10 poop are Draft 7m
combined. Total height 54.0 m
Full load displacement 4,150 t
Gross tonnage 3,410.36
Passage 2 Net tonnage 1,202.57
The diagram 1 shows the layout of an oil Number and type of engines Two 4-stroke FIAT diesel engines
tanker. The hull is 2 divided into a number Main engine output 1471 KW (1972.64 Horse Power)
Service speed (sails and engines) Sails 10 knots, engines 12 knots
of 3 watertight compartments by decks and Crew 240
bulkheads. At the fore and after ends of
the hull are the forepeak tanks and the
afterpeak tanks.
UNIT 3
The Engine Room is 4 situated at the after Ship classification
end of the ship, to leave more 5 room for Ex 1 Answer the questions.
cargo. Between the forepeak tank and the 1 Boats are small open vessels, while ships
cargo space is a coffer dam (CD). The can be of a considerable size.
6 cargo space is divided up into a 7 number 2 Boats can sail for distances of not more
of tanks. Above the 8 main deck is the than six nautical miles from the coast.
superstructure. At the 9 fore end is the 3 Boats are used for coastal fishing, water
forecastle. At the after end, the bridge sports and as lifeboats on board ship.
superstructure and the poop are 10 4 No, they don’t. For example, rowing boats
combined. and canoes do not have engines but oars.

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key to unit exercises

5 Ships are moved or propelled by an 7 Container ships.


engine. 8 Refrigerated ships.
6 Ships can carry goods, vehicles or
Ex 6 On which kind of ship would the
passengers on the open sea.
following people or goods travel? Insert
7 Ships can sail variable distances from the
them into the table.
coast, depending on the kind of navigation
Ferries the Jones’ family and
for which they are authorized.
their car on their way
Ex 2 Choose the correct option. to France / you and
1a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5c your scooter
Ex 3 Complete with the missing words. LNG carriers methane gas
The authority which classifies and registers Refrigerated ships meat from Argentina /
ships in Italy: the RINA. kiwis from New
The authority which classifies and registers Zealand
ships in Great Britain: the Lloyd’s Register of
Shipping (LR). Chemical carriers paint from Singapore
Classification notations: Dry bulk carriers grain / sugar
class symbol Oil tankers petroleum from the
construction mark Middle East / petrol
type class notation from the SARAS
navigation notation refinery
Unrestricted navigation indicates that the
Container ships antique furniture from
ship can sail on the high seas and in any
China / tinned food
period of the year.
Fishing boats are used for commercial Ex 7 Complete the diagram about the
fishing. different types of merchant ships.
If we need to drag the sea bottom, we use
Merchant ships
a dredger.
Pupils can learn about sailing on board a Passenger ships Cargo ships
schoolship.
Canoeing, rowing and other water sports Cruise ships Dry cargo ships Liquid cargo ships
are done with pleasure crafts.
Ferries Dry bulk carriers Crude oil tankers
Ex 4 Study the above certificate and
answer the questions. Refrigerated ships Chemical tankers
1 This certificate was issued by the RINA.
2 It is a certificate of class. Container ships LNG carriers
3 The ship has been classified as an oil
tanker. Liquid and Dry cargo
4 She has been assigned to unrestricted
OBO carriers
navigation.
5 She will carry crude oil or chemical
products in bulk. Project Work
6 ESP means Enhanced Survey Programme. For the Certificate of Registry,
7 The ship has a double hull which extends Bahamas
for the entire length of the cargo area. SUN
8 The Load Line Certificate, which indicates For the International Tonnage Certificate,
the ship’s safe. Length 74.57 m
Ex 5 Which types of ship are these? Breadth 11.30 m
1 Cruise ships. Depth 6.40 m
2 Ferries. Gross tonnage 1527
3 Dry bulk carriers. Net tonnage 840
4 Oil tankers. For the International Loadline
5 Chemical tankers. Certificate,
6 LNG carriers. SUNNY LADY

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Teacher’s book

NASSAU 4 When are the side framing and


1265 bulkheads erected?
In the Document of Safe Manning, 5 What is installed last?
PRINS FILIP Ex 6 Reorder the following statements.
50 The first one has been done to help you.
For the International Oil Pollution 1d, 2l, 3a, 4e, 5h, 6f, 7j, 8b, 9i, 10c, 11k, 12g
Prevention Certificate,
LADY Ex 7 Now rewrite the sentences in the
30th April 1999 passive form and make up a paragraph.
Begin like this:
After the classification society has
UNIT 4 approved the working plans, the shipyard
Shipbuilding starts to build the ship.
Ex 1 Answer the questions. First the keel is built, next the bottom with
1 Ships are built in shipyards. its plating is laid out. Then the side framing
2 The USA, Japan and some European and bulkheads are erected. Spaces like double
countries like Great Britain, France and bottom tanks are tested for tightness. Finally
Italy build most of the world’s merchant the superstructure is installed.
ships. Shortly before launching, the propeller shafting
3 To allow vessels to be launched from the and propulsion machinery are installed. As the
building ways. ship is launched, she is christened by breaking
4 They are built in slipways or in dry a bottle of champagne on her hull. Then the
docks. ship is towed to the outfitting pier, where the
5 When they are two-thirds completed. outfitting work is carried out.
6 The rest of the work is finished at the Next the ship is taken for a trial trip, then she
outfitting pier. is finally delivered to the owner.
Ex 2 Ask questions using the question Ex 8 Match each term with its definition.
1e, 2g, 3f, 4d, 5a, 6c, 7b
word who.
1 Who designs ships? Ex 9 Study the picture that shows in detail
2 Who approves the basic designs? the framework of the hull. Read the text
3 Who draws up the working plans? that describes the picture and insert the
4 Who registers ships? missing words.
Ex 3 Complete the table by writing the The hull framing
past participle of the verbs. The main centreline structural part of the
to install (r) / installed hull is the 1 keel, which runs from the
to erect (r) / erected stem at the bow to the stern post at the
to build (ir) / built stern. The keel is the backbone of the ship.
to lay out (ir) / laid out To the keel are fastened the 2 frames,
Ex 4 Write sentences using the passive which run athwartship. These are the ribs
form of the present simple. of the ship and give shape and strength to
1 The keel is built first. the hull. Deck 3 beams and bulkheads
2 Then the bottom with its plating is laid support the decks and they give added
out. strength to resist the pressure of the water
3 Next, the side framing and bulkheads are on the sides of the hull.
erected.
The plating
4 Finally, the superstructure or deckhouse
The skin, or shell plating, provides water-
is installed. tightness. The 4 plates, the principal
Ex 5 Now ask questions for the given strength members of a ship, have various
answers using the passive. thicknesses. The heaviest plates are put on
1 Where are ships built? amidships. Using plates of various thickness
2 What is built first? reduces the weight of the metal used and
3 What is laid out next? gives the vessel additional 5 strength at its

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key to unit exercises

broadest part. The plates, put on in rows Project Work


from bow to stern, are called 6 strakes.
Fill in the tables.
They are lettered consecutively, beginning
at the keel and going upward. Student A Dock 2

Strake names
Length 252 m
The bottom row of strakes on either side Width 53 m
of the keel is called 7 garboard strakes. The Clear width between walls 44 m
Max. ship’s draft at 0 tide 9m
strakes at the turn of the hull, running in Lifting capacity 33,000 tons
the bilge, are 8 bilge strakes. The strakes
running between the garboard and bilge Student B Dock 3
strakes are called bottom strakes and the
topmost strakes of the hull are 9 sheer Length 227 m
strakes. The upper edge of the sheer strake Width 49 m
Clear width between walls 40 m
is the gunwale. Max. ship’s draft at 0 tide 8,7 m
Lifting capacity 30,000 tons
Ex 10 Listen and complete the text with the
missing words given in scrambled order.
How not to build a ship UNIT 5
The construction of the Titanic began in Visual & sound signals
March 1909 in Belfast in the Harland and and communication codes
Wolff 1 shipyard. Her owners, the White
Star Line, designed the Titanic to be the Ex 1 Answer the questions.
largest ship to ever take to the seas and 1 They need to be able to communicate
spared no expense in her 2 construction. It easily and safely.
took more than 3,000 men, 3 years to build 2 It became particularly relevant at the
the Titanic at a cost of $7.5 million. beginning of the 19th century, when
The marketing materials published before there was a huge increase in maritime
her 3 maiden voyage claimed that the ship transport.
was “designed to be 4 unsinkable”. The 3 It was published in 1857.
construction included sixteen 5 4 An International Committee.
compartments that were reported to be 6 5 It was published in seven different
watertight. languages.
The builders of the Titanic had included 7 6 It allows seamen to communicate with
steel doors that could be closed in 25 other people who do not speak the same
seconds or less, enclosing any water that language.
might have seeped in to threaten the 7 IMO is the International Maritime
safety of the ship and her occupants. Organization.
Of course, we now know that many of the 8 It gives information on different ways of
nearly 3 million rivets used to hold the signalling and it also has tables with the
Morse Code, flags and phonetic tables.
ship’s 8 hull plates together popped loose
when the 9 vessel struck a massive iceberg. Ex 2 Answer the following questions
Without the rivets to hold the 10 plating about paragraphs 2 and 3.
together, water seeped into the ship. 1 The ship’s siren, a whistle or a bell.
New theories have also suggested that the 2 Each letter or number is indicated by the
11 iron used in the Titanic construction number of blasts of the siren.
although standard for the first part of the 3 They are rarely used nowadays, but they
20th century contained high degrees of could still be useful in emergency
sulphur, which made the 12 hull plates situations, for example to transmit distress
particularly susceptible to the icy cold signals if the radio fails to work.
waters of the Atlantic Ocean. 4 The Morse Code.
We will probably never know the exact 5 It is made up of a series of dots and
cause of the Titanic’s destruction, but her dashes representing each letter and
history and the fate of her passengers will number.
always remain. 6 It was radiotelegraphy.

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Teacher’s book

7 There are three different types of flags: 2 They mostly use English.
letter flags, number flags, and triangular- 3 When they transmit messages.
shaped flags. 4 When there is a need for extreme clarity
8 A substitute flag. and in cases of language difficulties.
Ex 3 Try to decipher the message in Morse Ex 11 Match each unit of measurement
Code using the table with the Morse with its symbol.
symbols. 1d, 2h, 3g, 4i, 5a, 6c, 7j, 8b, 9f, 10e
The message reads: “If you can read this you
have understood how Morse works”. Ex 13 Now try to complete the missing
figures in the following parts of the radio
Ex 4 Match each picture with its
messages.
description.
1 Calling on Channel 1 16.
5, 4, 6, 1, 2, 3, 8, 7
2 My draught is 2 8.35 metres.
Ex 5 Look at the flag table and complete 3 Position; bearing 3 zero-nine-five degrees
the following descriptions of the west, distance 4 two-two miles from
alphabetic flags. Charter Point.
1 The “I” flag has a blue circle on a yellow 4 ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) at
background. Eurobuoy 5 18.00 GMT, December
2 The “X” flag is a blue cross on a white 6 15.
background. 5 Speed: 7 one five decimal three knots.
3 The “F” flag has a red diamond on a 6 My cargo is crude oil, 8 three two three
white background. five six five metric tonnes.
4 The “E” flag has two red and blue bands.
5 The “C” flag has narrow red, white and Project Work
blue horizontal stripes. Find out which flag is used to signal:
6 The “Q” flag is yellow. 1 C (Charlie)
7 The “P” flag has a small white rectangle 2 N (November)
on a blue background. 3 H (Hotel)
8 The “V” flag has a red diagonal cross on 4 W (Whiskey)
a white background. 5 Z (Zulu)
Ex 6 Which alphabet flag is being 6 P (Papa) signals that all persons should
described? If you guess correctly, the report on board (sailors should get on
letters will spell a sentence! board quickly because the ship is going to
The sentence is: “Now you try”. sail and leave port).
Ex 7 If you understood the message, you
now have to describe the flags in a similar UNIT 6
way. Let’s try to describe the following
The IALA Buoyage System & ship
national flags.
navigation lights
1 The Italian flag has three green, white
and red vertical bands. Ex 1 Answer the questions.
2 The Union Jack is red, white and blue. It 1 Buoys are floating aids to navigation and
has two red crosses and a white diagonal they are found near the coast.
cross on a blue background. 2 They are anchored to the bottom.
3 The Stars and Stripes has a small blue 3 To ensure the safety of ships navigating
rectangle in the top left-hand corner with near the coast.
a lot of white stars. Then it has a lot of red 4 Sandbanks, rocks and wrecks.
and white narrow horizontal stripes. 5 The IALA.
4 The French flag has three blue, white 6 International Association of Lighthouse
and red vertical bands. Authorities.
Ex 8 Answer the questions. 7 To allow them to be easily identified
1 VHF radio has replaced radiotelegraphy from a distance.
nowadays. 8 In 1976.

10

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key to unit exercises

Ex 2 Use the table and label the photos 3 Two black cones with their bases together.
with the shape and colour pattern of each 4 Two black cones with their points together.
buoy. The North cardinal buoy has two black
1 This buoy is pillar-shaped. It has red and cones pointing upwards as its topmark.
white vertical stripes. The topmark of the East cardinal buoy is
2 This buoy is spar-shaped. It has red and two black cones with their bases together.
black horizontal bands. The South cardinal buoy has two black
3 This buoy is conical. It is green. cones pointing downwards as its topmark.
4 This buoy is cylindrical. It has a red colour. The topmark of the West cardinal buoy is
5 This buoy is spherical. It has a yellow two black cones with their points together.
colour.
1 North 2 East 3 South 4 West
Ex 3 Try to describe lateral buoys to your
partner, using the notes in the diagrams. Students should now draw the topmark
Use sentences like these. belonging to each cardinal mark in ex 5
Port-hand buoys can be shaped like a can, pictures.
a pillar or a spar. They are coloured in red.
This is the result:
Their topmark is a red can. At night they
have a red light.
Starboard-hand buoys can be shaped like a
cone, a pillar or a spar. They have a green
colour. Their topmark is a green cone. At
night they have a green light.
Ex 4 Look at the world map and answer
the questions. N E S W
1 System Region A.
2 System Region B. Black Yellow
3 Australia uses System Region A and
Japan uses System Region B. Ex 8 Complete the description of cardinal
marks.
Ex 5 What does each Cardinal Mark look
A North cardinal buoy is 1 black over
like? Listen and colour the spars. Get your 2 yellow; its topmark is two black cones
black and yellow pencils ready! pointing 3 upwards.
Number 1 is black over yellow. An East cardinal buoy has two 4 black
Number 2 has two black bands with a bands with a 5 yellow band in the middle;
yellow band in the middle. as a topmark it has two black cones with
Number 3 is yellow over black. their 6 bases together.
Number 4 has two yellow bands with a A South cardinal buoy is 7 yellow over
black band in the middle. 8 black; its topmark is two black cones
Ex 6 Now listen and write the name of pointing 9 downwards.
each Cardinal Mark. A West cardinal buoy has two 10 yellow
A North cardinal mark is black over yellow. bands with a 11 black band in the middle;
The East cardinal mark has two black as a topmark it has two black cones with
bands with a yellow band in the middle. their 12 points together.
A South cardinal mark is yellow over black. At night they flash a 13 white light. Their
The West cardinal mark has two yellow light consists of a sequence of quick or very
bands with a black band in the middle. quick white flashes (Q. or V.Q. Flashes)
whose 14 number gives the clock-face
1 North 2 East 3 South 4 West
position of the cardinal mark.
Ex 7 Now listen to how each topmark So the East mark has 15 three white flashes
is described; then continue listening every 10 seconds, the South mark has
and write the name of each cardinal buoy. 16 six and the West mark has 17 nine.
1 Two black cones pointing upwards. The North mark has a 18 continuous quick
2 Two black cones pointing downwards. white flash.

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Ex 9 Look at the diagrams of the isolated 2 green light at starboard and a 3 red
danger marks and try to complete the text light at their portside.
with the missing words. They must show a 4 white stern light
They are either 1 pillar or spar-shaped. (behind or astern).
They are 2 black in colour with one or The red and green lights mentioned are
more horizontal 3 red bands. Their called 5 sidelights.
topmark is two 4 black spheres. At night Ships must also show at least one
they flash a white 5 light, in groups of masthead light on the high mast.
two flashes (Gp Fl 2) with intervals of 5 Ships which are more than 50 metres long
seconds. must have two 6 masthead lights.
Ex 10 Write the meaning of these All lights have well defined angles through
abbreviations and indicate the type of which they must be visible. Outside of
buoy flashing this light. these angles, the lights cannot be seen.
1 Q (3) – Three quick flashes – East mark
2 VQ (9) – Nine very quick flashes – West
mark
UNIT 7
Geographical coordinates
3 Gp Fl 2 5s – Groups of 2 flashes every 5
seconds – Danger Ex 1 Answer the questions.
4 LFl 10s – A long flash every ten seconds – 1 A year is the time taken for a planet to
Safe water go around the Sun.
2 An imaginary line passing through the
Ex 11 Do you remember the purpose of
centre of the Earth.
each mark? Write the name of each mark.
3 The poles are the ends of the Earth’s axis.
1 Isolated danger marks.
4 The Equator divides the Earth into two
2 Special marks.
hemispheres.
3 Safe water marks.
5 They are called the Northern and
4 Cardinal marks.
Southern Hemispheres.
5 Lateral marks.
6 The Earth is 42 kilometres longer across
Ex 12 Mark the following statements as the Equator than across the poles.
True or False and correct the false ones.
Ex 2 Answer the questions.
1T–2F–3T–4F–5T–6T–7F–8T 1 Parallels are imaginary lines of latitude
2 They have a cone as their topmark. running from east to west.
4 North and South America are in the IALA 2 Meridians are imaginary lines of
System Region B. longitude running from north to south.
7 They are red and white. 3 The Prime Meridian is the Greenwich
meridian.
Ex 13 Mark the following statements as
4 The Equator is the Prime Parallel.
True or False and correct the false ones.
5 Parallels have different length: they
1T–2T–3F–4T–5F–6F–7F–8F
become smaller as they get nearer to the
3 They are white. poles.
5 They are coloured lights. 6 Meridians are all the same length. All of
6 They must be visible for at least three them run from the North to the South Pole.
miles.
Ex 3 Revise what you know about the
7 The starboard light is green while the
Equator by trying to complete the
portside light is red.
sentences.
8 Only ships of over 50 metres in length
1 The Equator is an imaginary circle around
must show two masthead lights.
the Earth.
Ex 14 Complete the text with the missing 2 The Equator is located halfway between
colours and names of lights. the poles.
Vessels which navigate at night must show 3 The Equator represents the maximum
1 navigation lights, so that other vessels circumference of the Earth.
can see if there is a danger of collision and 4 The Equator divides the Earth into two
take action to avoid it. All vessels show a hemispheres.

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5 Places north of the Equator are in the 3 No, it becomes longer as we move from
Northern Hemisphere. the Equator to the poles.
6 Places south of the Equator are in the 4 It changes as the curvature of the
Southern Hemisphere. meridians varies on the Earth’s surface.
7 Europe is in the Northern Hemisphere. 5 It is 1,843 metres.
8 The Equator is the reference or Prime 6 It is 1,862 metres.
Parallel. 7 The speed of a ship is measured in
Ex 4 Choose the correct option. knots.
1c, 2a, 3b, 4b, 5a, 6c 8 A knot is equal to a speed of 1 nautical
mile per hour.
Ex 5 Complete the text with the missing 9 The speed of a ship can be measured by
words. using a log.
To calculate geographical coordinates we 10 At a speed of 14 knots we will cover 28
consider the Earth as a 1 sphere. nautical miles in 2 hours.
When we draw latitude and longitude we
start from the 2 centre of the Earth, which Project Work
is the Earth’s axis. b. Now, let’s travel around the world and
Latitude and longitude are indicated in find the coordinates of cities.
3 degrees because they are 4 angles
b1. Greenwich latitude is: Lat 52°N
formed at the centre of the Earth. b2. The geographical coordinates of Rome
Latitude is the angle formed at the centre are: Lat 41°N Long 12°E. Can you find the
of the Earth by the arc of the 5 meridian coordinates of the following towns?
that joins a point A to the Equator.
Longitude is the angle formed at the
Latitude Longitude
centre of the Earth by the arc of the
6 Equator that links a point A to Paris 48°N 2°E
Greenwich meridian. Oslo 59°N 10°E
Tokyo 35°N 139°E
Ex 6 Match each item on the right with an New York 40°N 73°W
Buenos Aires 34°S 58°W
item on the left. Sydney 34°S 151°E
1f, 2e, 3h, 4j, 5i, 6a, 7b, 8g, 9c, 10d
b3. Which of these six cities is nearest to
Ex 7 Answer the questions. the Anti-meridian? It is: Sydney, of course.
1 There are 24 time zones.
2 There are 15 degrees of longitude in
each of them. Unit 8
3 Dividing 360 by 24. The degrees of the Navigational aids and instruments
Earth considered as a perfect sphere are
360, while 24 is the number of hours the Ex 1 Match the two parts of each
Earth takes to rotate on its own axis. definition.
4 They are numbered starting from 1h, 2f, 3e, 4c, 5g, 6b, 7a, 8d
Greenwich and going to the east.
5 You set your watch one hour back, Ex 2 Now your teacher will give you a
because Italy is west of Greenwich. photocopy; use it to dictate the deviations
6 It is the time of each time zone. For in your table to your partner.
example, all countries in central Europe
STUDENT A
(Norway, Denmark, Germany, France and Magnetic Compass Table
Italy) have the same standard time because Ship: Caribbean – Bermuda
Compass – PLATH 3521 in Pilot House
they are in the same time zone, +1 hour Compass bearing Deviations
from Greenwich.
O° –1°1
Ex 8 Answer the questions. 30° + 0°.4
60° +1°.7
1 It is 1,853 metres long. 90° +2°.0
2 It is equal to the length of 1’ of the 120° +1°.0
150° +0°.6
maximum circumference of the Earth.

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STUDENT B 1F–2F–3T–4T–5F–6T
Magnetic Compass Table
Ship: Caribbean – Bermuda 1 They emit sound waves.
Compass – PLATH 3521 in Pilot House 2 They travel in the water at a speed of
Compass bearing Deviations 1,500 metres per second.
180° +0°.5 5 The echo sounder indicates the presence
210° + 0°.9 of shoals of fish.
240° +1°.0
270° +0°.2 Ex 7 Insert the correct number for each
300° –1°.0
330° –1°.7 statement.
1 Satellites needed to fix your ship’s
Ex 3 Complete the text with the missing position: 3
words. 2 Time taken to orbit the Earth: 12 hours
A gyroscopic compass has two main 3 Current number of satellites: 31
advantages over a magnetic compass. 4 Speed of light: 300,000 km/sec
Firstly, the gyrocompass is not subject to 5 Orbiting height: about 20,000 kilometres
magnetic 1 variation like a magnetic above the Earth
compass because it does not point to the 6 Position error margin: 20 metres
2 magnetic north, but to Earth’s 3 true
Ex 8 Find the best navigational aid for
north. In fact, the gyrocompass’ spinning
each situation.
axis is aligned with the Earth’s rotational
1 radar, 2 compass, 3 echo sounder, 4 log,
axis. Then, once the gyroscope is set
5 sextant, 6 sonar
spinning, it continues to point in the same
direction – the true north – regardless of Project Work
the ship’s heaving motion or direction.
Secondly, the magnetic field of the 4 iron 1. Today we are surfing the internet to
body of the ship itself affects the reading watch a video. Watch & listen, then fill in
on the magnetic compass. This the missing words.
phenomenon, called magnetic 5 deviation We see everything because of reflected
(see paragraph 2), does not affect the light. 1 Radar is a beam not of visible light
gyrocompass which always remains aligned but of a related form of energy:
with the Earth’s 6 axis. 2 microwave radiation. When an invisible
3 beam of microwaves is directed
Ex 4 Match each term with its definition.
1d, 2c, 3f, 4h, 5b, 6g, 7a, 8e outwards and if something crosses its path,
a little of the microwave energy is
Ex 5 Answer the questions. 4 bounced back to its source. The time it
1 Radar was first used by the allied troops takes a 5 pulse of microwave energy to
during the Second World War. travel out and be reflected back gives a
2 Radar stands for RAdio Detection And 6 distance away from the object being
Ranging. tracked.
3 The system emits radio microwaves. The 7 angle of the returning energy
4 Radio waves travel at the speed of light – coming back to the radar gives the
300,000 kilometres per second. 8 altitude of the object.
5 They are reflected by the solid surface; Watson Watt’s invention became the first
they “bounce back”. working radar system able to detect a
6 By calculating the time elapsed between plane in flight.
the emission and the return of the pulse A chain whole network could detect
signal. approaching aircraft at a distance of up to
7 The operator sees the tracked objects on 9 seventy miles and up to an altitude of
the radar screen called a PPI. 10 twenty thousand feet.
8 COLREG requires that ships maintain a Was this enough warning to scramble
constant radar watch on board to prevent Britain’s fighters? This question would soon
any danger of collision with other ships. be answered.
Ex 6 Mark the following statements as 2. Do you know why the nautical speed
True or False and correct the false ones. unit is called knot, or why we measure the

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ship’s speed with a log? Read and find out 3 technical and administrative functions.
the following information, then write a His technical functions concern the safe
short summary. navigation of the ship from 4 port to port,
Dutch sailors probably invented the and the safety of the ship’s 5 crew and
“Chip Log” in 1500-1600s. cargo.
A half-minute sand glass was the device Before leaving port, he must make sure
used to measure time. that the ship is seaworthy, that it is
The nautical speed unit got its name by properly 6 equipped and that the cargo is
the method of counting the number of 7 stowed safely and securely. He is also
rope knots that went overboard in a given responsible for manoeuvring the ship in
time interval. and out of port.
As regards his administrative
Sample summary
responsibilities, he must make 8 sure that
The “Chip Log” method to measure ship
the ship carries all the necessary
speed was probably invented by Dutch
documentation before leaving port. A ship
sailors in 1500-1600s. (Read: in fifteen or
must carry the following 9 papers:
sixteen hundred). The Chip Log consisted
the Certificate of Registry, which is the
of a small wood panel attached to a reel of
ship’s 10 identity document and indicates
rope. To measure time they used a half-
the ship’s name, call sign and flag state. It
minute sand glass. The rope had knots tied also gives thorough information about the
at equal distances along the reel. Sailors
ship, such as dimensions, tonnage and type
would throw the wood panel into the sea,
of service;
behind the ship, and the rope would start
the Bill of Entry or the Bill of Export. The
unwinding from the reel. The faster the
former is a 11 list of the carried goods, the
ship was moving forward the faster the
latter lists the goods which are to be
rope would unwind. By counting the 12 loaded on board;
number of knots that went overboard in a the International Tonnage Certificate,
given time interval, measured by the sand which indicates the cargo-carrying
glass, they could tell the ship’s speed. In 13 capacity of the ship, and which is used
fact, that is the origin of the nautical speed
to calculate port and canal dues;
unit: the knot.
the International Load Line Certificate,
which indicates the maximum draft to
which a ship can be loaded, to ensure that
Unit 9 she always has sufficient 14 freeboard to
The Deck Department
stay afloat;
Ex 1 Answer the questions. the Intact Stability Booklet, which gives
1 The ship’s crew is organized in the Master accurate guidance in
departments. maintaining the ship’s 15 stability under
2 The Deck and Engine Departments. varying conditions of loading;
3 The Deck Department deals with the Crew List, which gives details on the
16 members of the crew, their
navigation, loading and unloading cargo
and communications. qualifications and their pay.
4 The First Officer. Ex 3 Match each term with its definition.
5 Able and Ordinary Seamen. 1f, 2e, 3d, 4a, 5b, 6c
6 The Captain is responsible for the ship,
Ex 4 Which Officer does this? Chose
her cargo and crew. between: Captain, First Mate, Second or
Ex 2 Listen to paragraph 2 and fill in the Third Mate.
gaps with the missing words. 1 The Captain
The Master is the person chosen by the 2 The Second Mate
shipowner to 1 command the ship. He is 3 The First Mate
the maximum authority 2 on board, and 4 First, Second and Third Mates
he represents the shipowner in all 5 The Captain
circumstances. His job includes both 6 The First Mate

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7 The Second Mate The 5 anchor windlass winds the anchor


8 The Third Mate chain up and out, allowing the anchor to
9 The Captain be raised and lowered.
10 The First Mate 6 Hawser is a nautical term for a thick

Ex 5 Complete the sentences and re-write cable or rope used in mooring a ship.
the Officers’ responsibilities taken from Ex. A vessel is said to be moored when it is
4 by using the gerund. tied up to a quay. Mooring is accomplished
1 Commanding the ship is the responsibility using thick ropes called 7 mooring lines or
of the Captain. hawsers. The lines are fixed to deck fittings
2 The Captain is responsible for on the vessel at one end, and fittings on
commanding the ship. the shore, such as bollards, at the other
3 The First Mate is responsible for directing end.
the loading and unloading of cargo. A 8 bollard is a short vertical post on a
4 Maintaining the vessel’s navigational quay, principally used for mooring. A
9 quay is a structure on the shore in a
instruments and equipment is the
responsibility of the Second Mate. harbour where ships can dock to load and
5 The Third Officer is responsible for unload cargo or passengers. Such a
checking that lifeboats and life-saving structure includes berths, which are
equipment are in good working order. mooring locations. When this structure is
6 Planning a safe navigational passage is built out into the sea it can also be called
the responsibility of the Captain. a 10 pier.
7 The First Mate is responsible for Ex 8 Match each English term with its
supervising/coordinating the activities of Italian equivalent.
deck crews. 1d, 2c, 3i, 4f, 5g, 6a, 7b, 8j, 9e, 10h
8 Deck Officers are responsible for standing
Ex 9 Mark the following statements
watch on the bridge.
as True or False and correct the false
Ex 6 Match the two parts of the ones.
definitions. 1F–2T–3F–4F–5T–6F
1d, 2e, 3g, 4f, 5a, 6b, 7c
1 Cargo handling is carried out both by the
Ex 7 Listen to the list of words, then insert ship’s cargo gear and shore cranes.
them in the correct place while listening to 3 A conveyor belt is used to transfer dry
the passage: anchor windlass – hawser – goods.
quay – pier – winch – ropes – bollard – 4 Tankers usually have their own installed
cables – mooring lines – capstan pumps or cargo hose.
A 1 winch is a mechanical device that is 6 RO/RO ships load their cargo over ramps
used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind in the port, stern or port bow.
out) a rope. Ships use either synthetic
Ex 10 Label the picture with the names of
ropes, which are strong, elastic and resistant
mooring lines.
to the action of water, or wire 2 ropes
1 Head lines
which are made of steel, which is usually
2 Forward breast line
galvanized to stop it from rusting. Wire
3 Forward spring
ropes are also called 3 cables or wire cables.
4 Aft spring
A ship’s 4 capstan is a drum shaped device
5 Aft breast line
used for winding the ship’s anchor cable. In
6 Stern lines
the days of wooden ships, capstans were
made of wood and were manually Ex 11 Try to put the Captain’s orders and
operated by means of wooden bars. the teams’ replies in a logical sequence.
Nowadays they are made of iron and steel 1 Futura Forward Station, single up
but are only used on pleasure crafts. On forward to spring!
large ships, capstans are replaced by the 2 Futura Aft station, single up aft to breast
hydraulically or pneumatically operated line.
windlass, which makes the anchorage 3 Let go forward! Let go aft! Is the
process smoother and easier. propeller clear?

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4 Futura Bridge. Futura Aft Station. Yes, The last rule, lines should work 24 together;
propeller is clear. All clear aft! to ensure that the forces are spread over
5 Futura Bridge. Futura Forward Station. the lines, they should have the same
All clear forward! 25 characteristics; so 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 –
6 Futura. Finished with maneuvering same functions, same specs.
stations! The 26 Terminal Operator can file such a
Ex 12 Match each order with its meaning. mooring plan as per 27 IMO number for
1e, 2d, 3a, 4b, 5c the next visit of the ship or a sister ship.
In all mooring operations it is very
Project Work important that the hook or 28 bollard
ashore isn’t the weakest link, like probably
Complete the missing information as you
in this situation.
watch.
A professional mooring operation is a kind
of 1 missing link in the overall nautical Unit 10
chain. The Engine Department
The video has been produced because
there is little information on or Ex 1 Here is the Italian meaning of some
international regulations for: difficult terms from paragraph 1. Try to
2 mooring lines 3 winches 4 bollards. match each English term with its Italian
This is strange because a lot of incidents equivalent.
happen 5 mooring. Movements of a badly 1f, 2g, 3h, 4d, 5c, 6a, 7b, 8e, 9i, 10j
moored ship can result in 6 expensive Ex 2 Who is responsible for...? Indicate
damage to cranes, manifolds or other which person(s) is/are responsible for the
7 vessels. A ship breaking loose of its following duties.
moorings is a nightmare to all 8 ports. 1 The Chief Engineer
A professional mooring process cannot 2 The Second Engineer
only reduce 9 incidents; it can also save 3 Greasers
10 time, 11 money and cut down on 4 The Third Engineer
12 emissions. This video focuses on the 5 The Engineer Officers
main cause of mooring accidents. 6 The Chief Engineer
95% of the incidents with personal injury is 7 Firemen
caused by 13 ropes and 14 wires, being hit 8 The Chief Engineer
by a rope. Just 5% is due to 15 equipment
failure. 60% of all those rope incidents Ex 3 Which is the correct definition of
happen during 16 mooring operations. So “auxiliary machinery”?
improving mooring operations reduces b Auxiliary machinery includes all
accidents and personal injuries. machinery on board except for the main
engines and boilers.
Now complete the information about the
Ex 4 Listen to paragraph 3 and fill in the
MOORING PLAN.
gaps with the missing words.
Safe mooring starts at 17 sea with a good
preparation and precise calculation of the Functions of auxiliary machinery
forces on winches, bollards and lines. Every 1 service on board ship has to come
All components come together in the from the Engine Room: electric light, heat,
18 mooring plan sometimes made up by the running 2 water and refrigeration. All
Terminal, but in all cases the 19 Captain is these services are provided by auxiliary
responsible for safe mooring. A 3 machinery.
professional plan is based on 20 four rules. The 4 functions carried out by auxiliary
First, all the lines should not exceed a machinery on board can be summarised as
21 vertical angle of 30°. [therefore…] follows:
Second, the 22 spring lines should be 1 Supply the needs of the main 5 engines
placed as parallel to the vessel as possible. and boilers. Air compressors supply
Third, 23 breast lines are most effective compressed air for starting
when connected square to the vessel. [if…] 6 diesel engines; coolers are used to cool

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either oil or water; feed-water heaters, Ex 6 What items of machinery are these?
also called economisers, supply pre-heated a The ballast pumping system.
water that 7 goes into the boilers to b A cooler.
increase the boilers’ efficiency. c A feed-water heater.
2 Keep the ship 8 dry. This is done d The bilge pumping system.
through the bilge and ballast pumping e The air-compressor.
systems. The former 9 removes water f The electricity generator.
which has collected in machinery and g The/An evaporator.
10 cargo spaces; the latter pumps water h Steel shafts.
in and out of ballast 11 tanks.
Ex 7 In dictionaries you find the
3 Supply domestic needs. 12 Fresh water
abbreviations sb/s.o. and sth. What do
is supplied by evaporators through
they mean?
distillation of seawater; sewage plants
provide for sanitation; 13 heating and Sb and s.o. mean someboby and someone.
ventilation are provided by heaters and air Sth means something.
conditioners. Ex 8 Match each verb with its meaning
4 Supply the ship with electrical 14 power and check your choice in a monolingual
and lighting. These are provided by dictionary.
electricity generators. 1c, 2d, 3b, 4a
5 Apply the main power of the engines for
15 propulsion and manoeuvring. A line of Ex 9 Use the information in Ex. 6 to ask
engine shafts transmits the engine power questions and answer about the function
to the 16 propeller; steering gear operates of the different equipment.
the rudder for manoeuvring; anti-rolling What is the function of air-compressors?/
tanks and fin stabilisers reduce the ship’s What are air-compressors used for?
17 rolling. Air compressors are used to supply
6 Provide remote control and automatic compressed air for starting the engines.
action. Self-regulating apparatus like the What is the function of feed-water heaters?/
18 automatic pilot, which automatically What are feed-water heaters used for?
control the rudder, and steering Feed-water heaters are used to heat the boiler
mechanisms supply these functions. feed water.
7 Provide safety. Fire detection, fire
19 fighting equipment, lifeboats and their What is the function of coolers?/What are
engines are parts of the auxiliary coolers used for?
machinery which 20 provide safety. Coolers are used to cool either oil or water.
Ex 5 Write the names of the different What is the function of electrical
equipment under their function. generators?/What are electrical generators
a They supply the needs of main engines used for?
and boilers. Electricity generators are used to supply the
air-compressors ship with electrical power and lighting.
coolers What is the function of an evaporator?/
economisers What is an evaporator used for?
b They provide safety. An evaporator supplies fresh water by
life-boats and their engines distillation of seawater.
fire-detection and fire-fighting
What is the function of steel shafts?/What
equipment
are steel shafts used for?
c They supply the ship with electrical
power and lighting.
Steel shafts transmit engine power to the
electricity generators
propeller.
d They keep the ship dry. Ex 10 Answer the questions and see what
bilge and ballast pumping systems you remember.
e It provides remote control of the 1 Auxiliary machinery is all machinery on
rudder. board apart from the main engines and
automatic pilot boilers.

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2 The Engineer Officers. It allows Engineers to take action when an


3 The main functions are to supply the 10 alarm sounds.
needs of the main engines and boilers, to
Main engine controls
keep the ship dry, to supply domestic
They indicate fuel control, 11 speed,
needs, to apply the main power of the ship
emergency 12 stops, direction, etc.
for propulsion and manoeuvring, to
provide remote control and automatic They are only operated by 13 Senior
action and to provide safety. Engineers.
4 & 5 EXAMPLES: The ballast pumping
Project Work
system pumps water in and out of the
ballast tanks. Coolers are used to cool Use this link to take a look at the Engine
either oil or water. Feed-water heaters are Control Room on the M/S “Emma Jensen”
used to heat the boiler feed-water. The and use your powers of observation to
bilge pumping system removes water answer the following questions about the
which has gathered in machinery, cargo photos! http://global-mariner.com/
rooms and other spaces. The air index111EmmaJebsenEngineRoom.html
compressor supplies compressed air for 1 3 switchboards and 3 generator panels
starting the engines. Etc. 27
Ex 11 Mark the following statements as 3 Li Chau / Chinese
True or False and correct the false ones. 4 A pair of shoes
1F–2T–3F–4T–5F–6F 5 November 16th / The Engine Room Log
63
1 Engineer Officers regularly update the 7 The auxiliary machinery room
Engine Room Logbook. 8 To the main Engine Room
3 The Chief Officer compiles the Engine 9 To the workshop
Room Logbook. 10 Lubricating oil / A lamp
5 In case of a performance failure, the 11 Water / A lathe
engineers note down any corrective 12 A red star / 2
measures taken and their results. 13 2 / 2
6 The Chief Engineer is responsible for 14 In the back, to the right
checking that the logbook is compiled and
15 The air condition compressor / The fresh
he always consults the Captain.
water generator
Ex 12 Use the above information to 16 Yellow and red / Fire extinguisher
complete the table about the ECR 17 6
equipment. 18 3
Generator panel 19 Working on the cylinder head
It shows 1 electrical parameters such as Last photo: Starting air bottles
voltage and 2 load.
Engineers can decide on number of Unit 11
3 generators to keep in operation.
Describing technical diagrams
Electrical switchboard
It controls 4 power supply to machinery. Ex 1 Study the examples and complete the
texts with words from the diagrams. Then
Engineers can stop machinery in an listen to the recording and check.
5 emergency.
1 The diagram shows a lubricating oil pump.
Voltmeter/ammeter It is a type of gear-wheel pump and
They show 6 voltage and current 7 flow consists of interlocking gear-wheels that
for major equipment. rotate inside a casing. The two gears are
They allow engineers to detect any 8 faults. fitted closely inside the casing.
Alarm panel 2 The diagram represents a fuel induction
It monitors tank levels, 9 temperature and system. This system includes/comprises the
pressure of machinery. fuel tank and pipe-line, the fuel pump and

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the fuel filter. As fuel is explosive, the fuel 3 a) Used oil drains to the crankcase.
tank is placed away from the engine. b) It passes through the centrifuge to be
3 The hull is divided into a number of purified.
watertight compartments by decks and c) It is returned to the drain tank at a
bulkheads. The hull contains the Engine point next to the suction strainer.
Room, cargo space and a number of tanks. Ex 7 Translate these sentences about the
4 The double-acting piston pump consists lubricating oil system into English.
of a piston moving up and down inside a 1 Lubricating oil drains into the crankcase
cylinder casing. The pump is fitted with and then into the drain tank.
non-return suction and discharge valves at 2 A pump draws the oil from the drain
the top. tank and sends it into a heater.
3 The oil then passes through a centrifuge
5 There are three basic parts to an electric for purification.
circuit: a source of electricity, an output 4 After purification, the oil is returned to
device, and a connection between the two. the drain tank at a point next to the
A torch is an example of a simple electrical suction strainer.
circuit and is illustrated in the picture. A
battery provides the electricity, while a lamp Ex 8 What difference is there between the
is the output device. past participle of regular and irregular
They are connected by two lengths of verbs? Complete the table and find out.
copper wire and a switch is also included to
Simple past Past participle Italian meaning
the circuit.
drained drained colare, drenare
6 The main part of a turbine engine is the
returned returned rimandare
rotor. It is made up of several rows of
drew drawn prelevare
blades mounted on a shaft. discharged discharged scaricare
Ex 3 Study the two following diagrams. sent sent inviare
They represent the auxiliary services of a operated operated azionare
pumped pumped pompare
marine diesel engine: a fuel oil system and
passed passed passare (attraverso)
a lubricating oil system. What elements do
stored stored immagazzinare
they have in common? fitted fitted munire di, collocare
a Tanks purified purified purificare
b Pumps cooled cooled raffreddare
c Centrifuge heated heated riscaldare
d Heater included included includere
e Cooler
f Filters Ex 9 Go back to the diagram of the fuel oil
g Pressure control valve/alarm system and try to answer the questions.
1 There are three tanks: one contains
Ex 4 Now label the diagrams.
diesel oil and two contain heavy oil.
Diagram 1: This is a lubricating oil system.
2 Because the engine may be operated
Diagram 2: This is a fuel oil system. either by diesel oil or by heavy oil, by
Ex 5 The passage describes the working operating the change-over valve.
cycle in a lubricating oil system. Look at 3 A viscosity regulator controls the oil
diagram 2 and decide what is the correct temperature to maintain the oil viscosity
sequence of paragraphs. within close limits.
1b – 2a – 3c Ex 10 Insert the missing participles and
Ex 6 Answer the questions with the verbs complete the description of the fuel oil
given below in scrambled order. system of a marine diesel engine.
1 It drains/filters the oil. The oil is drawn from the service HO tank
2 a) The purifier suction pump draws the in use by pumps and is 1 discharged at low
oil from the drain tank. pressure to the fuel oil heater, where the
b) Pumps discharge the oil under pressure heavy oil is 2 heated. A viscosity regulator
into the cooler. is 3 fitted at the heater discharge, which

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controls the temperature of the fuel oil to Project Work


maintain its viscosity within close limits.
First of all, complete the table with the
Then the oil is 4 sent to the engine fuel
missing information.
pump suctions through a fine strainer. A
pressure control valve, fitted on the fuel Order date April 30th, 1907
pump suctions, returns any excess oil either Hull laid Spring 1909
to the heavy oil service tanks or to a Maiden voyage April 10th, 1912
balancing tank. Vessel type Schooner rigged vessel
66,000 tonnes
A diesel fuel tank is 5 included in the Weight
Cost $7.5 million
system with its discharge to the primary
Length 882’ 8”
pump suctions through a change-over
Breadth 92’ 0”
valve. By operating this valve the engine
Draft 59.5 feet
may be 6 operated on diesel oil. The diesel Main engine Parson’s Turbine driving central propeller running
oil is 7 pumped from the DO storage tanks, at 165 rpm generating 16,000 horse power
where it is 8 stored, and is sent to a Reciprocating engines 2 triple* expansion reciprocating engines driving
centrifuge for purification. Then it enters port and starboard propellers running at 75 rpm
generating 30,000 horse power
the diesel oil service tank. Boiler 29
Ex 11 Complete the summary about the fuel Furnaces 159
oil system. Insert one word in each gap. * Note there is a spelling mistake in the text.
The oil is 1 drawn 2 from the service tanks
by 3 pumps and is discharged into the oil Now use this information to complete the
4 heater. At the heater discharge a technical description of Titanic’s Engine
5 viscosity regulator is fitted. This Room. You can also take a look at the
automatically controls the oil 6 temperature technical diagram.
to maintain its viscosity within close limits. Titanic’s Engine Room
The oil finally passes through a fine The diagram shows Titanic’s 1 Engine
7 strainer before entering the engine.
Room. The ship was fitted with a 2 Parson’s
A 8 pressure 9 control valve is fitted at the LP Turbine engine to drive the 3 central
engine fuel pump suctions and it returns propeller and 2 triple expansion 4
10 excess oil to the service oil tanks.
reciprocating engines. 159 coal 5 furnaces
Ex 12 Match each valve with its function. heated water to generate steam in the 29
a viscosity regulator 6 boilers. The 7 steam was then funneled
b pressure control valve to the expansion engines creating the
c change - over valve power to turn the two 8 port and starboard
wing propellers. If the 9 turbine engine was
Ex 13 Complete the sentences with the
not being used, for example, when the ship
missing past participle.
was entering or leaving 10 port, steam was
1 The oil is stored in the DO tanks.
condensed in the two main 11 condensers
2 The oil is heated in the heater.
and then returned to the 12 boilers.
3 The oil is purified in the centrifuge.
4 The oil is cooled in the cooler.
5 The oil is discharged to the engine fuel Unit 12
pump suctions through a fine strainer. Pumps
6 Diesel oil is drawn by pumps from the
storage tanks into the diesel oil service tank. Ex 1 Read through paragraph 1 and
answer the questions.
Ex 14 Four different operations are 1 Pumps are hydraulic machines, used to
described in the last few lines. Can you move a liquid or to give it pressure and
put them in order? Use the sequence kinetic energy.
words at first, then, finally. 2 Pumps are driven/powered by an engine.
At first, the oil is stored in the DO tanks. Then 3 We measure the operation of a pump by
it is pumped from the DO tanks and it is sent using two hydraulic measures. One is the
into a centrifuge for purification. Finally, the pressure head, which indicates the
oil enters the diesel oil service tank. differential pressure or height that the

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pump can give to the liquid. The other is Centrifugal pump


quantity of liquid by litres per second (l/s) Delivery pipe
Impeller
that the pump can move.
4 We consider a number of factors (listed Vanes
below) which concern the type of liquid and
the pressure we want to give to the liquid.
Ex 2 Take notes while reading the texts in
paragraph 2.
We shall consider four factors:
1 the liquid’s quantity and pressure;
2 the liquid’s viscosity;
3 if the liquid is corrosive; Casing
4 if it contains solid particles in suspension. Suction pipe
Reciprocating pumps: Reciprocating pump
small quantity of liquid
high differential pressure
low flow rate Piston
slow speed
high heads
uneven delivery
Gear-wheel pumps: Delivery
viscous liquids tube
low flow of liquid
even delivery Delivery valve
low differential pressures
unsuitable for liquids with solid particles in Cylinder
suspension casing Suction valve
Centrifugal pumps:
large volumes of water
high flow rate
Suction tube
high speed
low and medium heads Ex 4 Read while you listen to the recording
even delivery and complete the texts with items taken
quiet in operation from the diagrams above.
Ex 3 Label the pictures with the main parts Working process of the three types of pump
for each type. There are three main types of pump
currently in use, namely the gear-wheel
Gear-wheel pump
pump, the centrifugal pump and the
Gear-tooth
reciprocating pump.
Gear-wheel pumps consist of interlocking
1 gear-wheels that rotate inside a 2 casing.
The liquid enters the 3 suction tube, it
becomes entrapped between the gear-teeth
Suction Delivery and is made to circulate, before being
discharged through the delivery outlet.
tube outlet
Centrifugal pumps consist of an 4 impeller
which rotates at high speed inside a casing.
The liquid enters the pump through the
central suction pipe and is forced to
Casing circulate by the 5 vanes of the impeller.
Interlocking The centrifugal force of the impeller gives
gear-wheels the liquid a high velocity. Finally, the liquid

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key to unit exercises

is expelled through the 6 delivery pipe. Flusso costante/continuo even flow


Reciprocating pumps consist of a 7 piston Mandata costante a steady delivery
moving up and down inside a chamber. Operazioni silenziose quiet operations
When the piston is up, the volume of the Abbastanza, piuttosto rather, quite
pump chamber is increased and a vacuum is Applicazioni applications
formed. The liquid is drawn into this vacuum
Ex 9 The above passage describe four
from the suction tube. Then the piston
moves down and the volume of the pump types of pump, because the screw pump
chamber decreases. As the piston moves has been added to the list. Write the
down, it creates a pressure on the liquid that names of each pump.
is forced out through the 8 delivery tube. 1 Centrifugal pump
Reciprocating pumps have non-return 9 2 Screw pump
suction and delivery valves, and they can be 3 Reciprocating/piston pump
either single-acting or double-acting. The 4 Gear-wheel pump
former are fitted with a single pair of valves Ex 10 Now cover the texts and try to
and the liquid is drawn and discharged by answer the following questions.
two piston strokes. Double-acting pumps 1 A centrifugal pump
have a double set of valves, and every piston 2 A gear-wheel pump
stroke causes the liquid to be moved. 3 A reciprocating pump
Ex 5 Guess! Look at the pictures below. 4 A screw pump
Which of them shows the double acting Ex 11 Go back to the texts and use all the
piston pump? information about the different pumps to
The left one. complete the table.
Ex 6 Find the English synonym for the
Centrifugal pumps
following expressions in paragraph 4, then
note down their Italian meaning. Type of liquid They are suitable for water or low viscous
The up or down movement of the piston: a liquids and for liquids with solid particles
in suspension.
piston stroke (corsa del pistone). Quantity and pressure High rates of flow; high speeds; low
To become larger/smaller: to increase/ of liquid or medium heads.
decrease (aumentare/diminuire). Description They consist of an impeller which rotates
To move up and down in a straight line: to at high speed inside a casing.
reciprocate (muoversi con moto alternativo). Working process The liquid enters through the suction pipes,
it is carried round by the vanes of the impeller,
Ex 7 Study the opposites. which give the liquid kinetic energy, then it is
discharged through the delivery outlet.
suitable for unsuitable for Advantages/ Small and easy to maintain; quiet in
high speed slow speed disadvantages operation; even and fast delivery.
non-return valves return valves
even delivery uneven delivery Rotary pumps Piston pumps
high rates of flow low rates of flow
viscous liquid non-viscous liquid They are suitable for viscous They are suitable for water
liquids, such as lubricating and low viscous liquids.
to increase to decrease and fuel oils.
quiet noisy Low flow rates; constant delivery; Medium flow rates but high
low heads. heads.
Ex 8 Find the English for the following
They consist of interlocking gear They consist of a piston moving up
verbs and expressions. They have all been wheels that rotate inside a casing. and down inside a cylinder casing.
used in the texts of this unit. The liquid enters the suction tube When the piston goes up,
Pompare, spostare to pump, and it is made to circulate by the a vacuum is formed and the liquid
to move gear wheels. Then it is discharged is drawn into the pump chamber
through the delivery outlet. from the suction tube. As the
Azionare to drive piston moves down, it creates
Aspirare to draw a pressure on the liquid that
is forced out through the delivery
Trasportare in circolo to carry round,
tube.
force to circulate
Even and constant delivery; not They provide an uneven delivery
è intrappolato it is entrapped suitable for liquids with solid and they can be rather noisy, but
Adatto, indicato per suitable for particles in suspension. they also provide high pressures
Alte/basse prevalenze high/low heads and high heads.

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Project Work order. (Here below are the wrong words in


the text and the correct ones)
1. On the following web page
1 secondary auxiliary
http://www.marineinsight.com/tech/ 2 growing distilling
auxiliary-machinery/general-overview-of- 3 gallery galley
types-of-pumps-on-ship/ 4 cars machinery
the writer has classified pumps using a
Ex 2 Answer the questions by reading
different method from the one indicated
the text and observing the picture
in the first paragraph of this unit. Take above.
notes to complete the table and see 1 Steam is contained in the steam drum.
whether using a different classification 2 The steam drum is located at the top of
method means that the operational the boiler.
characteristics of the various pump types 3 Water is contained in the water drums.
are classified differently. 4 The water drums are located lower down
1 Fluids circulate in ship’s machinery for in the boiler.
these purposes: cooling, heating, lubrication, 5 The furnace is placed at the bottom. This
and as fuels. allows hot gases to rise.
2 These liquids are circulated by different 6 Downcomer tubes are external to the
types of pumps. boiler.
3 There are two types of pump used on 7 They provide a supply of relatively cool
board: positive displacement pumps and water.
dynamic pressure pumps. Ex 3 Complete the sentences to describe a
4 Reciprocating, screw and gear pumps are boiler and its main parts.
positive displacement pumps. a A boiler consists of a fireproof casing
5 Centrifugal pumps are dynamic pressure which contains a furnace at the bottom, a
pumps. steam drum at the top, and water drums in
6 The selection of a type of pump depends the middle part.
on the characteristics of the fluid to be b The water drums and the steam drum
pumped and the characteristics of the system are connected by banks of tubes.
in which this liquid circulates. c Downcomer tubes are placed outside the
7 These (3) characteristics of the fluid are gas system.
viscosity, density, compressibility. d For this reason they feed the water drums
8 The (4) characteristics of the system are with cool water.
required rate of fluid, head to which the fluid
is to be pumped, temperature and pressure of Ex 4 Here is another picture
the fluid in the system. and text about boilers. Listen and fill
9 Positive displacement pumps are used in the gaps.
where the discharge rate is small to medium, The picture 1 shows a water tube boiler.
and the viscosity of the fluid is high. It has a steam-drum at 2 the top and a
10 Positive displacement pumps are used water drum below, 3 connected by banks
to produce high pressure in the pumping of generating tubes. Other banks of tubes
system. welded together form the 4 waterwalls.
11 Dynamic pressure pumps are used for The tubes are 5 placed in the main flow
moderate to high discharge rate. of hot gases from the 6 furnace, so their
12 Dynamic pumps are used in a system heat is transferred to the water in the
where low viscosity fluids are used. tubes.
The steam drum provides the space for
the separation of steam from the water
Unit 13 mixture. The difference in density allows
Boilers the dry steam to 7 rise and leave from
the top of the drum. Returning water
Ex 1 Find the four wrong words in enters the water drums through 8
paragraph one; then rewrite the text using downcomer tubes which are unheated and
the correct words which are in scrambled placed 9 outside the gas stream. They

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provide a reservoir of relatively 10 cool 7 Steam finally leaves the boiler through
water, so that 11 convection currents are the steam outlet.
set up which cause the water to 12 Ex 7 Now cover the texts and check what
circulate round the system. The you remember by answering the following
economisers heat the feed-water 13 before questions.
it enters the boiler. Superheaters, located 1 Boilers are used for producing steam, either
14 between the banks of tubes, reheat the for driving steam turbines or for driving
saturated steam to make it 15 drier and auxiliary machinery. Steam is also used for
more efficient. auxiliary services like the galley and laundry.
Ex 5 There is a “logical” mistake 2 The furnace is located at the bottom
in each of the following sentences. since the hot gases tend to rise.
Find the mistakes and correct them. 3 In a water-tube boiler, water is contained in
(Here below are the wrong words the water drums and in the banks of tubes.
in the text and the correct ones) 4 The hot gases flow around the water
1 The cool hot gases generated in the drums and the water-filled tubes.
furnace tend to rise. 5 Downcomer tubes are located outside the
2 The gases from the furnace flow around main stream of hot gases from the furnace.
the water drums and tubes so that the 6 They supply the system with a constant
water they contain becomes very cold hot. flow of cooler water. As this cooler water
3 Steam rises along the tubes and to the continuously enters the drums, it makes
top of the steam drum because it is heavier the hot water in the tubes rise. In this way,
lighter than water. convection currents are generated making
4 Downcomer tubes are placed in the the water move around the system.
middle of outside the stream of hot gases 7 The economiser pre-heats the feed-water
so that the water they contain keeps cool. before it enters the boiler.
5 Convection currents are caused by cool 8 Superheaters are used for making the
water which moves up goes down and hot steam drier and more efficient.
water which goes down moves up. Ex 8 Match each valve with its function.
6 The water is made to circulate round the 1e, 2c, 3f, 4g, 5b, 6h, 7a, 8d
system by a constant supply of hot cool/
Ex 9 Identify the valves and gauges in the
cold returning water which enters the
diagram.
system through the downcomer tubes.
A Safety valves
7 Economisers heat the feed-water after
B Main stop valve
before it enters the boiler.
C Auxiliary stop valve
8 Superheaters are used to make steam
D Donkey feed check valve
cooler drier.
E Main feed check valve
Ex 6 Describe the working process F Pressure gauge
in a water tube boiler. Follow G Water-level indicator
the sentences below. H Surface blow-off
1 When a fuel is burned in the furnace, hot I Bottom blow-off
gases are produced. L Salinometer
2 The hot gases rise from the bottom of
the boiler and transfer their heat to the Ex 11 Which is correct, a or b? Choose the
water in the drums and tubes. correct option.
3 As the water gets very hot, it produces 1a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5b, 6b, 7a, 8b
steam. Ex 12 The table indicates the main working
4 The steam generated collects at the top characteristics of a water tube boiler with a
of the boiler in the steam drum. steam-superheater and pre-heated air. If you
5 Convection currents make the water want to dictate the table data yourself, tell
move around the system. the Ss to use the blank table in each student’s
6 These are caused by a constant supply of book. If you want your students to ask each
cool water which enters the drums through other questions to complete their tables,
the downcomer tubes. photocopy the tables for Student A & B.

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1 Steam generated (kg/h) 34,000 STUDENT B


1 Steam generated (kg/h) 34,000
2 Steam temperature 450°C
2 Steam temperature 450°C
3 Steam pressure 41 bar
3 Steam pressure 41 bar
4 Feed-water temperature 115°C
4 Feed-water temperature 115°C
5 Exhaust gas temperature 154°C
5 Exhaust gas temperature 154°C
Heating surface
6 Waterwalls 3.2% Heating surface
6 Waterwalls ...................
7 Generating tubes 27%
7 Generating tubes ...................
8 Economiser 38%
8 Economiser ...................
9 Superheater 7%
9 Superheater ...................
10 Air pre-heater 24.8%
10 Air pre-heater ...................
11 Furnace volume 40 m3
11 Furnace volume 40 m3
12 Radiant surface 46.5 m2
12 Radiant surface 46.5 m2
Questions:
Project Work
a How much steam is generated?
a. Answer the questions.
b What is the steam temperature?
c What is the steam pressure? 1 Audible and visual alarms indicate that
d What is the feed-water temperature? there is a problem.
e What is the exhaust gas temperature? 2 The boiler is in the low water level
f What is the percentage of heat provided condition.
by the waterwalls? b. See what you should do in case the
g What is the percentage of heat provided
by the generating tubes? boiler blows steam, but no water is shown
h What percentage of heat is provided by in the water gauges.
the economiser? 1 First, you should immediately stop the
i What percentage of heat is provided by burners and isolate the boiler from the steam
the superheater? supply system.
j What percentage of heat is provided by 2 Next, you should switch off the feed pumps.
the air pre-heater? 3 Then, you should turn off the feed water
Tables for Ss working in pairs. valve.
4 Next, you should turn off the fuel supply
STUDENT A valve.
1 Steam generated (kg/h) ................... 5 Then/Now, you should wait for the slow
cool down.
2 Steam temperature ...................
6 When the boiler has cooled down, you
3 Steam pressure ................... should check if there is any damage to furnace,
4 Feed-water temperature ................... internal structure and other parts of the boiler.
7 Check for any eventual malfunctioning
5 Exhaust gas temperature ...................
(tripping) of fuel supply valve as it should cut
Heating surface the supply of fuel oil when water level reaches
6 Waterwalls 3.2% low level.
8 After the problem is fixed, boiler could be
7 Generating tubes 27%
put back to service.
8 Economiser 38%
c. Translate the passage “How to start up
9 Superheater 7% the boiler?”.
10 Air pre-heater 24.8% Come avviare la caldaia?
11 Furnace volume 40 m3 Prima controllare che le valvole di sicurezza,
sfiato aria, tombino, valvola di vapore, pompa
12 Radiant surface 46.5 m2 dell’acqua di alimentazione, termometro e

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manometro, indicatore di livello dell’acqua 7 The condensate pump removes the


siano in buone condizioni. Se sono tutti in condensate from the hot well and sends it
ordine, aprire la valvola di sfiato. Poi into the boiler.
controllare il sistema di olio combustibile e far 8 It is fitted at the water inlet. It draws
circolare l’olio combustibile con il riscaldatore water from the sea.
per riscaldarlo alla temperatura e viscosità
Ex 3 What happens in a condenser?
richieste. Quindi azionare il soffiatore per
Complete the description with words
eliminare dall’area di combustione qualsiasi
taken from the labelled diagram.
accumulo di gas esplosivo. Mettere l’uscita di
Seawater is drawn into the condenser by a
fiamma in posizione bassa e aprire la valvola 1 circulating pump and is sent into the front
del carburante all’ugello dello spruzzatore.
water end through the 2 circulating water
Quindi premere gli interruttori di accensione.
inlet. The cooling seawater passes through
Se il combustibile non si accende, chiudere la
the 3 bank of tubes and reaches the rear
valvola del carburante e ripetere la procedura.
water end. From the rear water end, the
Per evitare lo stress termico, la temperatura
seawater is directed to the top half of the
deve essere sollevata lentamente. Inoltre, in
front water end. Here the cooling water is
modo da consentire la fuoriuscita dell’aria dal
discharged overboard through the 4
sistema, la presa d’aria deve essere tenuta
aperta. Quando la pressione cresce, si circulating water outlet.
dovrebbe chiudere la presa d’aria e girare Exhaust steam enters the condenser
l’uscita di fiamma in posizione alta. Una volta through the 5 steam inlet and comes into
che la pressione di servizio è raggiunta, la contact with the surface of the 6 bank of
valvola del vapore deve essere aperta tubes, where the cooling water is flowing.
lentamente. Se necessario, aprire con Steam condenses and drops down into the
7 hot well. A 8 condensate pump removes
attenzione la valvola del vapore al serbatoio
dell’olio, per evitare colpi d’ariete. the condensate and sends it into the boiler
as feed-water.
Ex 4 Listen to the recording and complete
Unit 14 the passage.
Condensers & evaporators How condensers operate
Ex 1 Read the paragraph and label the Condensers contain thousands of thin
condensers parts. copper-nickel alloy 1 tubes, usually of a
1 Bank of tubes diameter of 3.5 mm. The tubes expand at
2 Front tube sheet both ends into tube 2 sheets, which
3 Rear tube sheet guarantee a separation between the two
4 Front water end 3 circuits involved in the condensation of
5 Rear water end steam, namely the cooling water circuit
6 Steam inlet and the condensate circuit. Since there is
7 Hot well no 4 contact between the condensate and
8 Air ejector the coolant during the 5 condensation
9 Condensate pump process, the condenser produces pure
10 Circulating water inlet 6 distilled water, which is perfect for use
11 Circulating pump as boiler feed-water.
12 Circulating water outlet This is how the two circuits operate. In the
Ex 2 Answer the questions. cooling water circuit, a circulating pump
1 It is made up of closely spaced thin tubes. sends a steady 7 flow of seawater into the
2 A tube sheet. banks of tubes. Before entering the tubes,
3 The front water end and the rear water end. the seawater is 8 filtered by a series of
4 The steam inlet is located at the top of strainers. The circulating pump is fed by a
the condenser. sea-chest valve, and a standby pump is
5 The hot well is at the bottom of the 9 fitted in case the main pump breaks
condenser. down. A cross-connection valve between
6 The air ejector removes any air from the the 10 two pumps allows them to be
condenser. operated at the same time.

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In the condensate circuit, as the steady Ex 7 Looking at the table in Ex. 6, talk
flow of seawater passes through the about the condenser components with
11 bank of tubes, the exhaust steam your partner and say what they do, or
entering from the steam inlet 12 condenses what happens there. Follow the example:
on contact with the cool surface of the Ex: What’s the function of a sea-chest
tubes. Condensed steam – called “the valve?
13 condensate” – then falls into the hot It controls the entry of seawater into the
well. A condensate pump removes the condenser.
condensate from the hot 14 well and sends
it into the boiler as feed-water. 1 What’s the function of strainers?
The condenser is constantly kept under Strainers filter the seawater before it
vacuum, since any 15 air entering the enters the condenser tubes.
system with the exhaust steam is drawn off 2 What’s the function of the circulating
by an air 16 ejector, which is fitted above pump? The circulating pump sends a
the hot well. steady flow of seawater into the tubes.
Condensers must be regularly inspected for 3 What’s the function of the seawater
leakage and are fitted with protective inlet? The seawater enters the condenser
anodes against corrosion. through the seawater inlet.
4 What’s the function of the bank of
Ex 5 Answer the questions.
tubes? The bank of tubes is the cooling
1 The condenser tubes are made of a
surface of a condenser. The cooling water
copper-nickel alloy.
flows in the bank of tubes.
2 The cooling water circuit and the
5 What’s the function of the seawater
condensate circuit.
outlet? Seawater is discharged overboard
3 The two circuits are kept separate.
through the seawater outlet.
4 A condenser produces pure distilled water.
5 The seawater flows through the bank of 6 What’s the function of the steam inlet?
tubes. Exhaust steam enters the condenser
6 Seawater is sent into the condenser by a through the steam inlet.
circulating pump. 7 What’s the function of the air ejector?
7 Seawater is filtered by strainers before The air ejector draws off any air from the
entering the condenser tubes. condenser.
8 There are a main circulating pump and a 8 What’s the function of the hot well?
stand-by pump, in case the main pump The condensate collects in the hot well.
breaks down. 9 What’s the function of the condensate
9 By opening a cross-connection valve. pump? The condensate pump draws the
10 The exhaust steam condenses on condensate from the hot well and sends it
contact with the cool surface of the tubes. into the boiler as boiler feed-water.
11 The condensate collects in the hot well. Ex 8 Complete the text with the missing
12 The condensate is finally sent into a prepositions and relative pronouns.
boiler as boiler feed-water.
A condenser converts exhaust steam into
13 Condensers are constantly inspected for
boiler feed-water. The main parts 1 of a
leakage.
condenser are the following ones. The
14 Protective anodes are used to protect
bank of tubes, in 2 which the cooling
condensers against corrosion.
water flows; the hot well, 3 where the
Ex 6 How are the components of a condensate collects; the circulating pump,
condenser arranged in the two circuits? 4 which draws the cooling water 5 from
Complete the sequence in the table. the sea; the condensate pump, 6 which
sends the condensate 7 into the boiler. A
Cooling water circuit Condensate circuit
condenser is also fitted 8 with a valve,
Sea-chest valve Steam inlet which regulates the entry 9 of seawater
Strainers Tubes surface 10 into the bank of tubes, and 11 with an
Circulating pump Air ejector
Seawater inlet Hot well air ejector or vacuum pump, which draws
Bank of tubes Condensate pump 12 off the air and keeps the condenser
Seawater outlet
13 under a vacuum. There are two

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separate circuits 14 in a condenser: the Ship’s full name QUEEN MARY 2


cooling water circuit and the condensate Type of ship Luxury cruise liner
circuit. In the winter the QM2 cruises in the Southern Hemisphere.
In the summer the QM2 crosses the Atlantic between
Ex 10 Study the condenser form with your Southampton and New York.
partner and find the following Number of passengers 2,600
information. Crew size 1,500
1 It is a surface-cooling, single flow Swimming pools 3
condenser. With no freshwater system, 6 days
water would be finished in
2 The condenser surface is 3,400 m2.
Number of evaporators 6
3 Its working pressure is 45,000 Ps (Pascals).
Capacity 3,000 litres/hour
4 13,600 m3 per hour.
Decline in production scale (calcare).
5 Two vacuum pumps are installed. is caused by
6 They extract 14.0 kg per hour. Scale reduces heat transfer, causing efficiency and
7 The vacuum pumps are driven by an production to drop.
electric motor.
8 The power of the driving motor is 22 kW.
Ex 11 Now complete the sentences
Unit 15
referring to condensers and evaporators The steam engine plant
using used to or is/are used to. One Ex 1 Answer the questions.
sentence is in the negative form! 1 The engine is an energy converter.
1 Condensers 1 used to be essential parts of 2 They convert other types of energy into
steam turbines. useful work.
2 Nowadays, steam turbines 2 are not used 3 The electric motor and the heat engine
as the main engine on board ship. are the two types of engine we use every
3 Until the 1980s, steam turbines 3 were day.
used to drive the main propeller. 4 Electric motors convert electricity into
4 Steam turbines 4 are still used to drive oil work.
cargo pumps on oil tankers. 5 Heat engines transform heat or thermal
5 Today, condensers 5 are used to condense energy into mechanical work.
refrigerant gases in air condition systems. 6 The source of thermal energy absorbed
6 A condensers 6 is used to condense and converted by heat engines is a
vapour through heat rejection. working fluid.
7 An evaporator 7 is used to evaporate 7 The working fluid in a steam engine
liquids through heat extraction. plant is steam.
8 Nowadays, condensers and evaporators 8 In a steam engine plant, steam follows a
8 are used in freshwater generating
closed cycle. This means that steam
systems. changes its physical state (from water into
Ex 12 Mark the following statements as steam) but its quantity and chemical
True or False and correct the false ones. characteristics do not change.
1T–2F–3F–4T–5T–6F–7F–8T Ex 2 In a steam engine plant, steam
2 Fresh water is an essential necessity on operates as the working fluid and follows
board ship. the cycle that is described in the
3 Fresh water is generated by a distillation paragraphs below. Read the following
process. paragraphs and arrange them in the
6 Water boils at a lower temperature in a correct sequence. Then listen to the
freshwater generator. recording and check.
7 Air ejectors are used to reduce the The steam cycle in a steam engine plant
pressure in the evaporation chamber. In a steam plant system, there are four
basic stages of steam operation:
Project Work
generation, expansion, condensation and
Complete the table with the missing feed. The steam cycle begins in boilers,
information. which are steam-generating apparatus.

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Boilers contain banks of steel tubes filled


with water, and arranged so that the Boiler Steam turbine
heat from the furnaces passes over them.
In the furnaces, fuel oil is sprayed under
high pressure and it burns with intense
heat, changing the water in the tubes
into steam. The generated steam passes Condenser
to the turbine through the main steam
pipe, for the second stage of the steam
cycle.
Steam expansion takes place in the
turbine. It is here that the heat energy of Hot well
steam is converted into mechanical work.
The main part of a turbine engine is a
revolving rotor mounted with a series of Ex 5 Work with your partner and, using
the diagram, describe the sequence of
alternating rows of static and moving
steam operation in the system using the
blades. As steam passes through the
sequencers first, then, next, after that,
blades and expands, each row deflects
finally. After that, write your sentences as
the steam flow on to the following one.
a key to the diagram.
These engines have a high pressure (HP)
Here is an example:
and low pressure stage (LP). After steam
First, steam is generated in a boiler. Then it
has passed through both stages, it goes
goes into the turbine, where it expands
to the condenser for the next stage.
though the turbine blades. Next the
In the condenser, exhaust steam is exhaust steam is condensed back into
cooled and condensed back into water. water in a condenser. It is finally sent back
A condensate pump draws the into the boiler, as boiler feed-water.
condensate from the condenser and Ex 8 Complete the sentences by using a
sends it into a deaerating tank known derived noun or one of the verbs in Ex. 7
as the hot well. in the appropriate form. Note that some of
The final stage of the process is the feed the sentences need the passive form.
stage. The condensate that collects in 1 The apparatus that increases or decreases
the hot well is pumped back to the electric voltage is called a transformer.
boiler by a feed pump and is known 2 The engine is an energy converter.
as feed-water. 3 An internal combustion engine converts
chemical energy into mechanical energy.
Ex 3 Answer the questions. 4 Liquids become less dense, when they are
1 The basic steps in steam operation are heated.
steam generation, expansion, 5 Water turns into steam when it reaches
condensation and feed. boiling point.
2 The cycle begins in a boiler, because a 6 The up and down motion of a piston is
boiler generates steam. transformed into a rotary motion by a
3 After leaving the boiler, steam passes connecting rod.
into the turbine. 7 Ice turns back into water when it is
4 In the turbine, steam expands as it heated.
passes through the turbine blades. 8 A solar panel converts the energy of the
5 In the condenser, exhaust steam Sun into electricity.
condenses into water again.
Ex 9 Select the appropriate verb form to
6 The condensate finally goes into the
fill in the gaps.
boiler as boiler feed-water.
Transformations of heat energy in the
Ex 4 Label the blocks that represent the system
main components of a marine steam A steam engine plant 1 converts heat into
engine plant. mechanical work by 2 transforming the

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heat energy of steam, which operates in then 5 sent into a steam tank, placed
the system as the working fluid. above the boiler.
First, water receives heat energy from a In the boiler, the water is converted into
heating source and 3 changes into steam, steam. The steam 6 generated in the boiler
then some of the heat energy of the fluid is sent into a super-heater, which makes
is 4 converted into useful work in the steam dryer and more efficient.
turbine. Finally, the remaining heat that After that, steam enters the turbine
cannot be 5 transformed into work, is 7 through a main steam-pipe. A number of
absorbed by a cooling source, and steam valves are 8 fitted on the pipeline. There
6 is turned into water again. The main are stop valves, which control the
parts of the system are the boiler, the main 9 passage of steam to the engine or to
engine and the condenser. auxiliary machinery, and a feed check
Ex 10 So far you have found some unusual valve, which 10 controls the final entry of
expressions in the texts. Have you steam into the turbine. In the turbine,
understood their meaning? Complete the steam 11 expands as it pushes the rotor
definitions. The first and last one have blades. The blades start rotating and
been done for you. transmit 12 their rotary motion to the
The fluid/the working fluid here is steam. shaft. From the turbine shaft, the rotary
A heating source refers to the boiler (the motion is transmitted to the ship’s
13 propeller by a line of shaft assemblies
heat from the furnace).
The condenser is called a cooling source. and reduction gears.
Thermal energy is the same as heat/heat Then, exhaust steam goes into the
energy. condenser, where it condenses back into
Mechanical energy is synonymous with water, 14 because it gives some of its heat
mechanical work/useful work. to the cooling water that flows through
the condenser tubes. A condensate pump
Ex 11 Choose the correct option. draws the 15 condensate from the
1c, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5c condenser and sends it into the hot well.
Ex 12 Study the diagram of a steam engine Here the steam cycle starts 16 again.
plant and identify the following
Ex 14 Now answer the questions without
components.
looking at the texts.
1 A hot well
1 A steam engine plant is used for
2 B economiser
producing mechanical energy for driving
3 C boiler
auxiliary machinery.
4 E steam tank
2 The main components of the plant are
5 V1 main stop valve
boilers, steam turbines and condensers.
6 V3 seawater valve
3 Steam is the working fluid because its
7 F turbine
heat energy is transformed into mechanical
8 G condenser
energy by the turbine.
9 P1 main circulating pump
4 The basic stages of steam operation are
10 P2 condensate pump
steam generation, expansion, condensation
11 P3 feed pump
and feed.
12 V4 donkey stop valve (for auxiliary duties)
5 A boiler generates steam.
Ex 13 Read and complete the description 6 In a boiler, water is converted into steam
of the plant, then listen to the recording because it receives the heat of the exhaust
and check. gases from the furnace.
Sequence of operations in a steam engine 7 The main part of a steam turbine engine
plant is a revolving rotor, which carries many
A feed pump 1 draws the water from the rows of rotating blades.
hot well and 2 sends it into the 8 As it passes through the turbine, steam
economiser. In the economiser, the feed- expands and makes the rotor blades move.
water receives the 3 heat of the exhaust 9 The main component of a condenser is a
gases that come from the boiler furnace, cooling surface made up of banks of tubes,
and 4 becomes hotter. The hot water is which contain cool seawater.

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10 In a condenser, steam condenses back choice for short crossings, and 12 great
into water because it gives some of its heat circle tracks are preferred for ocean
to the seawater flowing through the crossings.
condenser tubes. Ex 4 Insert the correct term corresponding
11 A stop valve controls the passage of steam to each definition.
to the engine or to auxiliary machinery. 1 rhumb line
12 Feed check valves control the final entry 2 great circle track
of steam into the engine. 3 great circle
4 small circle
Project Work
5 rhumb line
Fact The cartoon was made in 1928 6 rhumb line
by Walt Disney and is considered the debut 7 great circle track
of Mickey Mouse. 8 great circle track
Ex 5 Now underline the correct alternative.
Unit 16 1 Since geographical maps and nautical
charts are flat representations of the
Nautical charts
Earth’s spherical surface, they can only
Ex 1 Answer the questions. represent the Earth’s surface with some
1 Yes, they did. Babylonian, Egyptian and distortions.
Greek mariners probably used nautical 2 Maps and charts are reduced
charts representations of more or less extended
2 Ptolemy was the greatest map-maker of areas of the Earth’s surface.
ancient times. 3 The chart scale indicates how many times
3 Columbus used the Ptolemaic Chart in the Earth’s surface has been reduced to be
1492. represented on the chart.
4 Mercator lived in the 16th century. 4 A scale of 1:800,000 can represent a more
5 A navigator uses a working chart to plot extended area of the Earth’s surface than a
the ship’s course and current position. scale of 1:80,000 on the same size chart.
Ex 2 Read paragraph 2 and label the 5 Projection is the technique used for
pictures with the following terms. drawing up maps and charts.
1 great circle: Equator Ex 6 Complete the text with the missing
2 small circle: parallel words.
3 great circle 1 Projection is the technique used for
4 small circle drawing up geographical maps and
5 great circle: meridian nautical charts.
6 small circle Only two projection methods are widely
Ex 3 Complete the description of the used for 2 nautical charts: the Mercator
picture in paragraph 3 with the missing projection and the 3 gnomonic projection.
words. Mercator lived in the 16th century and was
The picture shows the two possible a pioneer in the world of map-making,
1 routes between the points A and B since he made use of mathematical
on the Earth’s surface. You can see that 4 calculations to draw up his charts.
the blue great circle 2 track is an arc of a He imagined the Earth as being inside
3 great circle which passes through the a 5 cylinder and projected the surface of
4 centre of the Earth, while the red the Earth onto it. Parallels and meridians
5 rhumb line is represented as the arc are represented as 6 straight lines which
of a 6 spiral. form constant 7 right angles where they
The 7 easiest route to follow is the rhumb intersect. Meridians are equally spaced
line, because it keeps a constant 8 angle, out, while 8 parallels move farther apart
while the 9 shortest route is the great as we move away from the 9 Equator
circle track, because it joins two points to the poles.
with a 10 minimum distance. A mathematical 10 constant is used to work
Therefore, 11 rhumb lines are the best out this ever-increasing distance.

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The viewpoint of a gnomonic chart is the 3 The NOAA produces the charts in the
11 centre of the Earth. On this chart, USA.
parallels and meridians are projected 5 Channel features are represented on
outwards onto a plane 12 tangent to a large-scale charts.
point on the Earth’s surface. 6 Small-scale charts are used to represent
Nautical charts also indicate particular large areas like ocean basins.
features of the coast and 13 sea and they Ex 10 Match each term with its
are an essential 14 aid to navigation. definition.
Ex 7 Answer the questions. 1d, 2f, 3h, 4g, 5b, 6e, 7c, 8a
1 No, no single projection method
preserves all the wanted properties. Project Work
2 Rhumb lines are plotted as straight lines;
angles are presented correctly; for small 2. Now go to the glossary page on the
areas, the true shape of features is same site and find the requested
maintained. information.
3 A chart is “conformal” when angles are 1 Lights, buoys, day marks, and fog
presented correctly. signals.
4 When using a Mercator chart, you can 2 They mark channels and warn mariners
easily work out position, distance and of dangers such as rocks, wrecks, and
direction. obstructions.
5 Rhumb lines can be plotted as a straight 3 The U.S. Coast Guard takes care of the
line. aids to navigation along the coasts of the
6 On a gnomonic chart, a straight line United States.
represents the best circle route. 4 A nautical chart shows where the aids to
7 A gnomonic chart is useful to the navigation (lights, buoys, day marks) are,
navigator for plotting the best circle and where the dangers (rocks, shallow
route. spots, wrecks, reefs) are.
8 The best working chart for the routine 5 It is a weekly publication by the U.S.
plotting of navigational data is the Coast Guard which tells mariners about
Mercator chart. important changes to their nautical
charts.
Ex 8 Compare the two types of nautical 6 The ship star is also known as the “Pole
charts by completing the table. Star.” The sailor’s name for Polaris, the
Mercator chart North Star. This star is important for ocean
Projection from the centre of the Earth navigation.
onto a cylinder. 7 A shoal is a place where the water is
Great circle tracks result as curved lines. shallow enough to be dangerous to
Rhumb lines result as straight lines. ships.
Mostly used for plotting the track during 8 Sailors stand the watch on the
navigation. ship’s deck to watch for danger
Gnomonic chart (rocky shoals, enemy ships, storms
Projection from the centre of the Earth on a or shipwrecks).
tangent plane. 9 It is the rise and fall of sea level due to
Great circle tracks result as straight lines. the pull of the moon on the water.
Rhumb lines result as curved lines. 10 In some places in the United States,
Used for identifying the best great circle tides may be as high as 20 feet.
track between two points. 3. Now go to this site which shows how
Ex 9 Mark the following statements as to read markers – or buoys – on a chart.
True or False and correct the false ones. Complete the following table, but
1F–2T–3F–4T–5F–6F remember that in North and South
1 Nautical charts also include information America they use the IALA System B for
about the coastline, prominent features, lateral marks, and this is why the red and
buoys and traffic separation schemes. green colours are inverted. The shapes of

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the topmarks are inverted, too North and our landmark, as this angle is
(nun=cone). seen from our ship.
2 We call it a compass bearing.
Letters and numbers on buoy
3 We need to apply corrections for both
1 RW “G”
variation and deviation.
2 G “1” Fl G 4 secs
3 RN “2” 4 The magnetic variation is indicated on
4 GC “3” the nautical chart of the area and can be
5 RGN “C” either east or west.
5 If the variation is to the East, it has a
Description positive algebraic sign (+) and we add it to
1 Red and White striped marker with letter our compass reading; if the variation is to
“G” the West, it has a negative algebraic sign
2 Green marker with number 1 and (–) and we subtract it from the compass
flashing a green light every 4 seconds reading.
3 Red Nun buoy with number “2” 6 Ships are mostly made of metals which
4 Green Can buoy with number “3” interfere with the ship’s compass. These
5 Red and Green Nun buoy with letter metals cause a deviation of the compass
“C” magnetic needle. The magnetic deviation is
Type of buoy specific for each ship and needs to be
1 Safe water marker corrected by expert technicians, who
2 Light marker report the corrections on a ship’s own
3 Starboard marker compass deviation tables. (See Unit 8,
IALA System B paragraph 2)
4 Port marker
IALA System B Ex 4 Study the picture in paragraph 2 and
5 Junction marker decide whether the magnetic variation has
a positive or negative sign. Then apply the
correction rule using the correction values
Unit 17 in the table below and work out the ship’s
Piloting & plotting true courses.

Ex 1 Answer the questions. Compass courses


1 Coastal navigation is also known as Compass bearing of oil rig: 44° E
piloting. Compass heading course: 324°
2 Landmarks are easily recognizable Magnetic variation: +/– 3°
objects along the coastline such as a
lighthouse, a church or a tower.
3 Landmarks are always indicated – often 324° N

with a specific symbol – on nautical


charts.
4 It means line of position.
Ex 2 Fill in the gaps; one has already been
44°
done to help you.
When we navigate near the coast, we
make use of 1 landmarks along the
shoreline to work out our 2 position. For
example, we use 3 lighthouses, 4 churches
or towers to take a 5 bearing. A bearing
will tell us our ship’s 6 position relative to
the landmark. We draw a 7 line of True courses
position on the 8 chart for each bearing. LOP: 50° (44° cc + 3° var + 3° dev = 50° tc)
Ex 3 Answer the questions. True course: 330° (224° cc + 3° var + 3° dev
1 When we are taking a bearing we are = 330° tc)
actually measuring the angle between Magnetic deviation: +3

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is the most accurate and easiest bearing to


6 take. The ship is on the line which
330° N
7 joins the two objects.

Ex 8 Answer the questions.


1 It means to mark the position of something
on a diagram by connecting points.
50° 2 On the horizontal edges of a Mercator
chart.
3 The vertical edges of the chart show the
latitude scale.
4 We measure the distance in miles on the
latitude scale, where each minute of
latitude corresponds to one nautical mile.
5 A compass rose is used to measure
Ex 5 Answer the questions. directions using true or magnetic
1 We choose a high landmark, such as a bearings.
lighthouse or church tower. 6 Magnetic bearings are referred to the
2 The height of these landmarks is inner circle of the compass rose.
indicated on the nautical chart. 7 It is printed with annual change in the
3 We use the following formula: d = (2h) : centre of the compass rose.
a, where d is the distance in nautical miles, 8 To plot on a Mercator chart we need a
h is the height in metres of the landmark pencil, rubber or eraser, a pair of dividers
and a is the angle found by the sextant in and nautical triangles or a parallel ruler.
minutes of an arc.
4 We can draw a circular LOP on the Ex 9 These are the steps followed in
nautical chart. paragraph 7a. Try to put them in the right
5 Next we can take a compass bearing and order.
get a line of position that will cross the 1a, 2g, 3e, 4d, 5h, 6c, 7f, 8b
circular LOP at some point, giving our exact Ex 10 Complete the summary for
position or fix. paragraph 7b with the missing words.
6 This method is called by bearing and We need 1 another LOP to fix our position,
distance. so we take a bearing on a 2 second buoy.
Ex 6 Imagine you are piloting along the Our compass reading is 3 45°. So we find
island of Asinara, in the north-west of 45° 4 magnetic on the compass rose and,
Sardinia, and you are now close to Punta using the parallel ruler, 5 draw another
Scorno Lighthouse, which you know is 80 line starting at the 6 second buoy until it
metres above sea-level. If your sextant crosses our 7 first LOP. The point where
reading is 2°.15’, what is your distance the two lines 8 cross is our fix. We label
from the lighthouse? Apply the formula in the fix with a 9 circle and write the time.
paragraph 3 and find out. We use 10 24 hours time on the chart to
For sextant reading 2°.15’ (two degrees avoid confusion between am and pm.
point fifteen minutes) the distance should Ex 11 Answer questions 1-5 about
be 1.1 nautical miles. Explain Ss that they paragraphs 7c, and questions 6-10 about
divide the result by 1,852 to convert the paragraph 7d.
distance from metres to nautical miles. 1 It starts at our fix and ends at the
Ex 7 Fill in the gaps. channel buoys.
When we have two or three 1 bearings 2 The course is plotted as a straight line
from two or three landmarks we can that runs from our fix to the buoys.
determine our position 2 fix. Our ship is at 3 At the centre of the compass rose.
the point where two 3 LOPs cross or 4 Here a parallel ruler is used. An edge of
inside the 4 triangle formed by three LOPs. the parallel ruler is placed on the course
If two landmarks are on the same line, we line, the other edge or arm is made to
say that they give a 5 range (bearing). This walk over to the centre of the compass

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rose, so that the magnetic heading of the 14 A running fix is labeled RF(ix) with the
course line can be read. time alongside.
5 The capital M above the course line
2. Now follow the script while you listen
indicates that it is degrees magnetic.
to the video again, for another three times
6 To take the length of the course line we
use the dividers. at least, until you can easily understand
7 To the latitude scale of the chart, to find what the speaker says.
the length in nautical miles. This is how we plot a running fix position.
8 Because on the latitude scale each Assuming the course is 080° (zero eighty
minute of latitude corresponds to one degrees) and the speed is 8.0 (eight knots)
nautical mile. so eight nautical miles per hour, we take a
9 It is 1.9 nautical miles long. bearing of 045°on Alpha Rock at 0900
10 Under the course line. (zero nine hundred). Now convert the
compass bearings to true bearings and we
Ex 12 Try to sequence the steps for plot it on the chart.
obtaining and plotting a running fix. After 30 minutes, we take a new bearing
1g, 2d, 3f, 4a, 5h, 6b, 7e, 8c on the same rock that reads 015° (zero
Ex 13 Make up the correct sequence of fifteen degrees). Now convert the compass
actions performed to measure the course bearings to true bearings and plot it on
angle with a couple of nautical triangles. the chart along with the new time, 0930
Notice that here you have to measure the (zero nine-thirty). Knowing the speed, the
angle on the meridian and not on the next step is to determine the distance that
compass rose. the vessel sailed from 0900 to 0930. For
1d, 2b, 3a, 4e, 5c that we use the formula D = S x T /60 (D is
equal to S times T divided by sixty), where
Project Work D is the distance in nautical miles, S is the
boat speed, and T is the time in minutes.
1. Watch & listen to the video at least
In our case 8 knots x (times) 30 minutes
three times, until you find all the
divided by sixty equals 4 nautical miles.
requested information. (8 knots x 30 min /60 = 4 NM).
1 Course 080°. Speed 8.0 knots per hour. Using the dividers, we span* a distance of 4
2 Alpha Rock. miles on the latitude scale which is closest
3 At 0900 (zero nine hundred). to the course line and which runs along the
4 The first compass bearing is 045°. sides of the chart. We apply this span* on
5 At 0930. our course, placing one leg of the dividers
6 The second bearing is 015°. on the 0900 LOP intercepting the course
7 First you need to convert the compass and the other leg on the course line.
bearings into true bearings. (We mark the point of interception with a
8 D = S x T /60 (D is equal to S times T blue pencil). Using the parallel ruler, we
divided by sixty). transfer the 0900 LOP to the blue mark. As
9 You already know the ship’s speed – 8 we notice, the two LOPs intercept at the
miles per hour – and the time interval point RF. This is our running fix position.
between the two bearings – 30 minutes.
10 The vessel has sailed 4 nautical miles in *to span or to spread, span or spread (the nouns)
30 minutes. 3. Ask your navigation teacher to give you
11 We measure the distance on the a suitable nautical chart on which you can
latitude scale, on the nearest vertical edge take two or three bearings to fix your
of the chart. We use the dividers to do
ship’s position and plan the first leg of
that.
your course to a given destination. You
12 Next we use the dividers to transfer the
length of 4 nautical miles on the chart, should plot the chart with LOPs, fix
placing one leg of the dividers on the 0900 position and course. Then write the
LOP and the other leg on the course line. description – in English – of your
13 Our running fix position is where the procedure. You can work in pairs, if you
“advanced” 0900 LOP crosses the course line. prefer.

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Unit 18 3 Separately.
Business logistics 4 Coordinated management.
5 Because products are made available
Ex 1 Find the English expressions for the exactly when and where they are needed.
following terms in the passage. 6 1961.
1 Beni di consumo goods/commodities 7 Council of Logistics Management.
2 Consumare to consume 8 Point of origin and point of
3 Produrre to produce consumption.
4 Immagazzinamento storage 9 No, it also deals with services.
5 Acquisire to acquire 10 Because it includes all the activities in
6 Efficienza di produzione production efficiency transportation and supply.
7 Tenore di vita standard of living
8 Fonti di produzione sources of production Ex 5 What is the aim of SCM/integrated
logistics management? Put the following
Ex 2 Complete the following diagram with phrases in the correct order to complete
the missing words. the definition.
SCM aims to get the right goods or services to
Early peoples
and small african villages the right place, at the right time, and in the
desired condition, while making the greatest
produce and acquire contribution to the firm.
goods close to home
Ex 6 Refer to the diagram and the text and
reorder the steps in the Customer Service
Loop.
consume in the
same area
move
goods
Inventory maintenance – Order processing –
Transportation – Customer receives goods
to store Ex 7 Find out why transportation and
inventories are essential logistic activities.
Listen and complete the text.
perishable goods limited range of goods Transportation is essential because no
modern 1 firm can operate without
consume in a short time consume later
providing for the movement of its 2 raw
3 materials or its finished 4 products.
Ex 3 There are 10 mistakes in the following Inventories are also essential to logistics
text. Listen and underline the mistakes. management because it is usually not
Number the mistakes from 1 to 10, then 5 possible or 6 practical to provide
listen again and write the correct words. 7 instant production. Inventory
Logistics is an essential part of trade. Since 8 maintenance of goods serves as buffers
different areas are more suitable for between supply and 9 demand, so that
producing different goods, logistic systems needed product availability may be
allow excess goods to be exported while maintained for 10 customers.
goods not found locally could be imported. Experience has shown that each will
This process is known as the principle of represent 11 one-half to two-thirds of total
comparative advantage and ensures a logistics 12 costs.
higher economic standard of living for Ex 8 Look at the diagram, fill in the past
everyone in the world. Logistics is a bridge participle of each verb and complete the
between production and market areas which steps in the supply chain.
can often be a long way away from each Raw materials are 1 sent by ship to
other. Any company operating in the overseas ports from the sources production.
world market today needs to have effective They are 2 transported from the port to a
logistic management. warehouse location.
Ex 4 Answer the questions. They are then transported to a factory,
1 Business logistics. where they are 3 transformed into
2 Finance, marketing and production. 4 finished products.

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Then these products are 5 stored in a light warm air rises while cold air descends
warehouse before being 6 delivered to the and takes the place of the warm air.
final customers. 4 There are air masses with different
temperatures all around the Earth because
Ex 9 Match the following items.
the temperature varies from place to place.
1d, 2c, 3e, 4a, 5b
5 The air over the land is warmer than the
Ex 10 Mark the following statements as air over the sea in summer because the
True or False and correct the false ones. ground rapidly heats up and reflects this
1F–2T–3F–4F–5T–6T heat.
1 Reverse logistics systems handle the flow Ex 3 Answer the questions.
of goods from the client back to the source. 1 Air pressure varies with temperature
3 Products can sometimes be returned if because cold air is heavier than warm air
they are damaged. and has a higher pressure.
4 Packaging materials are sometimes 2 It varies with humidity because the more
returned to the shipper. water vapour there is in the air, the lighter
it is.
Ex 11 Answer the questions.
3 Warm and humid low pressure air masses
1 Customers, suppliers and stakeholders.
typically form over the equatorial regions
2 In terms of time and place.
because these regions receive a lot of sun
3 Because it is the wrong time of year. and are rich with vegetation.
4 Because it is the wrong place. 4 The factors determining the movements
5 When customers pay more for a product of air masses are temperature differences,
than what it costs to put it in their hands. humidity and pressure and their reciprocal
6 It adds value. effects.
Ex 12 Choose the correct option. 5 Isobars are points with the same
1c, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5a, 6c atmospheric pressure. They are shown as
rings around the high and low pressure
centres.
Unit 19 6 High pressure areas are marked with H,
The moving air low pressure areas with L.
Ex 1 Answer the questions. 7 Winds tend to flow around the pressure
1 An “air mass” is a part of the atmosphere centre following the isobar.
8 The blue arrows indicate the wind
where temperature, humidity and pressure
direction around the low pressure area.
are homogeneous.
2 Air masses form when the air remains for Ex 4 Mark the following statements as
a long time over an extensive area with True or False and correct the false ones.
stable environmental conditions. 1F–2F–3T–4T–5F–6T–7T–8F
3 Cold and dry air masses usually form over 1 Cyclone areas contain low pressure air.
the continental regions. 2 High pressure air is attracted to the
4 Warm and humid air masses form over neighbouring low pressure zones.
tropical areas. 5 In the northern hemisphere the winds
5 No, air masses do not remain in their turn towards the right and in the Southern
areas of origin. Hemisphere they turn towards the left.
6 As they move all around the Earth, air 8 Winds blow in the direction where the
masses redistribute the Sun’s heat from the pressure is lower.
regions which receive too much to those
Ex 5 Work with your partner and complete
which receive too little.
the questions in the exercise below, then
Ex 2 Answer the questions. ask and answer the questions with your
1 The physical phenomenon which makes partner.
the air move over the Earth’s surface is 1 What are the main winds?
convection. 2 When do the main winds blow?
2 Cold air is heavier than warm air. 3 Where are the main high pressure areas
3 Convection currents happen when the on our globe?

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4 Where are the main low pressure areas Clip 2: Odds of a strike
situated? 1 Once every 2 years.
5 Why do the main winds blow in opposite 2 South Florida.
directions in the two hemispheres? 3 Every three to five years.
6 How far can the main winds move air Clip 3: Grab’n’go
masses? 1 Money, medicine and documents.
Ex 6 Match each phrase on the left with its 2 Your pets.
second part on the right. Clip 4: Eyeopeners
1e, 2l, 3k, 4j, 5h, 6a, 7i, 8f, 9d, 10g, 11c, 1 Microwave imagery.
12b 2 A very large eye is more damaging to
Ex 7 Answer the questions. the coast.
1 A weather front is the area of transition A contracting eye can lead to the
between two different air masses. strengthening of the hurricane.
2 A cold weather front is when cold air Clip 5: The Deadliest
approaches and replaces warm air. Complete the table with the missing
3 The cold air in a cold front moves under facts:
the warm air, making it rise.
4 A warm weather front is when warm air Where /name When How many victims?
replaces cold air.
5 The warm air slides over the cold air and Hurricane Mitch 1998 11,000
Antilles 1780 22,000
rises, cooling down as it does so. Galveston 1990 8,000 – 12,000
6 When a warm front passes, it often Bay of Bengal (Bangladesh) 1970 ¼ to ½ million people
brings rain and snow.
7 A warm front is represented as a red line Clip 6: All in a name
with red semicircles pointing in the 1 The Caribbean name for the God of evil
direction the front is travelling. winds.
8 A cold front is indicated by a blue line 2 From the name of the Greek gods.
with blue triangles pointing in the 3 Tropical cyclone.
direction the front is travelling. 4 In the Indian Ocean and Australia.
Ex 8 Form questions using the given HURRICANE MINUTE (Complete video
question words. script)
1 Where does the satellite image come from?
2 When was it taken? Peak season
3 What time was it taken? Just like no two hurricanes are alike, no
4 What kind of image is it? two hurricane seasons are alike as well, so
5 Who elaborated the data? the most active months can change each
6 How is the data represented on the year, but there are averages with
weather map? September 10th considered the peak of
7 Why was the sea rough? the season. September’s the hot month
8 Where was the front going? when the majority of hurricanes form,
followed by August and October and the
Project Work reason for that is the sea surface
temperatures are the warmest during that
Use this link http://www.
time and the atmospheric environment
theweatherchannelkids.com/cool-clips/
for hurricane and tropical storms to form
hurricaneminute/, then answer the is the best; in other words, the winds in
following questions. the atmosphere are fairly weak, so weak
Clip 1: Peakseason winds in the atmosphere and warm water
1 September 10. means the chances for hurricanes to form
2 August-October. is greater. While the odds are higher
3 The sea surface is warmest and the winds hurricanes do and can happen outside
are weak making the best atmospheric those peak months and can also be very
conditions for hurricanes. intense.

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Odds of a strike Also the size of the eye doesn’t necessarily


I wouldn’t bet on it but odds are the correspond to the strength of the winds
United States will see a landfalling around it. The thing we can say is that a
hurricane on average once every 2 or 3 very large eye of the hurricane is more
years based on what we’ve seen over damaging to the coast because more of
time; that said, the probabilities depend the coast feels the strongest winds of the
on location. The number 1 spot for a hurricane.
landfalling hurricane in the US is South The other interesting thing is that if you
Florida, particularly Miami or the Florida have an eye that is contracting, getting
Keys, and then the number 2 is probably, smaller with time, sometimes that’s
the Outer Banks of North Carolina has a related to the strengthening of the
very high chance of getting struck, hurricane, as it tends to wind up much
followed by the mouth of the Mississippi. like an ice-skater with their arms out,
Then the Florida Panhandle and the when they pull their arms in, they spin
Upper Texas Coast are also high incidence faster. This is called an “eye-wall
areas but not nearly as high as South replacement hurricane.”
Florida which is the number 1. The Deadliest
But if you look at the probability of each When you consider what the deadliest
individual location, the odds of getting hit hurricane is, it depends on time and
actually go down. For example, you could place. The deadliest hurricane in recent
expect a hurricane to hit the number 1 memory in the Atlantic Basin is Hurricane
area, South Florida, on average every 3 to Mitch in 1998. Mitch is estimated to
5 years but remember we could get one, have killed more than 11,000 people
more or less frequently, it all depends on in Central America, but the record in
the weather pattern. the Atlantic Basin is the 1780 hurricane
Grab’n’go that actually went through the Antilles
Ideally you won’t have to grab and go if and more than 22,000 people lost their
hurricane is headed your way! If you do, lives in that.
there’s a chance you’ll forget something How about the deadliest hurricane to
important when it’s time to evacuate. landfall in the United States?
“A mandatory evacuation has been That distinction goes to the Galveston
ordered…” hurricane of 1900, an estimated 8,000 to
You want to make sure you have money, as high as 12,000 people died. Looking at
make sure you have medicine and make hurricanes outside the Atlantic Basin,
sure you have any documents with you there’s no competition. It’s a 1970 tropical
that are easy to carry that you cannot cyclone that was in the Bay of Bengal. It
replace and that may include your hit Bangladesh, where at least a quarter
favourite photographs as well. Also don’t of a million to half a million people were
leave your pets behind! There are now killed. In one time alone, it’s believed 45%
some shelters that will allow pets or try to of the 167,000 residents were lost.
make arrangements beforehand for a All in a name
kennel, a friend or a relative that can care Is a hurricane different than a typhoon?
for them and remember to take their Actually the only thing that’s different is
food, medicine, favourite toy or blanket the name. We have the name hurricane in
and perhaps a carrier too. the Atlantic Basin and that basically comes
Eyeopeners from the God of Evil Winds, from the
A hurricane can have an eye even if you Caribbean terminology, Huracan, and we
can’t see it on satellite. That’s because use the same name in the Eastern Pacific
there can be just a veil of cirrus that as well.
covers the top of the eye of the hurricane The Western Pacific, the typhoon is the
so you can’t see underneath it. We can see same phenomenon and that name has
that now very easily with microwave actually been traced back to Greek
imagery so it can’t fool us anymore. times.

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The term tropical cyclone, on the other 8 destination – the recipient. It implies the
hand, encompasses both hurricanes and management of the organizational
typhoons. Meteorologists, they came up procedures, supported by technically
with the idea, well, let’s make a generic advanced solutions, by which the goods
term that any low pressure system that 9 flow is constantly under control and
spins around a low pressure centre that accompanied by the corresponding
originates in the Tropics or Sub Tropics, 10 documents.
we’ll call a tropical cyclone and in the
Ex 4 Answer the questions about
area of Australia and the Indian
paragraphs 3, 4, 5.
Ocean only the name tropical cyclone
1 The coverage of distance or change of
is used.
location of goods using a means of
transport.
Unit 20 2 Economic and time factors.
Logistic services 3 The way goods are moved from the
source to the recipient.
Ex 1 See if you can remember Pfohl’s 4 Using different means of transport for
definition of “logistics” by reordering the the same goods.
following parts given in scrambled order; 5 A warehouse.
try not to look! 6 Goods are loaded onto vehicles and sent
“Logistics must ensure that a recipient is to a receiving point.
supplied from a point of origin in accordance 7 A bridge between dispatch and receipt
with his requirements with the correct of goods.
product (in quantity and variety), in the 8 Construction and operation of the
right condition, at the right time and in the transhipment warehouse.
right place at minimum cost.”
Ex 5 Revise the comparative and
Ex 2 Mark the following statements as superlative forms of these adjectives.
True or False and correct the false ones.
cheap cheaper the cheapest
1F–2T–3F–4T–5T–6F–7F–8F
expensive more expensive the most expensive
1 Logistic service providers manage the slow slower the slowest
transport/movement of goods. fast faster the fastest
3 Global providers transport good all over
the world. Ex 6 Decide on the best main transport
6 Goods are moved from one point to method for the following products;
another and sometimes they are stored. consider whether you are transporting a
7 Providers use transport-logistical large/small quantity and if time is
networks to deliver their goods on time. important.
8 The three core processes of logistics are
transport, transhipping and storage. Goods/place of manufacture Recipient

Ex 3 Listen and fill in the gaps. A Giorgio Armani dress manufactured Boutique on Fifth Avenue,
in Thailand New York
Transport is the coverage of distance or
the 1 change of location for goods using 10,000 Manchester United ballpoint
pens manufactured in China needed
Manchester United Supporters’
Club Shop
a means of transport. Every transport before season begins
system consists of 2 cargo, means of Jeans manufactured in India Camden Street Market
transport and the transport process. 1,000 fresh eggs produced in Northern Distribution warehouse
Means of transport involves the 3 type of England (London) of a supermarket
chain
transport in which goods are moved. The
choice of the means of transport – either
Small/large quantity/ Transport
ground, air or 4 water transport – is closely time-critical (air/sea/road & rail)
tied to economic and 5 time factors.
small air
The transport process concerns the
large/time-critical road & rail
6 planning and management of the
large sea
transport chain by which goods are
large/time-critical road & rail
7 moved from a source – the sender – to a

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Ex 7 Complete the definitions by matching Break-bulk


each phrase on the left with its second 1 Used for non-bulk cargo not in
part on the right. containers.
1c, 2e, 3g, 4b, 5f, 6a, 7d 2 Goods are loaded directly into the
Ex 8 What does each ship carry? Write the hold;
type of cargo next to the ship. – on pallets;
1 Bulk carriers sugar, rice, grain – in crates;
2 OBO carriers mineral ore, coal – in drums or sacks.
3 Oil tankers crude oil 3 Typical cargo: specialised cargoes (fresh
4 Cruise liners rich holiday-makers fruit).
5 Refrigerated ships dairy produce, fruit, 4 Often used in small ports with no
meat infrastructures.
6 Ferries cars and passengers 5 Goods are easily damaged so sturdy
packaging is necessary.
Ex 9 Put the strengths and weaknesses of
containerized ship transport in the correct Bulk
part of the table. 1 Large shipments of particular
commodities.
Strengths Weaknesses 2 Types of cargo:
– coal;
economical high capital costs – oil;
environmentally friendly slow – ore;
large transport volume tied to the water network
– wheat.
independent of weather dependency of large container ships
on specially equipped ports
5 Goods are not packaged, they are simply
carried in the hold.
Ex 10 Look at the bill of lading and answer
the questions.
1 Tinned tomatoes.
Unit 21
2 4. Moving waters
3 800. Ex 1 Choose the correct option for each
4 20,000. sentence.
5 Naples. 1 Most of the earth is covered by water.
6 San Francisco. 2 Only a quarter of the Earth’s surface is
7 Caetano Overseas Shipping. land.
8 331 Great Valley Avenue, San Francisco 3 The greatest quantity of water is in the
23457 USA. Southern Hemisphere.
9 Seamar, s.r.l. 4 There is less water in the Northern
10 Highlander. Hemisphere.
11 Kolf-Heinz AG. 5 The large extensions of water between
12 22nd March 2011. continents are called oceans.
6 Lands enclose parts of oceans forming
Project Work smaller basins called seas.
Complete the table. 7 Seas are connected to oceans.
Containers Ex 2 Complete with the missing
1 Used for cargo already in containers. definitions.
2 Number of kinds of containers: 20. 1 It indicates the quantity of salt in the
3 Different sizes: 2. water.
4 Large ships hold: 9,000 containers 2 It decreases with depth.
5 Advantages: 3 It decreases with latitude from the
– direct transfer ship/road-rail; Equator to the Poles.
–d  oor-to-door service; 4 It is typical of warm seas because of
– fast and efficient loading/unloading; constant evaporation.
– security. 5 It is heavier than less salty water.

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6 It is typical of seas which receive a and at the poles, reducing the difference
constant flow of fresh water from rivers in temperature between the extreme
and rain. 11 regions of the Earth. Together with
the equatorial masses of warm air that
1 Salinity
move towards the poles and the 12 cold
2 The sea temperature
masses of polar air that move towards
3 The sea temperature
the Equator, the great ocean currents
4 High salinity
make the temperature bearable for
5 Very salty water
human life all over the Earth.
6 Low salinity
One well-known example is the Gulf
Ex 3 Compare the following oceans and Stream, which originates from the North
seas using comparatives and superlatives. Equatorial Current and transports
Follow the examples. 13 warm water from the Gulf of Mexico
Ex: The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean to the North Atlantic along the American
in the world. coast. Then it turns north-east and carries
The Pacific Ocean is larger than the the heat of the tropical seas to the North
Atlantic Ocean. of Europe, making life bearable even in
Other examples: The Persian Sea is the Spitzbergen in the Arctic Ocean. Cold
warmest sea in the world. ocean currents, like the Labrador Current,
The Persian Sea is warmer than the Baltic tend to move in the 14 opposite direction
Sea. towards the Equator.

Ex 4 Listen and fill in the gaps. Ex 5 Now answer the questions.


We have seen that the 1 waters of the 1 No, seawater is not the same
sea are not the same everywhere. everywhere.
Their 2 temperature varies: it is different 2 There are differences in, for example,
on the surface and underwater, at the surface and underwater temperature,
poles and at the 3 Equator. Their salinity, density etc.
salinity varies, as it depends on 4 3 These differences give origin to water
evaporation and on the supply of fresh masses, which are quite different to one
water from rivers and rain. These another.
variations give rise to water masses, 4 When water masses meet, they have
which are quite 5 different from each difficulty in merging and often slide
other and which also have great alongside each other for great distances
difficulty in mixing with each other. until eventually they mix.
These 6 water masses slide alongside 5 These great movements of water masses
each other, side by side or over and are called the main currents.
under each other and they can often 6 No, all parts of the Earth do not receive
flow for 7 thousands of miles retaining equal amounts of heat from the Sun. The
their own particular characteristics, poles receive very little, the temperate
before they finally and gradually merge regions receive more, and the equatorial
with the nearby waters. The constant regions receive the most.
motion of these water masses form the 7 Warm currents go towards the poles.
main ocean 8 currents which have a 8 They carry warm water to the cold zones,
great influence on climates. These large and together with the warm air masses
currents form a system called the global make life bearable in extremely cold
conveyor belt. regions.
They slowly transport 9 warm waters 9 The Gulf Stream originates from the
over long distances towards the colder North Equatorial Current and eventually
zones of the globe and cold waters arrives to the North of Europe flowing into
towards the hot zones. In this way they the Arctic Ocean.
help to redistribute the different 10 The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean
amount of 10 Sun’s heat that the current, while the Labrador Current is a
Earth’s surface receives at the Equator cold ocean current.

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Ex 7 Fill in the gaps in the following table Project Work


about tides. First of all, check what you know about
Type of tides Interested areas
ocean currents by choosing the correct
option in the following sentences.
High tides Hemisphere tilted towards Moon. The cold water in the polar regions forms
Opposite hemisphere. sea ice making the water become saltier;
Low tides Neighbouring areas to high tide zones. consequently, its density increases and it
Spring tides Hemisphere tilted towards the Moon & starts to sink; surface water moves in to
hemisphere tilted towards the Sun.
replace the sinking water, and in turn, it
Neap tides Both hemispheres.
becomes saltier and colder starting the cycle
of moving currents known as the global
Cause Effect conveyor belt.
This system is driven by thermohaline
The attraction of the Moon. Ocean surface swells/rises.
circulation, which starts in the cold waters
The centrifugal force. Ocean surface rises as
of the Earth water masses gather from near the North Pole; the cooled surface
neighbouring zones. water sinks and a current is formed as
Water taken away and moved Water drops/decreases. surface water moves in to replace it. The
to high tide zones.
deep water moves south past the Equator
Sun and Full Moon are aligned. Sun and Moon’s forces of
gravity pull in the same line.
and then around the edge of Antarctica,
Sun and Moon are Sun and Moon’s forces of where it cools and sinks again – in other
perpendicular. gravity work against each other. words, it is “recharged”.
The main current divides into two sections
Ex 8 Mark the following statements as which are eventually warmed and rise as
True or False and correct the false ones. they travel back towards the North
1F–2F–3T–4F–5F–6T–7F–8F Atlantic, where the cycle begins again. The
cycle is very slow – scientists estimate that
1 Tides are caused by the action of the
it takes about 1,000 years for any cubic
Moon (and the Sun).
metre of water to complete the cycle.
2 The tide cycle is repeated twice a day.
Unfortunately, research has shown that
4 Spring tides occur when the Sun and the
climate change has an effect on the
Moon are aligned/in line.
5 When the Sun and Moon are conveyor belt.
perpendicular there are neap tides. Global warming causing increased rainfall
7 Spring tides occur when the Moon is and the melting of glaciers means that
full. more warm fresh water enters the system
8 Neap tides occur when the Moon is in and it could stop the cold, salty water from
the first or last quarter. sinking. If this happens, the global
conveyor belt could stop working causing
Ex 9 Match each term with its definition. terrible effects for the Earth’s temperature.
1d, 2a, 3b, 4c
Ex 10 Compare the Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea and choose the correct Unit 22
option for each sentence. The dead reckoning plot
1 The waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Ex 1 Answer the questions.
Mediterranean Sea meet at the Gibraltar 1 From the Latin navis together with agere,
Strait. Here the Mediterranean is about navigation means to “to move and direct”
30 cm lower than the Atlantic. the ship from a starting point to her
2 On the surface the lighter waters of the destination.
Atlantic flow towards the Mediterranean. 2 The navigator plans the course before
3 However, deep down the heavier waters starting the journey, to be sure to follow the
of the Mediterranean flow in the opposite shortest and safest route to his destination.
direction. The seawater in the 3 He uses nautical charts, radio bulletins,
Mediterranean is denser because it is weather maps referring to the areas where
saltier. the ship will be sailing.

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4 The track is the ship’s planned course. Ex 7 Now cover the text and answer the
5 The planned track line divided into questions about the plot on the chart.
segments because there are points where 1 The ship’s course line was in the direction
the ship has to change direction. of 090°, at a 15-knots speed.
6 These segments are called the legs of the 2 The ship changed speed, so the navigator
track. plotted a DR position for this time, 7.5
7 Junction points are the points where the miles further of the 0900 position.
ship changes her course direction. They are 3 He changed the direction of the course
the points where the track legs meet. line.
8 The track looks like a broken line on the 4 The new course was to 145°, at a
chart. 20-knots speed.
Ex 2 Study the meaning of the English 5 The course line ended at 1106, when a
terms, then find and write the Italian new fix was obtained.
equivalent for each of them. 6 A new DR course line starts at this point,
1 Ship’s heading = prora bussola from the new fix.
2 Course = rotta Ex 8 Listen and complete the following text.
3 True course or track = rotta vera
How to apply the DR rules
4 Drift = velocità della corrente e deriva
Clearing the harbour at 1 1000, the
5 Leeway = scarroccio
navigator obtains a last visual 2 fix. This is
6 Track line or course line = spezzata
called taking departure, and the position
lossodromica
determined is called the departure.
7 Leg of the track (or leg of the course) =
At the 1000 departure, the Conning
tratto della spezzata
Officer* orders a course of 060° and a
8 Junction points = punto estremo di
speed of 10 3 knots. Therefore the
ciascun tratto della spezzata
navigator lays out the course line from the
Ex 3 Mark the following statements as 1000 fix in a direction of 4 060°.
True or False and correct the false ones. He calculates that in one hour at 10 knots
1T–2F–3F–4T–5T he will travel 10 5 nautical miles. He
2 In the past, deduced reckoning involved measures 10 nautical miles from the 1000
making a lot of calculations. fix position and marks the course line with
3 Nowadays, dead reckoning means a 6 semicircle. At 1100, the Conning
applying vectors to the last fix to work out Officer orders a course change to 7 090°.
the ship’s approximate position. The navigator plots an 1100 DR due to the
8 course change and to the “every hour”
Ex 4 Match each term with its definition.
rule. At 1200, the Conning Officer
1c, 2e, 3j, 4f, 5d, 6g, 7k, 8l, 9a, 10b, 11h, 12i 9 changes course to 180° and speed of 5
Ex 5 Put the sentences in the correct knots. The navigator plots the 1200 DR.
sequence. At 1300, the navigator 10 obtains a fix. He
e, f, b, c, a, d noticed that the fix position is offset to the
11 east from the DR position. So he
Ex 6 Find and correct eight mistakes in the
summary. determines set and drift from this offset
While plotting his course, the navigator and applies this 12 set and drift to any DR
13 position from 1300 until the next fix. He
notes down his ordered speed and works
out the distance the ship has to cover using also resets the DR to the fix; that is, he
this formula: D = S x T. draws the 180°course line from the
14 1300 fix.
This means that he can work out how long it
will take the ship to reach the next junction *The Conning Officer is the Deck Officer in charge
point. However, several factors cause errors of navigation, having responsibility for the ship as
in calculations; one major problem is the the direct representative of the Captain.
effect of sea currents. For this reason the
Project Work
navigator has to make a fix as often as
possible to check his position and make 1. First we visit a web page that will teach
necessary adjustments to his ship’s course. you how to solve problems involving

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speed, time and distance. Find the hours. Using a course protractor or the
following information. 10 compass rose measure the vector
http://www.schoolofsailing.net/ 11 angle, we find that is 130° M. We find
speedtimedistance.html our vector 12 length to be six nautical
1 To use it simply put your finger D miles, therefore the speed of the 13 current
over the letter you are solving for. S•T is six nautical 14 miles divided by two
2 One knot is equal to one nautical mile point five 15 hours: that’s two point four
per hour. 16 knots.
3 Twelve nautical miles. 3. Imagine you are the Conning Officer
4 The “tricky thing” is when you have to instructing a Deck Cadet. Your ship’s DR plot
calculate not only full hours but also is the one shown in paragraph 5. Give the
minutes. cadet the instructions to determine the set
5 To convert minutes to hours divide by 60.
and drift (the direction and speed of the
6 Twenty-three minutes divided by sixty
current) which offset the ship from the
equals 0.38 hours (23 minutes/60 minutes
per hour = 0.38 hours). expected DR position.
7 Just make sure a couple of calculators are To find the real track that the ship has
a regular part of your boat’s equipment! sailed over the last 2.06 hours 1 draw a
line from the original fix to 2 the new fix.
2. Now we’ll watch this video http://www. To find the set and drift vector that offset
youtube.com/watch?v=80Ad8Y4bZJM, the ship over the last two hours draw
which shows how to calculate your Set 3 a line from the DR position to the new fix.
and Drift. Watch and listen to the video at To determine the direction of the current
least three times, until you find all 4 measure the vector angle.
requested information for each exercise. To calculate the speed of the current
5 find the vector length and divide this
2a. Complete the table by inserting each
length by 6 2.06 hours, which is the time
of the following items in the correct that has passed since the previous fix.
position:
Ship’s heading 085°M (magnetic)
Ship’s sailing 4 knots Unit 23
speed Petroleum
Sailing time passed 2.30 hours Ex 1 Answer the questions.
before fix 1 Hydrocarbons are mainly composed of
Set and drift vector 130°M hydrogen and carbon.
angle 2 It was formed from the remains of
Length of vector 6 NM unicellular plants and animals.
Speed of sea 2.4 knots 3 It took from five to a hundred million years.
current 4 At the bottom of salty marshes or at the
2b. Now listen and complete the video mouth of a river.
script. 5 The organic remains deposited at the
Calculating your set and drift bottom of salty marshes and lagoons,
We are sailing along and 1 obtain a fix. where their molecules were slowly broken
Our heading is 2 085° magnetic and speed down by anaerobic bacteria, until only
is 3 four knots. At 4 two and a half hours carbon and hydrogen remained. This
later we figure our dead reckoning carbon and hydrogen formed the crude oil
position. At that time we also obtain molecules.
another fix. The two positions are 6 A petroleum trap is formed by
different. What is the set and drift? impermeable rocks which “trap” a
Draw a 5 line from the original fix to the petroleum deposit.
new fix: that was our 6 track over the last 7 They are called oilfields.
two and a half hours. 7 Draw a line from 8 It contains oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and
the 8 DR to our new fix: that is the set- traces of mineral salts, sediments and
drift 9 vector over the last two and a half water.

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Ex 3 Answer the questions. process, the heavy oils are heated to 9


1 It is carried out in the fractionating over 450°C and their long molecular chains
tower of an oil refinery. are broken 10 down, so that 11 lighter
2 The temperature is higher at the bottom, molecules are formed, 12 which are typical
which is the point nearest to the furnace. of petrol.
3 The heavier hydrocarbons. The petrol obtained in the first refining
4 Heavier hydrocarbons have a higher process 13 goes through another process
number of carbon atoms in their called 14 reforming.
molecules. In this process, aromatic hydrocarbons like
5 The lightest hydrocarbon is natural gas 15 benzene are added to petrol, in order to
or methane. 16 increase its octane number.
6 It only has one carbon atom in its
molecule. Project Work
7 From 16 to 20 carbon atoms. 1. Check what you know about the
Ex 4 Study the example and link the pair refining process by matching each phrase
of sentences below using the relative on the left with its second part on the
pronoun which. right.
1 Coal, crude oil and natural gas, which are 1q, 2k, 3e, 4f, 5m, 6d, 7p, 8j, 9c, 10h, 11o,
mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon, 12g, 13i, 14n, 15b, 16l, 17a
are known as hydrocarbons.
2 Natural gas, which has only one carbon Unit 24
atom in its molecule, is the lightest Kinds of energy & energy sources
hydrocarbon.
3 Heavy oil and lubricating oil, which have Ex 1 Mark the following statements as
up to 25 carbon atoms in their molecules, True or False and correct the false ones.
are the heaviest hydrocarbons. 1T–2T–3F–4F–5T–6F–7T–8F–
4 A great number of products are obtained 9 T – 10 T
from petroleum distillation, which is 3 Kinetic energy is the energy of
carried out in oil refineries. movement.
5 Petroleum is a mixture of different 4 Potential energy is stored energy.
hydrocarbons, which have different boiling 6 The chemical energy of fuel is potential
temperatures. energy.
6 The first distillation process is fractional 8 Fuel chemical energy is converted into
distillation, which is given this name thermal energy through a combustion
because the various products are separated process.
out into fractions according to their boiling
Ex 2 Answer the questions.
temperatures.
1 The primary types of energy derive
Ex 5 Match the two parts of each directly from an energy source.
definition. 2 The secondary types of energy derive
1e, 2f, 3g, 4c, 5b, 6d, 7a from the transformation of a primary type
Ex 6 Complete the text with the given of energy.
words. 3 Mechanical, thermal, nuclear, chemical.
First the crude oil passes 1 through the 4 Compressed air, pressurised water and
pipe still, where it turns partially 2 into electrical energy.
steam. Then it enters the distillation tower. Ex 4 Answer the questions.
The oil goes 3 up through the tubes and 1 We need energy sources to produce
plates. The fractions 4 of different boiling power and run machinery.
ranges are drawn 5 off at different levels 2 Renewable and non-renewable energy
of the tower. sources.
The 6 heavier distillates, such as heavy oil 3 They are renewable, which means that
go 7 through other processes, the most they are continuously renewed (made
important of which is 8 cracking. In this again, anew) by Nature.

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4 Fossil fuels. 3 A water wheel is turned by a flow


5 They were formed from the fossilised of water and is used to work machinery.
remains of unicellular marine plants 4 A hydro-turbine is an engine whose
and animals millions of years ago. driving wheel is turned by a current
It also took millions of years to form of water.
them.
Ex 10 Without looking at the texts, try to
6 They are not an endless resource, since
answer the following questions.
Nature cannot make oil deposits or coal
1 Energy is the source for every physical or
fields in a short time cycle.
chemical phenomenon and for every
Ex 5 Match each keyword with its transformation.
meaning. 2 Potential and kinetic energy.
1c, 2e, 3d, 4a, 5b 3 Primary energy derives from a source in
Ex 6 Complete the diagram with the nature; secondary energy is derived from
primary sources of energy given us by the conversion of some kind of primary
Nature. energy.
4 Primary: mechanical, thermal, nuclear,
PRIMARY ENERGY chemical. Secondary: electrical, pressurised
air, compressed air.
5 Renewable energy sources are
Renewable Non-renewable energy continually remade. Non-renewable
energy sources sources (fossil fuels)
energy sources were formed millions
of years ago and are not easy or quick
Solar Wind Water
Coal Oil Gas to replace.
power power power
6 Renewable: Sun, water, wind. Non-
renewable: gas, oil, coal.
Ex 7 Answer to the questions.
7 A prime mover is an energy converter,
1 Prime movers are energy converters.
it allows us to transform energy for use.
2 A heat engine is a prime mover.
8 Yes, it is because it transforms the
3 Heat engines use the chemical energy
chemical energy in fossil fuels into
stored in fossil fuels.
mechanical energy.
4 They produce mechanical energy.
9 Heat engines use fossil fuels. They
5 It is released through a combustion
produce mechanical energy.
process.
10 Solar panels, water wheels, windmills.
6 Heat engines use non-renewable energy
sources. Ex 11 What are fuels? What is the main
characteristic of fuels? Compare your
Ex 8 Complete the diagram with the
answer to the definition found in a
missing items from paragraph 4.
monolingual dictionary and copy it
PRIME MOVERS below.
Fuel: A fuel is a material for producing heat
or other forms of energy.
Natural power Heat engines Ex 12 Read the pairs of statements
carefully and choose the correct option.
Internal External 1b, 2b, 3a, 4b, 5b, 6a, 7b, 8a, 9b, 10a
Solar Wind Water Hydro-
combustion combustion
power mill wheel turbine
engines engines
Project Work
Have you ever thought how much energy
Ex 9 What kind of prime movers are these?
goes into the making of a sandwich?
Complete the sentences.
Use this link http://www.youtube.com/
1 A solar panel converts the energy of the
Sun into electrical energy. watch?v=d6UZrgGSrY4 to find out why a
2 A windmill is worked by the action of the sandwich is dripping in oil!
wind on sales which revolve. Watch and complete the table below.

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through the engine and dispersed into


Ingredient Production Fuel
the air.
BREAD 1 The farmer ploughs and He uses a
4 Less than 40% of the heat energy
(Cereal) harrows the field and drills diesel-run produced by petrol is converted into
the seeds into the ground. tractor.
mechanical work.
2 For seeds to grow, he uses Made from
fungicides, pesticides, oil. 5 Most of the heat energy produced in a
insecticides. car engine is dispersed into the
3 As nutrients he adds Derived from
chemical fertilisers. natural gas. surrounding air.
4 When cereal ripens, it is Diesel-run 6 More than 60% of the heat energy
harvested. harvesters. produced by internal combustion engines
5 The grain is dried. He uses big
heaters. is lost because it cannot be transformed
(More fuel!) into useful work.
6 Then grain is driven to be More diesel!
processed in huge industrial Ex 3 Answer the questions.
plants.
1 They are called hydrocarbons.
HAM It comes from a pig. Pigs need
grain, 1/2
2 Wood, coal, crude oil are examples of
tonne per hydrocarbons.
pig.
(Repeat steps
3 Because they release a great amount of
1-5 for grain!) heat in a combustion process.
SALAD a Shipped; Energy 4 They are said to have a high heating
b Flown; needed!
c Grown in a heated
value.
greenhouse.
Ex 4 Answer the questions.
ALL INGREDIENTS Cooked, cooled or both. Energy
needed! 1 Combustion is a chemical reaction.
2 Antoine Lavoisier, in 1783.
Transported in a More diesel!
refrigerated lorry. 3 They combine together and form new
chemical compounds.
This is why our simple ham and salad 4 Carbon monoxide will be formed when
sandwich is dripping in oil! there is not enough oxygen to oxidise the
carbon completely.
5 When the carbon oxidation is complete,
Unit 25 carbon dioxide is formed.
Heat energy & heat engines 6 In a combustion process thermal energy
Ex 1 Answer the questions. or heat is produced.
1 The continuous motion of atoms and 7 This energy comes from the chemical
molecules produces thermal energy or energy stored in the fuel.
heat. 8 More heat energy is produced when CO2
2 Not completely. is produced in the burning process,
3 It means that not all the heat energy because this happens when the carbon in
produced in the combustion process can be the fuel oxidises (or burns) completely.
transformed into mechanical work by the Ex 5 Label the flow chart with the
engine.
following items: Engine, Fossil fuels,
4 It is lost through the engine (by friction)
Burning process.
and dispersed in the surrounding air.
5 About 40%. Fossil fuels Burning process Engine
Stored Chemical energy Heat energy
Ex 2 Complete the sentences by using the chemical transformed into transformed into
energy heat energy mechanical energy
following terms.
1 The more heat energy converted into
Ex 6 Complete the questions using these
mechanical work, the more efficient the
engine. question words. Then complete the
2 All of mechanical energy can be answers.
transformed into heat. Questions
3 Some of the thermal energy produced in 1 What kind of energy does a fuel have?
the combustion process is not transformed 2 When is a fuel’s chemical energy
into mechanical work but is wasted released?

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3 In what form is it released? 3 Steam is produced in a boiler before


4 What does a heat engine do? entering the engine.
4 It turns the moving blades or moves the
Answers
pistons up and down.
1 It has stored chemical energy.
5 The two types of internal combustion
2 It is released through a combustion
engines are reciprocating engines and gas
process.
turbines.
3 It is released in the form of heat and light.
6 Combustion take place in a combustion
4 It converts heat energy into mechanical
chamber inside the engine.
energy.
7 The working fluid in internal combustion
Ex 7 Listen and complete the text. engines is the hot expanding gases.
Electrical and Heat engines 8 The flow of gases moves the turbine
In the previous unit we learned that the rotor or a piston.
engine is a 1 prime mover: a machine that Ex 10 Fill in the diagram about heat engines
converts some 2 types of energy into and then complete the text to describe the
another. The form of energy we mostly diagram in your exercise book.
need to operate all different types of
machinery is 3 mechanical energy, or useful HEAT ENGINES

work. We use 4 engines to provide


mechanical work from some other form of
energy. For example, a water wheel Internal combustion engines External combustion engines

converts the energy of a 5 flow of water


into mechanical work to operate
machinery. reciprocating
engines
gas
turbines
steam
turbines
reciprocating
steam engines
Electric motors and heat engines are the
two 6 main types of engine in use today, Heat engines are divided into internal and
taking their name from the kind of energy external combustion engines. The steam
that they 7 absorb and convert. The engine and the steam turbine are external
electric motor makes use of 8 electrical combustion engines. In external combustion
energy, while the heat engine converts engines steam operates as the working fluid
9 thermal energy or heat into useful work. and drives the piston or the rotor blades. Gas
This thermal energy is produced 10 through turbines and piston engines are internal
a combustion process, which may take combustion engines. The gas turbine rotor
place either in a combustion chamber and the pistons are moved by exhaust gases.
11 inside the engine, or 12 outside the
engine in separate machinery, usually Project Work
a boiler. The picture shows an electric car charging
Ex 8 Answer the questions. from an on-street station in London. Today
1 A machine that converts some types of we are going to learn about the current
energy into another. market of electric cars; see what potential
2 Mechanical energy is also called useful benefits they could bring and what
work. reasons limit their widespread adoption.
3 We need it to operate all different types Use the following link and fill in the table.
of machinery. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_car
4 Engines are used to provide useful work.
5/6 Electric motors and heat engines take Definition of an electric car
their name from the type of energy they An electric car is an automobile which is
absorb and convert into mechanical work. propelled by electric motor(s), using electrical
energy stored in batteries or another energy
Ex 9 Answer the questions.
storage device.
1 The combustion process takes place
outside the engine in a separate boiler. Top selling models of electric cars by
2 The working fluid in steam engines and October 2011:
steam turbines is steam. Mitsubishi i-MiEV;

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Nissan Leaf. Ex 3 Fill in the gaps with the missing


Number of worldwide sales of each model: acronyms.
More than 16,000 units each. Full name Acronym

Benefits of electric cars as compared to


Very High Frequency VHF
internal combustion cars Radio Telephony RT
Digital Selective Calling DSC
A significant reduction of urban air Search and Rescue SAR
pollution as they do not emit harmful tailpipe Vessel Traffic Management Services VTMS
International Telecommunications Union ITU
pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, and Maritime Safety Information MSI
other greenhouse gases. Coast Radio Stations CRS
Estimated Time of Arrival ETA
Consequently they help to reduce Estimated Time of Departure ETD
greenhouse gas emissions. Navigational Telex receiver
Mega Hertz
NAVTEX
MHz
Less dependence on foreign oil.
Ex 4 Study the table legend on page 230
Limitations to the widespread adoption of
and fill in the gaps.
electric cars
1 They transmit navigational and
They are more expensive than conventional meteorological warnings, weather
internal combustion engine vehicles due to forecasts, urgent distress messages.
the additional cost of their lithium-ion
Coast Radio Stations
battery pack.
2 These are Search and Rescue operations
Lack of public and private recharging
which use aircraft.
infrastructure.
Aero SAR
3 Radio communications between ships are
Unit 26 given this name.
Radio communication on board
Inter-Ship
Ex 1 Answer the questions.
4 These alerts are exclusively transmitted
1 By the internal telephone system or by
on VHF Channel 70.
radio telephony.
2 Yes, to raise an alarm, for example in DSC alerts
case of a fire or a man overboard. 5 Coast Radio Stations transmit on
3 Posted next to the telephone. channels indicated by this function.
4 Channels for on board communications. Public Correspondence
Ex 2 Listen and complete the sentences. 6 This is what CRS messages are called.
1 The IMO and the ITU regulate the MSI (Maritime Safety Information)
international telecommunication system.
2 VHF stands for Very High Frequency. 7 Radio communications from the bridge
3 The frequency band for marine VHF to the Engine Room are indicated by this
radio communications is between 156 and name.
174 MHz. On Board Communications
4 The marine band contains 56 channels. 8 This channel is exclusively available for
5 Channel 16 is used for distress, safety and Radio Telephony Distress, Urgency or
calling. Safety calls.
6 Channel 13 is for intership or bridge-to- VHF CH 16
bridge communication.
7 Channel 70 is used to send an alert by Ex 5 Which radio channel(s) would you
Digital Selective Calling. switch on to...?
8 Channels 15 or 17 are usually selected for 1 order the ship’s engine room to reduce
on board communications. speed. (VHF CH 15 or 17)
9 The maximum power allowed for a 2 listen to the weather forecast.
marine VHF radio is 25 watts. (Any channel dedicated to “public
10 The power allowed for on board correspondence”, for example: Channels
communications is 1 watt. 01-05, 18, 60-65)

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3 call another ship when you realize your Ex 9 Complete the sentences with the
ships are in danger of colliding. correct procedure words. Then listen to the
(VHF CH 13) recording and check.
4 send an automatic distress alert. 1 “My draft is one-two decimal 6 metres –
(VHF CH 70) repeat one – two decimal 6 metres”.
5 communicate with the VTMS and ask if 2 “My present speed is one-four knots –
you can enter the harbour. (Any channel mistake. Correction, my present speed is
dedicated to “port operations”, for example: one-two knots”.
Channels 11, 12, 74, 87-88) 3 “What is your position? Say again”.
6 communicate by radio telephony that 4 “Vessel in distress in position 160° six
you have an injured person on board and miles from Barry Pier. Correction: 160° four
need medical assistance. (VHF CH 16) miles from Barry Pier”.
5 “Fairway speed is eight knots. Do not
Ex 6 Answer the questions.
overtake – repeat – do not overtake”.
1 A code of letters and numbers.
6 “The course to reach me is 135°ʺ –
2 No, because we need to distinguish ships
“Message not understood. Say again”.
with the same name.
7 “I cannot understand you. Please use
3 A country’s registration authority.
Standard Marine Communication Phrases”.
4 To identify the ship when communicating
8 “What is bearing and distance of MV
by radio.
Utopia from fairway buoy?” – “No
5 Maritime Mobile Service Identification.
information – repeat – No information”.
6 A unique nine digit number.
7 Into the ship’s DCS unit. Ex 10 These messages are transmitted to
8 When the operator makes a VHF DSC your ship by a VTS Station: match each of
call. them with the appropriate response. Then
listen to the recording and check.
Ex 7 Mark the following statements as
1f, 2d, 3a, 4g, 5c, 6b, 7e
True or False and correct the false ones.
1F–2T–3F–4T–5T–6F–7T–8F Messages
1 ADVICE. Do not overtake the vessel north
1 Sailors need to communicate with ships
of you.
from anywhere in the world.
2 Advice (you) change to VHF Channel 18.
3 SMCP is IMO’s standardized safety 3 Stand by on VHF Channel 6.
language. 4 INSTRUCTION. Do not cross the fairway.
6 The SMCP makes use of a simplified 5 Be ready to get underway.
version of maritime English. 6 Repeat your position for identification.
8 Any external communication must follow 7 What is your ETA at High Cross Pilot
the procedures indicated in the ITU Station in local time?
regulations.
Responses
Ex 8 Listen and complete the information f I will not overtake the vessel north of me.
about the ship. d Changing to VHF Channel 18.
1 This is XIA Men. a Standing by on VHF Channel 6.
2 I spell: X-ray – India – Alfa – Mike – Echo g I will not cross the fairway.
– November. c I am ready to get underway.
3 My MMSI is 413065000. b My position is bearing 040° from Lizard
4 My present position is 44°23’N, 8°48’E. Point, distance 3.4 nautical miles.
5 My bearing is 115 degrees from Lanterna e My ETA at High Cross Pilot Station is 0830
Lighthouse. hours in local time.
6 My distance is 13.6 nautical miles from
Lanterna Lighthouse. Ex 11 Indicate the correct marker for each
7 My present course is 045° to Genova message. Two markers are repeated.
Harbour. Message
8 My speed is 16.5 knots. 1 I am approaching from south.
9 My ETA is 0700 hours local time. 2 I will anchor at Haven buoy and wait for
10 My ETD is 1700 hours local time. instructions.

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3 Charted depth has increased by two about: Geoff from England, Dirk J. from the
metres due to winds. Netherlands and Riccardo from Italy.
4 You must keep to the north of the http://digilander.libero.it/radiofficer/qna.html
fairway line.
5 From what direction are you Name Geoff
approaching?
Date of birth 25.08.1952
6 Yes, I have altered course. My new course (year)
is 025 degrees. Education He attended the College of International
7 Dangerous wreck obstruction located in Marine Radio Telecommunications in
Manchester. Then he completed the Radar
position 49°43.ʹ4ʺN 2°22.ʹ7ʺW / 49.71778°N Maintenance certificate, and later took the
2.36861°W. Radio Electronics Diploma in Liverpool.
8 I require a pilot at Small Cross Pilot Certificates MRGC certificate, Radar Maintenance
certificate, Radio Electronics Diploma
Station.
First ship Ocean Bridge / GYKA
9 Have you altered course? (name/type)
10 You are proceeding at a dangerous Present job Presently employed as electronics systems
speed. Advise you reduce speed to 4 knots. engineer.

Message Marker
Name
1 ANSWER
2 INTENTION Date of birth –
3 INFORMATION (year)

4 INSTRUCTION Education He completed his studies at the nautical


college in Vlissingen and obtained the general
5 QUESTION certificate for the maritime mobile service.
6 ANSWER Certificates Ham-radio license obtained during his studies.
7 WARNING First ship Coral Rubrum / PJUT
8 REQUEST (name/type)
Employed at Philips Electronics in Brazil.
9 QUESTION Present job

10 ADVICE
Name Geoff
Ex 12 Use the suggestions and write the
message you would say or hear in each Date of birth 1945
situation. Then listen to the recording and (year)

check if your message was correct. Education Radio Officers school


Certificates International Certificate of First Class,
1 QUESTION. Do I have permission to enter GMDSS GOC
the fairway? First ship Calypso / 5MIK
2 ANSWER. Stand by until the pilot arrives. (name/type)
3 QUESTION. Do you require a tug for Present job Retired
berthing manoeuvres?
4 ANSWER. I will need two tugs and a
pilot. Unit 27
5 What is the name of your vessel and call Radio messages
sign? Ex 1 Answer the questions.
6 The name of my vessel is “Queen Mary”. 1 Channel 16.
7 Please spell your call sign. 2 A suggested channel such as Channel 13,
8 I spell BPBB. 73.
9 What is your course and speed? 3 Because Channel 16 must be left free for
10 My present course is 087°. Distress, Urgency or Safety calls.
11 My present speed is 18 knots. 4 THIS IS.
12 From what direction are you 5 By Name, Call Sign or MMSI number.
approaching? 6 No, they are not.
7 Three times.
Project Work
8 Because of language pronunciation
Now use the link to read about some people problems.
who trained and worked as Radio Officers. 9 OVER.
Complete the information in the table below 10 OUT.

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Ex 2 Reorder the steps in the correct  his is Lucky First 5783. Changing to VHF
T
sequence. Channel 11. Over
1d, 2c, 3f, 4b, 5a, 6e Rotterdam Coast Guard, this is Lucky First
Ex 3 Now listen to the complete 5783. Calling on VHF Channel 11. How
conversation between Ulysses 503000100 do you read me? Over
and Falmouth Coast Guard. Lucky First 5783, this is Rotterdam Coast
Falmouth Coast Guard, Falmouth Coast Guard. I read you strength 4. Go ahead
Guard, THIS IS Ulysses, Ulysses 503000100 with your message. Over
on Channel 16, Position report, Suggest This is Lucky First 5783. My ETA at Hook
Channel 73. Over. Buoy will be 0900 UTC. Over
Ulysses 503000100 THIS IS Falmouth This is Rotterdam Coast Guard. Received
Coast Guard, Falmouth Coast Guard. message. Your ETA at Hook Buoy will be
Changing to Channel 73. Over. 0900 UTC. Advise you change to channel
Falmouth Coast Guard THIS IS Ulysses, 16 and stand by. Out
Ulysses 503000100 on Channel 73. How do Ex 6 Imagine that you are sailing on your
you read me? Over. ten-metre long sailing boat, called Magic
THIS IS Falmouth Coast Guard. Lady. Your call sign is I45M – I is the call
Readability loud and clear (five by five) go sign prefix for Italian ships. Your MMSI is
ahead with your position report. Over. 247653290 – the first three digits, 247, of
THIS IS Ulysses. Position report: Ulysses your MMSI indicate Italian nationality. You
503000100 anchored in position 137 want to spend a few days at Sailfish
degrees from Lizard Point, distance 2.4 Marina on the Croatian coast, so you call
nautical miles. Over. the Marina to know if they have a berth
THIS IS Falmouth Coast Guard. Your for your boat. Fill in the gaps in the
position report received, returning to conversation, then listen to the recording
Channel 16 and standing by, Falmouth and check.
Coast Guard. Out. Sailfish Marina, Sailfish Marina. This is
Ex 4 Imagine you are the radio operator 1 Magic Lady, 2 Magic Lady, I458M
on board the OBO ship Lucky Star (or 3 247653290). Over.
03480000100. What would you say to…? Magic Lady, Magic Lady. This is 4 Sailfish
1 Homer Bay Coast Guard, Homer Bay Marina, 5 change to Channel 08. Over.
Coast Guard. Sailfish Marina, This is Magic Lady,
2 This is Lucky Star, Lucky Star 03480000100 Romeo. I’m changing 6 to Channel 08.
on Channel 16. Over.
3 Change to Channel 73. Sailfish Marina. This is Magic Lady, Magic
4 Changing to Channel 73. Lady. On Channel 08. Do you have a
5 How do you read me? berth for a 7 ten-metre long sailing boat?
6 Position report, Lucky Star 03480000100. Over.
7 OVER. Magic Lady, This is 8 Sailfish Marina,
8 OUT. 9 yes we have. Sail into the marina and
go to left pier number three. Over.
Ex 5 Try to put the radio conversation
Sailfish Marina, 10 This is Magic Lady.
between Rotterdam Coast Guard and
We are under way. Out.
the Oil Tanker Lucky First in the correct
order. Then listen to the recording and Ex 7 Answer the questions.
check. 1 VHF Channel 16.
1b, 2e, 3a, 4g, 5c, 6f, 7d 2 VHF Channel 70 is dedicated to VHF
Rotterdam Coast Guard, Rotterdam Coast DSC.
Guard. This is Lucky First 5783, Lucky First 3 Vessels are required to maintain a
5783. Over. continuous listening watch on Channel 16
Lucky First 5783, Lucky First 5783. This is and also on Channel 70, if they are fitted
Rotterdam Coast Guard, Rotterdam Coast with VHF DSC equipment.
Guard. Change to VHF Channel 11. 4 Distress, Urgency, Safety and routine
Over messages.

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5 Distress communications are Distress call


maintained on VHF Channel 16 until it MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY.
is certain that the ship in distress has THIS IS
received assistance. ISABEL, ISABEL, ISABEL J8B4332.
6 After an initial call on Channel 16, Distress message
Urgency, Safety and routine Distress signal MAYDAY
communications are transmitted on a Name and MMSI/call sign ISABEL
working channel. J8B4332
An example of a complete distress call Position TEN NAUTICAL MILES SOUTH
and message OF DRAGONISI
The VHF DSC Distress Alert followed by: 37°23’N, 25° 24 E
Nature of distress
MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY
HOLED AND LISTING HEAVILY,
THIS IS
ENGINE ROOM FLOODED
LUBECK LUBECK LUBECK 211207270
REQUIRE IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE
MAYDAY Other information
LUBECK 211207270 SIX PEOPLE ON BOARD
045 DEGREES TRUE FROM RERIK, DISTANCE SEAS ROUGH
24 NAUTICAL MILES The word OVER OVER
SINKING AFTER STRIKING SUBMERGED
Ex 10 Answer the questions.
OBJECT
1 They acknowledge receipt.
ESTIMATE FURTHER 15 MINUTES AFLOAT
2 The coast station.
30 METRE FISHING VESSEL
3 All stations must maintain radio
BLUE HULL WHITE SUPERSTRUCTURE
silence.
5 PERSONS ONBOARD 4 Until all transmissions have finished and
EPIRB ACTIVATED the emergency is over.
OVER 5 It indicates that normal transmissions can
Ex 8 Put the distress message in order. begin again.
Then listen to the recording and check. An example of acknowledgment or receipt
1b, 2d, 3a, 4e, 5c, 6g, 7f, 8h of a distress message by a ship
MAYDAY-MAYDAY-MAYDAY. station:
This is Blue Duck-Blue Duck-Blue Duck MAYDAY
WA1234. Lubeck Lubeck Lubeck 211207270
Cape Henry Lighthouse bearing 185 THIS IS
degrees – distance 2 miles. Sealandia Sealandia Sealandia OZGQ2
Struck submerged object. RECEIVED MAYDAY
Need pumps – medical assistance and tow. OVER
Three adults, two children on board. Example of a message by the distress
One person compound fracture of arm. vessel or the control station imposing
Estimate can remain afloat two hours. silence:
Blue Duck is twenty-two metre cabin cruiser MAYDAY
– white hull – blue deck house. OVER. All stations, all stations, all stations
Ex 9 The dry cargo vessel Isabel J8B4332 is THIS IS
travelling in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Rerik Coast Station Rerik Coast Station
Sea. The ship has struck a submerged rock, Rerik Coast Station
the hull is holed and the Engine Room is SEELONCE MAYDAY
flooded. The ship is fully loaded and now Example of the distress vessel or the
she is heavily leaning to one side. The control station advising resumption of
captain sends a Mayday. Try to make the “normal working transmission” on the
ship’s distress call and message, distress channel:
completing the table with the following MAYDAY
information. All stations, all stations, all stations

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THIS IS All stations All stations All stations


Rerik Coast Station Rerik Coast Station THIS IS
Rerik Coast Station Hastings Maritime Radio Hastings Maritime
1500 Local Time Radio
LUBECK 211207270 Hastings Maritime Radio
SEELONCE FEENEE Navigation warning listen on Channel 67
Example of the broadcast of an urgency Ex 13 Classify the following radio messages
call: as Distress, Urgency or Safety calls.
PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PAN 1 Distress.
Newharbour Coast Guard 2 Urgency.
THIS IS 3 Safety.
Gironde Gironde Gironde 219217000 4 Safety.
Request urgent medical assistance – 5 Urgency.
crew member sustained a broken leg – 6 Distress.
suggest change to Channel 67 7 Distress.
OVER 8 Safety.
9 Safety.
Ex 11 Complete the table for the urgency
10 Urgency.
message using the following information.
Then listen to the recording and check. Ex 14 Match the two parts of each
URGENCY SIGNAL definition.
PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PAN 1c, 2g, 3a, 4f, 5b, 6d, 7e
Addressed to
All stations, all stations, all stations Project Work
The words “THIS IS” THIS IS Write the following Italian definitions in
Station calling (x3) the table.
MAERSK MAERSK MAERSK FWYH
In position 33°85ʹ South, 18°39ʹ East gale burrasca
forecast/outlook previsione
Urgency message broken rudder, no steerage
tidal surge mareggiata
request tow to shore inshore costiero
The word OVER OVER strong wind forte vento
Ex 12 The sailing boat ALBATROSS ZM1726 rig piattaforma petrolifera
pipelaying posa di condotte
with three people on board was travelling
west of Kapiti Island in New Zealand. An
accident occurred and the skipper sent an Now use the information from the site to
urgency message. Reorder the sentences. complete the following table:
Then listen to the recording and check. 1 How many gale warnings are 6
1e, 2i, 3h, 4g, 5j, 6b, 7d, 8a, 9f, 10c regularly broadcast every day?

PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PAN. 2 What time is the first 24 hour 0620
forecast at Portpatrick?
ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL
STATIONS. 3 How many WZ warnings are 6
regularly broadcast every day?
THIS IS Albatross, Albatross, Albatross
4 SWW stands for STRONG WARNING
ZM1726.
WIND ………...........……
Five nautical miles west of Kapiti Island.
5 IWF stands for ………...........…… INSHORE
Dismasted and drifting. WATERS FORECAST
Require tow. 6 What time is the second inshore 1720
Sea smooth. forecast at Niton?
No immediate danger. 7 What three channels are usually 23, 84, 86
There are three people on board. used to broadcast MSI?
OVER. 8 Navigational warnings (WZ) are HYDROGRAPHIC
Example of the broadcast of safety call provided by the UK ……….......... Office

from a coast station: 9 Navigational warnings are NAVTEX


normally broadcast on………...........……
SECURITÉ, SECURITÉ, SECURITÉ

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10 What is the name given to the RIGMOVES Ex 6 The pictures show the four-stroke
movement of rigs? process in a petrol engine. Study them and
11 Are RIGMOVES and pipelaying No complete the descriptions of what
operations included in WZ?
happens with each piston stroke.
12 How often are meteorological Every 3 hours
Intake stroke
warnings given?
The piston moves down.
13 How often are shipping forecasts Twice daily
The intake valve opens:
given?
– fuel and air enter the combustion
14 When is a gale warning given? As soon as possible
chamber.
15 A SWW is given when wind speed 6 or more
is predicted at FORCE Compression stroke
The piston goes up and fuel and air are
compressed in the c.c.:
Unit 28 – the volume of the fuel mixture is
Reciprocating engines reduced;
– the pressure inside the chamber is
Ex 1 Answer the questions.
increased;
1 Petrol engines and diesel engines.
– the temperature of the mixture rises to
2 As regards fuel ignition, they are
about 300°C. As a result, the mixture
classified as spark-ignition and
becomes explosive.
compression-ignition engines.
3 In diesel engines, there is no need for Combustion stroke
sparking plugs, since the fuel catches fire The fuel mixture is set on fire by a
as soon as it is exposed to the very hot air sparking plug:
which is compressed in the cylinder. – the mixture explodes;
4 Diesel oil is a heavier distillate than – hot expanding gases are produced;
petrol, because it has more carbon atoms – the hot gases push the piston down.
in its molecules. Exhaust stroke
5 Fuel injectors. The exhaust valve opens.
6 Because the direct injection system has The piston moves up and pushes exhaust
proved to be more efficient, since it can gases out of the cylinder.
reduce fuel consumption. Ex 7 Work with your partner and complete
Ex 2 Work with your partner and match the text with the missing words.
the words and verbs on the left with their Four-stroke engines are the most popular
correct definition on the right. Then write type of petrol engine. In this type of
down some of the definitions in your engine the piston must 1 reciprocate twice
exercise book so that you can remember to produce 2 mechanical energy. That is,
them and use some of them as synonyms the engine needs four piston strokes to
for the verbs on the left. 3 convert fuel into motion. This process is
1l, 2f, 3g, 4h, 5k, 6b, 7i, 8d, 9c, 10j, 11e, 4 called the four-stroke process and
12a, 13r, 14p, 15q, 16m, 17o, 18s, 19n 5 consists of four stages: intake,
compression, combustion and exhaust.
Ex 5 Mark the following statements as
During the intake stroke the piston 6 goes
True or False and correct the false ones.
down, the intake valve 7 opens and the
1F–2T–3T–4F–5T–6F–7F–8T–
fuel-and-air 8 mixture enters the
9 T – 10 F
combustion chamber. During the next
1 The cylinders are cut in the cylinder block. stroke, the piston returns to the top of the
4 A stroke is one up or down movement 9 cylinder. As the piston goes up, it
of the piston. 10 compresses the fuel mixture into a small
6 Each time the piston reciprocates, the space, so that the volume of the mixture is
crankshaft turns through 360°. 11 reduced.
7 In a four-stroke engine, the piston As the volume is reduced, the 12 pressure is
reciprocates twice to complete a cycle. increased and the temperature of the
10 Only one of the four stages of the cycle mixture 13 rises to about 300°C. Now the
provides useful work. mixture is ready for combustion.

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During the combustion stroke the fuel-air and decide which of the following
mixture is 14 ignited/set on fire by a spark. sentences refer to the petrol engine and
The mixture immediately explodes and the which refer to the diesel engine.
hot 15 expanding gases which are produced 1 P.E.
in the combustion process push the piston 2 D.E.
16 down. Then the exhaust valve opens in 3 P.E.
the combustion chamber and, as the piston 4 P.E.
moves up again, it pushes the 17 exhaust/ 5 D.E.
waste gases out of the cylinder. This is the 6 P.E.
exhaust stroke. Then the piston goes down 7 D.E.
and the process starts again with the 8 D.E.
18 intake stroke. 9 P.E.
Ex 8 Fill in the missing words to complete 10 D.E.
the text about the four-stroke diesel Ex 12 Choose the correct statements
engine. among the ones below.
The four-stroke diesel engine has exhaust 1a, 2b, 3a, 4b, 5a, 6a
and air-intake 1 valves. It needs 2 two Ex 13 Listen and complete the text.
revolutions of the crankshaft to carry out a
3 power stroke in all the cylinders. A cycle The marine diesel engine
begins with the intake stroke, when the There are two 1 types of marine diesel
piston moves down and 4 intakes air into engine: the slow speed diesel engine, and
the cylinder. Then the piston 5 goes up and the medium speed diesel engine. 2 Large
compresses the air. During the compression diesel engines, which have cylinders nearly
stroke, the 6 temperature of the air rises to 3 feet in diameter, turn at the relatively
3 slow speed of about 200 rpm. They are
about 900°F (480°C). When the fuel oil is
7 injected into the cylinder by the fuel- known as slow speed diesel engines and
injector, it mixes with the hot air and can be connected to the 4 propeller
8 burns explosively. The gases produced by without reduction gears. Although
5 higher power could be produced by
the combustion of the fuel 9 push the
piston down for the power 10 stroke. In higher revolutions, this would reduce the
6 efficiency of the propeller, because a
the exhaust stroke, the piston moves
11 up again, and forces the burned gases propeller is more efficient the larger it is
12 out of the cylinder. and the 7 slower it runs. In fact, a
propeller is not effective 8 above 200 rpm.
Ex 10 Answer the questions. These large slow running diesel engines
1 A two-stroke engine executes two piston are traditionally used in 9 larger merchant
strokes to complete a thermal cycle. ships, particularly bulk-carriers and tankers,
2 There are no valves in a two-stroke because of their low fuel consumption.
engine, they only have ports. Medium speed diesel engines operate
3 The main disadvantage of two-stroke between 10 400 and 600 rpm; therefore,
petrol engines is that during scavenging they are connected to the propeller by
some unburned/unused fuel mixture is lost reduction gears. Once the use of this type
because it is discharged with the exhaust of engine was restricted to the 11 smaller
gases. cargo ships, but nowadays it is also used in
4 Two-stroke petrol engines are only large ships such as 12 tankers and 13 bulk
applied to small motorcycles. carriers. This is thanks to its small size,
5 Two-stroke diesel engines are used for which reduces the space and weight of the
driving industrial machinery and for ship engine. The power output of the engine is
propulsion. expressed as brake horsepower (BHP),
6 No fuel is lost during scavenging because which may also be expressed in
diesel engines only compress air, not a fuel- 14 kilowatts. In the case of diesel
air mixture like petrol engines. engines, effective horsepower is the
Ex 11 Check how much you have learned power developed by the piston in the
about the two types of piston engines, cylinder.

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Project Work b Turbine engines are more expensive to


1. Use this link http://www.brighthub.com/ run because they consume more fuel.
engineering/marine/articles/66033.aspx 2 a Since they are subjected to very high
to find out the answers to the questions. pressures and speeds, turbine rotors
a For the generation of electricity on and blades are made of special alloys.
board. b Turbine rotors and blades are made of
b All the watch keeping engineers in their special alloys because they are subjected
duty hours. to very high pressures and speeds.
c After 250 running hours. 3 a Since they run at very high speeds,
d Every 1,000 hours routine/running. turbine rotors are connected to propeller
2. Now complete the table showing the shafts by double reduction gears.
daily checks made on the engine. b Turbine rotors are connected to
propeller shafts by double reduction gears
DAILY CHECKS ON THE ENGINE
because they run at very high speeds.
Check levels of:
1 fuel in the service tank 4 a Since turbines are one-way engines, a
2 lube oil in the engine sump separate turbine is required to go
3 lube oil in the governor astern.
b A separate turbine is required to go
Check pressure of:
astern because turbines are one-way
1 lube oil
engines.
2 water
Check temperature of: 5 a Since their application to ship
1 exhaust gases propulsion generates technical and
2 cooling water economical problems, turbine engines
3 lube oil inlet have disappeared as propelling engines
on board commercial ships.
Drain:
b Turbine engines have disappeared as
1 the service and settling tank of any water
propelling engines on board commercial
2 the condensate from the scavenge manifold
ships because their application to ship
and the air coolers propulsion generates technical and
Lubricate: economical problems.
1 the fuel racks
2 linkages 6 a Since turbines are able to produce
3 fuel pump rack operating gear great power, they are used in many
industrial plants, such as electric power
stations.
Unit 29 b Turbines are used in many industrial
Turbine engines plants, such as electric power stations
because they are able to produce great
Ex 1 Rewrite the following statements,
power.
using either because or since. Follow the
examples. Ex 2 Listen and complete the text.
The compressor 1 intakes atmospheric air,
Ex: a Since they can ensure high which is 2 compressed so that its volume is
manoeuvrability and speed, gas reduced while its pressure is increased. In
turbines maintain a prime position for this way, the air 3 temperature rises greatly.
the propulsion of naval vessels. Then, the hot compressed air 4 flows into
b Gas turbines have a prime position in
the combustion chamber, where the fuel is
the propulsion of naval vessels because
injected in the form of very minute
they can ensure high manoeuvrability
droplets by a 5 fuel injector. As the stream
and speed.
of compressed air enters the combustion
1 a Since turbine engines consume more chamber, the fuel 6 burns. The expanding
fuel than diesel engines, they are more gases produced in combustion then enter
expensive to run. the turbine. Here the 7 hot gases expand

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as they set the rotor blades in motion, and 9 In both engines there is a four-step
their 8 heat energy is converted into working cycle, but the steps occur at the
mechanical power by the 9 moving blades. same time in the different parts of a gas
The rotating blades drive the rotor turbine, while they occur one after the
10 shaft. A part of the mechanical 11 power other in the cylinders of a diesel engine.
developed in the turbine is used to run the 10 The gas turbine engine eliminates three
12 compressor, which is mounted on the idle strokes, because combustion occurs
same axis; the remaining power is continuously.
transmitted to the propeller shaft through Ex 4 Complete the summary with the
double 13 reduction gears. missing words.
The working cycle of the gas turbine Air is 1 drawn from the atmosphere and
engine is similar to that of the 14 four- 2 compressed in the compressor. Then the
stroke diesel engine. In both engine cycles compressed air 3 enters the combustion
there is induction, compression, chamber, where a jet of fuel is
combustion and 15 exhaust as long as the continuously injected, therefore 4
engine is running. The main difference is combustion takes place continuously. The
that these steps follow one another at 5 expanding gases produced in combustion
given intervals of time in each 16 cylinder are 6 directed against the turbine blades.
of a diesel engine, while they occur The blades start rotating and turn a shaft
continuously in the different 17 parts of a which operates the 7 compressor. Some of
gas turbine. In fact, the turbine engine the mechanical power produced by the
eliminates the three 18 idle strokes and 8 turbine is used to drive the compressor.
enables more fuel to be burnt in a shorter The remaining mechanical energy can be
time; for this reason it produces a greater used for useful work.
power 19 output for a given size of engine.
Ex 5 Study the flow chart and use some of
Ex 3 Now cover the text and answer the the words to complete the text.
questions below; you can use the drawing A gas turbine engine provides thrust by
to help you. increasing the air kinetic energy, or air
1 Turbines are used in many industrial velocity. The air velocity is increased as the
plants, such as electric power stations, and airflow passes through the engine and
only a few are found on board ship. Gas receives different kinds of energy. First of
turbines are used in many naval vessels, in all, the air 1 kinetic energy is increased in
some container ships and fast ferries. the compressor, by means of increased
2 As they are very expensive to run, in the 2 pressure energy. Then 3 heat energy is
last decades most turbine engines have added, generated through the combustion
been replaced by diesel engines. In fact, of air and an atomised fuel. The heat
diesel engines have been improved and energy of the hot gases is converted back
they can provide greater power nowadays to 4 kinetic energy by the blades in the
than they did in the seventies, consuming turbine rotor. Forward thrust results from
less fuel than turbines. the rearward ejection of a high velocity
3 The compressor, the combustion chamber efflux of gases from the output shaft.
and the turbine. Ex 6 Answer the questions.
4 A compressor draws and compresses 1 Hydraulic impulse turbines are based on
atmospheric air. the same principle as the water wheel:
5 Because the air pressure is increased. they rotate in the same direction as the
6 From the compressor, the compressed air water current.
goes into the combustion chamber. 2 Reaction turbines are based on the
7 In a gas turbine, combustion occurs as working principle of the windmill.
soon as the injected fuel comes into 3 They rotate in the direction opposite to
contact with the hot compressed air. the water flow, just as the sails of a windmill
8 Useful power is produced in the rotor rotate in the direction opposite to the wind.
blades, where the heat energy of the hot 4 Lester Allen Pelton, an American
gases is converted into mechanical power engineer, in the middle of the 19th century.
by the moving blades. 5 James Francis, a British engineer.

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Ex 7 Answer the questions. (stationary) and moving blades. The fixed


1 The first steam turbine engines were blades deflect the steam 6 flow onto the
built by Charles Parson and Gustave De moving blades. In this kind of turbine
Laval. steam expands in both sets of 7 blades.
2 A steam turbine essentially consists of a Ex 10 After reading the next passage,
stationary element called a steam study the picture showing a steam
distributor, and of a rotary element called propulsion unit, and identify the parts of
a rotor. the engine listed below. Then compare the
3 Steam enters the turbine through the picture to the photograph that shows a
steam distributor or through the stationary similar power unit.
blades. 1 steam inlet to HP turbine
4 The steam distributor transforms the 2 HP turbine
steam heat energy into kinetic energy, 3 pipeline between HP and LP turbine
because steam expands (totally or partially) 4 LP turbine
in this part of the turbine. 5 reduction gearing
5 In the distributor. 6 condenser
6 In the moving or “rotor” blades.
7 The steam distributor of impulse turbines Ex 11 Fill in the gaps in the following table
is called a “nozzle”. referring to the Tosi propulsion unit.
8 In reaction turbines there are no nozzles,
A B
because steam enters the engine and
expands through the stationary blades.
Construction period 1970s
They operate/act as a steam distributor.
Number of container ships using the Tosi unit 8
Ex 8 Mark the following statements as Total power output of HP and LP turbines 28,500 W
True or False and correct the false ones. Ship’s maximum velocity 26 knots
1F–2F–3F–4T–5F–6T–7F–8T– Propeller rotation with a Tosi unit 120 rpm
9 T – 10 F – 11 F – 12 T Boilers produce 62 t/h
Boiler pressure 61.4 bar
1 A steam turbine is an external Boiler temperature 513°
combustion engine.
2 Charles Parson built the first reaction Ex 12 Before you take a look at the world’s
turbine. only turbine-driven car (Batman’s car!),
3 Impulse turbines have alternate rows of revise what you remember about the
nozzles and moving blades. advantages of a turbine engine by
5 The steam flow enters the turbine choosing the correct alternative.
through the stationary parts of the Advantages of a turbine engine:
engine. 1 They have a greater power output.
7 As steam expands, its velocity is 2 They need very little maintenance.
increased. 3 They use less lubricating oil than diesel
10 In reaction turbines, steam expands engines.
partially in the moving blades.
11 In impulse turbines, steam pressure is Project Work
reduced in the nozzles.
Have you heard of the Batmobile? Bruce
Ex 9 Explain the differences in their Wayne (Batman) used to drive a turbine-
construction by looking at the diagrams powered Batmobile! Use this link to see an
and filling in the gaps in the following
actual working version of the Batmobile
passage.
and then see if the inventor states the
The impulse turbine has a steam distributor
same advantages for his Batmobile,
called a 1 nozzle, which deflects the steam
flow onto a row of 2 moving/rotor blades. completing the missing information in the
In the impulse turbine, steam expands in table.
the nozzle, where steam 3 pressure is http://www.toddcooperider.com/the-
reduced but its 4 velocity is increased. worlds-only-turbine-powered-batmobile-
The reaction turbine has both 5 fixed by-putsch-racing/

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plants must be the purest possible


Batmobile
compound of nitrogen and carbon
Power output 365hp (compared to a Dodge Viper sportscar)* dioxide.
Maintenance Less than a normal car. Ex 3 Try to put these scrambled sentences
Lubricating oil Oil lasts longer than in a normal piston engine.
in the correct order to make up a
*If you are interested use this link to find out the top speed of a paragraph about inert gases.
Dodge Viper: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodge_Viper 1c, 2g, 3a, 4e, 5f, 6b, 7d
Top speed: 296km/h The main danger on board oil tankers and
The Batmobile uses a Drone Attack chemical carriers is the eventuality of
helicopter engine. accidental fires and explosions in the cargo
tanks.
Who pilots the Drone Attack helicopter?
Crude oil and petroleum by-products
Nobody, it is unmanned.
release hydrocarbon vapours which can
easily catch fire when they are mixed with
Unit 30 air.
The inert gas system For example, they can be set on fire by an
accidental static discharge.
Ex 1 Answer the questions. The safest method for avoiding accidental
1 An “inert gas” is a gas which does not fires and explosions in crude oil cargo
allow a chemical reaction to take place. tanks is to replace the atmospheric air in
2 Carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other these tanks with inert gas.
combustion gases containing less than 8% While atmospheric air contains a
of oxygen are inert gases. percentage of oxygen around 20%, the
3 Above 8%. A percentage of oxygen inert gas used to fill the cargo tanks
below 8% is unable to feed the contains an oxygen percentage around
combustion process. 5%.
Ex 2 Answer the questions. This is too little oxygen to feed a
1 The main danger on board crude oil combustion process.
tankers is the danger of accidental fires This inert gas, produced in special
and explosions. generating plants on board ship, is
2 Crude oil and petroleum products release obtained from the treatment of exhaust
hydrocarbon vapours. gases and must contain mainly nitrogen
3 When these hydrocarbon vapours are and carbon dioxide.
mixed with air, they form an explosive Ex 4 Answer the questions.
mixture. 1 The main uses of inert gas are to prevent
4 If a static discharge is accidentally released, explosions and fires and also to fight
the air and vapour mixture can catch fire. corrosion and oxidation of certain goods.
5 The SOLAS convention, in Chapter II. 2 Inert gas is used in the pharmaceutical
6 The safest method for avoiding and food industries, it can be also found in
accidental fires and explosions in crude oil the steel and aluminium furnaces of the
cargo tanks consists in replacing the engineering industries, and it is used in the
atmospheric air in these tanks with inert refineries and chemical/petrochemical
gas. This contains such a low percentage of factories.
oxygen that combustion is impossible. 3 Bulk carriers and chemical carriers.
7 Because an oxygen percentage below 8% 4 Ships which carry flammable cargoes: oil
does not allow a combustion process to tankers, OBO ships, gas and chemical
take place. carriers.
8 Inert gas is produced in special plants on 5 The oxygen percentage of the inert gas
board ship. on board chemical and gas carriers is 0.5%.
9 It is obtained from the treatment of This oxygen percentage is lower than that
exhaust gases from a complete combustion required for oil tankers because they carry
of hydrocarbons. a lighter and more volatile type of
10 The gas produced in these generating hydrocarbon.

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6 Because they need to use an inert gas 5 The deck water seal prevents any back
saturated with water vapour. flow of hydrocarbon gases into the system
Ex 5 Complete the following sentences when this is not in operation.
after reading paragraph 3. 6 When the system is not in operation,
seawater rises through the gas inlet,
1 Inert gas is also used against corrosion
preventing any back-flow of cargo gases
and cargo oxidation.
into the system.
2 It is used in different types of industrial
7 The pressure-vacuum breaker regulates
plants which produce flammable products,
the inert gas pressure in the system so that
for example, in oil refineries and in the
it is maintained constant.
chemical industry.
8 When the gas pressure is too high, the
3 It can be found on board ships which
water mixture in the cylinder rises up and
carry goods that can be oxidised on contact
forces the excess gas out into the
with the air.
atmosphere.
4 It is obligatory for ships which carry
inflammable cargoes, like crude oil tankers Project Work
and chemical carriers.
5 The oxygen percentage can range 1. Use this link http://www.aalborg-
between 0.5% (chemical and gas carriers) to industries.com/business_areas/inert.php
5% (oil tankers). to find the answers to the following
6 The humidity value can vary: questions.
dehumidified gas for chemical and gas 1 An inert gas is defined as an inactive gas.
carries, saturated with water vapour for oil 2 A gas or a mixture of gases, such as flue
tankers and OBO carriers. gas, which contain insufficient oxygen to
support the combustion of hydrocarbons.
Ex 6 Complete the following notes about
3 Flue gas is another definition for exhaust
the main purposes of inert gas.
gases.
1 Replace the air in cargo tanks to make
4 Heat, fuel and oxygen.
the atmosphere inert.
5 Take away one of the elements in the
2 Keep the cargo space under pressure, so
fire triangle.
that oxygen cannot enter the tanks during
6 Reducing the oxygen content in a tank to
the unloading operations.
below 8% by addition of inert gas.
3 Clean and keep out inflammable gases
from pipelines and tanks. 2. Now watch the Inert Gas System
4 Cleaning the cargo tanks atmosphere animation movie:
before ventilation with fresh air, to allow http://www.aalborg-industries.com/press_
inspection and maintenance work to be room/showroom.php?path=film_IGS
carried out. and try to recognise the main parts of the
Ex 7 Answer the questions. system that you have studied in this unit.
1 In the scrubbing tower the exhaust gases 1 Five.
pass under jets of seawater, which cool 2 Scrubber unit, inert gas fans, deck water
them down and remove the nitrous and seal unit, cargo tank, P/V breaker.
sulphur oxides. 3 It is cylindrical.
2 Since the gases are saturated with water 4 From bottom left.
vapour when they leave the tower, they 5 From top right.
pass through special demister filters, which 6 Next it goes to the fans.
absorb the water moisture. 7 They give pressure to the gas.
3 The compressor compresses the gases to 8 To prevent back flow from the cargo
the desired pressure. tanks side.
4 The oxygen analyser continuously 9 At the top, above the cargo level, to fill
controls the oxygen content of the gas. It in any empty space between the cargo and
is often connected to audible and visual the top of the tank, so that no
alarms, which are activated when the hydrocarbon vapours can go up.
oxygen level rises above the desired 10 It prevents over pressure and over
value. vacuum in cargo tanks.

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Unit 31 handling and are routed to the nearest


The GMDSS Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC). On
board ship, DSC receivers sound an
Ex 1 Answer the questions. 10 alarm when a distress call is received.
1 It was introduced in 1988.
2 It became fully operational in 1999. Ex 6 Match each phrase on the left with a
3 The GMDSS makes use of satellite phrase on the right to make complete
communication systems and terrestrial sentences.
radio systems. 1h, 2e, 3j, 4i, 5c, 6l, 7a, 8f, 9d, 10b, 11k,12g
4 It is called a global system because it Ex 7 Choose the correct option.
operates everywhere in the world. 1a, 2c, 3a, 4c, 5b
5 Ships nearby and land-based
communication and rescue stations. Ex 8 Complete the table about ships’ radio
6 MRCC are Maritime Rescue and equipment with the information taken
Coordination Centres. from the following paragraph 6.
Ex 2 Reorder the sentences given in Sea areas Distance from the coast
scrambled order describing what happens
when a distress call is sent. Sea Area A1 20-30 nautical miles
1d, 2a, 3c, 4e, 5b Sea Area A2 100-150 nautical miles
Sea area A3 over 150 miles
Ex 3 Match each acronym with its Sea Area A4 outside areas A1, A2, A3 (polar regions)

meaning.
1e, 2d, 3f, 4g, 5h, 6c, 7b, 8a Within range of radio Radio equipment required
station coverage on board
Ex 4 Mark the following statements as
VHF coast station VHF radio installation
True or False and correct the false ones. MF coast station VHF and MF radio installation
1F–2T–3F–4F–5F–6T–7T–8F MF/HF coast station, VHF and MF/HF radio installation,
Inmarsat land station Inmarsat Earth station and NBDP
1 GMDSS is obligatory for vessels over 300 HF coast station VHF, MF, HF radio installation,
and NBDP
Gross Tonnes.
3 Vessels over 500 GT must carry 2 SARTs.
4 Two sets of portable VHF transceivers Project Work
must be carried on survival craft under 1. See what the NAVTEX receiver looks
500GT. like. Read the information regarding the
5 Radio installations need to transmit on
Real Features and answer the following
different frequencies.
questions:
8 An EPIRB is an Emergency Position
a An international service of telegraphy.
Indicating Radio Beacon.
b Warnings, weather reports and MSI.
Ex 5 Listen to complete the information. c 518KHz.
In the GMDSS, Digital 1 Selective Calling
(DSC) is used to automate the transmission 2. See what the Inmarsat C system looks
and 2 reception of distress alerts sent via like. Read the information regarding the
terrestrial Medium, 3 High and Very High “Features of the real system” and answer
Frequency (MF, HF and 4 VHF) radio. A the following questions:
DSC alert is normally followed by a Two-way data communications anywhere
radiotelephone 5 communications between in the world.
the vessel in distress and coast stations or b It is designed to be simple, small and
other 6 ships which have received the call. low-cost.
The DSC transmitter-receiver automatically c About 40.
includes in every message the identity with
the 7 MMSI number of the calling ship. 3. See what the EPIRB looks like. Read the
The DSC unit stores 8 four different types information regarding how it works and
of message according to their level of complete the sentences with the missing
priority. These may be distress, 9 urgency, words.
safety or routine calls. At the coast station, a In an emergency, the radio beacon EPIRB
ship-to-shore distress calls receive priority is activated 1 manually or 2 automatically.

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b The EPIRB transmits an 3 “emergency Ex 5 Match each phrase on the left with a
code” and activates the strobe (flash) phrase on the right to make complete
indicating that it is operating. sentences.
1d, 2c, 3e, 4a, 5b
c The signal is received by a COPAS-SARSAT
4 satellite and sent to the nearest Ex 6 See what the following equipment is
5 station. used for and note down its function.
NAVTEX – Automatic receiver and recorder
d The station computes the 6 location of
for navigational and meteorological warning
the EPIRB and decodes the 7 identification
purpose
code. Speed log – Speed and distance indicator
e The rescue station uses the identification Automatic pilot – Automatic track-keeping
code to determine the 8 type of vessel, its system
owner, 9 size, and emergency contacts. Echo sounding equipment – Depth water
10 Rescue Centers are contacted and indicators with adjustment controls
alerted to start the rescue operation. Anemometer – Wind direction and velocity
indicator
f 11 SAR agencies locate the EPIRB using GPS – Position fixing electronic systems
the accurate 12 position information, the Gyro and magnetic compass – Heading
13 121.5 MHz signal and the 14 strobe light indicators
emitted from the beacon EPIRB. Ex 7 Match each kind of equipment with
its function.
1b, 2c, 3a
Unit 32
Integrated navigation Ex 8 There are several mistakes in the
following description of the BNWAS.
Ex 1 Answer the questions. Underline the mistakes, then listen and
1 The IBS is the Integrated Bridge correct them.
System. A Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System
2 The various electronic instruments on (BNWAS) is a series of audible and visual
board ship are connected in a computer alarms. The ship’s main navigational
network. sensors are connected to the alarm system.
3 It collects, processes, integrates incoming In the case of danger to navigation the
information and distributes it back to all alarm system alerts the OOW. The OOW
components of the system. must always acknowledge the alarm by
4 On the display at the primary navigation silencing sound alarms, setting visual alarms
workstation. to steady and obviously doing something to
5 So that in the case of failure, instruments put the problem right.
may still be operated separately. If the OOW does not reply to the alarm,
then the Captain or another OOW is
Ex 2 Match each term with its definition. alerted. The BNWAS also allows the OOW
1g, 2f, 3a, 4b, 5e, 6c, 7d to call for immediate help.
Ex 3 Reorder the following sentences. Ex 9 Answer the questions.
1c, 2e, 3a, 4d, 5b 1 Close to the forward centre window of
Ex 4 Mark the following statements as the bridge.
2 So that they can perform their main tasks
True or False, underline and correct the
and avoid any collisions.
mistakes in the false ones.
3 Its manoeuvring state.
1T–2F–3F–4T–5F–6F
4 Rudder angle, propeller revolutions,
2 The automatic pilot receives the ship’s engine revolutions and bow-thruster
position from the gyrocompass. blades direction and pitch.
3 An alarm is activated when the ship 5 To steer the ship according to the
deviates from the planned track. direction and speed required.
5 Wind and sea currents set the ship off Ex 10 Fill in the gaps.
track very often. 1 ECDIS stands for Electronic Chart Display
6 A hydraulic mechanism connects the ATP and Information System.
to the ship’s rudder. 2 ENCs are Electronic Navigational Charts.

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3 The ECDIS will become mandatory on contained by the following parameters:


international voyages between 2012 and in 16 depth, by the safety contour and
2018. safety depth;
4 Official ENCs are produced by in forward extent, by the look-ahead
Hydrographic Offices. time or look-ahead range;
5 S-57/3 is the Standard regulating content, in lateral closeness by a specified 17
structure and format of ENCs. distance.
6 Scanned versions of paper charts are Once the safety parameters are set, the
called “Raster Charts”. ECDIS will trigger 18 alarms any time the
7 The official ENC format is a vector ship crosses the safety domain.
format.
8 Vector charts are formed of many Ex 12 Before we go on listening, check
different “layers”. your answers and put the first five steps
9 Vector charts provide many additional in planning a route in the correct order.
details like depth and navigational details. 1d, 2e, 3b, 4c, 5a
10 Using ECDIS is completely different from Now go on listening.
using paper charts. 5 After the vessel’s dynamic parameters have
been set, the passage plan can be created.
Ex 11 Listen and fill in the gaps to learn
By putting in the departure and arrival
how the navigator should proceed.
points, the ECDIS can instantaneously offer
How to plan a route on an ECDIS a Great Circle or Rhumb line route or a
1 Before commencing a passage 1 plan the combination of both. The ECDIS will
navigator must firstly ensure that the identify any obstructions along the route
vessel has all the ENC charts (called cells) and alert the navigator to charted features
needed for the 2 voyage, and secondly such as traffic separation zones, restricted
that these are up to date with the 3 latest areas, anchorages, etc. It will also alert the
corrections that are supplied, either by CD navigator to any parts of the plan that are
ROM or via an 4 Internet connection. outside the safety domain parameters. The
2 The next thing that the navigator needs navigator can then move the waypoints
to do is to enter his ship’s 5 draft into the (points where the ship changes direction
ECDIS and establish the safety contour along the track), and re-check the outline
based on draft and the required Under route.
6 Keel Clearance (UKC).
6 Once the outline passage has been
Since most ENC have pre-set contour data, established, it is then essential to check the
typically at 5 m intervals, if your vessel has whole route in detail using the zooming
a draft of 7 6 m the display will default to and scrolling facilities. This process must be
the next 8 deepest contour of 10 m. All done with extreme care, because many
areas of less than 10 m will be shown as chart features such as submarine cables are
9 blue and areas deeper than 10 m will be
hidden on the different layers of the ENC.
displayed as 10 white. As long as the ship Also, essential detailed information, such
remains in the white area, she is safe. as notes referring to precautionary areas,
3 In addition to the safety contour, for needs to be accessed and analysed for
your ship’s draft of 6 m you can set a relevance, by means of clicking on the !
safety 11 depth of 8 m. symbol to obtain the “pick report” relating
In this case, if the navigator sets the ECDIS to the feature. This pick report is one of
to display depths, then all depths of 12 less the most essential tasks during planning
than 8 m will show in bold type and those because there are some confusing new
deeper than 8 m will be a pale 13 grey. symbols when compared to the paper
This means that a depth of 9 m – although chart. Traditional symbols have been
within the 10 m blue safety contour – will be replaced by a new symbology by default,
14 displayed in pale grey text, while a depth but the familiar object display can be set
of 7 m will be displayed in bold black. through the menu.
4 After that, the navigator has to 15 input 7 The ECDIS calculates the course and the
the parameters for beam clearance and set distance between the WPs and plots the
up a safety domain. The ECDIS allows users course. The ship’s heading is represented
to specify a safety domain for the vessel, by a vector line with an arrowhead (the

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keys to unit exercises

red line in the picture). The route is usually 3 Enter a safety depth.
displayed as an orange line. 4 Enter beam clearance.
8 Once the plan has been completed and 5 Establish a safety domain.
fully verified, save it on the ECDIS unit. 6 Create your passage plan.
You can finally export the passage plan to 7 Check your whole route in detail.
the primary navigation workstation. The 8 Visualise your route.
ECDIS alarms sound any time a waypoint 9 Save your route and export it to the
approaches, if the vessel wanders off track workstation.
the predetermined route, if it crosses the
pre-set safety domain or if it approaches a Project Work
shoal or other charted hazards. Use this link to see what an AIS display
Ex 13 Answer the following questions. looks like and fill in the AIS data from the
1 Your departure and arrival points. tug Texan. http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/
2 Points where the ship changes direction. images/WhatYouSeeWithAIS.jpg
3 Zooming and scrolling facilities.
4 You get a “pick report” of a feature. Ship’s Name Texan
5 Symbology.
Call sign WDB4969
6 By a vector line with an arrowhead. MMSI number 366904340
7 By an orange line. Latitude 29°20’33.95”N
8 You save it. Longitude 094° 49’ 36.58”W
Range 2.542 Nm
Ex 14 Now put all the steps in planning a Bearing 264.8°
Nav status Under Way Engine
route in the correct order. Don’t forget to Length 16.0 m
use the 5 steps from Ex 12. Beam 8.0 m
1 Check that you have the necessary up-to- Type of ship TUG
Hazardous cargo N/A
date ENC charts. Time since last update 00h 01m 15s
2 Enter your own ship’s draft and establish Draft 0.0
ETA to destination N/A
a safety contour based on your draft.

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Grammar – Key to exercises

1 VERBI ORDINARI 1.6 Ex 3 Trova il pronome soggetto mancante


E AUSILIARI e inseriscilo nelle frasi.
1 John and Jenny are teachers, they live next
1.1 Studia la tabella e rispondi alle domande. door.
• Simple present - Si aggiunge il suffisso -s 2 I’m studying history. It is a boring subject!
• Simple past/Past participle - Si aggiunge 3 My father works at the hospital. He is a
il suffisso -ed doctor.
1.3 Ex 1 Coniuga i verbi tra parentesi nella 4 Our teachers are good, but they give us a
forma corretta. lot of homework.
1 Diesel engines do not use spark plugs 5 When Sally was at school, she played in a
but fuel injectors. football team.
2 Are rotary pumps faster than 6 Fossil fuels are the most common fuels,
centrifugal pumps? but they are running out.
3 Have tankers got an inert gas system on 7 Steam is produced in a boiler, then it is
board? sent into the turbine.
8 The heat engine is a prime mover, because
4 Cast iron is not as strong as iron.
5 Does a strain filter drain the lubricating
it transforms heat into mechanical work.
oil? 1.7 Ex 4 Collega ciascuna question word
6 Petrol engines haven’t got fuel con la sua risposta.
injectors. A2 – B8 – C7 – D1 – E3 – F6 – G4 – H5
7 Does the connecting rod connect the 1.8 Adesso completa la regola.
piston and the crankshaft? • Quando who, what, which, how much,
8 The Titanic did not have a GMSS system. how many sono i soggetti della frase
9 The reciprocating steam engine is not interrogativa, non richiedono l’ausiliare
an internal combustion engine. do (does/did).
10 Has your car got a catalytic exhaust • Quando who, what, which, how much,
system? how many sono il complemento oggetto in
1.4 L’ordine degli elementi della frase. una domanda con un verbo ordinario,
Frase affermativa: soggetto – verbo – richiedono l’ausiliare do/does/did.
oggetto – altri complementi Ex 5 Ricostruisci le domande nello schema
Frase negativa: soggetto – ausiliare – e ricordati di coniugare i verbi
NOT – verbo – oggetto – altri complementi accordandoli con i soggetti.
Frase interrogativa: ausiliare – soggetto – 1 How many people work in the Engine
verbo – oggetto Room?
1.5 Ex 2 Correggi l’errore in ciascuna frase. 2 Which refining process separates the
1 Pumps are divided into three types. hydrocarbons in petrol?
2 A water tube boiler has a number of 3 Who commands the ship?
water drums. 4 How much steam expands in the moving
3 Titanic was a cruise liner. blades of a reaction turbine?
4 A centrifugal pump consists of an 5 What causes the greenhouse effect?
impeller which rotates in a casing. Ex 6 Formula le domande per le risposte
5 What does a filter do? date.
6 The diagrams show a lubricating oil 1 What do boilers produce?
pump. 2 What did Lavoisier discover?
7 Bulk carriers carry loose cargo. 3 Who plots the chart?
8 Oil passes through a centrifuge for 4 Who does the ship’s Captain represent?
purification. 5 Which engine uses electricity?
9 There are two main types of piston 6 How much petrol does your car’s engine
engine. consume?
10 There is a steam drum at the top of 7 How much water flows in a condenser’s
the boiler. tubes?

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grammar - key to exercises

8 How many documents does a ship starting the journey. All kinds of nautical
carry? charts are studied in advance, this means
9 How many winds blow in Europe? that any marked dangers are avoided.
10 Which car goes faster? Weather reports are also received. All this
1.9 Ex 7 Riscrivi le frasi usando l’infinito di information is collected and analysed and
scopo. the best course is chosen.
1 Henry went to Canterbury to visit the The starting and arrival points are marked
Cathedral. on the chart and the course is plotted.
2 Jack phoned the hotel to book a room. The junction points are also planned in
3 Pat is going to Italy next month to learn advance and indicated on the chart. The
Italian. planned course is shown as a broken line.
4 I stayed at home yesterday to clean my Ex 4 Rispondi alle domande del quiz
flat. usando la forma passiva e scegliendo la
5 Safety valves are fitted in a boiler to risposta giusta tra quelle elencate.
allow excess steam to escape outside the 1 It was built by Etienne Lenoir.
boiler. 2 It was discovered by Alexander Fleming.
6 Stop valves are fitted on the pipe-line 3 It is called the English Channel.
to control the passage of steam to the 4 It was invented by the Sumerians.
engine. 5 It was built by George Stephenson.
7 The ship’s Captain increased speed to 6 It was discovered by Antoine Lavoisier.
arrive on time. 7 It was opened in 1994.
8 A high rate of evaporation in the boiler 8 It was launched in 1912.
is essential to generate large quantities of Ex 5 Formula le domande del quiz usando
steam. la forma passiva in base alle risposte.
Ricorda però che le risposte non sono
2 La forma passiva nella sequenza giusta.
2.5 Ex 1 Completa la forma passiva delle frasi 1E – 2G – 3F – 4D – 5A – 6C – 7B
inserendo il participio passato dei verbi
irregolari riportati nella tabella. 3 I verbi modali
1 St Paul’s Cathedral was built in London 3.4 Ex 1 Completa le frasi con can/can’t, must/
in the 17th century. mustn’t, could/couldn’t.
2 My computer is made in Japan. 1 You mustn’t cross the street when the
3 Ivanhoe was written by Walter Scott. light is red.
4 Paella is made of fish, vegetables and 2 I can’t come right now, I must do the
rice. washing up.
5 These ferries are built in Naples. 3 In Italy you can get a divorce now, you
6 The two cars over there are made in couldn’t till 1970.
Germany. 4 You can go out with your friends but
7 Hamlet was written by William you must be back at 10.30.
Shakespeare. 5 Yesterday it was a bright day and you
8 This tanker was built in six months. could see as far as the coast from here.
Ex 2 Riscrivi le frasi nella forma passiva, 6 You can visit the museum free on
eliminando i soggetti they, we che non Sundays.
sono rilevanti. 7 The address you wrote must be wrong:
1 Every engine car is checked thoroughly. this can’t be Lucy’s house!
2 The bread is wrapped automatically. 8 There is a new tax: you must pay to get
3 This computer is exported to seven into Venice!
different countries. Ex 2 Completa le frasi con may, might,
4 The thieves were arrested last night. should/shouldn’t.
5 Yesterday’s meeting was cancelled. 1 If the train is late, George might not
6 The water was pumped out of the arrive in time.
bilge. 2 What should I do to lose weight? You
Ex 3 Riscrivi il paragrafo trasformando i shouldn’t eat so much spaghetti!
verbi in forma passiva. 3 The weather forecast says that it may/
The ship’s course must be planned before might snow in the night.

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4 Don’t skate on that lake. The ice might/ 4 I haven’t got a pen. Can I use a pencil?
may break. 5 Have you got a piano? No, I can’t play
5 You shouldn’t go out in this weather. the piano.
6 Do you think Liza will pass her driving 6 The sun comes up in the east and goes
test? She might/may pass, but she still down in the west.
can’t drive very well. 7 I have lessons in the morning and in the
7 You should visit the British Museum afternoon.
when you go to London. 8 Sarah’s dog is horrible.
8 My nephew enjoys maths. He may study 9 Can’t you see Doctor Brown? He’s next
engineering at university. to Mrs Robinson.
Ex 3 Ciascuna delle frasi contiene un 10 Are you interested in football?
errore. Trovalo e correggilo. Ex 2 Inserisci gli articoli mancanti a, an,
1 The new cruise ship should be ready by the nelle frasi. Ricorda che in alcuni casi
next June. in inglese non si usa nessun articolo.
2 Excuse me, may I close the window? 1 Colliers are designed to carry coal. The
3 They should work harder. coal is carried in bulk.
4 You must not forget to learn new 2 There was oil floating on the water.
vocabulary. 3 There is a container ship in the port.
5 Concorde can fly at the speed of 4 Cagliari is the most important port in
sound. Sardinia.
6 I might go to France on holiday next 5 An electric motor operates the bilge
year (Togliere “definitely” che esprime pump.
una certezza) 6 There were cadets on board.
7 Would you like a cup of coffee? 7 An oil tanker is a ship which carries
8 Work on the new model will begin next crude oil.
week. 8 The Titanic was the largest cruise ship of
9 You mustn’t walk on that bridge. It’s not her time.
safe. Ex 3 Ricorda l’uso dell’articolo
10 Before operating the machinery, you determinativo the con i nomi geografici
should/must check the pressure level. e collega i nomi della colonna di destra
con quelli di sinistra, come nell’esempio.
4 SOSTANTIVI NUMERABILI 1 The Isle of Wight is in the English
E NON NUMERABILI Channel.
4.4 Ex.1 Classifica i sostantivi in countables o 2 The Shetland Isles are in the North Sea.
in uncountables. 3 The Rocky Mountains are in the USA.
Countable nouns Uncountable nouns 4 Ben Nevis is in Scotland.
car steel 5 The Falkland Isles are in the Atlantic
mobile phone oil Ocean.
computer petroleum 6 Samoa is in the Pacific Ocean.
ship equipment 7 Sardinia is in the Tirrenian Sea.
plane oxygen 8 Lake Victoria is in Africa.
condenser information 9 The Thames is in England.
pipeline gas 10 Wales is in Great Britain.
tanker coffee 11 Mount Everest is in Nepal.

5 USO DEGLI ARTICOLI 6 Avverbi derivati dagli


5.3 Ex 1 Completa le frasi inserendo gli aggettivi
articoli mancanti a, an, the. Ricorda però Ex 1 Completa lo schema scrivendo
che in alcuni casi in inglese non si usa accanto agli aggettivi la forma corretta
nessun articolo. degli avverbi.
1 The new student’s name is Carlo. slow slowly fair fairly
2 Is there a language laboratory in your beautiful beautifully easy easily
school? angry angrily quick quickly
3 I like rock music but I hate disco immediate immediately cheap cheaply
music. sad sadly

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grammar - key to exercises

Ex 2 Aggettivo o avverbio? Inserisci gli  li aggettivi e avverbi che sono


•G
aggettivi o gli avverbi. polisillabici si fanno precedere
1 The journey was very slow. da more.
2 We travelled slowly in the fog.
3 Harris is a careful driver. 8.7 Ex 1 Alcuni tra gli aggettivi inglesi più
4 He drives his car very carefully. comuni prendono i suffissi per formare
5 The test was easy. il comparativo e il superlativo di
6 Jane passed the exam easily. maggioranza. Completa la tabella.
7 Grrr! I’m angry! Comparative Superlative
8 Jane spoke angrily to her sister this fat fatter than the fattest of all
morning. nice nicer than the nicest of all
9 Be quiet! small smaller the smallest
10 Jane went quietly upstairs when she large larger the largest
heard a strange noise. light lighter the lightest
heavy heavier the heaviest
7 I PRONOMI RELATIVI thin thinner the thinnest
7.3 Ex 1 Sostituisci nelle frasi that con i
quick quicker the quickest
slow slower the slowest
pronomi who o which.
big bigger the biggest
1 What’s the name of the village which is
good better the best
over there?
bad worse the worst
2 My family prefer to have friends who
high higher the highest
come from our hometown.
low lower the lowest
3 The colibri is a small bird which weighs
two grams. Ex 2 Forma il comparativo e il superlativo
4 The girl who opened the shop is Joan. di maggioranza di questi aggettivi.
5 Who’s got an umbrella which opens Comparative Superlative
automatically?
difficult more difficult the most
6 I know a man who can’t drink beer.
difficult
Ex 2 Completa le frasi con il pronome expensive more the most
relativo soltanto quando è obbligatorio. expensive expensive
1 The book I bought for you is in this careful more careful the most
parcel. careful
2 Here are the pens you lost this clever more clever the most
morning. clever
3 We have a compass that alway points intelligent more the most
south. intelligent intelligent
4 These are the teachers we saw at fashionable more the most
school. fashionable fashionable
5 They like clothes which/that are very big modern more modern the most
for them. modern
6 He met the people who stayed at this Ex 3 Riscrivi le frasi in modo tale che il
hotel.
secondo termine di paragone introdotto
7 The film we saw last night was very
da than risulti a inizio frase, senza però
funny.
cambiare il senso della frase; devi perciò
8 The photos your sister took are very
sostituire gli aggettivi presenti con
good.
aggettivi di opposto significato.
1 A statute mile is shorter than a nautical
8 Gli aggettivi mile.
qualificativi e i gradi 2 England is cooler than Sardinia.
dell’aggettivo e 3 Petrol engines are more expensive to run
dell’avverbio than diesel engines.
8.2 In cosa differiscono gli aggettivi e gli 4 A jumbo jet is slower than Concorde.
avverbi presenti nelle colonne A e B? 5 Petrol is lighter than diesel fuel.
• Prendono il suffisso in -er gli aggettivi e 6 Ferries are usually smaller than
avverbi monosillabici. tankers.

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Ex 4 Riscrivi le frasi usando not so/as ... 9.3 Ex 3 Riscrivi le coppie di frasi unendole
as, senza però cambiare il senso della con le congiunzioni suggerite.
frase. 1 Since/as diesel engines have to contain
1 England is not as warm as Sardinia. higher pressures than petrol engines, they
2 The White Star was not as fast as the are stronger than petrol engines.
Titanic. 2 Combustion engines make use of
3 100 °F is not as hot as 100 °C. thermal energy, therefore they are known
4 Petrol engines are not so cheap to run as as heat engines.
diesel engines. 3 Oil companies drill many exploration
5 Ben Nevis is not as high as Snowdon. wells, however not many of these wells
Ex 5 Scegli l’alternativa corretta. are worth developing.
1A ­– 2A – 3B – 4C – 5B – 6A 4 Watt invented the first steam engine in
1765, although the first attempts at
9 CONGIUNZIONI developing the heat engine took place
around the end of the 17th century.
9.1 Ex 1 Abbina l’inizio di ogni frase con la
conclusione corretta. 5 Engine types and sizes vary considerably
BECAUSE 1C – 2A – 3D – 4B since/as they are designed for many
SO 1C – 2D – 3A – 4B purposes.
6 Combustion occurs continuously in a
9.2 Ex 2 Riscrivi le frasi usando le gas turbine, therefore they eliminate the
congiunzioni: both... and e either... or in three idle strokes of the piston engine.
modo appropriato.
1 OBO ships carry both liquid and dry 10 PREPOSIZIONI E AVVERBI
cargo. DI LUOGO
2 Piston pumps pump either water or low-
viscosity liquids. 10.2 Ex 1 Osserva il disegno, poi completa le
3 Gear-wheel pumps are used to pump istruzioni con le preposizioni mancanti.
either lubricating or fuel oils. 1 You are 1 in the hold of the ship,
2 between the boxes and the rope.
4 A cadet can train as either a Deck
Officer or an Engineer Officer. 2 Go 3 up the ladder on the 4 left.
5 Both piston engines and gas turbines You are now 5 in the cabin.
are internal combustion engines. 3 6 In front of you there is a sea-chest.
6 GMDSS uses both satellite and Open it and take 7 out the key.
conventional radio communication 4 Turn 8 right and pass 9 through the
systems. saloon, walk 10 across the corridor and go
7 Sailors can use either a compass or a 11 into the galley.
sextant to calculate their position. 5 12 On the shelf there is a box. Open it
8 IMO deals with both safety’ conventions with your key and take the flag 13 out of
and Officers’ training. the box.
9 Ship piston engines can either be 6 Now turn 14 left and climb 15 up the
operated with diesel or heavy oil. ladder. You are now 16 on the main deck.
10 Centrifugal pumps pump either water 7 Turn left and walk 17 under the
or liquids with solid particles in superstructure, go and stand 18 next to
suspension. the flag-post.

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UNIT testS

Unit tests

Class ...................... Date ................................. Student ..............................................................................................................

Unit 1 Test – The main parts of a ship

Ex 1 Complete the crossword. One definition has been inserted to help you.
1
ACROSS
2 3
2. The fore end of the ship.
5. The after end of the ship.
4 5
6. Left side of the ship.
6 7. The main body (or shell) of the ship.
8. It completely covers the hull.
7
9. The middle part of the ship.
H U L L
DOWN
1. The immersed part of the hull.
8 3. Line on the side of the ship, parallel
to the water.
9
4. The right side of the ship.

Ex 2 Write the names of the parts of a ship to label the diagram.


Item 5 has been inserted as an example.
1. ...............................................................................................
1
2. ...............................................................................................
3. ...............................................................................................
2 3
4. ...............................................................................................
4 4 4 4
5
5. Engine Room
8 6 6 E.R. 6 6 7
6. ...............................................................................................
9 9 9 9 7. ...............................................................................................
8. ...............................................................................................
9. ...............................................................................................

Ex 3 Refer to the ship diagram in Ex 2 and complete the sentences using once each
of the following words.
forward – aft – above – below – abeam – amidships
1 The bridge superstructure is ................................................................ of the forecastle.
2 Towards the bow is ................................................................. .
3 The bridge superstructure is ................................................................ the main deck.

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4 The engine room is located ................................................................ .


5 The holds are situated ................................................................ the ’tween decks.
6 When you go across the ship from side to side you go ................................................................ .

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write the corrections
on the dotted lines.
1 The hull is divided horizontally by bulkheads. ...................................................

2 In a liquid cargo ship, the hull is divided into holds. ...................................................

3 The double bottom tanks are used to contain fresh water


and ballast. ..................................................

4 The superstructure is the permanent housing below deck. ..................................................

5 The hull is divided vertically by decks. ..................................................

6 The part below the surface of the water under the waterline
is known as the upper works. ..................................................

Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What are the central, fore and aft parts of the hull called?
2 What is the central line?
3 What are the two sides of the ship called?
4 What is the waterline?
5 What are the names of the two parts of the hull separated by the waterline?
6 What is the cargo space divided into on dry cargo ships?

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UNIT testS

Class ...................... Date ................................. Student ..............................................................................................................

Unit 2 Test – Ships’ measurements and specifications

Ex 1 Label the diagrams about the ship’s dimensions.

Aft perpendicular Fwd perpendicular


Midships
5

Loaded waterline 4
8
7
1 138 m
2 142 m
6
3 146 m

1 …………………………………………………….......... 5 …………………………………………………….........
2 …………………………………………………….......... 6 ……………………………………………………..........
3 ……………………………………………………......... 7 ……………………………………………………..........
4 ……………………………………………………......... 8 ……………………………………………………..........

Ex 2 Write the definitions.


1 Displacement ……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................

2 Deadweight ……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................

3 Light displacement ……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................

4 Tonnage ……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................

5 Gross tonnage ……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................

6 Net tonnage ……………………………………………………………………………….................................................................

Ex 3 Choose the correct option.


1 a. The load line indicates the legal limit to which the ship can be unloaded.
b. The plump line indicates the legal limit to which the ship can be loaded.
c. The load line indicates the legal limit to which the ship can be loaded.
2 a. A classification society issues the Load Line Certificate.
b. The ship’s master issues the Load Line Certificate.
c. The port authority issues the Load Line Certificate.
3 a. Port dues are paid on the basis of the ship’s air draught.
b. Port dues are paid on the basis of the ship’s country of registry.
c. Port dues are paid on the basis of the ship’s deadweight.
4 a. Deadweight does not refer to any unit of physical measurement.
b. Tonnage does not refer to any unit of physical measurement.
c. Displacement does not refer to any unit of physical measurement.

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5 Indicate which of the following certificates does not exist:


a. the Waterline Certificate.
b. the Tonnage Certificate.
c. the Load Line Certificate.

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write the corrections
on the dotted lines.
1 The longest dimension for measuring a ship is the length
between perpendiculars. ………………………

2 The extreme breadth is sometimes indicated as the draft. ………………………

3 The depth is the horizontal distance between keel and the main deck. ………………………

4 The freeboard is the vertical distance between


the load line and the main deck. ………………………

5 Deadline is the ship’s maximum carrying capacity. ………………………

6 Gross tonnage refers to the ship’s earning capacity. ………………………

7 If the ship needs the assistance of a pilot, she has to pay towage fees. ………………………

8 The International Tonnage Certificate is determined by an IALA formula. ………………………

Ex 5 Complete the specifications chart with the following items.


11,000 kW – 79.40 m – 1,600 t – 1,250 – 12.5 Knots – 4.00 m
Ocean Princess 3
Builder Cuthbert & Sons
Length oa …………………………………………

Breadth 13.65 m
Draft …………………………………………

DWT (Deadweight) …………………………………………

GT (Gross tonnage) …………………………………………

Main engines output …………………………………………

Service speed …………………………………………

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Unit 3 Test – Ship classification

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What are merchant ships used for?
2 What are the two main categories of merchant ships?
3 What type of passenger ship is in use today?
4 What are the two main categories of cargo ships?
5 What do refrigerated ships carry?
6 On what kind of ships are grain, sugar and similar products carried?
7 What are dredgers used for?
8 What does the notation “unrestricted navigation” mean?
9 What does an OBO ship carry?
10 On what kind of ship is crude oil carried?

Ex 2 Complete the following definitions using the words given in scrambled order.
passengers – inland – small – open – variable – less than 6
– lifeboats – considerable – engine – fishing
1 Boats are ……………….................. open vessels.
2 Boats are suitable for ……………….................. navigation.
3 Boats are suitable for sailing distances ……………….................. nautical miles.
4 Boats are used for ……………….................., coastal ……………….................., water sports.
5 Ships are of a ……………….................. size.
6 Ships are propelled by an ………………....................

7 Ships are equipped to carry goods, ……………….................., vehicles on the ……………….................. sea.
8 Ships can sail ……………….................. distances from the coast.

Ex 3 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 Buoyancy is the ship’s capability to sink. ………………..................

2 Stability is the ship’s capability to lose her balance after being inclined. ………………..................

3 Impermeability is the ship’s capability to change her course. ………………..................

4 Sea-kindliness means that the rolling movements of the ship are fast. ………………..................

5 Variability is the ship’s ability to sail at a given speed. ………………..................

6 Seaworthy means that the ship is unsuitable for navigation. ………………..................

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Ex 4 Fill in the table.


1 The Italian classification authority ……………………………………………………………

2 The …………………………………………………………………………………… Lloyd’s Register of Shipping


3 International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea ……………………………………………………………

4 …………………………………………………………… indicates the distance ships can sail from


the coast
5 The ship’s identity card ……………………………………………………………

6 Distinctive number or letters is also known as ……………………………………………………………

7 ………………………………………………… the ship’s gross and net tonnage


8 The …………………………………………………………… indicates the minimum freeboard after loading

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Unit 4 Test – Shipbuilding

Ex 1 Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form.


a. First they build the keel.
b. Finally, they install the superstructure.
c. After this, they begin work on building the ship.
d. First of all, the classification society approves the working plans.
e. Then they erect the side framing and bulkheads.
f. Next, they lay out the bottom with its plating.

a. ……………………………………………………..........……………………………………………………..........………………………………………….........

b. ……………………………………………………..........……………………………………………………..........………………………………………….........

c. After this, work ……………………………………………………..........……………………………………………………..........………..............

d. ……………………………………………………..........……………………………………………………..........………………………………………….........

e. ……………………………………………………..........……………………………………………………..........………………………………………….........

f. ……………………………………………………..........……………………………………………………..........………………………………………….........

Ex 2 Now put the sentences above in the correct order to indicate the basic building steps.
1..... 2..... 3..... 4..... 5..... 6.....

Ex 3 Complete the text with the missing verbs given in scrambled order.
breaking – outfitting – installed – carried – located – delivered – built
– building – launching – towed – launched (2)

Ships are ……………….................. in shipyards. Shipyards are ……………….................. near the sea to allow ves-
sels to be ……………….................. from the ……………….................. ways. Usually, ships are launched when
about two-thirds are completed.
Shortly before ……………….................. , the propeller and the engines are ………………................... . As the
ship is ……………….................. , she is christened by ……………….................. a bottle of champagne on her
hull. Then the ship is ……………….................. to the outfitting pier, where the ……………….................. work is
……………….................. out. Next the ship is taken for a trial trip, then she is finally ……………….................. to
the owner.

Ex 4 Match each term with its definition.


1 combination framing
a. This protects the ship’s rudder
and propeller.
2 longitudinal framing b. It forms the bow.

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3 the keel c. They support the deck plating.


4 the frames d. This is a longitudinal structural section
at the bottom of the ship.
5 the beams and bulkheads e. With this building system, the hull structure
has longitudinal frames.
6 the stem f. These are a series of ribs making up
the ship’s sides.
7 the stern post g. The bottom and decks are longitudinally
framed, the sides, the bow and the stern
are transversely framed.
1..... 2..... 3..... 4..... 5..... 6..... 7.....

Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What does a naval architect do?
2 What does a classification society do?
3 What does outfitting include?
4 What does the owner decide on?
5 What do the qualified surveyors do?
6 Where are ships built?
7 What are double bottoms tested for before the ship is launched?
8 What happens during the trial trip?

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Unit 5 Test – Visual & sound signals


and communication codes

Ex 1 Complete the following definitions.


1 IMO stands for ……………………………………………….............................

2 An Aldis lamp is used to send ……………………………………………….............................

3 To make a sound signal we use ……………………………………………….............................

4 Each letter or number is made up of a series


of dots and dashes in the ……………………………………………….............................

5 Pennant-shaped flags are used to signal ……………………………………………….............................

6 The meaning of each flag is indicated in the ……………………………………………….............................

Ex 2 Mark the following sentences as True or False,


then underline the mistakes in the false sentences
and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F The most common method of radio communication
today is by VHF. ……………………………………
2 T F Nowadays the Engine Officer is usually responsible
for the radio department on board ship. ……………………………………
3 T F In the past, messages were transmitted by radio
telegraphy using the flag code. ……………………………………
4 T F In case of language difficulties, radio operators can make
use of phonetic tables to transmit letters and numbers. ……………………………………
5 T F The phonetic code for R is ROGER. ……………………………………

6 T F The main language used for radio communications


is Italian. ……………………………………

Ex 3 Answer the questions.


1 Why is it important to have an International Code at sea?
2 Which organization regulates the use of this code between sailors?
3 What does the International Code contain?
4 What are phonetic tables used for?
5 What does the “O flag” represent?
6 Which language is used for communications between ships of different
nationalities today?

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Ex 4 Write the full form of these numbers.


a. 3,422 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

b. 1.45 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

c. 226 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

d. 0.37 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
e. 22,402 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................
f. 1,436,000 ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ex 5 Listen to your teacher and complete the following document.

Name of ship Call sign

………………………………………… …………………………………………

………………………………………… …………………………………………

…………………………… …………………………… …………………………………………

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Unit 6 Test – The IALA Buoyage System & ship navigation lights

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What does the acronym IALA stand for?
2 What did the IALA do in 1976?
3 How many types of buoys are included in the present system? List the various types.
4 What characteristics distinguish the different types of buoys?
5 Where do you find buoys and what is their main and general purpose?
6 Is there any type of buoy with vertical stripes?
7 What do special marks indicate?
8 What do lateral marks indicate?

Ex 2 Which is Which? Indicate the correct type of buoy for each purpose.
1 They indicate the position of a hazard to shipping. ..............................................................................

2 They indicate the edges of a channel. ..............................................................................

3 They indicate that there is deep water around them. ..............................................................................

4 They indicate the safe side on which to pass a danger. ..............................................................................

Ex 3 Which is Which? Indicate the correct type of buoy for each type of topmark.
1 They can have a red sphere as a topmark. .............................................................................

2 They have a red can as a topmark. ..............................................................................

3 Their topmark is two black cones with their bases together. ..............................................................................
4 They have two black spheres as a topmark. ..............................................................................

5 They have a green cone as a topmark. ..............................................................................

6 Their topmark is two black cones pointing downwards. ..............................................................................

Ex 4 Choose the correct option.


1 They have two yellow bands with a black band in the middle.
a. North cardinal Buoys
b. East cardinal buoys
c. West cardinal buoys
2 They are black over yellow.
a. North cardinal buoys
b. East cardinal buoys
c. West cardinal buoys

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3 They can be shaped like a cone.


a. Cardinal marks
b. Port-hand buoys
c. Starboard-hand buoys
4 They can be spherical.
a. Cardinal marks
b. Safe water marks
c. Port-hand buoys
5 They are black with one or more red stripes.
a. Port-hand buoys
b. Safe water marks
c. Isolated danger marks
6 They have red and white stripes.
a. Port-hand buoys
b. Safe water marks
c. Isolated danger marks

Ex 5 Complete the paragraph about ships at night.


Vessels which navigate at night must have .............................................. lights, so that other vessels can
see if there is a danger of collision and take action to avoid it. All vessels show a ....................................
light on the right side of the ship (starboard) and a .............................................. light on the left (port)
side. They must show a .............................................. stern light (behind or astern). The red and green
lights mentioned are called ............................................... . Ships must also show at least one masthead
light on the high mast. Ships which are more than 50 m long must have two
.............................................. lights.

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Unit 7 Test – Geographical coordinates

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What do we use geographical coordinates for?
2 What divides the Earth into two hemispheres?
3 In which hemisphere is Europe located?
4 What is the Prime Parallel?
5 What is the Prime Meridian?
6 What is the latitude of a place?
7 What is the longitude of a place?
8 What is the latitude of the North Pole?
9 What is the longitude of Greenwich?
10 What is the 180° meridian called and where is it located?

Ex 2 Mark the following sentences as True or False, then underline


the mistakes in the false sentences and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F All meridians have the same length. …………………..........

2 T F Meridians are like the number of degrees in a circumference. …………………..........

3 T F There are 180 meridians. …………………..........

4 T F There are 180 parallels. …………………..........

5 T F Longitude is indicated as North or South of Greenwich. …………………..........

6 T F Parallels are larger as they get nearer to the poles. …………………..........

Ex 3 Choose the correct option.


1 When we find the geographical coordinates of a place on the Earth’s surface,
we consider the Earth as:
a. a sphere.
b. a circumference.
c. an oval.
2 What does the following definition refer to: “It is an imaginary vertical
line passing through the Earth’s centre”?
a. Greenwich meridian.
b. the Equator.
c. the Earth’s axis.
3 We calculate latitude and longitude in degrees because they are:
a. angular distances.

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b. linear distances.
c. distances in space.
4 In the Southern Hemisphere latitudes can vary from:
a. 0° to 180°S.
b. 0° to 90°S.
c. 0° to 360°S.
5 Each parallel and meridian is separated from the following parallel or meridian by:
a. 1 degree.
b. 10 degrees.
c. 15 degrees.
6 Which of the following sentences about the Equator is true?
a. The Equator is the Earth’s axis.
b. The Equator is the largest parallel.
c. The Equator passes through Greenwich.

Ex 4 Fill in the table.


…………………..........………………….......... Unit of measurement for distances at sea
…………………..........………………….......... Length of a nautical table
Number of time zones …………………..........…………………..........

Degrees of longitude of each time zone …………………..........…………………..........

Time zone 0 is …………………..........…………………..........

The speed of a ship is measured in …………………..........…………………..........

1 nm/h …………………..........…………………..........

It measures the ship’s speed …………………..........…………………..........

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Unit 8 Test – Navigational aids and instruments

Ex 1 Mark the following sentences as True or False, then underline


the mistakes in the false sentences and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F The Earth generates a magnetic field which has north
and south magnetic poles. …………………......

2 T F Magnetic or true north is the point of the Earth’s axis


where all meridians converge. …………………......

3 T F Geographic and magnetic poles do not exactly coincide. …………………......

4 T F The continuous fluctuations in the Earth’s magnetic field


cause the geographic poles to shift their position. …………………......

5 T F The gyrocompass always indicates the magnetic north. …………………......

6 T F A magnetic compass always indicates the geographic north. …………………......

7 T F The angle formed between geographic and magnetic north


is called magnetic variation. …………………......

8 T F The magnetic variation is different from place to place


and changes slowly with time. …………………......

9 T F Magnetic variations can be either east or west of true north. …………………......

10 T F When in a given area the magnetic north is east


of true north, the variation is negative. …………………......

Ex 2 Fill in the table.


1 RADAR stands for... ……………………………………………………..........

2 Type of radio frequencies used by Radar systems. ……………………………………………………..........

3 Ships use the time elapsed between emission and return


of the pulse signal to calculate... ……………………………………………………..........

4 The angle formed by the distance of a star or planet


above the horizon. ……………………………………………………..........

5 Sonar stands for... ……………………………………………………..........

6 Speed of sound in water is around... ……………………………………………………..........

7 Bathymetric curves indicate... ……………………………………………………..........

8 Echo sounders are often used to locate shoals


of fish on board... ……………………………………………………..........

Ex 3 Fill in the name of each instrument.


1 Instrument used for determining direction which always
points to geographic north. ………………………………………

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2 Instrument used for measuring the distance and position


of target objects. ………………………………………

3 Instrument used for scanning the various levels


of the seabed and producing maps of the underwater relief. ………………………………………

4 Instrument used for determining direction by means


of a magnetic needle that points to magnetic north. ………………………………………

5 Instrument used for measuring the sea depth and also


locating the presence of shoals of fish. ………………………………………

6 Instrument used for finding a ship’s speed through the water


and the distance covered. ………………………………………

7 Instrument used for measuring altitudes and other angles. ………………………………………

Ex 4 Try to fill in the 5 gaps in the text.


Nowadays ……………………………………… are gradually replacing transmitting stations on the Earth.
Each satellite emits microwave radio signals indicating its position which are picked up by a
……………………………………… receiver.
GPS stands for ……………………………………………………………………………… and it currently has 31 satellites
orbiting around the Earth. This system allows us to calculate our position extremely accurately
anywhere on the Earth’s surface. The receiver works out the time delay for the signal to arrive
and uses data from 3 satellites to indicate our position as a geographical point in
……………………………………… and ………………………………………. .

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Unit 9 Test – The Deck Department

Ex 1 Complete the table showing how a ship’s crew is organized.


1. …………………………………………………….............. Highest authority on ship
2. …………………………………………………….............. Head of a department
3. …………………………………………………….............. Assists the department head
4. …………………………………………………….............. Next in ranking
5. …………………………………………………….............. Supervises ratings
6. …………………………………………………….............. Ratings (full name for AS)
7. …………………………………………………….............. Ratings (full name for OS)
8. ……………………………………………………............... Officers in training

Ex 2 Match the documents on the left with their description on the right.
1 Certificate of Registry a. Provides details about the crew
2 Bill of Entry b. Provides guidance in maintaining the ship’s
stability under various loading conditions
3 Bill of Export c. Indicates maximum draft to which
a ship can be loaded
4 International Tonnage Certificate d. Ship’s identity document
5 International Load Line Certificate e. Indicates ship’s cargo carrying capacity
6 Intact Stability Booklet f. List of goods to be loaded on board
7 Crew list g. List of carried goods
1….. 2….. 3….. 4….. 5….. 6….. 7…..

Ex 3 Choose the correct option.


1 The Deck Department is responsible for:
a. ensuring the safe running of the ship’s machinery.
b. unloading and loading cargo.
c. maintaining and repairing the port cargo gear.
2 Which sentence is NOT true?
The Captain:
a. stands watch.
b. is an experienced navigator.
c. represents the shipowner in all circumstances.

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3 The Chief Officer is responsible:


a. for navigation.
b. for all life-saving equipment.
c. for ensuring the maintenance of the ship’s hold.
4 Cadets:
a. never stand watch.
b. have no official responsibility on board.
c. are supervised directly by the Captain.

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences


and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 The Second Mate plans the daily maintenance programme. ……………................................

2 The Bosun checks that the First Officer carries out these orders. ……………................................

3 ABs carry out painting duties such as maintaining the ship’s course. …………….................................

4 OS is the highest rank in the Deck Department. ……………................................

5 ABs often have to wash and sweep the deck. ……………................................

Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is a winch used for?
2 Why are synthetic ropes used on board ship?
3 What is the capstan used for?
4 What replaces a capstan on board large ships?
5 When do we say that a cargo ship is gearless?
6 What are bollards?
7 What 3 pieces of equipment are used to transfer dry goods?
8 How do RO/RO ships load cargo?

Ex 6 Put the mooring instructions in the correct order.


1….. 2….. 3….. 4…..
a. Finished with manoeuvring stations.
b. All gone and clear.
c. Let go forward! Let go aft!
d. Single up forward, single up aft.

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Unit 10 Test – The Engine Department

Ex 1 Complete the table showing how the Engine Department is organized.


Head of the Engine Department …………………………………………………….....................

The person the head of the Engine Department


is responsible to ……………………………………………………....................

The two Officers below the head in ranking …………………………………………………….....................

…………………………………………………….....................

Two Engine Department ratings …………………………………………………….....................

…………………………………………………….....................

Ex 2 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is the general responsibility of the head of the Engine Department?
2 What is his responsibility concerning pollution and safety?
3 Who is usually responsible for repair and maintenance
of electrical equipment on board?
4 What do Engineer Cadets do?
5 What is auxiliary machinery?

Ex 3 Write the function of each piece of machinery.


1 Oil or water coolers …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

2 Feed-water heaters (economisers) …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

3 The ballast pumping system …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

4 Evaporators …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

5 Engine shafts …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

6 Lifeboats …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

7 Automatic pilot …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

8 Electricity generators …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 The Master is the head of the Engine Department. ……………………………………

2 Engineer Officers regularly update the Navigation Logbook. ……………………………………

3 The Engine Logbook contains information on the operation


of engines, boilers and secondary machinery. ……………………………………

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4 Firemen are responsible for general oiling duties. ……………………………………

5 In the Logbook we find machinery parameters such as frying oil


and lubricating oil consumption. ……………………………………

6 The auxiliary engines provide the ship’s propulsion. ……………………………………

Ex 5 Complete the table about the Engine Control Room (ECR) equipment.

Electrical Voltmeter Main engine


Generator panel Alarm panel
switchboard and ammeter controls
Shows electrical Controls the Show voltage Monitors tank Indicate fuel oil
……………………………… power and levels, and
such as voltage ……………………………… ……………………………… temperature and ………………………………

and load. to the various flow for all …………………………… . oil consumption,
machinery. major of machinery. speed, direction.
Engineers can
decide on how equipment. Allows engineers These data are
many electricity to take action recorded in the
……………………………… when an alarm Engine Room
to keep in …………………………… . ………………………… .

operation.

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Unit 11 Test – Describing technical diagrams

Ex 1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with


the following verbs in the correct form. Use each verb once.
contain – represent – connect – consist – fit – show – divide

Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3


Output
Switch device
(lamp)

+ Impeller
Power source
Ram (battery) Casing
moving down

Discharge
valve
(open) Picture 4

Suction valve 4 4
(closed) 4 3 3 3 4

Picture 1 a. The diagram ………………………………………… a piston pump.


b. The pump chamber is ………………………………………… with discharge and suction
valves at the top and bottom.
Picture 2 The battery and the lamp are ………………………………………… by two lengths
of copper wire.
Picture 3 A centrifugal pump ………………………………………… of an impeller which rotates
inside a casing.
Picture 4 a. The diagram ………………………………………… the double-bottom of ship.
b. It ………………………………………… a number of tanks.
c. The double bottom ………………………………………… into a number of tanks.

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Ex 2 Fill in the gaps.


The lubricating oil system
The used lubricating oil drains to the crankcase and ………………………… passes into the drain tank
through filters.
The drain ……………………………………… is fitted with a purifier system which consists of a
……………………………………… and a centrifuge. First the oil is ……………………………………… in the heater, then
it passes through the centrifuge to ……………………… purified. After purification, the oil is returned
to the ……………………………………… tank at a point next to the suction strainer.
Pressure ……………………………………… draw the oil through the suction strainer and discharge
………………… into the cooler. From the cooler the oil ……………………………………… through the
distribution branches to various parts of the ………………………………………. .

Ex 3 What happens to the lubricating oil when it passes through the different
parts of the system? Complete the sentences.
1 When it passes through filters and strainers, the oil is ………………………………………. .
2 When it passes through a heater, the oil is ………………………………………. .
3 When it passes through a cooler, the oil is ………………………………………. .
4 When it passes through a cooler, the oil is ………………………………………. .

Ex 4 Use the given words to fill in the text about the fuel oil system
of a marine engine.
through – from – in – of – into – before – at

Pumps draw the oil at low pressure ………………………………… the service tanks and discharge it
………………………………… the heater. A viscosity regulator is fitted ………………………………… the heater
discharge.
Then the oil passes ………………………………… a fine strainer ………………………………… going to the main fuel
pump suctions ………………………………… the engine. A pressure control valve is fitted
………………………………… the system and any excess oil is returned to the service oil tanks.

Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 Before going to the fuel pump suctions of the engine, the fuel oil passes through
a viscosity regulator. What is its function?
2 A diesel fuel tank is included in the fuel oil system through a change-over valve.
What is its function? What does it allow?

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Unit 12 Test – Pumps

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is a pump?
2 What is the pressure head?
3 What other hydraulic measure is used in pump operation?
4 What can provide the power for the pump?

Ex 2 Fill in the gaps using the following words.


head – factors – reciprocating – quantity – liquids – viscosity – centrifugal – kinetic

Pumps are used on board ship to move …………………………………………… or to give them pressure or
…………………………………………… energy.
There are three common types of pumps: …………………………………………… pumps, gear-wheel pumps
and …………………………………………… pumps; each of these is used for a different purpose.
Before choosing which pump to use we have to consider a number of ………………………………………… .
Firstly, the …………………………………………… of liquid to be moved and the pressure
…………………………………………… ; next, the …………………………………………… of the liquid and finally whether
or not the liquid is corrosive or contains solid particles in suspension.

Ex 3 Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.


1 The interlocking gear-wheels rotate ………………………… a casing.
2 Liquid is discharged ………………………… the delivery outlet.
3 Liquid is forced to circulate ………………………… the vanes of the impeller.
4 The piston moves ………………………… and ………………………… within the chamber.
5 Liquid is drawn ………………………… the vacuum ………………………… the suction tube.
6 Pressure is created on the liquid which is forced ………………………… of the delivery tube.

Ex 4 Choose the correct option.


1 Centrifugal pumps are:
a. noisy and large.
b. noisy and small.
c. quiet and small.
2 Since gear-wheel pumps are often used to pump oil, we:
a. do not need to lubricate their moving parts.
b. always need to lubricate their moving parts.
c. cannot pump lubricating oils.

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3 Gear-wheel pumps and screw pumps are types of:


a. rotary pumps.
b. piston pumps.
c. centrifugal pumps.
4 In a single-acting reciprocating pump liquid is drawn and discharged:
a. by a single piston stroke.
b. when the piston is up.
c. by a double piston stroke.

Ex 5 Fill in the missing words to complete the descriptions of the three main kinds
of pumps. Note that the same number indicates the same word which is repeated.
Look at the example with 0 prime:

The engine is a 0 prime A 0 prime mover is an energy The Equator is the 0 Prime
mover. converter. Parallel.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS RECIPROCATING PUMPS GEAR-WHEEL PUMPS
They are used for: They are used for: They are used for:
high 1 ………………………… rates. low 1 ………………………… rates. low 1 ………………………… rates.
They give the liquid a: They give the liquid a: They give the liquid a:
low 2 ………………………… high 2 ………………………… low 2 …………………………
pressure. pressure. pressure.
They are suitable for: They are suitable for: They are suitable for:
low 3 ………………………… liquids. medium 3 ………………………… high 3 ………………………… liquids
liquids. like 4 ………………………… and fuel
oils.
They provide an: They provide an: They provide an:
even and 5 ………………………… 6 ………………………… delivery even and 5 …………………………

delivery. especially for the single- delivery.


acting kind.
They 7 ………………………… be They 8 ………………………… not be
used for liquids containing used for liquids containing
solid particles in suspension. solid particles in suspension.

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Unit 13 Test – Boilers

Ex 1 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.


between – top – of – outside – from – to – bottom – by – around – in

Water-tube boilers consist ………………………… a fire-proof casing with a furnace at the


………………………… , a steam drum at the ………………………… and water-drums at a lower level. The
drums are connected ………………………… banks of tubes.
Other large tubes, called the downcomer tubes, are located ………………………… the furnace. They
feed the water drums with cool water, so that convection currents make the water move
………………………… the system.
The water drums and banks of tubes are placed in the main flow of hot gases rising
………………………… the furnace: so the heat of the hot gases is transferred ………………………… the water
in the tubes, generating steam. The difference in density allows the dry steam to collect
………………………… the steam-drum.
Superheaters, located ………………………… the steam-drum and the water-drums, make the steam
drier and more efficient.

Ex 2 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 In a boiler, the furnace is located at the bottom because
hot gases descend. ………………………........................

2 Water is cooled down when it comes into contact with


the hot gases. ………………………........................

3 Downcomer tubes provide a reservoir of relatively hot water. ………………………........................

4 Economisers heat the feed-water after it enters the boiler. ………………………........................

Ex 3 Choose the correct option.


1 The roof, side wall and floor tubes are known as:
a. waterwalls.
b. downcomer tubes.
c. generating tubes.
2 Water is separated from the steam in the:
a. water drum.
b. the furnace.
c. the steam drum.
3 Steam rises to the top of the drum because:
a. it is heavier than the water.
b. it is lighter than the water.
c. it is higher than the water.

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4 Boiler mountings or fittings are:


a. banks of tubes.
b. the various valves and gauges.
c. the water and steam drums.

Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What are boilers used for on board ship?
2 How is steam generated?
3 How is water made to move around the system?

Ex 5 Match each name with its definition.


1 They release any excess steam from the boiler. a. Blow-off valves
2 It allows samples of water to be taken for testing. b. Pressure gauge
3 They control the entry of feed-water into the boiler. c. Safety valves
4 It shows the water level in the boiler. d. Stop valves
5 It is used to indicate the pressure in the boiler. e. Water level indicator
6 They drain off any grease or mud from the boiler. f. Thermometer
7 They control the passage of steam to the engine. g. Salinometer valves
8 It indicates the temperature inside the boiler. h. Feed-check valves

1..... 2..... 3..... 4..... 5..... 6..... 7..... 8.....

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Unit 14 Test – Condensers & evaporators

Ex 1 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.


condensate – distilled water – cooling – condenses – condensing – heat –
feed-water – pump – circulating – condensation – condenser – cooling water

Most of the heat energy in exhaust steam can be saved by ………………………………… it and sending it
back to the boiler as hot …………………………………. . Rapid condensation is provided by a
…………………………………. . The main component of a condenser is a ………………………………… surface, made
up of thin copper-nickel alloy tubes.
Two separate circuits are involved in steam …………………………………. . The first is the
…………………………………………… circuit, the second is the condensate circuit.
In the first circuit, a ………………………………… pump provides a fast flow of seawater through the
bank of tubes. In the second circuit, steam enters through a steam inlet and, by flowing over
the tubes, transmits some of its ………………………………… to the liquid in the tubes. A rapid drop in
steam temperature occurs, so that steam ………………………………… and is collected in the hot well as
the …………………………………. .
A condensate ………………………………… removes the condensate from the hot well and sends it into
the boiler. Since there is no contact between the condensate and the coolant, pure
……………………………………… is produced, which is ideal for feeding the boilers.

Ex 2 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is produced by a condenser in a steam plant?
2 What is used as the cooling liquid (or coolant) in a marine condenser?
3 What sends the cooling liquid into the condenser?
4 What removes the condensate from the hot well?
5 Where is the condensate finally sent to?
6 What are condensers used for on board ship today? Indicate at least one
of their main uses on board.

Ex 3 Mark the following sentences as True or False, then underline the mistakes
in the false sentences and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F Condensers and evaporators are heat exchangers. ………………….........

2 T F Heat exchangers perform an exchange of heat between


solids at different temperatures. ………………….........

3 T F Condensers and evaporators operate the same heat


transfer operation. ………………….........

4 T F In the evaporator the liquid condenses by extracting heat


from an external fluid. ………………….........

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5 T F In condensers vapour condenses by giving heat to


an external fluid. ………………….........

6 T F In a fresh water generating system there are both


a condenser and an evaporator. ………………….........

7 T F These systems are used on board to generate fresh


water from seawater. ………………….........

8 T F First the seawater is heated to boiling point and turned


into steam in the condenser. ………………….........

9 T F Then the steam rises into the evaporator where


it is condensed producing the distillate. ………………….........

10 T F The engine jacket water provides the heat source


for the evaporation of seawater. ………………….........

11 T F Air ejectors (or vacuum pumps) are used to increase


the pressure in the evaporation chamber. ………………….........

12 T F Before drinking distilled water, it needs to be mineralised. ………………….........

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Unit 15 Test – The steam engine plant

Ex 1 Underline the five wrong words in the text and write


the correct ones on the dotted lines.
There are two types of engines commonly used nowadays: electric motors
and heat engines. The former produce mechanical energy from light, ………………...............

the latter convert heat into mechanical energy. Heat engines need a source ………………...............

of mechanical energy. They need a working liquid, whose heat they absorb ………………...............

and convert into useful job. In a steam engine plant the heat engine ………………...............

is a turbine and the working fluid is water. ………………...............

Ex 2 Complete the sentences.


1 The engine is an energy ………………................ .
2 Water ………………............... into steam when it reaches boiling point.
3 At an oil refinery, crude oil is converted ………………............... many different oil products.
4 Steam ………………............... into water in the condenser.
5 Thermal energy ………………............... into mechanical work by heat engines.

Ex 3 Study the diagram representing a steam engine plant


and identify the following components.
Condensate pump ..... Main feed pump ..... Main circulating pump .....

Economiser ..... Superheater ..... Hot well B


Condenser ..... Turbine ..... Boiler furnace .....

V4
To auxiliary services
E Steam V1 V2
G
Uptake Hot water Pipe line to turbine

C
A

D
P3
F Burner P2 V3

P1

Water
Steam B Seawater

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Ex 4 Fill in the gaps.


The main parts of a steam engine plant are the ………………............... , the engine and the
………………............... . Mechanical work is produced by using the ………………............... energy of steam as
the ………………............... fluid.
First, water is heated and transformed into ………………................ . Then some of the heat energy of
steam is used to operate the ………………............... . Next the remaining heat is cooled down and the
steam is turned back into ………………............... again.

Ex 5 Choose the correct option.


1 In a closed steam cycle:
a. only the quantity of the working fluid change.
b. only the chemical characteristics of the working fluid change.
c. only the physical state of the working fluid changes.
2 The steam cycle begins:
a. in the turbine.
b. in the condenser.
c. in the boiler.
3 In the turbine, the steam:
a. makes the propeller rotate producing mechanical energy.
b. makes the steam pipe rotate producing mechanical energy.
c. makes the rotor blades rotate producing mechanical energy.
4 A condenser is where:
a. exhaust steam is cooled and converted.
b. exhaust steam is produced.
c. exhaust steam is heated and converted.

Ex 6 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is the main function of a marine steam engine plant?
2 What does steam do in a steam engine plant?
3 Why is it defined as the “working fluid”?
4 What are the basic areas of steam operation in this plant?
5 Where does steam receive its heat energy?

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Unit 16 Test – Nautical charts

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What did Ptolemy’s world maps already show?
2 Why did Columbus believe he had reached the East Indies?
3 What is Gerhardus Mercator considered to be?
4 What did he produce in 1556?
5 What does a navigator plot on a working chart?
6 Give two examples of great circles.

Ex 2 Fill in the table with the items given below in scrambled order.
shortest (2) – two (2) – great circle track – largest – centre – meridians
– rhumb line – constant – arc – sphere

Rhumb line A line joining ……………………………… points on the Earth’s surface which
intersects the ……………………………………… at a ……………………………………… angle.
Great circle track A line following the ……………………………………… route between 2 points on
the surface of a ………………………………………. .
Great circle The ……………………………………… circle on the Earth’s surface which passes
through its ………………………………………. .
Small circle The ……………………………………… of a small circle which is NOT the
……………………………………………………… route between ……………………………………… points.
……………………………………… Not used for ocean crossings.
……………………………………… Used for ocean crossings.

Ex 3 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 As the Earth is spherical, it cannot be represented on
a spherical surface without some distortion. ………………………........................

2 The line of a chart refers to the ratio between real dimensions


and the size of the arc of the chart. ………………………........................

3 Nautical charts use Mercator and astronomic projections. ………………………........................

4 The Mercator is a hexagonal projection. ………………………........................

5 The physical constant used with Mercator charts is called j c. ………………………........................

6 Gnomonic charts cannot include more than one ocean because


of distortion. ………………………........................

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Ex 4 Complete the table by placing the expressions in the correct place


to identify the characteristics of each type of chart.
rhumb lines are plotted as straight lines – distance and direction cannot
be measured directly – great circle routes are plotted as straight lines – conformal
– position, distance and direction are easily determined – the most widely used
in navigation – not useful as a working chart – true shape of features is maintained

MERCATOR CHARTS GNOMONIC PROJECTIONS

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

4.

5.

Ex 5 Fill in the gaps.


Hydrographic surveyors compile nautical charts by using ………………………........................ technology and
considering both the ………………………........................ area and the shoreline. To show all this
information, nautical charts make use of conventional ………………………......................... .
The IHO ensures that ………………………........................ charts are standardized in various parts of the
world.
Any ………………………........................ or updates to the chart are reported in bulletins called
………………………............... to Mariners. Many charts today are produced as ENCs to be used in
………………………........................ Chart Display and Information Systems, which are an essential part of
………………………........................ navigation and bridge systems.

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Unit 17 Test – Piloting & plotting

Ex 1 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 When we take a bearing, we are actually measuring
the time between north and our landmark. ………………………......................

2 We use a magnetic sounder to read the values of the angle


and take a bearing. ………………………......................

3 The compass sounding is what the ship’s compass reads at any time. ………………………......................

4 Before plotting compass bearings on a nautical chart with a LOP,


we need to apply corrections for variation and differentiation. ………………………......................

5 If magnetic variation is to the west, it is indicated with the (+) sign. ………………………......................

6 To calculate magnetic deviation, we need to use the ship’s own


landmark deviation tables. ………………………......................

Ex 2 Reorder the steps in taking a sextant bearing.


1….. 2….. 3….. 4….. 5….. 6….
This method is called by bearing and distance.
a. Apply the formula to get the distance from the object.
b. Where this second LOP crosses the circular LOP, it is our exact position or fix.
c. Find out the height of the landmark on the nautical chart.
d. Use this distance to draw a circular LOP on the nautical chart. 
e. Use the sextant to measure the angle a between the top
and the bottom of the landmark.
f. Now take a compass bearing to get a second line of position.

Ex 3 Choose the correct option.


1 Two landmarks are said to be “in range” when they are:
a. very close to each other.
b. a long distance from each other.
c. in line with each other.
2 The accuracy of our bearing is increased when:
a. our ship is close to the chosen landmark.
b. our ship is a great distance from the landmark.
c. the landmarks are very close together.

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3 To obtain an accurate fix, we normally draw:


a. a single LOP.
b. a circular LOP.
c. three LOPs to form a triangle.
4 On nautical charts, the horizontal edge of the chart indicates:
a. the latitude scale.
b. the longitude scale.
c. true direction.

Ex 4 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.


compass – read – reading – arm – destination – another – parallel – above – circle
– heading – course – is – degrees – time – landmark – line – fix – LOP – rose – north

First we locate our ………............................. on the chart, then we take a ………............................. bearing of it.
This compass reading will show the ………............................. and minutes of the angle formed by our
landmark and the compass ……….............................. .
Then we transfer this compass ………............................. to the chart. This is how we do. We place one
arm of our ………............................. ruler on the chart compass ………............................. , on the line indicating
the degrees and minutes shown by our compass reading. Then we place the other ……….....................

of the parallel ruler on our landmark and draw a line. This line is our first ………............................. .
Next we draw a second LOP by choosing ………............................. landmark and following the same
procedure. The point of intersection of the two LOPS is the ……….............................. . This is the point
on the chart where our ship ……….............................. . We indicate the fix by drawing a ……….............................
around it and writing the ………............................. alongside.
After that, we plot our ………............................ , drawing a straight line from our fix to our chosen
………............................. . We place an edge of the parallel ruler on the course ………............................. and the
other edge over the centre of the compass rose, where we ………............................. the magnetic
degrees of our course. These degrees represent our course magnetic ……….............................. . Finally
we write this heading ………............................. the course line.

Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 When do we take a running fix?
2 Why is it called a “running fix”?
3 What does a navigator use a parallel ruler or nautical triangles for?
4 What is the difference between a compass course – indicated by
the letter “C” – and a true course, indicated by “T”?

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Unit 18 Test – Business logistics

Ex 1 Write the Italian words regarding logistics.


1 ……………………………………………………................. goods / commodities
2 ……………………………………………………................. to consume
3 ……………………………………………………................. storage
4 ……………………………………………………................. production efficiency
5 ……………………………………………………................. standard of living
6 ……………………………………………………................. sources of production

Ex 2 Complete the definitions by using the given words.


transportation and inventory – supply chain management/process –
limited movement storage system – coordinated management – Council of Logistics
Management – principle of comparative advantage
1 A ……………………………………………………................. means that people had to live close
to the production source and consume a narrow range of goods.
2 The …………………………………………………….................................... is the principle at the basis
of today’s international trade.
3 Historically, ……………………………………………………................. of goods were traditionally
managed separately.
4 Business logistics has introduced the new concept of ……………………………………………………................. to
the activities in question 3.
5 The professional organization of logistics managers is known
as the ……………………………………………………........……........ .
6 The ……………………………………………………................. regards the logistic interactions that take
place within a firm or between separate firms.

Ex 3 Write the names of the missing components of a typical logistics system.


1 ……………………………………………… service;
2 demand forecasting;
3 distribution ………………………………………………;
4 ……………………………………………… control;
5 material ………………………………………………;
6 ……………………………………………… processing;
7 parts and service ………………………………………………;
8 plant and ……………………………………………… site selection;
9 purchasing;
10 ………………………………………………;

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11 ……………………………………………… goods handling;


12 salvage and scrap ………………………………………………;
13 ……………………………………………… and transportation;
14 warehousing and ……………………………………………… .

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines. Note that in one sentence there are two mistakes.
1 The various functional activities such as transportation, etc.
are repeated very few times along the supply channel. ………………………......................

2 The physical supply channel is the source and space gap between
a firm’s immediate material sources and its processing points. ………………………......................

3 As well as transportation and inventory control, there are a number


of “sustainable” activities involved in the logistics mix for each firm. ………………………......................

4 Packaging must protect goods during handling and purchasing. ………………………......................

5 Commodities like coal and gravel especially need special


warehousing although inventories are never made. ………………………......................

Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 Why is logistics so important in the modern day world?
2 When does the supply chain finish?
3 Why are inventories an essential logistic activity?
4 What does the term “materials management” refer to?
5 Why is it necessary to have a “reverse logistics channel”?
6 What does “outsourcing” mean?

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Unit 19 Test – The moving air

Ex 1 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.


convection – homogenous – warm – air masses – stable – heat
– balances – colder – humidity – dry

Meteorologists are trying to find a physical model to explain the movement of


………………………….................. around the Earth. Air masses are those parts of the atmosphere which
are ………………………….................. in temperature, ………………………….................. and pressure. They form over
large areas where environmental conditions are ………………………….................. .
Air masses can be warm or cold and ………………………….................. or humid, depending on where they
form; for example, over a tropical desert area they will be ………………………….................. and dry.
The fact that these air masses move over the surface of the Earth ………………………….................. our
climate redistributing the Sun’s ………………………….................. from warmer to …………………………..................

places.
The most accepted model today is known as ………………………….................. circulation of the air.

Ex 2 Choose the correct option.


1 Air masses move by:
a. circulation.
b. gravitation.
c. convection.
2 Warm air is:
a. lighter than cold air.
b. heavier than cold air.
c. drier than cold air.
3 Cold air is:
a. lighter than warm air.
b. drier than cold air.
c. heavier than warm air.
4 Under the force of the Earth’s gravity:
a. warm air tends to descend.
b. cold air tends to descend.
c. cold air tends to rise.
5 Convection currents happen because:
a. warm air rises while cold air descends.
b. cold air rises while warm air descends.
c. cold air rises while dry airdescends.

Ex 3 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What are the factors which determine the movements of atmospheric air?
2 Why does air pressure vary with temperature?

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3 Why does it vary with humidity?


4 What are isobars?
5 How are they shown on weather maps?

Ex 4 Choose the correct option.


1 Cyclone areas are formed by:
a. cold high pressure air masses.
b. warm low pressure air masses.
c. hot high pressure air masses.
2 Anticyclone areas are formed by:
a. cold high pressure air masses.
b. warm low pressure air masses.
c. hot high pressure air masses.
3 Anticyclones are:
a. the low pressure areas where the cold air tends to fall.
b. the high pressure areas where the cold air tends to fall.
c. the low pressure areas where the warm air tends to fall.
4 The air flow between cyclone and anticyclone areas is:
a. the Coriolis force.
b. the wind.
c. an “empty space”.
5 Winds always move towards:
a. low pressure areas.
b. high pressure areas.
c. the left.
6 The Coriolis effect is caused by the:
a. movement of air masses.
b. wind movement.
c. rotation of the Earth.

Ex 5 Complete the definitions.


Main ………………………….................. blow all year round in the same direction.
The Polar Winds, the West Winds and the Trade Winds are the ………………………….................. winds.
Monsoons are ………………………….................. winds.
………………………….................. blow for six months from the sea and for six months from the land to
the sea.
The Bora, the Föhn, the Mistral and the Sirocco are ………………………….................. winds, since they only
blow periodically.
A ………………………….................. front is formed when cold air approaches and replaces rising warm air.
A ………………………….................. front is shown by a line with red semicircles.
A line with blue triangles shows a ………………………….................. front.

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Unit 20 Test – Logistic services

Ex 1 Fill in the missing words in Pfohl’s definition of “logistics”.


“Logistics must ensure that a ……………….……... is supplied from a ……………………………….…….. in
accordance with his ………………..…….. with the correct ………………..…….. (in quantity and variety), in
the …………………………….. , at the ………………..…….. and in the ………………..…….. at minimum ………………...…….. .”

Ex 2 Fill in the table.

…………………………………………………………….…………….……… Specialized companies for moving products

TTS …………………………………………………………….…………….………

Another name for storage points …………………………………………………………….…………….………

The ……………………………………….… transport system By air

Transhipment locations …………………………………………………………….…………….………

Suitable for intercontinental movement


of bulk cargoes …………………………………………………………….…………….………

Ex 3 Use the following adjectives to write two comparative


and two superlative true sentences about the different kinds of carriers.
Adjectives: expensive – slow – fast – cheap
Kinds of carriers: air freight – rail freight – sea freight
1 …………………………………………………………….
2 …………………………………………………………….
3 …………………………………………………………….
4 …………………………………………………………….

Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is ocean shipping suitable for?
2 What products are carried on a refrigerated ship?
3 What do ferries carry?
4 What size are container units?

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5 What is the loading capacity of a container unit?


6 What are the two main advantages of using containers?
7 What are the two disadvantages of using containers?
8 What is a liner merchant ship?

Ex 5 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 Liners do not operate on a fixed schedule but can be hired
for transport anywhere in the world. ………………………......................

2 The Extra Cargo Shipping Instructions provide the carrier


with details of the goods and instructions on handling. ………………………......................

3 The bill of lading is issued by the sender and accompanies


the goods to the port of discharge. ………………………......................

4 The bill of lading is a record of what kind of containers


are being transported. ………………………......................

5 The owner is responsible for providing the special cranes


for unloading/loading containerized ships. ………………………......................

6 Combined transport aims to transfer shipped goods with


the greatest number of transhipment operations. ………………………......................

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Unit 21 Test – Moving waters

Ex 1 Choose the correct option for each sentence.


1 .............................................. (two quarters/three quarters) of the Earth’s surface is covered by water.
2 There is .............................................. (less/more) water in the Southern Hemisphere.
3 The .............................................. (greatest/smallest) quantity of water is in the Southern Hemisphere.
4 The large extensions of water between continents are called oceans/seas.
5 Lands enclose parts of oceans forming .............................................. (larger/smaller) basins called seas.
6 Seas .............................................. (are/are not) connected to oceans.

Ex 2 Complete the crossword.

ACROSS
  1
   
1. The temperature in the Mediterranean
  2 1
     
is relatively …
               
2. The sea is constantly in …
    2
         
3. … decreases with depth and latitude
       
from the Equator lo the Poles.
        3
          4

4. This sea has the least salt in the world.


3
                   
               
DOWN
       
1. The quantity of salt in water is known as …
   
2. This hemisphere has less water.
4
         
3. Temperature and salinity determine …
   
4. The saltiest sea in the world. (the … Sea)

Ex 3 Match the two parts of each sentence.


1 Salinity indicates a. warm seas because of constant
evaporation.
2 The sea temperature decreases with b. fresh water from rivers and rain.
3 The sea temperature increases with c. warm water, because it is denser.
4 High salinity is typical of d. the quantity of salt in the water.
5 Very salty water is heavier than e. its temperature and salinity.

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6 Low salinity is typical of seas which


receive a constant flow of f. depth.
7 Cold water is heavier than g. latitude from the poles to the Equator.
8 The density of seawater varies according to h. less salty water.

1..... 2 ..... 3..... 4..... 5..... 6..... 7..... 8.....

Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 Which are the three characteristics of the seawater determining the formation
of water masses?
2 What do these water masses form?
3 How do they help to balance and redistribute the Sun’s heat all over the Earth?
4 What is the main difference between the waters of the Gulf Stream
and the Labrador Current?

Ex 5 Fill in the gaps.


The combined action of the Moon and the .............................................. force of the Earth cause tides to
occur. .............................................. tides usually happen when the Moon is full and the Sun and the
Moon are ............................................... .
On the contrary, when the Sun and Moon are .............................................. to each other, their forces do
not pull together and .............................................. tides occur. Every day the cycle of ..............................................

and low tides is repeated with a period of slack .............................................. occurring between tides.

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Unit 22 Test – The dead reckoning plot

Ex 1 Answer the questions.


1 What kinds of nautical information does a navigator use to plan the ship’s best course?
2 What is the track?
3 Why is a planned track line divided into segments?
4 What are these segments called?
5 What are junction points?
6 What does the track look like on the chart?

Ex 2 Complete the text with the missing words.


The term “dead reckoning” comes from …………………………………………… reckoning, which was
shortened to …………………………………… reckoning by sailors. It was a method established in the
………………………………… century (and used up to the early 20th century) to calculate the ship’s
position by making lots of trigonometric ……………………………………………. . Ded reckoning was then
modified to “dead reckoning”, which is the term still …………………………………………… today.
Nowadays it indicates a …………………………………………… to geometrically determine a ship’s
approximate position by applying a …………………………………………… representing true course and
speed to the last ……………………………………………. .

Ex 3 Fill in the table.


SOA stands for ……………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………… labels each leg of the track


……………………………………………………… speed in knots of the current
……………………………………………………… represents a fix
Leeway ……………………………………………………….

A semicircle ……………………………………………………….

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 Plot a DR position for the speed you obtain a fix. ……………………….....................

2 Plot a new wind line from each fix as soon as this is plotted
on the chart. ……………………….....................

3 Plot a new DR position at the time of every course and/or compass


change. ……………………….....................

4 Plot a corrected DR position if the predicted course line proved


wrong and continue from the first plotted fix. ……………………….....................

5 Plot a DR position every month. ……………………….....................

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Unit 23 Test – Petroleum

Ex 1 Answer the questions.


1 What are the main chemical components of petroleum?
2 What name is give to crude oil deposits?
3 What do they drill to extract petroleum?
4 Which is the lightest hydrocarbon?
5 Where is petroleum distillation carried out?
6 Which are the heaviest petroleum distillates?
7 What is the difference in the chemical composition of heavier
and lighter hydrocarbons?

Ex 2 Link and rewrite the pair of sentences using the relative pronoun which.
1 a. Fossil fuels are the main industrial fuels.
b. They are formed of hydrogen and carbon.
2 a. The combustible components of fossil fuels are hydrocarbons.
b. They are formed of hydrogen and carbon.
3 a. Petrol, diesel oil and kerosene are the main industrial fuels.
b. They are petroleum distillates.
4 a. Crude oil was formed from the chemical transformation of organic remains.
b. The organic remains deposited at the bottom of salty marshes and lagoons.

Ex 3 Fill in the gaps.


Crude oil is composed of a mixture of oils ………………………....... can be separated out into a number
of products, ………………………....... as petrol, diesel oil, kerosene and lubricants.
The main method …………………… separation is fractional distillation. Since the different oils have
………………………....... boiling temperatures, they are isolated in ………………………....... of different boiling
ranges. This separation process is carried out in a fractionating tower.

Ex 4 Underline and correct the mistakes in these sentences by changing the adjectives.
1 The temperature is lower at the bottom than at the top
of the tower. ……………………….....................

2 The hydrocarbons with the highest boiling point are condensed


at the top of the tower. ……………………….....................

3 The hydrocarbons that remain at the base of the column


are the lightest hydrocarbons. ……………………….....................

4 The heavier hydrocarbons rise to the top. ……………………….....................

5 The lighter hydrocarbons evaporate at higher temperatures. ……………………….....................

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6 The heavier hydrocarbons have fewer carbon atoms


in their molecules. ……………………….....................

Ex 5 Fill in the table.


1 In this process the heavy oils are heated to a temperature
of 450°C to break their molecules. ……………………….....................

2 It takes place when the fuel burns before the piston reaches
the cylinder bottom. ……………………….....................

3 The various kinds of petrol are distinguished by their... ……………………….....................

4 In this process the molecular chains of petrol are modified


to increase its octane value. ……………………….....................

5 It is a well-known aromatic hydrocarbon. ……………………….....................

6 They are added to petrol to increase the octane value. ……………………….....................

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Unit 24 Test – Kinds of energy & energy sources

Ex 1 Mark the following statements as True or False, then underline


the mistakes in the false sentences and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F Energy exists in two forms, as either mechanical
or kinetic energy. ........................................

2 T F Kinetic energy is the energy of position. ........................................

3 T F Kinetic energy is stored energy. ........................................

4 T F Stored energy can be liberated and transformed


into kinetic energy. ........................................

5 T F The chemical energy of the fuel is kinetic energy. ........................................

6 T F Fuel chemical energy is released


by the combustion process. ........................................

Ex 2 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.


them – the – there – fuels – can – cannot/can’t – known – were

………………............ are different types of energy and each of ………………............ can be converted into
another type: from chemical into thermal, into mechanical, etc. While energy ………………............

continuously be transformed, some of the primary energy sources ………………............ continuously


be replaced by Nature.
These are ………………............ as non-renewable energy sources and consist of fossil ………………............ :
coal, oil, natural gas. Fossil fuels are found in deposits which ………………............ created over many
thousands of years, from ………………............ chemical transformation of unicellular plants and
animals under the ground.

Ex 3 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is energy?
2 What form of energy is electrical energy?
3 What do we need energy sources for?
4 What is a heat engine? Give a definition.
5 Which is the best known of greenhouse gases?
6 When is it given off?

Ex 4 Choose the correct option.


1 Stored energy is:
a. kinetic energy.
b. chemical energy.
c. potential energy.

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2 Renewable energy sources are:


a. ever-diminishing.
b. continuously renewed by Nature.
c. produced by man.
3 Coal, oil and natural gas are:
a. produced by Nature in a short time cycle.
b. ever-increasing.
c. non-renewable energy sources.
4 A prime mover is:
a. a primary energy source.
b. an energy converter.
c. a renewable energy source.
5 Solar panels produce mechanical energy from:
a. natural power.
b. fossil fuels.
c. electrical energy.
6 The primary energy types derive from:
a. another type of energy.
b. kinetic energy.
c. an energy source.
7 The greenhouse effect is generated because:
a. the Sun’s heat escapes from the atmosphere.
b. the Sun’s heat is trapped in the atmosphere.
c. the Sun’s heat escapes into space.
8 The greenhouse effect
a. makes our planet colder.
b. makes our planet lighter.
c. makes our planet warmer.

Ex 5 Choose the correct words to fill in the gaps.


1 Solar panels are prime movers …………………… collect sunlight. who / what / which
2 Water wheels convert the natural power
of water …………………… mechanical energy. for / of / into
3 A hydro-turbine engine uses water …………………… drive its wheel. to / of / for
4 A fuel is a material …………………… producing heat
or other forms of energy. to / for / of
5 The various types of energy are classified …………………… primary
or secondary types. has / as / like
6 The energy stored in fuels is released …………………… a combustion
process. through / into / as

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Unit 25 Test – Heat energy & heat engines

Ex 1 Mark the following statements as True or False, then underline


the mistakes in the false sentences and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F The different types of energy can be completely converted
into heat. ........................................

2 T F Heat can be completely converted into another type of energy. ........................................

3 T F A heat engine converts more than 40% of the fuel’s energy


into mechanical work. ........................................

4 T F The heat energy which is not used to move the car


is dispersed into the surrounding air. ........................................

5 T F The less heat energy converted into mechanical work,


the less efficient the engine. ........................................

Ex 2 Choose the correct option.


1 Combustion is:
a. a physical reaction.
b. a gaseous process.
c. a chemical reaction.
2 Carbon monoxide is produced in the combustion process when:
a. there is too much oxygen in the combustion chamber.
b. there is the correct amount of oxygen in the combustion chamber.
c. there is too little oxygen in the combustion chamber.
3 Electric motors transform:
a. mechanical into electric energy.
b. electric into mechanical energy.
c. electric energy into heat.
4 The steam engine invented by James Watt was:
a. an external combustion engine.
b. an internal combustion engine.
c. an electric engine.
5 The moving parts of internal combustion engines are operated by:
a. a steam flow.
b. a flow of electricity.
c. a flow of exhaust gases.

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Ex 3 Complete the text with the words given in scrambled order.


inside – outside – working fluid – internal – external – mechanical work –
exhaust – steam turbines

Heat engines are given this name in this way because they convert thermal energy or heat into
……………………………................... . They are classified into two groups: internal and ……………………………..............

combustion engines. In external combustion engines, the combustion process takes place in a
boiler …………………………….............. the engine.
In internal combustion engines, combustion takes place in a combustion chamber
…………………………….............. the engine. The steam engine was invented by James Watt in 1765 and
today’s ……………………………........................ are external combustion engines. Reciprocating engines and
gas turbines are …………………………….............. combustion engines.
The moving parts of the engine, turbine blades and pistons, which transform thermal energy
into work, are moved by the action of a working fluid. Steam is the …………………………….............. that
moves the rotor blades in steam turbines; a flow of …………………………….............. gases from the
combustion process drives the pistons of reciprocating engines and the rotor of a gas turbine.

Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 How is thermal energy produced on a molecular level?
2 What are hydrocarbons chemically made up of?
3 Why are hydrocarbons excellent fuels?
4 What happens between oxygen and the hydrocarbons in the fuel
in the combustion process?
5 Which gas is produced in a burning process when fuel oxidation is complete?
6 What kind of energy is produced in a combustion process?
7 Where does this energy come from?
8 What does a heat engine do with thermal energy?

Ex 5 Fill in the gaps.


During the burning process, fossil fuels release …………………………….............. into the atmosphere. This
gas contributes to the …………………………….............. effect, through which the Sun’s
…………………………….............. is trapped in the lower layers of the atmosphere, making the Earth’s
surface ever ……………………………............... .

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Unit 26 Test – Radio communication on board

Ex 1 Fill in the table.

Channel 16 is used for ………………………………………………........…………………………………..…………………………………

Channel 13 is used worldwide for ……………………………………………………..........…………………………

navigation.

Channel 70 is used for ………………………………………………........…………………………………..…………………………………

Channel 68 is used in Italy for …………………………………………………………..........……………………….......

Ex 2 Write the full name for these acronyms.

VHF ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

ETA ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

CRS ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

ETD ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

SAR ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

RT ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

VTMS ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

MSI ………………………………………………………………………………………..........…………………………………………………….....….......

Ex 3 Answer the questions.


1 What is a ship’s call sign made up of and what is it?
2 Who assigns the call sign and when?
3 Why is the call sign recognised all over the world?
4 What is the MMSI number and when is it used?
5 What is the SMCP and why was it introduced?
6 When is the use of the SMCP particularly important and why?

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Ex 4 Fill in the gaps with the given words.


distance – hours – bow – North – miles – knots – bearing – degrees
1 Sandbank in position 20 degrees 34 minutes …………………….. , 061 degrees 24 minutes West.
2 My position is: …………………….. one-three-seven degrees true from Bushy Lighthouse;
…………………….. two four decimal three miles.
3 Buoy 060 degrees on your port …………………….. .
4 My present course is 050 …………………….. to Dover Buoy.
5 My position is 5.6 ……………………..from Sulley Point.
6 My present speed is 13 decimal 5 …………………….. .
7 My ETA is 0500 …………………….. Local Time.

Ex 5 Indicate the correct message marker for each message.


1 Do you require a tug for berthing procedures? ……………...................……….

2 Dangerous obstruction in fairway approaching Milton docks. ……………...................……….

3 You must keep south of the fairway buoy. ……………...................……….

4 I require a pilot at cross hands pilot station. ……………...................……….

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Unit 27 Test – Radio messages

Ex 1 Put the phrases in a routine ship-to-shore call in the correct order.


1..... 2..... 3..... 4..... 5..... 6....

a. OVER.
b. On Ch 16, Position report.
c. Suggest Channel 73.
d. Lucky 499912345, Lucky 499912345.
e. Swansea Coast Guard, Swansea Coast Guard,
f. THIS IS

Ex 2 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 We use VHF channel 73 to establish contact. ……………………….....................

2 After establishing contact we switch to a safety channel. ……………………….....................

3 Channel 13 must be left free for Distress, Urgency and Safety Calls. ……………………….....................

4 A ship is identified by her name, call sign or IMO number. ……………………….....................

5 When sailing in foreign waters we identify our ship twice. ……………………….....................

6 We use the code word OVER to signal the end of communication. ……………………….....................

Ex 3 Answer the questions.


1 What is the standard request for a readability report?
2 What kind of reception is indicated by the number five in the readability code?
3 On which two channels are ships required to maintain a listening watch?
4 What is the order of priority in the four kinds of maritime radiotelephony
communications?
5 What does the transmission of the signal MAYDAY indicate?
6 How often is this signal repeated?

Ex 4 Make up the ship’s call and message, using the following information
and repeating words where necessary.
The tanker Aegean Dolphin 299344678 is travelling through the Straits of Gibraltar. The ship has
struck a submerged rock, the hull is holed and the engine room is flooded. The ship is fully loaded
and now she is heavily leaning to one side. The captain sends a Mayday to the Coast Guard.
OVER – ten nautical miles south of the Rock of Gibraltar, position: 36°2’N, 5° 20 W – Aegean
Dolphin 299344678 – MAYDAY – holed and listing heavily, Engine Room flooded and taking
on water – thirty-six people on board, seas rough

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Distress call
……………………………………………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………………

Distress message
Distress signal …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

Name and MMSI/call


sign ……………………….....................…………………………………...................………………………

Position …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

…………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

Nature of distress …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

…………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

Other information …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

…………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

End message …………………………………………………….....................…………………………………...................………………

Ex 5 Fill in the gaps.


An urgency message may only be sent on the authority of the ………………………............... , skipper or
other person responsible for the vessel. The Urgency signal ………………………............... is repeated
three times, indicating that the calling station needs to transmit a very urgent message about
the ………………………............... capability of the vessel or about a person’s safety. The safety signal
………………………............... is usually transmitted to ………………………............... stations and communicates
important navigational or ………………………............... warnings.

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Unit 28 Test – Reciprocating engines

Ex 1 Fill in the gaps.


The ……………………...................... or piston engine is the most common type of ……………………......................

combustion engine. In piston engines ……………………...................... energy is produced in a four-step


cycle. This consists of intake and compression, combustion and ……………………...................... of waste
gases, produced in the combustion process. This ……………………...................... can either be performed
in two or in four piston ……………………....................... .
There are two types of reciprocating engine: the petrol engine and the diesel engine. They are
also known as ……………………......................-ignition engines and ……………………......................-ignition engines.
In petrol engines the fuel-and-air ……………………...................... is set on fire by a ……………………...................... at
the end of the compression stroke. In ……………………...................... engines there is no need for spark
plugs, since the atomised fuel burns as soon as it enters the ……………………...................... and comes
into contact with the very hot compressed air.

Ex 2 Mark the following sentences as True or False, then underline


the mistakes in the false sentences and write the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 T F Piston engines burn a mixture of fuel and air
in a closed cylinder. ……………………..............

2 T F When air is compressed, the air-temperature is decreased. ……………………..............

3 T F In a petrol engine, the air-temperature is higher than


in a diesel engine. ……………………..............

4 T F Petrol engines operate in a four-stroke cycle. ……………………..............

5 T F In most petrol engines, fuel and air are mixed together


outside the combustion chamber. ……………………..............

6 T F Diesel engines intake only air. ……………………..............

Ex 3 Complete the crossword.


ACROSS
1. In a four-stroke piston engine, three piston strokes are like this.
2. Shaft that controls the opening of the valves.
3. This is the largest component of a reciprocating engine.
4. This is the most important piece of a reciprocating engine.
5. Number of the up-and-down movements of the piston in a cycle.
6. In a petrol engine, the mixture is ignited by an electric…

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DOWN
1. A tube in which the pistons move up and down.
2. Used to fill the gap between the piston and the cylinder wall.
3. It converts the pistons’ reciprocating movement into rotary motion.
4. Fuel and air were mixed here.
5. Heavy disc at one end of an engine shaft.
6. They spray diesel fuel into the combustion chamber.

2 3

1 4

5 2

R
3 6
C

E
4 5

Ex 4 Talk about the diesel engine and answer the questions


by writing complete sentences.
1 In the working cycle of a 4-stroke diesel engine, in what steps or phases
is mechanical power produced?
2 Which part of the engine transforms heat into mechanical work and when?
3 In the working cycle of a 4-stroke diesel engine, how many times does
the piston reciprocate to complete a cycle?
4 What is compressed in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine?
5 Where and when does the fuel mix with air in a diesel engine?
6 What does the “direct fuel injection system” help to reduce?

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Unit 29 Test – Turbine engines

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What are the main advantages of steam turbines over diesel engines?
2 Indicate at least two disadvantages arising from the application of turbine engines
to ship propulsion.
3 What are the two essential functional parts of a steam turbine engine?
4 What is the function of a steam distributor?
5 In which part of the engine is mechanical energy produced?

Ex 2 In what parts of a gas turbine do these working steps occur? Fill in the gaps.
1 The air kinetic energy is increased in the ……………………...................... by adding pressure energy.
2 The fluid receives heat energy as it burns with the fuel in the ……………………....................... .
3 The heat energy of the hot gases is converted back into kinetic energy
by the ……………………...................... blades.
4 The efflux of high velocity gases which is generated is partly used to operate
the ……………………......................, while the remaining energy can be used for useful work
to operate machinery.

Ex 3 Complete the text with the missing words.


Nowadays, steam turbines are used in ……………………...................... plants, such as electric
……………………...................... stations, and very few are still found on board ship. Gas turbines are used
in many ……………………...................... vessels, in some container ships and fast ferries.
Both gas turbines and piston engines have a .............-step working cycle, but the steps follow one
after the ……………………...................... in the cylinders of a diesel engine, while they are performed at
the same time in the different parts of a gas turbine. In fact, the gas turbine engine eliminates
the ……………………...................... idle strokes, because combustion occurs continuously.

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 A steam turbine is an internal combustion engine. ……………………......................

2 The steam flow enters the turbine through the moving elements
of the engine. ……………………......................

3 After entering the engine, steam has a high pressure


and a low velocity. ……………………......................

4 As steam expands, its velocity is reduced. ……………………......................

5 Impulse turbines have alternate rows of stationary


and moving blades. ……………………......................

6 Steam expands in the stationary parts of the engine. ……………………......................

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Ex 5 Choose the correct option.


1 Reaction hydraulic turbines work on the same principle as:
a. the steam flow.
b. the water wheel.
c. the windmill.
2 The sails of a windmill rotate:
a. in the same direction as the wind.
b. in the opposite direction to the wind.
c. like the blades of a water wheel.
3 The blades of the impulse hydraulic turbine rotate:
a. in the same direction as the water current.
b. in the opposite direction to the water current.
c. like the sails of a windmill.
4 Impulse turbines work on the same principle as:
a. the steam flow.
b. the water wheel.
c. the windmill.
5 A gas turbine is:
a. an internal combustion engine.
b. an external combustion engine.
c. an outside combustion engine.
6 The hot gases produced in the combustion process:
a. are used to drive the turbine blades.
b. are used to drive the compressor.
c. are discharged outside the engine.
7 The working fluid of a gas turbine is:
a. methane gas.
b. air.
c. hot expanding gases.
8 The working fluid of a steam turbine is:
a. hot expanding gases.
b. steam.
c. air.

Ex 6 Complete the text about steam turbines.


In the ……………………...................... turbine, steam expands totally in the ……………………...................... , where
the steam heat energy is converted into kinetic energy. Here steam loses pressure but acquires
……………………....................... .
In the reaction turbine, steam expands both in the ……………………...................... and in the moving
blades. Therefore, steam ……………………...................... is constantly reduced as the steam flow passes
through both sets of blades. Steam velocity, instead, is increased in the ……………………......................

blades.

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Unit 30 Test – The inert gas system

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What is an inert gas?
2 What type of cargoes do oil tankers and chemical carriers carry?
3 What is inert gas obtained from?
4 What happens in a scrubbing and cooling tower?
5 What is the function of a deck water seal?
6 What is the function of a pressure-vacuum breaker?

Ex 2 Fill in the gaps.


In the ……………………...................... tanks which contain crude oil or petroleum by-products, a highly
………….............................. mixture of air and hydrocarbon ……………………...................... is formed. This
flammable mixture may catch ……………………...................... for many accidental reasons, as, for
example, a sudden ……………………...................... discharge. To ……………………...................... any accidental fire
or explosion from taking place in the cargo tanks on board oil ……………………...................... and
chemical carriers, the atmospheric air in the cargo tanks ……………………........ replaced by inert gas.
This gas contains such a ……………………...................... percentage of oxygen as to be unable to feed a
……………………...................... process.

Ex 3 Complete each sentence with a suitable verb in the correct form to express purpose.
1 Inert gas is used on board oil tankers ……………………...................... atmospheric air in the cargo
tanks.
2 Compressors are used ……………………...................... the inert gas to the desired pressure.
3 Inert gas is used on board ……………………...................... the atmosphere inert in the cargo tanks.
4 Since inert gas contains too little oxygen and is not safe to breathe, it is necessary
……………………...................... inert gas by ventilation with fresh air, before technicians can
inspect them.

Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 The inert gas enters the deck seal under pressure when the system
is not in operation. ……………………..............

2 When the gas pressure is too low, the oil rises up the cylinder
of the pressure vacuum breaker and pushes the gas out into
the atmosphere. ……………………..............

3 The gas is sent to the cargo tanks at a pressure lower than


atmospheric pressure. ……………………..............

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4 When the gas pressure is too high, the oil rises up the gas inlet tube
of a pressure vacuum breaker and pushes the gas up into the pipeline. ……………………..............

Ex 5 Complete the crossword.

1 2

3
N O
1
E P

43
Z

4
D T

ACROSS
1. Industrial plants where inert gas is used for tank protection and pipeline cleansing.
2. A deck-water seal is a ...
3. It constantly monitors the oxygen content in the inert gas.
4. This filter absorbs the water moisture in the gas.

DOWN
1. The gas flows to the cargo tanks through this line of tubes.
2. They bring the gas to a temperature of minus 60/70 °C.
3. One of the main components of inert gas.
4. This is what some goods become on contact with the air.

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Class ...................... Date ................................. Student ..............................................................................................................

Unit 31 Test – The GMDSS

Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing complete sentences.


1 What does the acronym GMDSS stand for?
2 Why is it called a global system?
3 What is the GMDSS designed to ensure?
4 When did the GMDSS become fully operational?
5 What kinds of technology is the GMDSS based on?
6 Who can receive a distress call in the GMDSS system?
7 What is the INMARSAT?
8 Which are the Inmarsat regions?
9 What do we find in the Land Earth Stations located all around the globe?
10 Is there any Italian LES?
11 Which cargo vessels are requested to carry the GMDSS mandatory equipment?
12 Which passenger ships are requested to carry the GMDSS mandatory equipment?

Ex 2 Fill in the gaps.


Digital Selective Calling (……………………) is used to automate the transmission and ……………………......

of distress alerts sent via VHF, MF and HF ……………………. . In every message the DSC transmitter-
receiver automatically includes the ship’s identity with the …………………… number of the calling
ship. The DSC unit stores four different types of message. These may be distress, ……………………..... ,
safety or routine calls. At the coast station, ship-to-shore distress …………………… receive priority
handling and are routed to the nearest ……………………...... Coordination Centre (RCC). On board
ship, DSC receivers sound an …………………… when a distress call is received.

Ex 3 Complete the table about the GMDSS mandatory communication equipment.


1 The special buoy which automatically transmits the ship’s identity,
position and alarm call on the satellite radio frequency. …………………………..........

2 A portable Radar Transponder (receiver and transmitter) designed


to be used in lifeboats. …………………………..........

3 The overall term for weather reports, navigational warnings


and Search and Rescue information which can be transmitted
by navigational telex (NAVTEX). …………………………..........

4 This means of communication is designed to operate in the VHF


marine band in voice mode, allowing communications between
searching vessels and survivors in lifeboats. …………………………..........

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Ex 4 Fill in the table with the GMDSS sea areas.


Sea Area
1 This is the sea area which lies within the coverage
of an Inmarsat geostationary satellite. ……………………

2 This is the sea area which lies above 70° N and below 70° S. ……………………

3 This is a sea area approximately within 100-150 nautical miles. ……………………

4 This is the sea area over 150 miles from the coast where ships must
carry an Inmarsat earth station. ……………………

5 This is the sea area which lies within the radiotelephone coverage
of at least one VHF coast station. ……………………

6 This sea area lies within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one
MF coast station. ……………………

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Class ...................... Date ................................. Student ..............................................................................................................

Unit 32 Test – Integrated navigation

Ex 1 Answer the questions.


1 What is an Integrated Bridge System?
2 What is the role of the primary computer in an Integrated Bridge System?
3 What kind of information is continuously updated? (Give at least three examples)
4 Why can the number of workstations and monitors vary?
5 What do IMO safety requirements recommend in the case of failure
of an instrument or equipment?
6 What does ABS stand for and what is it?

Ex 2 Fill in the table.


A …………………………………….. gives gyrocompass bearings.
………………………………………… measure water surface speed.
………………………………………… measure SOG.
………………………………………… measure the distance between the keel and the seabed.
………………………………………… measure wind direction and speed.
………………………………………… indicates stationary or moving objects near the ship.
………………………………………… indicates the ship’s position using information
from a satellite.
………………………………………… Navigational telex.

Ex 3 Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and write


the corrections on the dotted lines.
1 ARPA stands for Automatic Range Plotting Aids. ……………………….....................

2 An ARPA target is measured by range and speed from


one’s own ship. ……………………….....................

3 The ARPA system sounds an echo sounder when there is any


danger of collision with another ship. ……………………….....................

4 The system calculates the necessary and possible manoeuvres


needed to cause a collision. ……………………….....................

5 These manoeuvres are known as trick manoeuvres. ……………………….....................

6 The system chooses the most suitable manoeuvre


to avoid collision. ……………………….....................

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Ex 4 Fill in the gaps.


The essential task of the ………………………………………… (OOW) is to ensure the ship’s safe navigation.
This means that bridge workstations display a series of ………………………………………… and
………………………………………… alarms. The OOW should always “…………………………………………” an alarm and
take action to adjust the indicated problem. The ship’s movement is also monitored by visual
observation from the ………………………………………… station or position, which allows the OOW a
“commanding view”. Integrated Bridge Systems also have a route planning workstation which
today is usually fitted with an ECDIS, specifically designed to display …………………………………………. .

Ex 5 Reorder the steps in planning a route on an ECDIS.


(No. 6 has already been done to help you)
1..... 2..... 3..... 4..... 5..... 6e 7..... 8..... 9.....
a. Enter a safety draft.
b. Establish a safety domain.
c. Visualise your route.
d. Check your whole route in detail.
e. Create your passage plan. (No. 6)
f. Enter your own ship’s draft and establish a safety contour based on your draft.
g. Save your route and export it to the workstation.
h. Check that you have the necessary up-to-date ENC charts.
i. Enter beam clearance.

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Key to tests

Unit 1 – The main parts of a ship 6 When you go across the ship from side to
side you go abeam.
Ex 1 Complete the crossword. One definition
has been inserted to help you. (4 marks, Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following
0.5 for each answer) sentences and write the corrections on the
dotted lines. (6 marks)
1
B 1 The hull is divided horizontally
2 3
O B O W by bulkheads. decks
T A 2 In a liquid cargo ship, the hull
T
4
S
5
S T E R N is divided into holds. tanks
6
P O R T E 3 The double bottom tanks are
M A R
used to contain fresh water
R
7
H U L L
and ballast. fuel
4 The superstructure is the
B I
permanent housing below deck. above
O N
8 5 The hull is divided vertically
M A I N D E C K by decks. bulkheads
R 6 The part below the surface of
9
A M I D S H I P S the water under the waterline
is known as the upper works. bottom
Ex 2 Write the names of the parts of a ship to
Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing
label the diagram. Item 5 has been inserted
complete sentences. (6 marks)
as an example. (8 marks)
1 The fore part of the hull is the bow, the
central part is the amidships and the aft part
1
is the stern.
2 3 2 The central line is an imaginary vertical
4 4 4 4 plane which divides the hull into two halves/
5 sides.
8 6 6 E.R. 6 6 7
3 The right side is called the starboard, the
9 9 9 9 left side is called the port.
4 The waterline is a line on the ship’s sides
1 Bridge superstructure parallel to the surface of the water.
2 Poop 5 The part of the hull above the waterline is
3 Forecastle called the upper works, the part below the
4 ’Tween decks waterline is the bottom.
5 Engine Room 6 On dry cargo ships the cargo space is
6 Holds divided into holds.
7 Fore peak tanks
8 After peak tanks
9 Double bottom tanks Unit 2 – Ships’ measurements
Ex 3 Refer to the ship diagram in Ex 2 and
and specifications
complete the sentences using once each of Ex 1 Label the diagrams about the ship’s
the following words. (6 marks) dimensions. (8 marks)
1 The bridge superstructure is aft of the 1 Length between perpendiculars
forecastle. 2 Length at the waterline
2 Towards the bow is forward. 3 Length overall/overall length
3 The bridge superstructure is above the main 4 Freeboard
deck. 5 Air draft
4 The engine room is located amidships. 6 Beam/extreme breadth
5 The holds are situated below the ’tween 7 Draft
decks. 8 Depth

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Ex 2 Write the definitions. (6 marks) Unit 3 – Ship classification


1 Displacement
Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing
It refers to the weight of the ship.
complete sentences. (10 marks)
2 Deadweight
1 They are used for commercial
Weight of the cargo that a ship can carry/The
transportation providing a profit for the
ship’s maximum carrying capacity.
shipping companies.
3 Light displacement
2 The two main categories of merchant ships
Weight of the unloaded ship.
are passenger ships and cargo ships.
4 Tonnage
3 There are two kinds of passenger ships
Measure of the internal volume of the ship.
in use today: the cruise ship and the
5 Gross tonnage
ferry.
Volume of all closed spaces on board ship.
4 They can be divided into two basic types:
6 Net tonnage
liquid or dry cargo ships, depending on the
Volume of the earning spaces on board ship
type of cargo they carry.
(holds and passengers’ cabins). 5 Refrigerated ships carry perishable goods
Ex 3 Choose the correct option. (5 marks) like meat, fruit or dairy produce, because
1c, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5a they have refrigerated holds.
6 They are often carried in bulk on dry bulk
Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following
carriers.
sentences and write the corrections on the
7 Dredgers are used to drag the sea bottom.
dotted lines. (8 marks)
8 “Unrestricted navigation” means that a ship
1 The longest dimension for
can sail on the high seas and at any period of
measuring a ship is the length
the year.
between perpendiculars. shortest
9 An OBO ship can carry both dry bulk cargo,
2 The extreme breadth is
such as grain or ore, and crude oil.
sometimes indicated as the draft. beam
10 Crude oil is carried on crude oil
3 The depth is the horizontal tankers.
distance between keel and the
main deck. vertical Ex 2 Complete the following definitions using
4 The freeboard is the vertical the words given in scrambled order.
distance between the load line (10 marks)
and the main deck. waterline 1 Boats are small open vessels.
2 Boats are suitable for inland navigation.
5 Deadline is the ship’s maximum
3 Boats are suitable for sailing distances less
carrying capacity. Deadweight
than 6 nautical miles.
6 Gross tonnage refers to the 4 Boats are used for lifeboats, coastal fishing,
ship’s earning capacity. Net water sports.
7 If the ship needs the assistance of 5 Ships are of a considerable size.
a pilot, she has to pay towage fees. tug 6 Ships are propelled by an engine.
8 The International Tonnage 7 Ships are equipped to carry goods,
Certificate is determined by an passengers, vehicles on the open sea.
IALA formula. IMO 8 Ships can sail variable distances from the
Ex 5 Complete the specifications chart with coast.
the following items. (3 marks, 0.5 for each Ex 3 Underline the mistakes in the following
answer) sentences and write the corrections on the
Ocean Princess 3 dotted lines. (6 marks)
Builder Cuthbert & Sons 1 Buoyancy is the ship’s
Length oa 79.40 m capability to sink. float
Breadth 13.65 m 2 Stability is the ship’s
Draft 4.00 m capability to lose her balance
DWT (Deadweight) 1,600 t after being inclined. regain
GT (Gross tonnage) 1,250 3 Impermeability is the ship’s
Main engines output 11,000 kW capability to change her
Service speed 12.5 knots course. Manoeuvrability

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4 Sea-kindliness means that Shortly before launching, the propeller and


the rolling movements of the engines are installed. As the ship is
the ship are fast. slow launched, she is christened by breaking a
5 Variability is the ship’s ability bottle of champagne on her hull. Then the
to sail at a given speed. Movability ship is towed to the outfitting pier, where the
6 Seaworthy means that the ship outfitting work is carried out.
is unsuitable for navigation. suitable Next the ship is taken for a trial trip, then she
is finally delivered to the owner.
Ex 4 Fill in the table. (4 marks)
1 The Italian classification authority Ex 4 Match each term with its definition.
Registro Italiano Navale (7 marks)
2 The British classification authority 1g, 2e, 3d, 4f, 5c, 6b, 7a
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing
3 International Convention for Safety complete sentences. (8 marks)
of Life at Sea 1 A naval architect draws the ship’s design
SOLAS according to the owner’s requirements.
4 Navigation notation indicates 2 The classification society registers and
the distance ships can sail from the coast classifies the ship after ascertaining that she is
5 The ship’s identity card seaworthy and suitable to carry the number
Certificate of Registry of passengers or the cargo she has been
designed to carry.
6 Distinctive number or letters is also
known as 3 Outfitting work includes completing the
call sign installation of the propulsion and auxiliary
machinery, with the electric system and the
7 International Tonnage Certificate
installation of navigating and radio
the ship’s gross and net tonnage
equipment.
8 The Load Line Certificate indicates
4 The owner decides upon the vessel type, its
the minimum freeboard after loading cargo and passenger capacity, its speed and
maximum draft.
UNIT 4 – Shipbuilding 5 The qualified surveyors make constant
controls during the building process to make
Ex 1 Rewrite the following sentences in the sure that the ship is being built to the
passive form. (6 marks) standards of the classification society.
a First the keel is built. 6 Ships are built and repaired in shipyards.
b Finally, the superstructure is installed. 7 Double bottoms are tested for tightness
c After this, work is begun on building the ship. before the vessel is launched.
d First of all, the working plans are approved by
8 During the trial trip, the ship and her
the classification society.
equipment are thoroughly tested. The ship is
e Then the side framing and bulkheads are
operated at varying speeds to check the
erected. maximum power and measure fuel
f Next, the bottom with its plating is consumption.
laid out.
Ex 2 Now put the sentences in the correct
order to indicate the basic building steps. UNIT 5 – Visual & sound signals
(3 marks) and communication codes
1d, 2c, 3a, 4f, 5e, 6b Ex 1 Complete the following definitions.
Ex 3 Complete the text with the missing verbs (6 marks)
given in scrambled order. (6 marks) 1 IMO stands for
Ships are built in shipyards. Shipyards are International Maritime Organisation.
located near the sea to allow vessels to be 2 An Aldis lamp is used to send
launched from the building ways. Usually, visual signals.
ships are launched when about two-thirds are 3 To make a sound signal we use
completed. a siren, whistle or bell.

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4 Each letter or number is made up of a series Ex 5 Listen to your teacher and complete the
of dots and dashes in the following document. (6 marks)
Morse code.
Name of ship Call sign
5 Pennant-shaped flags are used to signal
numbers. A WHALE BUAU7
6 The meaning of each flag is indicated in the A.B. DUBLIN V2BL4
International Code of Signals. AZURE RHAPSODY CQVP
Ex 2 Mark the following sentences as True or
False, then underline the mistakes in the false
sentences and write the corrections on the UNIT 6 – The IALA Buoyage System
dotted lines. (6 marks) & ship navigation lights
1 (T)
Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing
2 (F) Nowadays the Engine Officer
complete sentences. (8 marks)
is usually responsible for the radio
1 The acronym IALA stands for International
department on board ship. Deck Officer
Association of Lighthouse Authorities.
3 (F) In the past, messages were
2 In 1976 the IALA unified the world’s
transmitted by radio telegraphy
buoyage system, putting an end to the 30
using the flag code. Morse code
dissimilar systems existing at the time.
4 (T)
3 The present system consists of six types of
5 (F) The phonetic code for R
buoys or marks: lateral marks, cardinal marks,
is ROGER. ROMEO
isolated danger marks, safe water marks,
6 (F) The main language used
special marks and wreck marks.
for radio communications is
4 They can have different shapes, different
Italian. English colours and top marks.
Ex 3 Answer the questions. (6 marks) 5 You find buoys near the coast, on the edges
1 To communicate with other ships or shore of channels and fairways at the entrance to
stations where people may speak a different ports, because their general purpose is to
language. ensure the safety of ships navigating near the
2 It is now regulated by the IMO, the coast.
International Maritime Organisation. 6 Yes, safe water marks have vertical stripes.
3 The code gives information on the various 7 Special marks indicate an area that is used
ways of signalling (instruments and methods) for special purposes, for example, a
and contains tables indicating, for example, waterskiing area, or the position of pipelines
the Morse code, the different kinds of flags and sewerage pipes.
and phonetic tables. 8 Lateral marks indicate the port-hand side
4 These can be used for transmitting letters, and the starboard-hand side of a channel or
numbers or even coded messages. harbour.
5 The “O” flag also stands for “Man Ex 2 Which is Which? Indicate the correct
Overboard”. type of buoy for each purpose. (4 marks)
6 Today, English is the language used for 1 They indicate the position of a hazard to
communications between ships of different shipping. Isolated danger marks
nationalities. 2 They indicate the edges of a channel.
Ex 4 Write the full form of these numbers. Lateral marks
(6 marks) 3 They indicate that there is deep water
a 3,422 three thousand four hundred and around them. Safe water marks
twenty-two 4 They indicate the safe side on which to pass
b 1.45 one point four five a danger. Cardinal marks
c 226 two hundred and twenty-six Ex 3 Which is Which? Indicate the correct type
d 0.37 zero or nought point three seven of buoy for each type of topmark. (6 marks)
e 22,402 twenty-two thousand four hundred 1 They can have a red sphere as a topmark.
and two Safe water marks
f 1,436,000 one million four hundred and 2 They have a red can as a topmark. Port-hand
thirty-six thousand marks

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3 Their topmark is two black cones with their 5 (F) Longitude is indicated as
bases together. East cardinal mark North or South of Greenwich. East or West
4 They have two black spheres as a topmark. 6 (F) Parallels are larger as
Isolated danger mark they get nearer to the poles. smaller. They
5 They have a green cone as a topmark. are larger as
Starboard-hand mark they get to the
6 Their topmark is two black cones pointing Equator
downwards. South cardinal mark Ex 3 Choose the correct option. (6 marks)
Ex 4 Choose the correct option. (6 marks) 1a, 2c, 3a, 4b, 5a, 6b
1c, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5c, 6b Ex 4 Fill in the table. (8 marks)
Ex 5 Complete the paragraph about ships at Nautical mile
night. (6 marks) Unit of measurement for distances at sea
Vessels which navigate at night must have 1,853 metres
navigation lights, so that other vessels can see if Length of a nautical table
there is a danger of collision and take action to Number of time zones
avoid it. All vessels show a green light on the 24
right side of the ship (starboard) and a red light Degrees of longitude of each time zone
on the left (port) side. They must show a white 15°
stern light (behind or astern). The red and Time zone 0 is
green lights mentioned are called sidelights. Greenwich
Ships must also show at least one masthead The speed of a ship is measured in
light on the high mast. Ships which are more Knots
than 50 m long must have two masthead lights. 1 nm/h
1 knot
It measures the ship’s speed
UNIT 7 – Geographical coordinates Log/speedometer
Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing
complete sentences. (10 marks) UNIT 8 – Navigational aids
1 We use geographical coordinates to locate and instruments
a place on the Earth’s surface.
2 The Equator divides the Earth into two Ex 1 Mark the following sentences as True or
hemispheres. False, then underline the mistakes in the false
3 Europe is located in the northern hemisphere. sentences and write the corrections on the
4 The Equator is the Prime Parallel. dotted lines. (10 marks)
5 The meridian running through Greenwich 1 (T)
2 (F) Magnetic or true north is
in London is the prime meridian.
the point of the Earth’s axis where
6 The latitude of a place is its distance from
the equator.
all meridians converge. Geographic
3 (T)
7 The longitude of a place is its distance from
4 (F) The continuous fluctuations
Greenwich meridian.
in the Earth’s magnetic field cause
8 The latitude of the North Pole is 90° North.
the geographic poles to shift
9 The longitude of Greenwich is 0°.
their position. magnetic
10 The 180° meridian is called the Anti-
5 (F) The gyrocompass always
meridian and it is located in the Pacific Ocean;
indicates the magnetic north. true/geographic
for example, it runs through the Fiji Islands.
6 (F) A magnetic compass
Ex 2 Mark the following sentences as True or always indicates the
False, then underline the mistakes in the false geographic north. magnetic
sentences and write the corrections on the 7 (T)
dotted lines. (6 marks) 8 (T)
1 (T) 9 (T)
2 (T) 10 (F) When in a given area the
3 (F) There are 180 meridians. 360 magnetic north is east of true north,
4 (T) the variation is negative. positive

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Ex 2 Fill in the table. (8 marks) position extremely accurately anywhere on the


1 RADAR stands for... Earth’s surface. The receiver works out the time
Radio Direction And Ranging. delay for the signal to arrive and uses data
2 Type of radio frequencies used by Radar from 3 satellites to indicate our position as a
systems. geographical point in latitude and longitude.
Microwave Radio Frequencies
3 Ships use the time elapsed between emission
and return of the pulse signal to calculate... UNIT 9 – The Deck Department
the target distance. Ex 1 Complete the table showing how a ship’s
4 The angle formed by the distance of a star crew is organized. (4 marks, 0.5 for each
or planet above the horizon. answer)
Altitude 1 Captain / Master
5 Sonar stands for... Highest authority on ship
Sound Navigation and Ranging. 2 Chief / First Officer / Mate
6 Speed of sound in water is around... Head of a department
1,500 metres per second. 3 Second Officer / Mate
7 Bathymetric curves indicate... Assists the department head
the shape of the seabed. 4 Third Officer / Mate
8 Echo sounders are often used to locate Next in ranking
shoals of fish on board... 5 Boatswain / Bosun
fishing boats. Supervises ratings
Ex 3 Fill in the name of each instrument. 6 Able Seamen
(7 marks) Ratings (full name for AS)
1 Instrument used for determining direction 7 Ordinary Seamen
which always points to geographic north. Ratings (full name for OS)
Gyrocompass 8 Cadet Officers
2 Instrument used for measuring distance and Officers in training
position of target objects. Ex 2 Match the documents on the left with
RADAR their description on the right. (7 marks)
3 Instrument used for scanning the various 1d, 2g, 3f, 4e, 5c, 6b, 7a
levels of the seabed and producing maps of
Ex 3 Choose the correct option. (4 marks)
the underwater relief.
1b, 2a, 3c, 4b
Sonar
4 Instrument used for determining direction Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following
by means of a magnetic needle that points to sentences and write the corrections on the
magnetic north. dotted lines. (5 marks)
Magnetic compass 1 The Second Mate plans the
5 Instrument used for measuring the sea depth daily maintenance programme. Chief Officer
and also locating the presence of shoals of fish. 2 The Bosun checks that the First
Echo sounder Officer carries out these orders. crew
6 Instrument used for finding a ship’s speed 3 ABs carry out painting duties
through the water and the distance covered. such as maintaining the ship’s
Log/solcometer course. navigational
7 Instrument used for measuring altitudes 4 OS is the highest rank in the
and other angles. Deck Department. lowest
Gyrocompass 5 ABs often have to wash and
Ex 4 Try to fill in the 5 gaps in the text. (5 marks)
sweep the deck. OSs
Nowadays satellites are gradually replacing Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing
transmitting stations on the Earth. Each satellite complete sentences. (8 marks)
emits microwave radio signals indicating its 1 A winch is used to pull in or let out rope.
position which are picked up by a GPS receiver. 2 Because they are strong, elastic and
GPS stands for Global Positioning System and it resistant to the action of water.
currently has 31 satellites orbiting around the 3 A capstan is used to wind the ship’s anchor
Earth. This system allows us to calculate our cable.

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4 Capstans are replaced by a hydraulically or Ex 3 Write the function of each piece of


pneumatically operated windlass on board machinery. (8 marks)
large ships. 1 Oil or water coolers
5 Bollards are short vertical posts on the quay. They cool oil or water.
6 Dry goods are transferred by derricks, 2 Feed-water heaters (economisers)
cranes and conveyor belts. They heat the boiler feed water.
7 A cargo ship is gearless when it is not fitted 3 The ballast pumping system
with cargo gear. It pumps water in and out of ballast tanks.
8 RO/RO ships load cargo over ramps through 4 Evaporators
stern, bow or side ports. They produce fresh water.
5 Engine shafts
Ex 6 Put the mooring instructions in the
They transmit engine power to the propeller.
correct order. (2 marks, 0.5 for each answer) 6 Lifeboats
1d, 2c, 3b, 4a They provide safety.
(The instructions below are in the correct order.) 7 Automatic pilot
1 Single up forward, single up aft. It provides remote control of the rudder.
2 Let go forward! Let go aft! 8 Electricity generators
3 All gone and clear. They supply the ship with electrical power (and
4 Finished with manoeuvring stations. lighting).
Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following
UNIT 10 – The Engine Department sentences and write the corrections on the
dotted lines. (6 marks)
Ex 1 Complete the table showing how the
1 The Master is the head
Engine Department is organized. (3 marks,
of the Engine Department. Chief Engineer
0.5 for each answer)
2 Engineer Officers regularly
Head of the Engine
update the Navigation
Department Chief Engineer Logbook. Engine Room
The person the head of the 3 The Engine Logbook contains
Engine Department is information on the operation
responsible to The Chief of engines, boilers and secondary
Engineer is machinery. auxiliary
responsible to 4 Firemen are responsible
the Master for general oiling duties. Greasers
The two Officers below the 5 In the Logbook we find machinery
head in ranking Second Engineer, parameters such as frying oil and
Third Engineer lubricating oil consumption. fuel
Two Engine Department 6 The auxiliary engines provide
ratings Firemen, the ship’s propulsion. main
Greasers
Ex 5 Complete the table about the Engine
Ex 2 Answer the questions by writing Control Room (ECR) equipment. (8 marks)
complete sentences. (5 marks)
Generator panel
1 The Chief Engineer is responsible for the Shows electrical parameters such as voltage
safe and efficient operation of the ship’s and load. Engineers can decide on how many
engines and auxiliary machinery. electricity generators to keep in operation.
2 The Chief Engineer is responsible for safety
Electrical switchboard
and prevention of pollution in the engine room.
Controls the power supply to the various
3 The Third Engineer is responsible for repair
machinery.
and maintenance/looks after the repair and
maintenance of all electrical equipment. Voltmeter and ammeter
4 Engineer Cadets are training in the Engine Show voltage and current flow for all major
Room to complete their education under the equipment.
senior ranks. Alarm panel
5 Auxiliary machinery refers to all machinery on Monitors tank levels, temperature and
board, except for the main engines and boilers. pressure of machinery.

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Allows engineers to take action when an 1 When it passes through filters and strainers,
alarm sounds. the oil is filtered.
Main engine controls 2 When it passes through a heater, the oil is
Indicate fuel oil and lubricating oil heated.
consumption, speed, direction. 3 When it passes through a cooler, the oil is
These data are recorded in the Engine Room cooled.
Logbook. 4 When it passes through a cooler, the oil is
purified.
Ex 4 Use the given words to fill in the text
UNIT 11 – Describing technical about the fuel oil system of a marine engine.
diagrams (7 marks)
Ex 1 Look at the pictures and complete the Pumps draw the oil at low pressure from the
sentences with the following verbs in the service tanks and discharge it into the heater.
correct form. Use each verb once. (7 marks) A viscosity regulator is fitted at the heater
discharge.
Picture 1
Then the oil passes through a fine strainer
a The diagram represents a piston pump.
before going to the main fuel pump suctions
b The pump chamber is fitted with discharge
of the engine. A pressure control valve is
and suction valves at the top and bottom.
fitted in the system and any excess oil is
Picture 2 returned to the service oil tanks.
The battery and the lamp are connected by
Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing
two lengths of copper wire.
complete sentences. (4 marks)
Picture 3 1 The viscosity regulator controls the oil
A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller temperature to maintain the oil viscosity
which rotates inside a casing. within close limits.
Picture 4 2 The change-over valve allows the operation
a The diagram shows the double-bottom of of the engine either on heavy-oil or on diesel
ship. oil.
b It contains a number of tanks.
c The double bottom is divided into a number UNIT 12 – Pumps
of tanks.
Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing
Ex 2 Fill in the gaps. (10 marks) complete sentences. (4 marks)
The lubricating oil system 1 A pump is a hydraulic machine used to
The used lubricating oil drains to the move liquids or to give them pressure or
crankcase and then passes into the drain tank kinetic energy.
through filters. 2 The pressure head is the pressure energy
The drain tank is fitted with a purifier system that the pump adds to the liquid.
which consists of a heater and a centrifuge. 3 The other hydraulic measure used in
First the oil is heated in the heater, then it pump operation is the quantity of liquid
passes through the centrifuge to be purified. delivered.
After purification, the oil is returned to the 4 Power for the pump can be provided by an
drain tank at a point next to the suction electric motor or a piston engine.
strainer. Ex 2 Fill in the gaps using the following
Pressure pumps draw the oil through the words. (8 marks)
suction strainer and discharge it into the Pumps are used on board ship to move liquids
cooler. From the cooler the oil passes through or to give them pressure or kinetic energy.
the distribution branches to various parts of There are three common types of pumps:
the engine. reciprocating pumps, gear-wheel pumps and
Ex 3 What happens to the lubricating oil centrifugal pumps; each of these is used for a
when it passes through the different parts of different purpose.
the system? Complete the sentences. Before choosing which pump to use we have
(2 marks, 0.5 for each answer) to consider a number of factors. Firstly, the

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quantity of liquid to be moved and the They provide an: even and 5 continuous
pressure head; next, the viscosity of the liquid delivery.
and finally whether or not the liquid is They 8 must/should not be used for liquids
corrosive or contains solid particles in containing solid particles in suspension.
suspension.
Ex 3 Fill in the gaps with the correct
prepositions. (8 marks) UNIT 13 – Boilers
1 The interlocking gear-wheels rotate inside a Ex 1 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.
casing. (10 marks)
2 Liquid is discharged through the delivery Water-tube boilers consist of a fire-proof
outlet. casing with a furnace at the bottom, a steam
3 Liquid is forced to circulate by the vanes of drum at the top and water-drums at a lower
the impeller. level. The drums are connected by banks of
4 The piston moves up and down within the tubes.
chamber. Other large tubes, called the downcomer
tubes, are located outside the furnace. They
5 Liquid is drawn into the vacuum from the
feed the water drums with cool water, so that
suction tube.
convection currents make the water move
6 Pressure is created on the liquid which is around the system.
forced out of the delivery tube.
The water drums and banks of tubes are
Ex 4 Choose the correct option. (2 marks, 0.5 placed in the main flow of hot gases rising
for each answer) from the furnace: so the heat of the hot gases
1c, 2a, 3a, 4c is transferred to the water in the tubes,
Ex 5 Fill in the missing words to complete the generating steam. The difference in density
descriptions of the three main kinds of allows the dry steam to collect in the steam-
pumps. Note that the same number indicates drum.
the same word which is repeated. (8 marks) Superheaters, located between the steam-
drum and the water-drums, make the steam
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS drier and more efficient.
They are used for: high 1 flow rates.
Ex 2 Underline the mistakes in the following
They give the liquid a: low 2 differential
sentences and write the corrections on the
pressure.
dotted lines. (4 marks)
They are suitable for: low 3 viscosity liquids.
1 In a boiler, the furnace is located
They provide an: even and 5 continuous at the bottom because hot gases
delivery. They 7 can be used for liquids descend. rise
containing solid particles in suspension. 2 Water is cooled down when
RECIPROCATING PUMPS it comes into contact with the
hot gases. heated
They are used for: low 1 flow rates.
3 Downcomer tubes provide a
They give the liquid a: high 2 differential reservoir of relatively hot water. cool/cold
pressure. 4 Economisers heat the feed-water
They are suitable for: medium 3 viscosity after it enters the boiler. before
liquids. Ex 3 Choose the correct option. (2 marks, 0.5
They provide an: 6 uneven delivery especially for each answer)
for the single-acting kind. 1a, 2c, 3b, 4b
GEAR-WHEEL PUMPS Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing
They are used for: low 1 flow rates. complete sentences. (6 marks, 2 marks for
each answer: 1 mark for content, plus 1 mark
They give the liquid a: low 2 differential
for grammar and syntax correctness)
pressure.
1 Boilers are used to produce steam for
They are suitable for: high 3 viscosity liquids auxiliary services like distilling plants, the
like 4 lubricating and fuel oils. galley and the laundry. Steam can also be

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used for driving items of auxiliary machinery and to maintain a low temperature in the
like the steam turbines, which operate the cargo holds where perishable goods – such as
cargo pumps on board crude oil tankers. meat, fish, fruit and vegetables – are stowed.
2 Steam is generated when the heat from the Ex 3 Mark the following sentences as True or
hot gases produced in the furnace is False, then underline the mistakes in the false
transferred to the water in the tubes. sentences and write the corrections on the
3 Water is made to move around the system dotted lines. (12 marks)
under the effect of convection currents. 1 (T)
Ex 5 Match each name with its definition. 2 (F) Heat exchangers perform an exchange
(8 marks) of heat between solids at different
1c, 2g, 3h, 4e, 5b, 6a, 7d, 8f temperatures. fluids
3 (F) Condensers and evaporators
operate the same heat transfer
UNIT 14 – Condensers & evaporators operation. inverse/opposite
Ex 1 Fill in the gaps by using the given words. 4 (F) In the evaporator the liquid
(12 marks) condenses by extracting heat
Most of the heat energy in exhaust steam can from an external fluid. evaporates
be saved by condensing it and sending it back 5 (T)
to the boiler as hot feed-water. Rapid 6 (T)
condensation is provided by a condenser. The 7 (T)
main component of a condenser is a cooling 8 (F) First the seawater is heated
surface, made up of thin copper-nickel alloy to boiling point and turned into
tubes. steam in the condenser. evaporator
Two separate circuits are involved in steam 9 (F) Then the steam rises into
condensation. The first is the cooling water the evaporator where it is condensed
circuit, the second is the condensate circuit. producing the distillate. condenser
In the first circuit, a circulating pump provides a 10 (T)
fast flow of seawater through the bank of 11 (F) Air ejectors (or vacuum
tubes. In the second circuit, steam enters pumps) are used to increase
through a steam inlet and, by flowing over the the pressure in the evaporation
tubes, transmits some of its heat to the liquid in chamber. reduce
the tubes. A rapid drop in steam temperature 12 (T)
occurs, so that steam condenses and is collected
in the hot well as the condensate. A condensate
pump removes the condensate from the hot UNIT 15 – The steam engine plant
well and sends it into the boiler. Since there is Ex 1 Underline the five wrong words in the
no contact between the condensate and the text and write the correct ones on the dotted
coolant, pure distilled water is produced, which lines. (5 marks)
is ideal for feeding the boilers. There are two types of engines commonly
Ex 2 Answer the questions by writing used nowadays: electric motors and heat
complete sentences. (6 marks) engines. The former produce mechanical
1 A condenser produces pure distilled water. energy from light, the latter convert heat into
2 A marine condenser uses seawater as the mechanical energy. Heat engines need a
cooling liquid. source of mechanical energy.
3 Seawater is sent into the condenser by a They need a working liquid, whose heat they
circulating pump. absorb and convert into useful job. In a steam
4 The condensate is removed from the hot engine plant the heat engine is a turbine and
well by a condensate pump. the working fluid is water.
5 The condensate is finally sent into a boiler electricity – thermal – fluid – work –steam
as boiler feed-water. Ex 2 Complete the sentences. (5 marks)
6 Today condensers are used for condensing 1 The engine is an energy converter.
refrigerant gas in air conditioning systems, 2 Water converts into steam when it reaches
and as components of refrigeration plants boiling point.

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3 At an oil refinery, crude oil is converted into the network of parallels and meridians
many different oil products. appearing on modern maps.
4 Steam is converted/converts into water in 2 Because he used the Ptolemaic chart as a
the condenser. basis for calculating his position.
5 Thermal energy is converted into mechanical 3 Gerhardus Mercator is considered to be the
work by heat engines. father of modern cartography.
4 In 1556 he produced a world chart by a
Ex 3 Study the diagram representing a steam
type of projection which goes under his
engine plant and identify the components.
name. His projection method is still preferred
(4 marks, 0.5 for each answer)
nowadays for drawing up nautical charts.
Condensate pump P3
5 He plots the ship’s course and current
Economiser F
position on the working chart.
Condenser A
6 Great circles are the Equator and all meridians.
Main feed pump P1
Superheater C Ex 2 Fill in the table with the items given
Turbine G below in scrambled order. (6 marks, 0.5 for
Main circulating pump P2 each answer)
Hot well B Rhumb line A line joining two points
Boiler furnace D on the Earth’s surface which intersects the
Ex 4 Fill in the gaps. (7 marks) meridians at a constant angle.
The main parts of a steam engine plant are Great circle track A line following the
the boiler, the engine and the condenser. shortest route between 2 points on the
Mechanical work is produced by using the surface of a sphere.
heat energy of steam as the working fluid. Great circle The largest circle on the
First, water is heated and transformed into Earth’s surface which passes through its
steam. Then some of the heat energy of centre.
steam is used to operate the turbine. Next the Small circle The arc of a small circle
remaining heat is cooled down and the steam which is NOT the shortest route between two
is turned back into water again. points.
Ex 5 Choose the correct option. (4 marks) Rhumb line Not used for ocean
1c, 2b, 3c, 4a crossings.
Ex 6 Answer the questions by writing
Great circle track Used for ocean crossings.
complete sentences. (5 marks) Ex 3 Underline the mistakes in the following
Suggested answers: sentences and write the corrections on the
1 The main function of a marine steam dotted lines. (6 marks)
engine plant is to produce mechanical energy 1 As the Earth is spherical, it cannot
to operate machinery. be represented on a spherical surface
2 In a steam engine plant, steam operates the without some distortion. flat
moving parts in the engine. 2 The line of a chart refers to the ratio
3 It is defined as the “working fluid” because between real dimensions and the
it is the source of the heat energy. size of the arc of the chart. scale
4 The basic areas of steam operation in this 3 Nautical charts use Mercator
plant are generation, expansion, and astronomic projections. gnomonic
condensation and feed. 4 The Mercator is a hexagonal
5 The steam receives its heat energy in the projection. cylindrical
boiler. 5 The physical constant used with
Mercator charts is called j c. mathematical
6 Gnomonic charts cannot include
UNIT 16 – Nautical charts more than one ocean because
Ex 1 Answer the questions by writing of distortion. hemisphere
complete sentences. (6 marks) Ex 4 Complete the table by placing the
1 Ptolemy’s world maps (already) show the expressions in the correct place to identify the
Earth as a spherical surface. They also show characteristics of each type of chart. (4 marks)

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MERCATOR CHARTS This method is called by bearing and distance.


1 the most widely used in navigation 1 Find out the height of the landmark on the
2 position, distance and direction are easily nautical chart.
determined 2 Use the sextant to measure the angle a
3 conformal between the top and the bottom of the
4 true shape of features is maintained landmark.
5 rhumb lines are plotted as straight lines 3 Apply the formula to get the distance from
the object.
GNOMONIC PROJECTIONS
4 Use this distance to draw a circular LOP on
1 not useful as a working chart
the nautical chart. 
2 distance and direction cannot be measured
5 Now take a compass bearing to get a
directly
second line of position.
3 great circle routes are plotted as straight lines
6 Where this second LOP crosses the circular
Ex 5 Fill in the gaps. (8 marks) LOP, it is our exact position or fix.
Hydrographic surveyors compile nautical charts Ex 3 Choose the correct option. (4 marks)
by using sonar technology and considering 1c, 2a, 3c, 4b
both the sea area and the shoreline. To show
all this information, nautical charts make use Ex 4 Fill in the gaps by using the given words.
of conventional symbols. (10 marks, 0.5 for each answer)
The IHO ensures that nautical charts are First we locate our landmark on the chart,
standardized in various parts of the world. then we take a compass bearing of it. This
Any corrections or updates to the chart are compass reading will show the degrees and
reported in bulletins called Notice to minutes of the angle formed by our landmark
Mariners. Many charts today are produced as and the compass north.
ENCs to be used in Electronic Chart Display Then we transfer this compass reading to the
and Information Systems, which are an chart. This is how we do. We place one arm
essential part of integrated navigation and of our parallel ruler on the chart compass rose,
bridge systems. on the line indicating the degrees and
minutes shown by our compass reading. Then
we place the other arm of the parallel ruler
UNIT 17 – Piloting & plotting on our landmark and draw a line. This line is
Ex 1 Underline the mistakes in the following our first LOP.
sentences and write the corrections on the Next we draw a second LOP by choosing
dotted lines. (6 marks) another landmark and following the same
1 When we take a bearing, we are procedure. The point of intersection of the
actually measuring the time between two LOPS is the fix. This is the point on the
north and our landmark. angle chart where our ship is. We indicate the fix by
2 We use a magnetic sounder to drawing a circle around it and writing the
read the values of the angle and time alongside.
take a bearing. compass After that, we plot our course, drawing a
3 The compass sounding is what the straight line from our fix to our chosen
ship’s compass reads at any time. heading destination. We place an edge of the parallel
4 Before plotting compass bearings ruler on the course line and the other edge
on a nautical chart with a LOP, we over the centre of the compass rose, where
need to apply corrections for we read the magnetic degrees of our course.
variation and differentiation. deviation These degrees represent our course magnetic
5 If magnetic variation is to the West, heading. Finally we write this heading above
it is indicated with the (+) sign. East the course line.
6 To calculate magnetic deviation, Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing
we need to use the ship’s own complete sentences. (4 marks)
landmark deviation tables. compass 1 When we have nothing more than a single
Ex 2 Reorder the steps in taking a sextant landmark to fix the ship’s position, we can
bearing. (6 marks) take two sightings of the same landmark at
1c, 2e, 3a, 4d, 5f, 6b two different times.

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2 It is called a running fix because the ship (7 marks, 0.5 for each correct item)
has “run” a certain distance during the time 1 customer service;
interval between the two LOPs. 2 demand forecasting;
3 They are used to read the degrees of LOPs 3 distribution communications;
and course lines on the chart compass rose 4 inventory control;
and to plot on the chart lines of position and 5 material handling;
course lines which are parallel to the compass 6 order processing;
readings. / They are used to plot lines of 7 parts and service support;
position and course lines on nautical charts. 8 plant and warehouse site selection;
4 When you are plotting the course line, you 9 purchasing;
write a “C” to indicate the compass course, 10 packaging;
referred to magnetic north, and a “T” to 11 return goods handling;
indicate a true course, referred to geographic 12 salvage and scrap disposal;
north. 13 traffic and transportation;
14 warehousing and storage.
Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following
UNIT 18 – Business logistics sentences and write the corrections on the
Ex 1 Write the Italian words regarding dotted lines. Note that in one sentence there
logistics. (3 marks) are two mistakes. (5 marks)
1 beni di consumo 1 The various functional activities
goods / commodities such as transportation, etc. are
2 consumare repeated very few times along
to consume the supply channel. several
3 immagazzinamento 2 The physical supply channel
storage is the source and space gap
4 efficienza di produzione between a firm’s immediate
production efficiency material sources and its
5 tenore di vita processing points. time
standard of living 3 As well as transportation
6 fonti di produzione and inventory control, there
sources of production are a number of “sustainable”
activities involved in the logistics
Ex 2 Complete the definitions by using the mix for each firm. “support”
given words. (3 marks, 0.5 for each correct 4 Packaging must protect goods
gap-filling) during handling and purchasing. storage
1 A limited movement storage system means 5 Commodities like coal and
that people had to live close to the production gravel especially need special
source and consume a narrow range of goods. warehousing although do not need/
2 The principle of comparative advantage is the inventories are never made. always
principle at the basis of today’s international
trade. Ex 5 Answer the questions by writing
3 Historically, transportation and inventory of complete sentences. (12 marks, 2 marks for
goods were traditionally managed separately. each answer: 1 mark for content, plus 1 mark
for grammar and syntax correctness)
4 Business logistics has introduced the new
1 Logistics is so important because it provides
concept of coordinated management to the
the bridge between production and market
activities in question 3.
locations that are separated by time and
5 The professional organization of logistics
distance.
managers is known as the Council of Logistics
2 The supply chain finishes with the final
Management.
disposition of a product.
6 The supply chain management/process regards
3 Inventories are an essential logistic activity
the logistic interactions that take place within
because they provide a buffer between
a firm or between separate firms.
supply and demand maintaining product
Ex 3 Write the names of the missing availability for customers.
components of a typical logistics system. 4 The term “materials management” refers to

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the physical supply channel or the time and The Polar Winds, the West Winds and the
gap between a firm’s immediate material Trade Winds are the main winds.
sources and its processing points. Monsoons are periodic winds.
5 A “reverse logistics channel” is important Monsoons blow for six months from the sea
because products become obsolete, damaged and for six months from the land to the sea.
or non-functioning and are returned for The Bora, the Föhn, the Mistral and the
repair or disposal. Sirocco are variable winds, since they only
6 “Outsourcing” means sourcing from low blow periodically.
cost offshore locations. A cold front is formed when cold air
approaches and replaces rising warm air.
A warm front is shown by a line with red
UNIT 19 – The moving air semicircles.
Ex 1 Fill in the gaps by using the given words. A line with blue triangles shows a cold front.
(10 marks)
Meteorologists are trying to find a physical
model to explain the movement of air masses UNIT 20 – Logistic services
around the Earth. Air masses are those parts Ex 1 Fill in the missing words in Pfohl’s
of the atmosphere which are homogenous in definition of “logistics”. (4 marks)
temperature, humidity and pressure. They “Logistics must ensure that a recipient is
form over large areas where environmental supplied from a point of origin in accordance
conditions are stable. Air masses can be warm with his requirements with the correct product
or cold and dry or humid, depending on (in quantity and variety), in the right
where they form; for example, over a tropical condition, at the right time and in the right
desert area they will be warm and dry. place at minimum cost.”
The fact that these air masses move over the
Ex 2 Fill in the table. (6 marks)
surface of the Earth balances our climate
redistributing the Sun’s heat from warmer to Logistic service providers Specialized companies for moving
colder places. The most accepted model today products
TTS Transport, trans-shipping, storage
is known as convection circulation of the air.
Another name for storage points Warehousing
Ex 2 Choose the correct option. (5 marks) The quickest transport system By air
1c, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5a Transhipment locations Hubs
Suitable for intercontinental Ocean shipping
Ex 3 Answer the questions by writing movement of bulk cargoes
complete sentences. (5 marks)
1 The factors determining the movements of Ex 3 Use the following adjectives to write two
atmospheric air are temperature differences, comparative and two superlative true
humidity and pressure and their reciprocal sentences about the different kinds of
effects. carriers. (4 marks)
2 Air pressure varies with temperature Adjectives: expensive – slow – fast – cheap
because cold air is heavier than warm air and Kinds of carriers: air freight – rail freight –
has a higher pressure. sea freight
3 It varies with humidity because the more
water vapour there is in the air, the lighter it is. Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing
4 Isobars are points/areas with the same complete sentences. (10 marks)
atmospheric pressure. 1 Ocean shipping is suitable for the
5 They are shown as rings around the high intercontinental shipment of bulk cargo,
and low-pressure centres. bulky goods and dangerous materials.
2 A refrigerated ship carries products like
Ex 4 Choose the correct option. (6 marks) meat or dairy produce. These kinds of goods
1b, 2a, 3b, 4b, 5a, 6c are perishable and need to be carried in
Ex 5 Complete the definitions. (4 marks, 0.5 refrigerated holds.
for each answer) 3 Ferries carry cars and passengers.
Main winds blow all year round in the same 4 Standard container units are more than 3
direction. cubic metres with a loading capacity of 5 tons.

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5 A container unit has a loading capacity of 5 Ex 2 Complete the crossword. (8 marks)


tons.
6 They are easily stowed and loaded and   S    
1

unloaded. (2 marks)
  2
N
1
W A R M
7 The disadvantages are the cost of the
  O       L    
specially designed container ships and the
necessity for special port facilities. (2 marks)   R
2
M O T I O N
8 Liner merchant ships are ships which run   T   N
regular services at stated times on a   H     D     I    
3 4
R
pre-determined trade route and charge 3
previously advertised tariff rates. T E M P E R A T U R E
  R   N   Y   D
Ex 5 Underline the mistakes in the following
  N   S
sentences and write the corrections on the
dotted lines. (6 marks)   I
1 Liners do not operate on a fixed schedule 4
B A L T I C
but can be hired for transport   Y
anywhere in the world. Tramps
2 The Extra Cargo Shipping Ex 3 Match the two parts of each sentence.
Instructions provide the carrier (8 marks)
with details of the goods and 1d, 2f, 3g, 4a, 5h, 6b, 7c, 8e
instructions on handling. Export
3 The bill of lading is issued by Ex 4 Answer the questions by writing
complete sentences. (4 marks)
the sender and accompanies the
1 The differences in temperature, salinity and
goods to the port of discharge. carrier
density determine the formation of water
4 The bill of lading is a record
masses which are different from each other.
of what kind of containers
2 They form the main ocean currents.
are being transported. goods
3 The main ocean currents transport
5 The owner is responsible
equatorial warm waters to the polar regions
for providing the special cranes
and cold polar waters to the equatorial
for unloading/loading regions, forming a system called the global
containerized ships. port authority conveyor belt.
6 Combined transport aims to 4 The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current,
transfer shipped goods with while the Labrador Current is a cold ocean
the greatest number of current.
transhipment operations. smallest
Ex 5 Fill in the gaps. (7 marks)
The combined action of the Moon and the
UNIT 21 – Moving waters centrifugal force of the Earth cause tides to occur.
Spring tides usually happen when the Moon is
Ex 1 Choose the correct option for each
full and the Sun and the Moon are aligned.
sentence. (3 marks, 0.5 for each answer)
On the contrary, when the Sun and Moon are
1 Three quarters of the Earth’s surface is
perpendicular to each other, their forces do not
covered by water. pull together and neap tides occur. Every day the
2 There is more water in the Southern cycle of high and low tides is repeated with a
Hemisphere. period of slack water occurring between tides.
3 The greatest quantity of water is in the
Southern Hemisphere.
4 The large extensions of water between UNIT 22 – The dead reckoning plot
continents are called oceans. Ex 1 Answer the questions. (11 marks, 2
5 Lands enclose parts of oceans forming marks for each answer: 1 mark for content,
smaller basins called seas. plus 1 mark for grammar and syntax
6 Seas are connected to oceans. correctness; 1 mark for answer 4)

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1 To plan his ship’s course, a navigator UNIT 23 – Petroleum


uses nautical charts, radio bulletins
Ex 1 Answer the questions. (12 marks, 2 marks
and weather maps referring to the areas for each sentence: 1 mark for content, plus 1
where the ship will be sailing. mark for grammar and syntax correctness; 1
2 The track is the ship’s planned course. mark only for very easy answer 1 and 4)
3 The planned track line is divided into 1 The main components of petroleum are
segments because there are points where hydrogen and carbon. (1 marks)
the ship has to change direction. 2 Crude oil deposits are called oilfields.
4 These segments are called the legs 3 To extract petroleum they drill an oil well.
of the track. (1 marks) 4 The lightest hydrocarbon is natural/
5 Junction points are points where the ship methane gas, which has only one carbon
changes direction. atom in its molecule. (1 marks)
6 The track looks like a broken line 5 Petroleum distillation is carried out in an oil
on the chart. refinery / in a fractionating tower.
6 The heaviest petroleum distillates are heavy
Ex 2 Complete the text with the missing
oil and lubricating oils.
words. (8 marks)
7 Heavier hydrocarbons have a higher
The term “dead reckoning” comes from
number of carbon atoms in their molecules.
deduced reckoning, which was shortened
to ded reckoning by sailors. It was a method Ex 2 Link and rewrite the pair of sentences
established in the 18th century (and used using the relative pronoun which. (4 marks)
up to the early 20th century) to calculate 1 Fossil fuels, which are the main industrial
fuels, are formed of hydrogen and carbon.
the ship’s position by making lots of
2 The combustible components of fossil fuels
trigonometric calculations. Ded reckoning was
are hydrocarbons, which are formed of
then modified to “dead reckoning”, which is
hydrogen and carbon.
the term still used today.
3 Petrol, diesel oil and kerosene, which are the
Nowadays it indicates a technique/method to
main industrial fuels, are petroleum distillates.
geometrically determine a ship’s approximate 4 Crude oil was formed from the chemical
position by applying a vector representing transformation of organic remains which
true course and speed to the last fix. deposited at the bottom of salty marshes and
Ex 3 Fill in the table. (6 marks) lagoons.
SOA stands for Speed of Advance Ex 3 Fill in the gaps. (5 marks)
TR labels each leg of the track Crude oil is composed of a mixture of oils
DFT (Drift) speed in knots of the current which can be separated out into a number of
A circle represents a fix products, such as petrol, diesel oil, kerosene
Leeway movement of vessel due to winds and lubricants. The main method of
A semicircle represents DR position separation is fractional distillation. Since the
different oils have different boiling
Ex 4 Underline the mistakes in the following temperatures, they are isolated in fractions of
sentences and write the corrections on the different boiling ranges. This separation
dotted lines. (5 marks) process is carried out in a fractionating tower.
1 Plot a DR position for the speed
Ex 4 Underline and correct the mistakes in
you obtain a fix. time these sentences by changing the adjectives.
2 Plot a new wind line from each fix (3 marks, 0.5 each)
as soon as this is plotted on the chart. course 1 The temperature is lower at the
3 Plot a new DR position at the time bottom than at the top of the tower. higher
of every course and/or compass 2 The hydrocarbons with the highest
change. speed boiling point are condensed at the
4 Plot a corrected DR position if the top of the tower. lowest
predicted course line proved wrong 3 The hydrocarbons that remain at
and continue from the first plotted fix. last the base of the column are the
5 Plot a DR position every month. hour lightest hydrocarbons. heaviest

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teacher’s book

4 The heavier hydrocarbons rise years, from the chemical transformation of


to the top. lighter unicellular plants and animals under the ground.
5 The lighter hydrocarbons evaporate Ex 3 Answer the questions by writing
at higher temperatures. lower complete sentences. (6 marks)
6 The heavier hydrocarbons have 1 Energy is the capacity for doing work.
fewer carbon atoms in their molecules. lighter 2 Electrical energy is a secondary form of
Ex 5 Fill in the table. (6 marks) energy.
1 In this process the heavy oils are 3 We need energy sources to produce useful
heated to a temperature of 450°C power and run machinery.
to break their molecules. Cracking 4 A heat engine is a prime mover/an energy
2 It takes place when the fuel converter.
burns before the piston reaches 5 Carbon dioxide is the best known of
the cylinder bottom. Detonation greenhouse gases.
3 The various kinds of petrol are 6 It is given off when fossil fuels burn with
distinguished by their... octane value oxygen.
4 In this process the molecular Ex 4 Choose the correct option. (4 marks, 0.5
chains of petrol are modified for each answer)
to increase its octane value. Reforming 1c, 2b, 3c, 4a, 5a, 6c, 7b, 8c
5 It is a well-known aromatic
Ex 5 Choose the correct words to fill in the
hydrocarbon. Benzene
gaps. (6 marks)
6 They are added to petrol to Aromatic
1 Solar panels are prime movers which collect
increase the octane value. hydrocarbons
sunlight.
2 Water wheels convert the natural power of
UNIT 24 – Kinds of energy water into mechanical energy.
& energy sources 3 A hydro-turbine engine uses water to drive
its wheel.
Ex 1 Mark the following sentences as True or
4 A fuel is a material for producing heat or
False, then underline the mistakes in the false other forms of energy.
sentences and write the corrections on the 5 The various types of energy are classified as
dotted lines. (6 marks) primary or secondary types.
1 (F) Energy exists in two forms,
6 The energy stored in fuels is released
as either