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20140902.

a (vivaldi_orienteering)
Proposta n. 2 . partner: IC G.Galilei . SMS A. ivaldi Alessandria
Pro !at"ra di Alessandria# asso$ia%ione a&'ientalista operante s"l territorio da $ir$a vent(anni )
lieta di proporre "na serie di per$orsi di *orienta&ento s"l territorio+ 'asati s"i prin$ipi dell
,-I.!/..-I!G e del G.,/0-ISM,. Interessata alla proposta sar1 "n 'ene di ri$onos$i"ta
i&portan%a 2"ale ) la CI//A3.44A di Alessandria.
Gi1 2"attro sono i per$orsi provati# s"lla 'ase delle s$5ede (in originale inglese) riprodotte pi6
sotto e riportanti dire%ioni e passi o attivit1 da svolgere. i sono possi'ilit1 di osserva%ione di
parti$olarit1 ar$5itettoni$5e# di spe$ialit1 e rilevan%e 'otani$5e e di altri *p"nti $aldi+ di volta in
volta individ"ati.
7"i di seg"ito al$"ne in8or&a%ioni pi6 in dettaglio.
Pro8. CAA4C9I!I Pier 4"igi . C:, P-, !A/0-A. .le M.3AG4I. d(,-, n ;4 <
A4.SSA!3-IA
###
4. -IMA!.!=. 3.44A P-IMA G0.--A M,!3IA4. I! CI//A3.44A . 4
,-I.!/..-I!G
Co&e gi1 $o&"ni$ato al $o&petente "88i$io del Co&"ne di Alessandria l(asso$ia%ione P-,
!A/0-A di Alessandria# nel 2"adro delle $ele'ra%ioni non 8or&ali del Pri&o Con8litto
Mondiale# in parti$olare per 2"anto 5a rig"ardato la nostra $itt1# $on8er&a le d"e giornate di
attivit1 gi1 segnalate.
In parti$olare si tratta di "tili%%are d"e sa'ati po&eriggio del &ese di aprile o di &aggio 201>#
$on l("ni$o vin$olo della $ontin"it1 8ra i d"e e del non essere 8estivi. In tali o$$asioni si
prepareranno per "n p"''li$o prevedi'il&ente vario per$orsi agevoli di orienteering# tesi al
ri$onos$i&ento di l"og5i e di *ri&anen%e+ signi8i$ative della Pri&a G"erra Mondiale in
Cittadella. In8atti t"tti i per$orsi sono stati pensati per la parti$olare realt1 della Cittadella di
Alessandria $5e tanto potre''e dare per "n ris$atto $"lt"rale della nostra $itt1.
Ai per$orsi sono $ollegati d"e &o&enti ? per po&eriggio < di ri8lessione e appro8ondi&ento# $on
&"si$5e e lett"re di 'rani appropriati a $"ra di Pro !at"ra e del Gr"ppo dell(In$anto.
Alcune informazioni sullOrienteering
,-I.!/..-I!G e G.,/0-ISM,
Il Georienteering ) l@"nione di d"e attivit1 legate alla s$operta del nostro territorio:
? Geot"ris&o
? ,rienteering
Il Geot"ris&o p"A essere de8inito il t"ris&o a te&a geologi$o. In ogni l"ogo si trovano 8or&e
&eravigliose del paesaggio e 8eno&eni st"pe8a$enti.
Cas$ate# deserti# v"l$ani# grotte oltre ad essere a88as$inanti# 5anno "na storia da ra$$ontar$i: la
storia della terra. 4a spiega%ione di $o&e la terra sia 8atta $i viene dalla geologia. 7"esta s$ien%a
) $onos$i"ta per le attivit1 $5e svolge nel $a&po dell(ingegneria $ivile# in prati$a t"tte 2"elle
attivit1 in $"i ) ne$essario $onos$ere il sottos"olo: lo s$avo di gallerie# lo s8r"tta&ento di risorse
&inerarie# la $ostr"%ione di edi8i$i. In realt1# "no degli s$opi prin$ipali della geologia ) tentare di
ri$ostr"ire gli eventi a$$ad"ti al nostro pianeta da 2"ando si ) 8or&ato ad oggi. Co&prendere
$o&e a''iano av"to origine &eravigliosi paesaggi p"A diventare argo&ento d(interesse an$5e
per $oloro $5e non si o$$"pano di ri$er$a: la B$o&prensione della terraB p"A essere "n valido
&otivo per intraprendere "n a88as$inante viaggio o an$5e "na es$"rsione giornaliera.
3a 2"i nas$e l(idea (non n"ova) del geot"ris&o inteso $o&e Bla s$operta e la $o&prensione delle
'elle%%e geologi$5e visitate diretta&ente dove esse si trovanoB. Possia&o riass"&ere il
signi8i$ato del geot"ris&o prendendo "na 8rase di Mar$el Pro"st# 8a&oso s$rittore 8ran$ese: BIl
vero viaggio di s$operta non $onsiste nel trovare n"ove terre# &a nell(avere n"ovi o$$5iB.
4@,rienteering ) letteral&ente l@attivit1 dell@orienta&ento ? non ) "na $a$$ia al tesoro n)
sopravviven%a. .@ l@andar per 'os$5i (e non solo) $on $arta e '"ssola per il pia$ere $5e 2"esta
attivit1 $o&porta.
Consiste nel raggi"ngere# se$ondo "na s"$$essione presta'ilita# "n deter&inato n"&ero di posti
di $ontrollo# $on l@a"silio degli str"&enti di naviga%ione# s$egliendo li'era&ente il tragitto da
per$orrere. Carta topogra8i$a e '"ssola sono str"&enti $5e rivelano i loro segreti solo a $5i li
v"ole $onos$ere inti&a&ente# altri&enti appaiono &isteriosi. Si pensi alla si&'ologia o alle
$"rve di livello (isoipse) delle $artine# opp"re al seg"ire "na dire%ione rettilinea $on la '"ssola
per gi"ngere ad "n o''iettivo (&ar$ia all@a%i&"t).Molti ne $onos$ono l@esisten%a# &a ) l@orientista
$ol"i $5e vera&ente li "tili%%a $on padronan%a ed e88i$a$ia.
Il nostro o'iettivo
4a nostra attivit1 si propone# 2"indi# di 8ar apprendere le te$ni$5e orientisti$5e (a s$opo non
$o&petitivo# non si e88ett"eranno gare di orienta&ento)# dalle pi6 ele&entari alle pi6 $o&plesse
attraverso "na progressione didatti$a st"diata passo per passo dall@ istr"ttore $on
ese&pli8i$a%ioni di eser$i%i?gio$o# ed in seg"ito e88ett"are "n@es$"rsione di orienta&ento
e so88er&arsi al ri$onso$i&ento delle 8or&e del territorio plas&ate dalla nat"ra in &ilioni di anni.
.ssa si svolge in diverse aree del territorio regionale e prevalente&ente in sentieri all@interno di
par$5i# riserve e oasi (all(o$$orren%a an$5e in 2"ei par$5i "r'ani rappresentativi di "n a&'iente
nat"rale) dove p"A essere inserito an$5e l@ele&ento nat"ralisti$o $5e eviden%ia l@aspetto legato
alla s$operta delle spe$ie vegetali ed alla 8a"na..
...
Alcuni esempi di attivit di ORIENTEERING
Orienteering activity ! "tart to finis#
Aim!
/o 8olloC instr"$tions given as 'earings ($ardinal and inter$ardinal 'earings) and distan$es# and
to plot t5ese a$$"ratelD on a &ap (draCing).
$#at you need!
Paper
-"ler (/r"ndle C5eel or tape &eas"re 8or o"tside)
Pen$il
Protra$tor or $o&pass ($o&pass 8or o"tside)
Notes to t#e teac#er!
/5is is initiallD a $lassroo& eEer$ise 8or st"dents to t5inF a'o"t dire$tion# distan$e and t5e need
8or a$$"ra$D C5en CorFing Cit5 &ap and $o&pass. S"$$ess in t5is a$tivitD Cill 'e a $o&pleted
draCing C5i$5 is a $losed s5ape. I8 Do" $5oose to eEtend t5e a$tivitD and do t5is o"tside# s"$$ess
Cill 'e $o&pletion o8 t5e $o"rse at t5e starting point.
I8 t5e st"dent@s are doing t5is a$tivitD o"tside t5eD Cill need to $onvert t5eir 2"adrant 'earings to
a%i&"t5s (i.e. 0G to ;H0G) 8or "se Cit5 t5eir orienteering $o&pass.
/5e instr"$tions are given in t5e ta'le 'eloC. /5eD $an 'e Critten on t5e 'oard# ,9/# or in
st"dent@s note'ooFs. An appropriate start position s5o"ld 'e sele$ted. /5e s$ale "sed Cill 'e 1$&
I >&.
Distanc
e
Directio
n
1 Start
2 25m N
3 19m E
4 18m SE
5 18m NE
6 19m E
7 25m S
8 30m SW
9 20m W
10 30m NW
The shape of the course when drawn is shown in the diagram beow!
Orienteering activity 2: In line
Aim:
To practice using a compass and measuring distances with a tape or trunde whee! To foow
instructions accurate" gi#en a bearing and a distance!
Wat yo! nee":
$easuring tapes or trunde whees
%ha&
'nstruction cards for students
%ompasses
#otes $or teacers:
(or this acti#it" a ine is drawn on the ground twent" metres ong and running e)act" east*west
as shown beow! Each 2m is mar&ed and abeed from + through to ,! $ore ines ma" be drawn if
"ou wish to wor& in smaer groups!
The drawing of the base ine is a good acti#it" in measurement and direction finding!
%hoose an area which has pent" of open space for students to mo#e around on either side of the
ine!
Student instruction cards is a master of 12 instruction cards for students! 't can be downoaded-
printed and photocopied for use b" students!
The answers are gi#en in the tabe beow! +s students compete a card- or when the" ha#e
competed a the cards- the" can chec& if the point.s/ the" arri#ed at was.were/ correct!
Students record the closest %oint when the" arri#e bac& at the ine each time!
Ans&ers
1! ,
2! 0
3! ,
1! ,
5! %
2! 3
4! (
8! 5
9! 6
10! 5
11! 7 12! 6
Student orienteering instruction cards
8
Start at I
Go 16m at 210
Then 14m at 350
End at ___?
1
Start at A
Go 15m at 055
Then 10m at 145
End at ___?
9
Start at D
Go 17m at 050
Then 12m at 215
End at ___?
7
Start at K
Go 14m at 315
Then 10m at 180
End at ___?
10
Start at F
Go 13m at 315
Then 10m at 150
End at ___?
2
Start at C
Go 15m at 015
Then 16m at 155
End at ___?
11
Start at
Go 16m at 335
Then 15m at 200
End at ___?
6
Start at !
Go 12m at 120
Then 8m at 040
End at ___?
12
Start at A
Go 12m at 135
Then "m at 020
End at ___?
3
Start at F
Go 10m at 235
Then 1"m at 075
End at ___?
5
Start at G
Go 12m at 025
Then 17m at 230
End at ___?
4
Start at E
Go 10m at 020
Then 12#5m at 135
End ___?
Orienteering activity 3: 'or&ar"s an" (ac)&ar"s
Aim:
To practice using an orienteering compass to find the bearings of a number of fi)ed ob8ects! To
disco#er the reationship between bearings and bac&*bearings!
Wat yo! nee":
9rienteering compasses
+n open area such as the schoo o#a
1 station mar&er .witches hat or simiar/ per group
Noteboo& and pen
Instr!ctions $or st!"ents:
Wor& in groups of 2 * 1 students! :ace a mar&er .witches hat/ on the ground for "our group to
wor& from!
Seect 3 ob8ects positioned at some distance from "our station mar&er and in different directions!
These ob8ects shoud be easi" identifiabe! ;arge trees- goa posts- the corner of a buiding and
ight poes are good e)ampes! <ubbish bins are not as the" can easi" be mo#ed! Write down
what the seected ob8ects are!
(rom "our station mar&er ta&e the bearing .forward/ to each of the ob8ects "ou seected and
write the bearing in "our noteboo&!
Now wa& to the first of "our seected ob8ects and ta&e a bearing bac& to "our mar&er! Write it in
"our noteboo& beside the forward bearing!
$o#e on to "our ne)t ob8ect and ta&e a bearing bac& to "our starting mar&er! <ecord it beside
"our earier forward bearing!
<epeat for the third seected ob8ect! %an "ou see a reationship between forward bearings and
bac& bearings= What is the reationship=
Test out "our h"pothesis (et&een the ob8ects "ou ha#e 8ust used! 5oes it hod true=
6eneraise the resut! Write it down as a >rue> to earn!
#otes $or teacers:
This e)ercise wi ?uic&" indicate to "ou the students who are ha#ing troube using the compass
correct"! 't is a good chance to get e#er"one using their compass effecti#e"- in the correct
manner and with accurac"! 'f the" are accurate the reationship between bearings and bac&*
bearings shoud be easi" recognised after one or two measurements!
Orienteering activity 4: A co!rse* o$ co!rse+
Aim:
To e)perience setting a short orienteering course and to foow a course set b" other students!
Wat yo! nee":
9pen area in the schoo ground or o#a with some ob#ious features for contro points
9rienteering compasses
Trunde whees .if paces are to be used then each student shoud cacuate the number of
paces per 100 metres/
:aper and pen
Instr!ctions $or teacers:
9rganise the students into groups of three to four!
'n this acti#it" students shoud set a short course of three to four stations .contro points/- noting
the bearing and distance between each point! Students seect a starting point- which shoud be
an ob#ious feature such as arge tree beside %*boc& or NE corner of sports shed .not a rubbish
bin because that>s mo#abe/!
(rom the starting point the" gi#e the direction .a bearing/ and distance in metres to their first
contro point- with a note to sa" what the station is! Students mo#e to their first station and
repeat the process unti the" ha#e data for three or four stations! The bearings and distances are
noted as the" proceed- and &ept for ater wor& in cass!
'f distances are to be appro)imated b" pacing rather than measured b" tape or trunde whee-
students wi need to wor& out how man" paces the" need for 100m! This can be done b" a"ing
out a 100m tape and pacing beside it! 'n orienteering- participants usua" count e#er" second
pace for their 100m! So if the" counted 20 doube paces- the" wi ha#e actua" stepped 120
paces for the distance of 100m! This can be ad8usted if "ou on" ha#e a 30m tape! @ou ma"
decide to cacuate the number of paces .or doube paces/ per 20m!
When competed students shoud swap courses- and foow the directions of another group!
+n in*cass foow*up of this acti#it" woud be for students to produce a map of their course to an
appropriate scae using accepted notation for an orienteering course! 7eow is a summar" of
acceptabe basic s"mbos necessar" for this acti#it"!
#ame ,ym(ol
Start
Station 9
(inish
<oute .between %ontro points/ AAAAAAAAAA
J
Intro"!ction: Wat is Orienteering
9rienteering is an acti#it" in which the participants ocate contro points b" using a map and compass to
na#igate through a chosen en#ironmentB schoo "ard- the woods- the cit"- etc!
C9rienteering is an acti#it" that heps in the persona de#eopment of the student in such areas as probem*
so#ing- decision*ma&ing- sef*reiance- awareness of oneDs surroundings- spatia reationships- use of
resources- courage to go be"ond the we*&nown paths- and enhanced sef*esteem!E
,ar ,o#a- C9E in Schoos %ommittee .Orienteering and Map Games for Teachers b" $ar" E! 6arrett/
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 1: String %ourse
0ra"e: :re*schooF3
1ime: 15 minutes
2aterials: string .sur#e"orDs tape- twine- coored string- or ribbon/- spoo for roing the string in and out-
teacher*made maps- contro mar&ers .5F8 orange and white mar&ers/- stic&ers paced at each contro .STE
9rienteering ,it/
@oung chidren become comfortabe with orienteering through a specia course caed a String %ourse! The
entire route is mar&ed b" string- ribbon- or tape- so the chidren can sta" on course and no one gets ost! +
simpe map iustrates the route and the ocation of the chec&points caedcontrols! .%ontros are the
mapped features such as bouders- trees- buidings- 8unctions in trais- fences- paths- etc!/ When the chidren
reach a contro- the" can mar& their indi#idua map with a stic&er or stamp that is specific to that contro!
E#entua"- the string eads bac& to the finish- usua" the same pace as the start! +s chidren become better
at finding their wa" in nature- their sef*confidence grows- and their abiities e)pand!
1! ;a" out the course and ma&e the map! (ind a suitabe pace for the route! +#oid road crossings-
poisonous pants- thorns- high grass- and other potentia haGards! Since the String %ourse is on" a few
hundred meters ong- design the route with most of it within sight of the start and finish! +s the route is
designed- identif" the ocation of the contros .bouders- trees- buidings- path 8unctions- fences- etc!/ 9n
the map incude route- contro ocations- a egend- and paces to punch or affi) a stic&er for each contro!
$a&e copies of the map- one for each student! .See sampe map beow!/
2! 9n the da" of the String %ourse e#ent- a" out the string and the contros! Tie the string to
something so that it doesnDt bow awa"- such as a"ing it on the ground with roc&s or wrapping it around
trees!
3! 0ang the contro mar&ers ow! :ace the stic&ers in a bag for protection!
1! Spend some time e)paining the map- course- and rues to the students!
5! Now et the students start! .The whoe cass coud compete the first String %ourse- wa&ing the
course and e)paining as the cass goes aong! Then ater ha#e the indi#idua students foow the course!/
3ariation: ;ea#e the ocations of the contros off the map! The students must then mar& where the" are
on the map as the" reach each contro!
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 2: 0ow to <ead and Hse a %ompass
0ra"es: 2F8
1ime: 15 minutes
2aterials: compasses .STE 9rienteering ,it/- 4om%ass I"enti$ication Wor&sheet
1! <e#iew with students the directionsB north- south- east and west! 5raw this circe on the cha&board
with the four directions!
2! +s&B in what direction does the sun riseI in what direction does the sun setI in what direction is
$e)icoI in what direction is %anadaI in what direction is 5isne"andI in what direction is 5isne" WordI in
what direction is Washington 5!%!I in what direction is the North :oeI etc!
3! 5istribute the compasses to the students!
1! 'dentif" the fi#e parts of the compassB orienting arrow- compass neede- direction of tra#e*arrow-
orienting ines- compass housing .turnabe/!
5! 0a#e students compete the 4om%ass I"enti$ication Wor&sheet! This ma" be done se#era times
gi#ing the students opportunities to earn the different parts of the compass! .9ptionaB 0a#e students
design a arge compass to put on the buetin board!/
2! 5iscuss the compass neede! 't has two coored parts- one is awa"s red! The red part of the neede
is awa"s pointing towards the earthDs magnetic north poe! Earth has a magnetic north that is mies awa"
from the geographic North :oeJthe north pointed at b" gridines on a map! The magnetic north causes
the neede to awa"s point toward the magnetic pu!
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 3: 0ow to $a&e a Simpe (oating %ompass
0ra"es: ,F8
1ime: 15 minutes pus o#ernight
2aterials: needes- cor&- tape- refrigerator magnets- sma containers .STE 9rienteering ,it/
1! Tape one end of the neede to the magnet and ea#e o#ernight!
2! Test the magnetiGed neede b" tr"ing to pic& up another neede!
3! :ierce the magnetiGed neede through a sma piece of cor& so that the cor& is baanced rough" in
the midde of the neede!
1! (oat the cor& in a container of water!
5! $o#e the container around the room or ta&e it outside! The neede shoud continue to foat in the
same direction! What direction is that= .magnetic north/
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 4: 0ow to Hse the %ompass to Tra#e
0ra"es: 2F8
1ime: 15 minutes
2aterials: compass for each student or each 2*person team .STE 9rienteering ,it/
1! :ractice with the students tra#eing in the north direction b" finding where north is on the compass
housing! Turn the compass housing so that north on the housing ines up with the arge direction-of-
travel arrow!
2! 0a#e the students hod the compass fat in their hands etting the red part of the compass neede
turn to north!
3! 0a#e the students turn themse#es- their hands and entire compass unti the compass neede is
aigned with north!
1! Wa& off in the north direction! 0a#e the students notice what is in the north directionB a buiding- a
tree- a path- the pa"ground- etc!
5! Now ha#e the students practice other directionsB south- east- west- northwest- northeast-
southwest- southeast- whie noticing what is in the en#ironment in those directions!
Specia Note to <ememberB To a#oid going in the wrong direction- remember the sun! +t noon- the sun is
rough" in the south in the northern hemisphere- so if the student is heading north- the sun shoud be
behind the student!
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 5: (ind a 0idden Treasure
0ra"es: 2F8
1ime: 15 minutes
2aterials: ist of directions- compass for each student or each 2*person team .STE 9rienteering ,it/-
treasures
1! 5esign a treasure hunt b" writing out a ist of directionsB
E)ampeB
1! Start at the door of the cassroom!
2! 6o appro)imate" 20 feet west aong the sidewa&
3! Stop and turn north! %ontinue north for another 50 feet!
1! Stop and head east for 10 feet!
5! 6o southeast for 15 feet!
2! top and oo& to the east! (ind a ta pine tree with a bro&en branch on its north side! @our
treasure is hidden at the base of the pine tree!
2! 6i#e each student a cop" of the ist of directions and ha#e them find the treasure b" foowing the
directions!
3! +fter the students find the first treasure- discuss with the students about finding the second
treasure!
1! 5raw a map with an CKE where the treasure is buried! The map has se#era pathwa"s on it! The
students are as&ed which pathwa" woud be best to ta&e and in which direction the path seems to
head! %ompasses are used to point in the direction that the" wish to go! 9nce the students ha#e the
direction- the" shoud aim at some ob8ect or point in the distance and go there so the" are not staring
down on the compass!
5! +s the students hi&e- the" are as&ed se#era times to stop and use their compasses to find which
wa" the" are headed and to point to where the" are on their maps!
2! Students arri#e at the second treasure! + third treasure map is now handed out to the students! The
teacher decides how man" treasure hunts the students wi compete for the da"!
Specia NoteB This course with different maps and #ariations shoud be competed se#era times- so the
students become #er" comfortabe with the compass safe" and accurate"! + #ariation coud be a different
ocationB par&- downtown- neighborhood- hi&e in the forest- etc!I a course with no pathsI This does ta&e
time on the teacherDs part to create maps that are specific to an area- but we worth the outcomeB
increasing student confidence and decreasing the feeing of being ost!
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 6: $ap <eading with :reschooers
0ra"e: :re*schoo
1ime: 30 minutes
1! @oung chidren can be prepared to read a map b" becoming famiiar with the directiona
wordsBabove and below, to the right and to the left, farther and nearer, here and there. These words and
phrases hep chidren with the concept of ocation!
2! 9bser#e the mo#ement of the sun at the beginning of the schoo da" and at the end of the schoo
da"!
3! 9bser#e what is in the s&" during the da" .panes- baoons- birds- etc!/
1! +s& what do the" thin& wi be in the s&" tonight! Send a note home to the parents encouraging the
obser#ation of the stars- moon- sunrise- and sunset! +s& what wi be in the s&" tomorrow!
5! $a&e a ist or drawings of what is seen during the da" and what is seen at night!
Specia NoteB 5o not oo& direct" at the SunL The Sun is #er" bright and b" focusing the ight onto the
bac& of the e"e .the retina/ with or without a teescope- a ot of energ" .both optica ight and infra*red/
is paced onto a tin" area! The retina of the e"e does not ha#e pain receptors- so students wi not e#en
fee the damage being done! 't ma" not e#en become apparent unti ater!
Mocabuar" to <e#iew with studentsB
abo#e- beow- right- eft- farther- nearer- here- there
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 7: $ap <eading with 6rades ,F3
0ra"es: ,F3
+cti#it" +
1ime: 15 minutes during the da"- 15 minutes during the night- 15 minutes in cass!
2aterials: O(servation 5o!rnal 6age- Wat I ,a& Wor&sheet
1! 0a#e students obser#e and record what the" see in the s&" in the da"time on their 9bser#ation
3ourna :age!
Specia NoteB 5o not oo& direct" at the sunL The sun is #er" bright and b" focusing the ight onto the
bac& of "our e"e .the retina/ with or without a teescope- "ou are putting a ot of energ" .both optica
ight and infra*red/ onto a tin" area! The retina of "our e"e does not ha#e pain receptors- so "ou wi not
e#en fee the damage being done! 't ma" not e#en become apparent unti ater!
2! 0a#e students obser#e and record what the" see in the nighttime s&" on the O(servation 5o!rnal
6age!
3! 0a#e students obser#e and record for se#era da"s!
1! Now record a the" saw on the O(servation 5o!rnal 6age!
5! 5iscuss with students changes- uni?ue ob8ects- directions- etc!
2! 0a#e students fi out Wat I ,a& Wor)seet- combining ob8ects that the" saw both da" and
night!
+cti#it" 7
1ime: 15 minutes
2aterials: compasses- 4om%ass I"enti$ication Wor)seets
1! 9ne of the best wa"s to introduce the reading of a map is to create a map of the cassroom or the
schoo grounds! 5onDt worr" about proportion and mperspecti#e!
2! 5raw a map of the cassroom on the cha&board!
3! :ace windows and doors on the wa ines!
1! :ace teacher and student des&s- cupboards- buetin boards- etc!
5! 'ntroduce the compass rose b" using +cti#it" 2 in the 9rienteering +ppendi)!
2! :ace the directions north- south- east and west on the cassroom map b" as&ing where the sun
rises and where the sun sets! The sun awa"s goes east to west! 0a#e students stand so the morning sun
is facing them! This is east! Then the eft hand is the north side of the bod"I the right hand is south side
of the bod"I and e#er"thing behind them is west!
4! 0a#e students draw a map of their bedroom! ;abe the directions- doors- windows- bed- des&- etc!
8! ;et students e)amine and discuss simpe maps from the communit"B a hi&ing map- a map of the
ma- a downtown map- etc!
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 8: $ap <eading with 6rades 1F8
0ra"es: 1F8 Special Note: 'f the students ha#e not co#ered the concepts in the pre#ious sectionsB
:reschoo and ,F3- pease re#iew!
1ime: 15F20 minutes
2aterials: graph paper- pencis- coored pencis
1! 5raw a map of the schoo grounds using graph paper! Set the unit to represent a specific distance-
for e)ampeB one unit on the grid e?uas 5 feet or 10 feet!
2! ;abe directions- buidings- pa" structures- trees- par&ing ots- sports fieds- etc!
3! 6i#e a titeI ma&e a egendI abe unit distance- etc!
1! :an a hi&e using this map and gi#e one to each student! Ta&e the same hi&e but start in a different
pace!
5! 0a#e students create a sca#enger hunt using the schoo grounds map!
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 9: 0ow to $a&e a Topo $ap
0ra"es: 3F8
1ime: 20 minutes
2aterials: + ump of ca" or :a"*5ohN about the siGe of a coffee mug- piece of cardboard or arge tie on
which to wor& the ca"- piece of denta foss- about 2 feet .around 20 centimeters/ ong- ruer- piece of pain-
white paper- ong penci- 2 toothpic&s
1. Miew instructions on how to ma&e a topo map here s%ace%lace7nasa7gov8to%oma%9clay.N+S+
website/
-.ac) to to%/
Activity 10: 0ow To <ead a Topographica $ap
0ra"es:1F8
1ime: 15 minutes
2aterials: :o& to ;ea" a 1o%ogra%ic 2a% Student Wor&sheet- topographic map of the Sacramento
area .clic) ere to downoad free topo maps from HS6S/!
1! <e#iew with students the foowing pointsB
+ topographic map is a representation of a three*dimensiona surface on a fat
piece of paper!
Te students the word is deri#ed from two 6ree& wordsJCtopo-E meaning Cpace-E
and graphos-E meaning Cdrawn or written!E +s& students if the" can use that information to figure
out what CtopographicE might mean! Then as& the students to oo& up the word in the dictionar" to
see whether the guess was correct!
%ontour ines- sometimes caed Ce#e ines-E 8oin points of e?ua ee#ation! The
coser together the contour ines appear on a topographic map- the steeper the sope!
2! 0and out 0ow to <ead a Topographic $ap Student Wor&sheet! The 'ustration 1 introduces students
to contour ines! :oint out that a contour ine 8oins points of e?ua ee#ation! Thin& of it as an imaginar"
ine on the ground that ta&es an" path necessar" to maintain constant ee#ation!
3! (irst- ha#e the student oo& at the side #iew of the his- 'ustration 2 and answer the first two
?uestions! (O. !nswer: hill "# (O$. !nswer: hill "#
1! Now ha#e the students oo& at the topographic map of the same two his .'ustration 3/! E)pain
that the ines on this map are caed contour ines or Ce#e ines!E +s& the students to trace with their
fingers around the 10*foot contour ine on the map! Then as& them to oo& at the picture of the hi and
draw their fingers aong the 10*foot contour ine!
5! <epeat step 1- ha#ing the students drawing with their fingers aong and around the 20*foot contour
ines!
2! +s& students to answer ?uestion O3! (!nswer: % feet#
4! +s& students to answer ?uestions O1- O5- O2! 0ep students understand that the coser the ines-
the steeper the sope! 0a#e students point out other paces on the map that ha#e a #er" steep
sope! (O&. !nswer: abo't &$ feet# (O(. !nswer: abo't (& feet# (O). !nswer: hill "#
8! 0a#e students identif" and circe the foowing features on iustration 2B a church- a bridge o#er the
ri#er- an oceanside ciff- a stream that fows into the main ri#er- a hi that rises steep" on one side and
more smooth" on the other!
9! 0a#e the students identif" and circe the same features on 'ustration 3B
5raw the map s"mbo for a church!
5raw the map s"mbo for a bridge!
:ut an K on the oceanside ciff!
What is the ee#ation of the contour ine at the top of the ciff= (!nswer: %% feet#
;ocate a stream that fows into the main ri#er! 5raw a penci ine down that stream!
:ut an K where the stream 8oins the main ri#er! 9n a rea topographic map* streams are shown in
bue and contour ines are shown in brown!
(ind the hi that rises steep" on one side and more smooth" on the other! 9n the
topographic map- draw a path up the genter sope of the hi to the highest point! .0intB remember
that when contour ines are cose together- the ground is #er" steep!/ 5raw a path showing a #er"
steep wa" up the hi!
10! 0a#e the students te how the" might use a topographic mapB
+ route for a hi&e! (*hoose ro'te that+s not too steep. ,hen planning a long hi-e,
.o' ma. want to see whether water is available or whether it sho'ld be carried in. ,oods tint ma.
indicate whether the ro'te is shaded.#
The best ocation for an airport! (Ma-e s're airplanes have plent. of room to ta-e
off and land before the gro'nd rises. /o not let st'dents s'ggest b'ilding in a swamp, in the woods,
or in a b'ilt-'p area.#
+ route for a new road! (0ind a shallow grade rather than a steep one. /o not allow
them to cross too man. rivers beca'se bridges are e1pensive.#
11! Hse a topographic map of Sacramento area to answer these ?uestionsB
What is the appro)imate ee#ation of the State %apito=
Woud "ou be wa&ing up hi or down hi to go from the state capito to the
Sacramento <i#er=
Suppose "ou i#ed b" the cit" ibrar"! (ind a east three wa"s "ou coud get from
"our house to the State %apito!
;ist things "ou woud see aong the wa"!
-.ac) to to%/
<ey Wor"s
2a%- ;o!te- 4ontrols- 4ontrol 2ar)er- Direction- 2agnetic #ort-
4om%ass- Declination
Do&nloa"s -6D'/
Wor)seets:
4om%ass I"enti$ication Wor&sheet
O(servation 5o!rnal 6age
Wat I ,a& Wor&sheet
:o& to ;ea" a 1o%ogra%ic 2a% Student Wor&sheet
3ie& all 4ircles an" 4ycles 6D's
;eso!rces
,ym(ols o$ Orienteering 2a%s
5ownoad a :5( orienteering s"mbos from (ac)&oo"so)7org atB
(ac)&oo"so)7org8images8io$control"esc7%"$
,1= Orienteering <it
%ompasses .12/
Sur#e"ors Tape
;andscapers fags .10/
Stic&ers
Needes .30/
%or&s .30/
<efrigerator $agnets .30/
%ontainers .30/
7oo&B Orienteering and Map Games for Teachers b" $ar" E! 6arrett
.oo)s
7agness- $artin! O'tward "o'nd Orienteering 2andboo-. ;"on>s :ress- 1995!
7oga- Ste#en! Orienteering: The Sport of Navigating ,ith Map and *ompass. Stac&poe 7oo&s-
1994!
7ratt- 'an! Orienteering: The 3ssential G'ide to 34'ipment and Techni4'es. Stac&poe 7oo&s- 2002!
,8estroem- 78oern! "e 31pert ,ith Map and *ompass: The *omplete Orienteering
2andboo-.0ungr" $indsP3ohn Wie" Q Sons- 1991!
$cNei- %aro- Tom <enfrew- and 3ean %or"*Wright! Teaching Orienteering, $nd ed. 0uman ,inetics-
1998!
$cNei- %aro! Orienteering (The S-ills of the Game#. %rowood :ress- 1992!
Nim#i&- $aria- 7arbro <oennberg- and Sue 0ar#e"! The ,orld of Orienteering. '9(- 1998!
Norman- 7erti- and +rne @ngstroem! Orienteering Techni4'e 0rom Start to 0inish. Sweden- 1991!
:amer- :eter- ed! The *omplete Orienteering Man'al. %rowood :ress- 1998!
<enfrew- Tom! Orienteering. 0uman ,inetics- 1992!
(oto di riferimento
'nserimento spiegaGione a cura dei progettisti deD'% 6aiei .S$S Mi#adi/ a!s! 2011!2015