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Per il solo uso con Flight Simulator, non usare per il volo reale
L'Airbus A320 uno degli aerei di linea a medio raggio, tra quelli prodotti dal consorzio interna-
zionale Airbus Industrie, che ha riscosso il maggior successo.
Quarto membro del l a "fami gl i a Ai rbus", l ' A320 stato non sol o un successo per
quanto ri guarda i profi tti del l a casa costruttri ce e del l e compagni e aeree, ma anche
un grande concepi mento tecnol ogi co.
L'A320 sicuramente una tra le pi valide scelte che le compagnie aeree possono effettuare:
quest'aereo tecnologicamente molto avanzato per la sua avionica "fly-by-wire", un sistema che
permette il controllo delle superfici di volo tramite impulsi elettrici che scorrono, appunto, nei fili
che percorrono tutto l'aereo (oltre 50 chilometri di cavi elettrici). Escluse le dimensioni ridotte del
sistema "fly-by-wire", il grosso vantaggio offerto quello che un computer controlla oltre 12.000
parametri di volo, nel tentativo di evitare errori umani come una virata troppo elevata o carichi G
dannosi all'intera struttura o, ancora, il superamento dell'angolo massimo d'attacco dell'ala.
Inoltre l'A320 dotato di una cabina di pilotaggio estremamente avanzata e intuitiva, con sei EFIS
a colori e un innovativo stick di controllo al posto della convenzionale cloche. L'A320 costruito
con un'alta percentuale di materiali compositi per avere un ottimo rapporto leggerezza/resisten-
za. Due tipologie di motori sono operanti su quest'aereo: il CFM56 e il IAE V2500.
Il programma A320 fu lanciato nel marzo del 1982 e il primo volo fu effettuato il 22 febbraio
1987, mentre le certificazioni furono approvate nel febbraio del 1988. Ad accogliere il progetto
furono la compagnia Air France, che acquist il primo A320 nel marzo del 1988, e la Adria
Airways nel 1989.
Caratteristiche tecniche
Airbus A320-214
DIMENSIONI metric imperial
Overall length 37.57 m. 123 ft. 3 in.
Height 11.76 m. 38 ft. 7 in.
Fuselage diameter 3.95 m. 13 ft.
Maximum cabin width 3.70 m. 12 ft. 1 in.
Cabin length 27.51 m. 90 ft. 3 in.
Wingspan (geometric) 34.10 m. 111 ft. 10 in.
Wing area (reference) 122.6 m2 1,320 ft2
Wing sweep (25% chord) 25 degrees 25 degrees
Wheelbase 12.64 m. 41 ft. 5 in.
Wheel track 7.59 m. 24 ft. 11 in.
INFOMAZIONI DI BASE metric imperial
Engines two CFM56-5 or IAE V2500 two CFM56-5 or IAE V2500
Engine thrust range 111-120 kN 22,000-27,000 lb. slst
Typical passenger seating 150 150
Range (w/max. passengers) 4,800 (5,700) km. 2,600 (3,000) nm.
Max. operating Mach number (Mmo) 0.82 Mo. 0.82 Mo.
Bulk hold volume - Standard/option 37.41 m3 1,322 ft3
PESI metric imperial
Maximum ramp weight 73.9 (77.4) tonnes 162.9 (170.6) lbs. x 1000
Maximum takeoff weight 73.5 (77) tonnes 162 (169.8) lbs. x 1000
Maximum landing weight 64.5 (66) tonnes 142.2 (145.5) lbs. x 1000
Maximum zero fuel weight 61 (62.5) tonnes 134.5 (137.8) lbs. x 1000
Maximum fuel capacity 23,860 (29,840) Litres 6,300 (7,885) US gal.
Typical operating weight empty 42.4 tonnes 93.5 lbs. x 1000
Typical volumetric payload 16.6 tonnes 36.59 lbs. x 1000
Normal Procedures
Nose-wheel steering is steer by wire and the steering hand-wheel is very
sensitive. It provides a steering angle of up to 75 with an increase in the
rate of turn in four separate bands. Inputs from the pilots hand-wheels
are algebraically summed so this precludes handover of control whilst
turning. Limited nose-wheel steering is also available using the rudder
Normal Procedure
Think: Brakes Off, Watch On, Stick Forward, Power 1.05. This subroutine
should help you get started correctly!
Release the brakes and start the stopwatch.
Apply half forward side-stick; use the white cross on the PFD to gauge
this control application.
Set approximately 1.05 EPR or 50% N1.
When both engines have stabilised, call setting power and advance the
thrust levers to the FLEX or TOGA detent.
At light weights and rear C of G positions, thrust should be applied with
care to ensure nose-wheel adhesion.
At 80kt gradually release the forward pressure on the side stick,
achieving the neutral position by 100kt.
Keep straight using nose-wheel steering via the rudder pedals. As the
groundspeed increases the rudder becomes effective and the nosewheel
steering input is progressively reduced to zero by 130kt.
Crosswind Take-off
For a crosswind greater than 20kt (or a tailwind):
Apply full forward stick.
Displace the white cross, into wind, by up to half its width.
Set 1.05 EPR (50%), then when engines stabilised set 1.15 EPR (70%).
Set Flex or TOGA by 40kt groundspeed.
Expedited Take-Off
For a rolling take-off use up to 1.03 EPR or 30% N1 until lined up.
Rotation & Lift-Off
At VR, rotate smoothly at 3 per second towards a pitch attitude of 15
then follow the flight director SRS pitch command.
The normal attitude is 15 and should be achieved in about 5 seconds,
so count to five as you rotate - start slowly as it is easier to increase the
rotation rate but more difficult to slow it down.
The rotation rate tends to reduce as the attitude reaches 10, and
additional side-stick back pressure is required to overcome this.
Initial Climb
Follow the SRS pitch demand (maximum is 18) to the flap retraction
altitude. The speed should stabilise at V2 + 10kt, but at light weights the
aircraft may achieve a higher speed. Retract the landing gear when a
positive climb is indicated on the VSI and radio altimeter. It is not
necessary to apply the brakes as they are automatically applied when the
gear handle is placed in the UP position.
Flap Retraction
The acceleration altitude may be specified but is normally 1000ft AAL.
The flight director pitch mode changes to CLB and commands a pitch
down. Select climb thrust as the LVR CLB prompt is displayed in the first
FMA column. The normal take-off flap setting is flap 1; select flap zero as
the aircraft accelerates through S speed. For take-offs with flap 2 or 3
retract the flaps on schedule: select flap 1 at F speed and flap zero at S
Early Turn
Obstructions, or noise abatement procedures may dictate an early turn
after take-off. Turn at the appropriate altitude and maintain the SRS
attitude (V2 + 10kt) with flaps at the take-off setting. At acceleration
altitude set climb power, accelerate and retract flaps on schedule.
Flex Thrust
A reduced thrust take-off results in lower EGTs and extends engine life.
The maximum thrust reduction authorised is 25% below rated thrust and
the resultant setting cannot be less than CLB. If conditions are
encountered during the take-off where additional thrust is desired, such as
temperature inversion or wind shear, select TOGA.
Flex thrust is not permitted in certain circumstances. Eg. If stopping
performance is significantly degraded, TOGA thrust is used to shorten the
take-off run. A comprehensive list of restrictions for the use of flex thrust
can be found in the Performance Manual, Take-off Section.
FCU Handling
FCU settings must be confirmed on the PFD. First look at the FCU, to
confirm the correct selector, and then look at the PFD while making the
actual selection. Check the PFD to ensure the correct bug or digit is being
adjusted and confirm any change on the FMAs.
This technique sounds simple enough but you will be surprised, initially, at
how easy it is to make a mistake. Typically, for example, the aircraft
continues in NAV when the crew think they have just selected HDG. The
importance of checking the FMAs is routinely emphasised throughout
conversion training - especially at times of high workload.
Control Laws
Side-Stick Handling
In Normal Law the side-stick is a load factor selector in pitch and a rate
of roll selector in roll. The controls are very sensitive, so smoothly select
the desired attitude and then release the pressure on the side-stick. The
control laws will maintain 1G (within certain limits) without further input
from the pilot. Most new pilots tend to over-control slightly until
familiarity is gained. This over-controlling normally occurs at times of
increased workload, but the tendency is easily overcome with a little
The side-sticks are not linked so movement of one side-stick is not felt by
the other pilot. Inputs from both side-sticks are algebraically summed and
so care must be taken not to move a side-stick (eg. whilst using the RT
switch) when the other pilot is flying manually. With the autopilot engaged
both side-sticks are locked in the neutral position. Applying sufficient
force to move them will disengage the autopilot.
High Speed Protection
Normal Law
With the autopilot engaged and auto-thrust active the system will not
permit a Selected Speed greater than VMO/MMO. If an excessive speed
(e.g. 380kt) is selected on the FCU, the aircraft will accelerate towards
VMO/MMO and then thrust will automatically reduce to prevent an
If an overspeed occurs, perhaps because of a sudden unexpected increase
in headwind, the autopilot will disconnect, auto-pitch trim is frozen and
overspeed protection will activate. The auto-pilot disconnect aural
warning will be masked by the ECAM overspeed warning. Spiral static
stability is reduced to zero bank and the maximum bank angle is reduced
to 45. As the speed increases, the side-stick nose-down authority is
progressively reduced, and a permanent nose-up order is applied to aid
recovery. To recover from an overspeed, reduce thrust and select
(carefully) speedbrake.
Alternate Law
Above VMO / MMO the auto-pilot will disconnect and a simple nose up
demand is introduced to avoid an excessive speed increase. This demand
can be overridden by the pilot.
High AOA Protection
Normal Law
As the aircraft enters the a protection region, back stick pressure is
necessary to maintain attitude and auto-pitch trim ceases. Prior to
reaching a-max, autothrust a-floor protection is activated and TOGA
thrust is automatically applied. Alpha-floor protection should be backed
up with the thrust levers. If the stick is moved fully aft the aircraft will
stabilise at a-max. Lateral control is still effective but the maximum bank
angle is limited to 45.
The aural stall warning is triggered at a-max + 4, but since the system
limits alpha to a-max the warning should not activate in normal law.
Releasing the back stick pressure completely will allow the speed to
increase and stabilise at a-prot. Forward pressure is required to accelerate
further. As speed increases away from a-prot, the FMA changes from
ALPHA FLOOR to TOGA LOCK indicating that thrust is locked at
TOGA. Once an acceptable speed is reached, deactivate TOGA LOCK
by pressing the instinctive disconnect button on the thrust levers and move
the thrust levers to select the desired thrust.
In the landing configuration the deceleration is faster, acceleration in the
recovery is slower and the speed range between VLS and the speed for a-
max is smaller. During the recovery retracting the flaps from the landing
position is not recommended until the speed is above VLS, as a greater
altitude loss may occur.
Note: Alpha Floor protection is an autothrust mode - not a flight control
protection mode.
Alternate Law
During the initial deceleration, a side-stick input is not required to
maintain the pitch attitude for level flight. The speed scale markings
display only VLS and the stall warning speed: VSW (the black red barbers
pole). As the angle of attack increases, 5 - 10kt above the stall warning, a
low speed stability term is introduced resulting in a gentle nose down
pitching moment which can to be resisted using back pressure on the sidestick.
Autothrust a-floor protection is inoperative.
Eventually, the master warning and aural warnings will activate (crickets
and STALL, STALL ). Recover at the stall warning by selecting TOGA
thrust, maintain a pitch attitude for level flight and accelerate through VLS.
Direct Law
The control laws transition from alternate to direct when the landing gear
is selected down and the crew are reminded to USE MAN PITCH TRIM.
The aerodynamic static stability causes a nose-down pitching moment as
the aircraft decelerates. This can be countered with back stick pressure.
Autothrust a-floor protection is inoperative and stall warnings occur as in
alternate law. During recovery, the pitching moment induced by the
selection of TOGA thrust is not opposed by the control laws and must be
resisted by an appropriate side-stick input. Recovery is conventional:
select TOGA thrust and the pitch attitude for level flight.
Normal Law Protections - Summary
Load Factor
Flap retracted: +2.5g / -1g
Flap extended: +2.0g / 0g
Load factor demand.
Nose-Up: 30 25 at slow speed.
25 20 at slow speed in Config full.
Nose Down: 15
F/D bars and FMA modes Off at: Up 25 / 13 Down.
Roll rate demand max 15 per sec.
Normal - up to 33 bank angle.
33-67 with side-stick pressure - no auto-pitch trim.
Maximum 67 2 green bars.
F/D bars and A/P Off at 45
High AOA Protection
Available from take-off to 100ft on the approach.
Active at a prot top of the black/amber band.
AOA is then proportional to side stick deflection.
No auto-pitch trim.
A/P disconnects at a prot + 1.
a floor (TOGA) activated after a prot region penetrated.
Max bank angle 45.
Max AOA is a max top of the red band.
If side-stick is released AOA returns to a prot and sticks.
High Speed Protection
Active at or above VMO 350kt / MMO .82M
Auto-pitch trim frozen.
A/P disconnects but aural warning masked by....
ECAM red overspeed warning at VMO + 4kt.
Activates at = 2 green bars at VMO + 6kt.
Side-stick nose-down authority progressively reduced.
Permanent pitch-up signal to aid recovery.
Pilot can exceed VMO/MMO using forward side-stick pressure.
Max bank angle 45.
If the side-stick is released: aircraft pitches up and maintains zero bank
Flare Mode
Active at 50ft attitude memorised.
Auto-trim freezes at 50ft manual - 100ft autopilot.
At 30ft pitch attitude reduced to 2 over 8 seconds.
Alternate Law Protections- Summary
Load Factor
No change but this is the only protection available in Alternate Law
without protections.
No pitch protections amber crosses.
Control response same as normal law load factor demand.
No roll protections amber crosses.
Control response - control surface demand max 30.per sec
Roll rate restricted by use of spoilers 4 and 5 only.
A/P disconnects above 45 AOB.
Low Speed Stability
Available in Alternate Law with Protections.
Black/Red barbers pole below Vs.
Active at about Vs + 5-10kt.
Introduces a progressive nose down signal.
Introduces bank-angle compensation to maintain max AOA in a turn.
Audio: crickets + Voice: STALL.
a floor inoperative.
High Speed Stability
Available in Alternate Law with Protections.
Active above VMO.
Introduces a nose-up pitch demand.
Pilot can override.
Conventional overspeed warning at VMO.
to the loss of Normal Law Protections and does not necessarily imply
Alternate Law Without Protections. Confused? Blame the French.
Direct Law - Summary
Load Factor
Not available.
Control surface demand.
No auto-pitch trim USE MAN PITCH TRIM.
No protections.
As alternate.
Low / High Speed
Aural warnings as alternate.
Alpha floor inoperative.
Complete the descent preparation as early as possible; on a very short
sector some aspects can be set-up prior to departure.
The following sequence of FMGS programming is often referred to as FRPP.
FLT PLN page: Complete a lateral revision at the destination and select
the Approach and STAR, or VIA. Cross-check the STAR, Approach and
Go-Around waypoints, and ensure that all altitude and speed constraints
are relevant.
RAD NAV page. Check the correct ILS has auto-tuned. Manually tune
any NDBs or VORs as required.
PERF pages. Check the descent speeds are as required. Enter the ATIS
weather, the approach minima and the Go-around Aa.
PROG page. Check Nav accuracy.
Set the QNH on the standby altimeter and bug the Cat 1 or non-precision
MDA. Bug VAPP on the standby ASI. Back-set the QNH on the EFIS
control panel.
Use the Descent Checklist aide-memoir to confirm all preparations are
complete before starting the approach briefing. This will prompt you to
consider the various items before you begin to speak and should result in
a more efficient delivery.
Descent Monitoring
The FMGS is very sophisticated; however, experience shows that a simple,
basic method is necessary to monitor the descent. Try to ensure that the
FLT PLN distance-to-go is an accurate reflection of the ATC routing, and
consider using the 3 times table - it is a useful tool for avoiding a rushed
approach and for finessing the intermediate descent. Either:
Multiply range by 3 to give desired altitude.
Eg. 60 miles / 18000 feet - (slightly less than 3).
Multiply height by 3 to give desired range.
Eg. 18000 feet / 54 miles - (slightly steeper than 3).
The aim is to try to fly a 3 degree descent throughout the approach,
avoiding level flight at intermediate flight levels - except as part of a
planned, level deceleration.
Alternatively, the required vertical speed to achieve a 3 descent angle can
be estimated by halving the ground speed. Eg. Groundspeed 480kt, a
vertical speed of 2400ft/min would be required. Using this method,
adjustments can be made for a head or tailwind, and also for variations in
descent speed.
The FMGS will calculate all the descent parameters providing it has been
correctly set up. It will insert a pseudo way point in the FLT PLN and, if in
managed NAV, a descent arrow will be displayed on the ND. Managed
DESCENT is only available in NAV mode and is achieved by pushing the
altitude selector knob having first selected a lower altitude. Autothrust
IDLE will be annunciated on the FMA and the Managed Speed is
controlled by elevator, within a set range, to achieve the required FMGS
vertical profile. If the computed descent profile is too steep a MORE
DRAG message is displayed. Conversely, if the profile is too shallow to
maintain the speed with idle thrust the autothrust will increase power and
engage in SPEED or MACH mode.
Above FL 310, if the aircraft is more than 500ft above the required
descent profile, the use of the DESCENT mode can lead to a MMO
exceedance. In this case use OPEN DESCENT until the profile is regained
or until the aircraft descends below FL 310. OPEN DESCENT is achieved
by pulling the altitude selector knob having first selected a lower altitude.
It results in idle thrust with speed controlled by elevator.
The ECON descent speed is displayed on the PERF page of the FMGC.
This is the Managed Speed and is determined by the cost index. It can be
modified, but only prior to entering the descent phase; thereafter speed
modifications can only be accomplished using Selected Speed. The ECON
speed defaults to 250kt below 10,000 feet unless a vertical revision is
made to delete or amend the speed restriction.
Deviations from the programmed speed schedule can result in being too
high (or low); use speedbrake or an increase in speed to regain the profile.
Increase the Selected Speed gradually to avoid an excessive nose down
pitch attitude. The descent is normally flown with autothrust engaged as
this offers speed protection when capturing a pre-set altitude.
Plan the descent to achieve green dot speed at 12 miles, or at about 8
miles out when making an abeam approach. A good cross check is to be
at 10,000ft AAL, 33nm from the airport, with a maximum speed of 280kt
decelerating towards 250kt. The following table gives approximate target
Gates for still air with engine anti-ice OFF.
Distance Height Speed Config
33 10000 280 max Clean
20 6000 250 Clean
12 3800 210 or Green Dot Flap 1
8 2500 180 or S speed Flap 1
4.5 1500 160 or F speed Flap 2 or 3 + Gear
Descent In Icing Conditions
The use of engine anti-ice, and the increase in idle thrust that is associated
with it, will increase the descent distance required. Engine icing often
forms when unexpected and can occur when there is no evidence of icing
on the ice detector. Once ice has formed, an increasing accumulation can
occur rapidly. The engine anti-ice system should be turned on whenever
visible moisture is present, or the visibility is 1500m or below and the TAT
is at or below +10C. Engine anti-ice may be turned off during the climb
and cruise when the SAT is below -40C.
At idle thrust in level flight, deceleration from VMO to 280kt takes about 1
minute, and from 280kt to 210kt takes about 1minute 10 seconds. Using
speedbrakes to aid deceleration will reduce these times and distances by
approximately 40%.
Speed Reduction Time Distance
350-210 2 mins 10 secs 10 nm
350-280 1min 6 nm
280 - 210 1min 10 secs 4 nm
Speedbrake extension causes a pitch up which is useful in containing an
overspeed excursion; however, rapid retraction causes a pitch down and
can cause a small altitude bust if retraction takes place in ALT* during
level off after a descent. All speedbrake selections should be made slowly
to avoid rapid pitch changes and for passenger comfort.
Complete a lateral revision at the appropriate way point to insert a hold.
Check the parameters displayed on the HOLD page and amend if
necessary. Standard ICAO timing is achieved by checking or inserting 1
or 1.5 min in the appropriate field. A gross error check, however, should
still be made by timing the hold using the stopwatch.
Once inserted, the aircraft will enter and remain in the hold. The FMGS
will compute the hold entry using a variable bank angle to pick up the
holding axis. The ND depicts the race track pattern with the inbound and
outbound turns drawn for still air but takes no account of the variable
bank angle employed. The aircraft symbol may not follow the holding
pattern as drawn if there is a significant cross-axis wind component. If the
cross-axis wind component exceeds 40kt, the aircraft will not immediately
pick up the holding axis on completion of the inbound turn. If the
crosswind component exceeds 80 - 100kt, the FMGS may not be able to
keep the aircraft within the protected holding area, and pilot intervention
will be needed.
To exit use the Immediate Exit prompt, or perform a Direct To, or select
HDG. It is important to ensure that the Hold is cleared from the FMGS
Flight Plan; if it is not the waypoints will not sequence correctly and the
Go-around Flight Plan will be unavailable.
The normal holding speed is 5 - 10kt above green dot and the aircraft
configuration should be clean. As the aircraft approaches the holding fix
in NAV mode, the Managed Speed target will reduce from the descent
speed to green dot and the aircraft will decelerate. However, on leaving
the hold, if the FMGS is still in the PERF DES phase (ie. approach not
activated), the speed target will jump to the previous descent speed. If this
is not desired activate the approach or change to Selected Speed. This
can be done at any time prior to or during the hold.
Intermediate Approach
Using Managed Speed, the initial approach is flown clean at Green Dot.
Select Flap 1 on base leg and reduce to S speed. For further deceleration
select Flap 2 and slow to F speed. Remember that these are procedural
speeds rather than minimum speeds. The minimum speed for the
configuration is always displayed as VLS on the PFD speed scale.
Config Procedural Speed Minimum Speed
Clean Green dot VLS
Flap 1 S speed VLS
Flap 2 & 3 F speed VLS
Flap Full VAPP VLS
To enable automatic deceleration with configuration change, activate the
approach on the PERF page, and ensure that Managed Speed is selected
on the FCU. The speed will then re-datum automatically according to the
table above. The magenta speed target bug will be at VAPP and may not
be visible until the speed has reduced. If ATC requires speed control use
Selected Speed and set the required speed on the FCU.
The use of speedbrakes on the approach with flaps extended up to Flap 3
is permitted but not recommended as this causes an unwanted increase in
VLS. The recommended method, to achieve greater deceleration, is to
extend the landing gear earlier than normal. Speedbrake is inhibited with
Flap Full.
If the approach pattern requires a downwind leg select NAV ROSE to
enable the runway and final approach to remain in view. At other times
most pilots use NAV ARC, gradually decreasing the selected range
throughout the approach. Select the ILS display using the push-button on
the EFIS control panel. The ILS ident and DME are shown at the bottom
left of the PFD. Select VOR/ADF needles as required, and display a VOR
DME range if required by the procedure. When cleared to intercept the
localiser arm LOC on the FCU. When cleared for the ILS approach arm
APP and engage the second autopilot. At glideslope capture set the goaround
altitude on the FCU and check the TO waypoint is appropriate
on the ND.
Go Around
During a go-around, as the NHP raises the landing gear he announces the
FMA modes: TOGA, SRS, GA TRK The aircraft will maintain the GA
TRK until the FCU heading knob is pushed for NAV or pulled for HDG. If
NAV is available the FMGS will guide the aircraft along the FLT PLN, but
only if the waypoints have sequenced correctly. Obviously, it is essential
that the correct go-around altitude has been selected on the FCU.
From an Unstable Approach
If a go-around is initiated at, for example 1000ft/160kt, additional
considerations apply. TOGA power should be selected as this action
engages Go-Around mode and ensures NAV will be available throughout
the missed approach. However, it may be prudent to re-select CLB power
almost immediately; this will provide adequate power, re-activate
autothrust and help prevent a possible flap overspeed.
From Level Flight
A go-around may need to be initiated from ALT mode, for example at
3000ft when the aircraft has failed to capture the glideslope and is now
too high. Selecting TOGA power will engage go-around mode, but this
may not be the best option as the aircraft will commence a climb away
from the cleared altitude. This could cause obvious problems in a busy
ATC environment.
Without Selecting TOGA
The FMGS section of the Flying Manual states that performing a goaround
without selecting TOGA will sequence the destination and erase
the active flight plan when flying over or abeam (less than 7 miles) the
airport. If this occurs activate the secondary flight plan at an opportune
moment. Alternatively, enter a waypoint, perform a lateral revision and
insert a new destination.
Flight Director
The flight directors automatically re-engage during a go-around and the
autothrust will re-arm even though it may have been disengaged for the
approach. Thereafter, it will activate when the thrust levers are set to the
climb detent, just as it does on a normal take-off. As the go-around
altitude is captured thrust will reduce to maintain the speed.
Decelerated ILS Approach
Managed Speed
Judgement of the vertical profile and deceleration is one of the more
difficult aspects of the final approach. When ATC speed control is not
required use Managed Speed. Glide-slope interception is achieved,
preferably in a continuous descent, in Config 1 at S speed. Flap 2,
Landing Gear, Flap 3 and Full are selected in sequence in order to achieve
a stabilised approach by 1000ft. Remember that the Flying Manual
requires Flap 2 and Landing Gear extension to be accomplished by 2000ft
AAL. The precise timing of the configuration changes, and thus the rate of
deceleration, can be controlled by the crew to suit the local met
Selected Speed
ATC often require some form of speed control, and most AERAD booklets
give details of the likely speed profile. Therefore, it is quite normal for
pilots to initiate the descent in Managed Speed and then change to
Selected during the intermediate approach in order to meet these
requirements. Thereafter, it may not be appropriate to re-select Managed
Speed until Flap 3 or Full is selected during the landing checklist. Speed
control is therefore an important consideration and one that can be easily
overlooked - even in good weather.
It is common practice for ATC to request 160 to 4 DME or 170 to the
marker. So how can this be achieved? The technique to be used is
basically dependant on the presence or absence of a headwind.
Consider using Selected Speed 160kt and, when appropriate, select flap 2
and lower the landing gear as normal. Then at 4.5 DME (1500ft) select
Flap 3 and change to Managed Speed. Observe the deceleration and
select Flap Full in time to achieve the stable approach criteria by 1000ft
In light winds, or a tailwind, the aircraft might stabilise on the glideslope at
say 10 miles, 3200ft Flap 1, at 205kt. Simply plan to lower the landing
gear early, at say 2800ft, in order to achieve a deceleration to S speed (eg
180kt) by 2500ft and guarantee a stable approach. Alternatively if ATC
require 180kt at 10 DME extend the landing gear without delay and use
Selected Speed. The landing gear is far more effective than speedbrake in
stabilising the approach. The Flying Manual states: the use of speedbrake
will cause an unwanted increase in VLS.
Good judgement and experience are required, so early in your training be
conservative and do not hesitate to refuse an instruction to maintain
170kt to 4 DME. Decide at the briefing stage what you can achieve, eg.
160 to 4.5 DME, and tell ATC. Furthermore, beware of foot-notes on the
THALES ILS chart which point out that the DME reads 1.1 mile at
If the non-landing pilot misjudges the deceleration the speed may exceed
the VAPP target at 1000ft radio and a go-around must be considered. The
landing pilot might then announce: considering a go-around. This would
alert both pilots so that if the stabilised criteria are not met by 500ft a
mandatory go-around would not come as a surprise.
Automatic Non Precision Final Approach
Non precision approaches using Managed guidance (APP NAV/FINAL)
are not permitted at present. Therefore, the following procedures specify
the use of Selected vertical and horizontal guidance, and Managed Speed.
The recommended technique is to fly an automatic, speed stabilised
approach using the FPV and autothrust.
Check the FMGS Arrival page and select the NDB approach if available.
If there is no NDB approach in the data base select the ILS approach if the
procedure and go-around are similar. Alternatively select RW but note
that a go-around profile will not be available. Tune the NDB and display
the needles using the NAV ARC or NAV ROSE display. NAV ROSE is
normally used during the initial approach, whilst the NAV ARC display
gives an expanded compass segment enabling precise monitoring on the
inbound track. The map range should be adjusted to prevent clutter at
the top of the ND.
For an NDB/DME approach, enter the DME ident or frequency in a VOR
field, identify and display the DME on the ND by selecting the respective
needle to VOR. Only one needle will then be available for NDB tracking.
Alternatively, enter the DME frequency in the ILS field and display the
range on the ND by selecting ILS on the EFIS control panel.
Check the FMGS Arrival page and select the VOR approach if available.
If there is no VOR approach in the data base select the ILS approach if the
procedure and go-around are similar. Alternatively select RW but note
that a go-around profile will not be available. The VORs should auto-tune
provided a VOR approach has been selected. Alternatively, manually
tune both VORs, enter the inbound course on the NAV RAD page,
identify normally and display the needles using ROSE VOR, NAV ARC or
Set-up the FMGS for a normal ILS approach. Select the ILS display on
the PFD and identify. Deselect the GPWS G/S mode. Select either ROSE
Vertical Profile
The final approach track should be intercepted at S speed, flap 1. Aim to
select flap 2 and landing gear at approximately 3 miles prior to the final
descent point. The aircraft should be in the landing configuration and
speed stabilised at VAPP approximately 1 mile prior to commencing the
descent. (For single-engine approaches Flap Full is selected during the
final descent) To commence descent simply turn the FPA knob to select
the desired FPA and PULL. This selection should be made .3 nm prior to
the descent point to allow time for the autopilot to respond.
To avoid unwanted ALT capture do not select a lower altitude on the
FCU. The Go-Around altitude should be pre-set on the FCU when the
aircraft has descended below Go-Around altitude. Note that 0.5 FPA
equates to approximately 100 feet per minute rate of descent and to vary
the profile remember that 1 achieves a 100 feet per mile adjustment. Eg.
if 100 feet high select 4 to achieve the correct glideslope in 1 nm.
Horizontal Profile
For NDB, VOR, or radar approaches, make appropriate TRK selections
on the FCU to intercept and maintain the inbound course. For a
LOCALISER approach, arm LOC on the FCU and monitor capture.
MDA Or When Visual
If the required visual references are obtained before MDA control
handover takes place. The autopilot should be disconnected and the flight
directors selected OFF.
Manual Non-Precision Approach Flight Director Off
A Non-precision approach may be flown without using the flight director
or autopilot. The FMGS set-up is the same.
Vertical Profile
Select pitch attitudes on the PFD referring to the fixed aircraft symbol in
the conventional way. Check the achieved FPA (indicated by the FPV)
and vertical speed, then adjust pitch attitude as necessary. Try to resist the
temptation to chase the FPV and VSI; remember they are performance
instruments. FPA selections are not made on the FCU.
Horizontal Profile
The FCU selected track is displayed by a blue index on the PFD horizon
line. It is selected to the inbound course for the final approach and is used
as a track reference.
The correct inbound track is maintained by positioning the FPV with
reference to the blue TRK index. When the FPV is aligned with the TRK
index the aircraft will maintain the track selected on the FCU.
Naturally it is necessary to ensure that the aircraft is established on the
correct QDM before aligning the FPV and TRK index. Failure to do so
simply results in the aircraft paralleling the desired track.
MDA Or When Visual
For the visual segment consider selecting the FCU track to the runway
centreline if this differs from the inbound course.
Circling Approach
A circling approach is an IFR approach (either precision or non-precision)
followed by a visual circuit. Each circling situation is different because of
variables such as runway layout, final approach track, and meteorological
conditions. A single procedure will not cater for all circumstances.
An appropriate time for handover of control should be discussed and
should take account of the circuit direction. Consideration should be
given to the appropriate response when the decide call is made. Also, the
Missed Approach Point (MAP) has particular significance on this type of
The FMGS set-up is not ideal as the landing runway is not the same as that
used for the instrument approach. Furthermore, in the event of a goaround
the missed approach procedure for the instrument approach must
be followed.
The recommended compromise is as follows:
Enter the instrument approach in the primary flight plan. Complete the
PERF APPR page - enter the ATIS etc.
Copy the flight plan and modify the secondary - enter the landing
If desired, construct waypoints in the secondary flight plan to assist
orientation for the circling manoeuvre. For example for BRU RW02:
EBBR02/200/2, (PBD01)
PBD01/290/2, (PBD02)
These are two very useful waypoints depicting the end of a downwind leg
and a point on short final.
Initial Approach
The initial instrument approach should be flown in Flap 3 (Flap 2 single
engine) with the gear down. If the autopilot is in use the flight directors
should be on. If flying an ILS to circle, an early selection of TRK/FPA
during the ILS may be preferred. The go-around altitude should be set in
the FCU as normal.
About 100 feet above the circling minima select (push) FPA zero on the
FCU. The aircraft must be levelled at or above the MDA. It is not
permissible to descend below the MDA until the aircraft is in a position to
commence a descent to the landing threshold at the normal rate on a 3
If the required visual references are not achieved at MDA go-around
immediately. The references are described in FCO 752: sufficient visual
reference with the terrain and either the approach lights or the runway
must be continuously in view.
At MDA there is no immediate requirement to disconnect the autopilot, or
turn off the flight directors, or handover control. The autopilot may
remain engaged until the final descent when it must be disconnected by
100 feet below MDA; the flight directors should then be switched off.
JAROPS subpart E stipulates that the instrument approach track should be
maintained until the crew estimate that:
The required visual references can be maintained throughout the
The aircraft is within the circling area.
The aircrafts position in relation to the runway can be determined
If these conditions are not met by the MAP a missed approach must be
carried out.
Circling Manoeuvre
Initially, display but do not activate the secondary flight plan. This is
achieved by pressing the SEC F-PLN key on each MCDU; the secondary
route is then displayed in white. The primary route remains active (green)
and thus the instrument go-around procedure remains available.
When downwind, and when a landing is considered assured, activate the
secondary flight plan. The managed speed target will now be correct for
the landing runway.
Alternatively, if it is considered more prudent to retain the go-around
profile do not activate the secondary but remember that the managed
approach speed for the landing runway will be wrong as the incorrect wind
component will be used to calculate VAPP and the VAPP Target. Therefore
use Selected Speed and calculate manually the correct VAPP adding wind
increments as necessary.
The low visibility pattern in the Flying Manual suggests an initial turn
through 45 for 30 seconds followed by a downwind leg, extending
beyond the landing threshold by 20 secs per 500ft. This is only a guide
and must be adapted for the actual conditions.
Experience in the simulator suggests that the waypoints on the ND are
very useful for confirming lateral separation from the runway. With NAV
ROSE and minimum range displayed, comfortable separation is achieved
when the runway symbol is just inside the 2.5 nm range circle. Use all
available aids, eg. Nav Display, VOR or NDB, to assist your visual
judgement of when to turn onto base leg. Care must be taken to remain
within the circling radius.
When turning onto final, the aircraft should be fully configured at the
correct speed and comply with the stable approach criteria. If the
waypoints have cycled correctly the magenta vertical deviation symbol on
the PFD may be used to assist judgement of the final descent.
Go Around
If at any time visual reference is lost a Go-around must be flown by
entering a climbing turn towards the runway and establishing on the
missed approach procedure specified for the instrument approach.
Different patterns will be required depending on the aircrafts position at
the time the Go-around was commenced; however, it may be prudent to
clarify precise requirements with ATC.
Landing Technique
Flare & Touchdown
The landing gear should cross the runway threshold at approximately 50ft.
Go-around if threshold clearance is doubtful. Just before the flare make a
conscious effort to look towards the far end of the runway and avoid any
temptation to fixate on the touchdown zone. This will assist in
determining the flare point.
Under normal stable approach conditions, at 30 ft hold the attitude, close
the thrust levers and commence the flare by 20ft. Most initial landing
attempts in the simulator using this technique result in a slightly firm
touchdown, and trainees can be re-assured that this is not unusual!
However resist the temptation to over-compensate - only a small side-stick
input is required and flaring at 50ft is not the solution. During your first
attempts concentrate on using the correct technique and do not be put off
if your landings are firmer than you would like.
After the initial rotation there should be little additional increase in pitch
attitude to complete the flare, back pressure is only required to counter
the nose down effect of the flight control flare law. This mode mimics the
normal response of a conventional aircraft. Do not allow the aircraft to
float but fly the aircraft onto the runway. After main gear contact gently
lower the nose using the side stick.
The aircraft does not exhibit a pitch up tendency after touchdown when
the ground spoilers deploy; however, a reduction in the nose down pitch
rate is evident. Application of autobrakes after main gear touchdown
increases the nose down forces but can be easily countered by elevator
If a bounce occurs, hold or re-establish a normal landing attitude. Thrust
need not be added for a shallow bounce or skip. If a high, hard, bounce
occurs go-around immediately. A second touchdown may occur during the
go-around. Do not retract the landing gear until a positive rate of climb is
Crosswind Landing
Position the aircraft on the extended runway centre line with drift applied.
In conditions of strong crosswinds, because of the length of the aircraft,
the pilot will be positioned on the upwind side of the centre line.
In the flare, progressively apply rudder to visually align the aircraft
heading with the runway. At the same time apply sufficient bank to
maintain the runway centreline. Remember that a sustained lateral sidestick
input will produce a roll-rate demand and not a constant bank angle,
so once the desired bank angle is achieved centre the side-stick.
Touchdown should be on the into-wind landing gear. After touchdown
keep a little into-wind side stick to help prevent any subsequent wing lift.
Landing Roll
For maximum effectiveness use autobrakes or commence manual braking
and apply reverse thrust at main wheel touchdown Apply the brakes
smoothly with steadily increasing pedal pressure as required for runway
condition, distance available or for a desired turn off point. Maintain
deceleration rate with constant or increasing brake pressure as required
until stopped or desired taxi speed is reached. Excessive brake
modulation should be avoided for passenger comfort and to minimise
brake wear.
Rudder control and rudder pedal steering are sufficient for maintaining
directional control during the roll out. As it is difficult to slide feet up the
rudder pedals in crosswinds, feet should be positioned with the toes at the
top of the pedals prior to touchdown. Steering after touchdown is
accomplished with the heels and braking with the toes.
Wind Corrections - Final Approach
The approach speed, VAPP target, is continuously adjusted to take into
account the actual wind conditions. It is therefore recommended that
Managed Speed is used in gusty conditions. However the system may
demand speeds in excess of VFE; in this case use a Selected Speed until
below 1,000ft AAL. The FMGS compares the actual wind conditions (at
the aircraft) with the ATIS wind entered on the PERF APPR page. If the
actual headwind at the current altitude is greater than that entered in the
FMGS, the VAPP target on the PFD will increase. However, if the
headwind is less than reported or if an unexpected tailwind is encountered
the VAPP target is limited to the VAPP calculated on the PERF APPR page
When the wind is close to 90 across the runway an increment will not be
added automatically. Consider increasing VAPP by up to VLS + 15kt to
give a comfortable margin.
Maximum Certified Landing Weights: /Airbus A319-131 = 61,000kgs/ Airbus A320 = 66,000kgs/
Airbus A321 = 77,800kgs.
BAV Airbus Captains may elect to land at a weight greater than the certified maximum landing weight for
Airbus type by using emergency authority when a condition or combination of conditions makes an overw
landing a prudent course of action. If an overweight landing is to be performed ensure adequate runway
length and go-around capability exists. Make a normal approach and landing. Overweight landings impos
larger than normal stresses on the airplane. Avoid a high sink rate on touchdown and avoid excessive sid
loads on rollout.
Automatic landing is certified up to MLW, but has been demonstrated in flight up to MTOW. In determinin
best course of action, the flight crew may consider the option to perform an automatic landing provided th
runway is approved for automatic landing
Landing Configuration . Full
Selected Speed . Use
Landing Distance . Check
Packs . Off or Supplied
Selecting packs off (or supplied by APU) will increase the maximum
thrust available in the event of a Go-Around.
Landing Weight . ____ kgs
For weights greater than 70000kg S speed is greater than VFE CONF 2 (200
KNOTS). Consequently the crew must select on FCU a speed below 200 knots
before setting FLAPS 2. When in FLAPS 2 crew can use managed speed again.
In the final stages of approach:
Target Speed . VLS
Reduce speed to reach VLS at runway threshold. Touch down as smoothly as
possible (maximum V/S at touchdown 360 ft/min).
At main landing gear touchdown:
Reverse Thrust . Max
After nose wheel touchdown:
Brakes . Apply as
Maximum braking may be used after nosewheel touchdown but, if landing
distance permits, delay or reduce braking to take full benefit of the available
runway length.
Landing Complete:
Brake Fans . On
Be prepared for tyre deflation if temperatures exceed 800
AUTOTHRUST . Disconnect
THR LEVER (affected) . Idle
THR LEVER (unaffected) . FLX/MCT
Pilots using the PSS version will not be able to move the affected thrust
lever to Idle unless they have unsynchronized the thrust levers first. If
this has not been done both thrust levers should be moved to the
FLX/MCT gate.
ENG MASTER (affected) . Off
MAN START pushbutton . Off
Auto start is recommended in flight. Be aware that, contrary to auto
start on ground, the crew must take appropriate action in case of
abnormal start.
X BLEED . Open
Knob to the right of APU Bleed on overhead panel
WING A.ICE (for starter assist) . Off
ENG MASTER (affected) . On
Monitor N2. If uncertain about engine relight, move thrust lever forward
and check engine response
When idle reached:
Pilots using the PSS version will notice that as the thrust levers are in
the FLX/MCT gate the affected engine will spool up beyond idle to MCT
thrust. This is not a problem and the items below can still be performed
normally once the engine has spooled up.
If no relight:
ENG MASTER (affected) . Off
Wait 30 seconds before attempting a new start (to drain the engine)
BAV Airbus pilots must clearly understand that any decision to reject a takeoff must be made so brake
application is made by, not after, V
. Captains must develop a mind set which recognizes that any decision to
abort from a speed near V
is a decision that the airplane cannot fly, rather than a decision that the airplane
can stop. A decision to stop should be made only if the failure involved would impair the ability of the airplane
to be safely flown. Conditions warranting a stop near V
are an engine failure or a malfunction where there is
doubt that the airplane will fly.
The following procedures for an RTO should be carried out from recall, not by reference at the time to this checklist:
Call Stop Stop . Accomplish
Throttles . Full Reverse
Use maximum allowable thrust consistent with directional control.
Autobrakes . Verify
Verify autobrake application. Auto-braking is the primary method of
brake application if the groundspeed is above 72 knots. However the
Captain must be prepared to use manual braking in the event of
autobrake failure or premature disengagement.
Ground Spoilers . Verify
Verify ground spoiler extension if the RTO was initiated above
72 knots.
ATC . Notify
Notify air traffic control of the RTO and include the runway where
the RTO occurred. Follow ATC taxi instructions.
Consider requesting fire equipment for an RTO above 80 knots.
After Landing Checks . Accomplish
If an engine fails after the aircraft passes V
the takeoff must be continued.
Use rudder to stay on the runway extended centerline.
At V
rotate the aircraft smoothly to a pitch rate of 12.5 degrees (or 10 degrees if thrust remains at
FLEX), then follow the Speed Reference System (SRS) after the FD bar has stabilized.
When airborne with a positive rate of climb select gear up.
Use rudder to prevent yaw.
Consider use of TOGA thrust.
At 400 feet select autopilot on.
If the engine failure occurs between V1 and V2 the initial target speed is V2. If the failure occurs
between V2 and V2+10 the target speed is the speed reached at the time of failure. If engine failur
occurs at V2+10 or higher the target speed is V2+10.
At acceleration height level off and allow speed to increase. At F speed select Conf 1. At S Speed
select Conf 0.
At green dot speed resume the climb using MCT and maintain green dot speed
NB. In the event of an engine failure between V
and V
in the PSS version of the Airbus, pilots
should be aware that continued flight is unlikely.
Briefing Complete Checked
Briefing Complete Checked
Parking Brake Set
Packs 1 and 2 Off
Battery 1 and 2 On
APU Bleed On
APU Master On
Flap Open on Lower ECAM Checked
APU Start On
External Power Avail
Packs 1 and 2 On
Engine 1 and 2 Master Off
Mode select Norm
Flaps Zero
Ground Spoilers Ret
Flight Director On
Doors Closed
Seat Belts Sign On
Cabin Secure
Beacon On
Parking Brakes Released
Fuel Pumps Auto & On
Mode select Ign/Start
Engine Master 2 On
Engine Master 1 On
Engines running and stable Checked
Mode select Norm
Engine Anti Ice As Reqd
Strobes On
Nav and Logo Lights On
Wing and Taxi lights On
Squawk Mode C
Flaps Set xxxx
Ground Spoilers Armed
Autobrake Max
Initial Altitude Set xxxx
Altimeter Set xxxx
Trim Set xxxx
Take Off Config No Blue
Briefing Reviewed
Landing Lights On
Transponder Set
Gear Up Checked
Speed Brakes Ret
APU Bleed Off
APU Master
Autopilot 1 On
Landing Lights Off
Taxi Lights Off
Autobrake Off
Seat Belt Sign Off
Altimeter Set xxxx
Briefing Complete Checked
Autobrake Set xxxx
Seat Belt Signs On
Landing Lights On
RAD/NAV ILS Set xxxx
Approach Phase Data Entered
Activate Approach Confirmed
Altimeter Set xxxx
Autopilot 2 As Reqd
Ground Spoilers Armed
Missed Approach Altitude Set xxxx
Autobrake Set xxxx
Landing Gear Down
Flaps Set xxxx
Speed Selector Mode Managed
ECAM Landing Memo No Blue
Cleared to land Checked
Autopilot Off
Flaps Zero
ILS on PFD Off
Flight Director Off
APU Bleed On
APU Started
Speed Brakes Ret
Landing Lights Off
Parking Brake On
Beacon Off
Taxi Lights Off
Seat Belt Signs Off
BAV Acars Pirep Sent
Engine Master Switches Off
Fuel Pumps Off
Packs 1 and 2 Off
APU Bleed Off
APU Master Off
Batteries 1 and 2 Off
Questo manuale operativo una raccolta dei
materiali disponibili in rete o nelle varie edizioni
di FS in chiave MPSAV, tutte le immagini o i
testi presenti nel manuale sono di propriet
dei legittimi proprietari.
Referenze fonti
Airbus, British Airways Virtual, Wikipedia,
Microsoft, Aerospaceweb,
Giordano Bompadre per le dettagliatissime e
splendide immagini di A320 Mpsav.
Luso di questo manuale da considerarsi
ristretto alla simulazione di volo con FS.