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Pranab Jyoti Ghosh Ghosh Energy from Atmospheric Heat Robert R. Green Green Steam Engine Et3m Hortong Electron Orbit Energy Generator Ken Rauen Rauen En ironmental Heat Engine RE!E"E# Hol$ings %imite$ Re etec #am&'ri e Engine (arnabus Energy) *nc. Sun#one *#+"* ,alter "orbay-s .agnetic "ransgenerator "im Har/oo$ #' .otor Jim Ross Ross .otor (ill ,illiams (ill ,illiams- Joe #ell la$ A$ ance$ Resonant 0iel$s Joseph 1e/man Gyroscopic .agnetic Particle .otor Eugenio O$orifero Progetto !alery & parte 2 James ".+en Recent 'e elopments of the "orna$o&"ype ,in$ Energy System AA.!!. .otori Stirling John .arshall 'u$ley .a3/ell-s Pressure 'emon an$ the Secon$ %a/ of "hermo$ynamics 4n Elio$omestico Soli$ale *ntro$u5ione al magnetismo "ecni$ Spa "orcia 'inamo "R*&%E'

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"ecno elgy.com Hai7o %iet5 Jeff #oo7 Joseph .isiole7

Artificial Gra ity Generator 1o/ Possible6 "a7e a leap into hyperspace 'esigns for generating Jeff #oo7 effect %a .anipola5ione $ello Spa5io&"empo

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0ranco .ontefuscoli8 inter ista e$ elaborati Kosol Ouch Ricapitola5ione $elle sue ricerche

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"ecno elgy.com Spectra ,atermachines Robert A. 1elson (ioarchitettura R.0.1organ Gaia Giuliani An$rea Rampa$o

Animaris Percipiere8 ,al7ing Robotic Sculpture Stores ,in$ Energy A9uifer :2; A$ ances *n 'esalination8 "he Aul EG' Process a cura $i %uisa .otta e Paolo !accaro Einstein /as ,rong & "he Aether E3ists 4n piccolo robot egetale che metter< ra$ici su .arte 'isintegratore .agnetico Rotante

La sede dell'A.S.S.E. e della redazione di Altra Scienza sono presso il seguente indirizzo: Franco Malgarini via di Boccea 302 001 ! "o#a E#ail: $#algarini%li&ero.it Sito 'e&: (ttp:))asse.altervista.org La redazione non vuole i#pedire la distri&uzione della rivista al di $uori dell'associazione. *uttavia+ ci, pu, essere un potenziale danno per l'associazione stessa+ a #eno c(e non ci sia reale necessit-. .er il resto+ vi preg(ia#o di usare il &uon senso e di passarla solo a c(i vi $idate. "icordia#o c(e le iscrizioni sostengono non solo /uesta pu&&licazione #a possono dare spazio ad ulteriori e pi0 utili iniziative. La "edazione

Directory:Ghosh Energy from Atmospheric Heat

From PESWiki

Pranab Jyoti Ghohs seeks assistance for building a working prototype of a technology that would produce electricity from atmospheric heat, based on combining a number of well-proven concepts.

Table of contents !bout . "echnology #escription .2 !dvantages .3 $ontact 2 %ee also


&edit' About &edit' Technology Description Originally posted (http://peswiki.com/index.php?title=User_talk:Pranab yoti!oldid="#"$%& 'arch (%) (**% (ello, )y name is Pranab Jyoti Ghosh. * am an *ndian physics graduate and * have developed a technology on producing energy without any kind of fuel. "his technology produces energy by e+tracting energy from atmospheric heat. "his technology is a combination of processes that are now in use in different industries and research pro,ects worldwide successfully. *n short, the scientific and technical feasibility of this technology can-t be challenged. "his isn-t another perpetual motion machine type device. *f anyone thinks so, * can answer him or her with scientific proof. .ut due to lack of technical and financial backing, * haven-t been able to make a working prototype yet. $an anybody suggest any company or organi/ation that can help me to materiali/e my pro,ect0 * am giving below a short summary of my pro,ect. !ny positive suggestion is welcome. "his pro,ect is aimed at producing electricity by using the vast heat content of atmosphere. *n this pro,ect, this is done by using a mechanical arrangement similar to a heat pump. "his system is used to s1uee/e energy from huge volumes of air and to produce temperature difference by which energy can be produced. *t is to be noted that fresh water and salt are added bonus to this pro,ect, as salty brackish water can be used in this pro,ect. "his is done by vapori/ing water inside an enclosed container named 23vaporator4 with the help of a vacuum pump. !s the vacuum pump sucks air from the container, the water inside began to evaporate and in this process collects its latent heat of vapori/ation from water. 5or that reason, the water inside becomes colder and heat began to flow in from outside. "hus in effect, the latent heat of vapori/ation of water is collected from outside atmosphere. *n the open-cycle 6"3$, vapor is produced in the same manner and on e+periment it was found that to have vapor flow rate of kg7sec, power needed at the vacuum pump is 3 89. 9hereas, the latent heat embedded in kg of vapor is 2.3 )9. !fter the vapor is produced, it is heated further with adiabatically compressed, hot air. !fter heating the vapor in the .oiler, the hot, compressed air is passed through the 3vaporator to give up its residue heat to the water inside. "he process is the same as that of common heat pumps sold in the market. !nd finally, the temperature difference between the .oiler and the $ondenser is created by suddenly releasing the compressed air at the $ondenser. !nd thus a system of real efficiency of :;<= is created.

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&edit' A !antages * am giving below the merits that * think can be credited to my technology. !s no fuel is needed, the electricity produced by this technology will be cheaper than that produced by other conventional technologies. !s no fuel is used, therefore no 1uestion of any kind of emission can arise and it is cleaner than most of the e+isting technology. *t can be made with present state of technology. ?o engineering or scientific breakthrough is needed. "he cost making a plant of this technology is less than that of a thermal power plant of same magnitude. *t is by nature much automated, so less manpower will be needed to run and maintain it. "his technology uses the embedded heat that is stored in the lower part of the atmosphere. *n effect it is a part of solar energy falling on earth. "hat-s why basic source of energy is unlimited and there is no 1uestion of depleting reserve like coal, oil, gas etc. "his technology doesn-t have the limitations and weakness of other present non-conventional energy technology. 9hat is needed to construct a plant of this technology is ,ust warm weather. %alt and fresh water are added bonus to this technology, if seawater is used. *t can be source of low cost air conditioning for buildings of close pro+imity. &edit' "ontact ?ame@ Pranab Jyoti Ghosh ABser@Pranab,yotiC !ddress@ ;37 <7$, %.?.Doy Dd., 8ol E 3F, 9est .engal, *ndia "elephone@ G -33-2><3HH3> 3-)ail@ mailto@pranab,yotiIcalcuttaJrediffmail.com0sub,ectK3nergyIfromIatmosphericIheatImentionedIatIP3%9iki.co m Amailto:pranab yoti_calc+tta,redi--mail.com?s+b ect=.nergy_-rom_atmospheric_heat_mentioned_at_P./0ik i.comC &edit' See also Thermal Electric Systems #http://www.freeenergynews.com/Directory/ThermoElectric/$ - inde+ at 1ree.nergy2ews.com - 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@GhoshI3nergyIfromI!tmosphericI(eatL

#irectory@Green %team 3ngine

From PESWiki
A ne% piston steam engine esign by &obert &' Green'

#esigned for practical applicationsM is said to be e+tremely efficient, economical and easy to build. Provides an efficient means of converting reciprocating movement into rotary movement, simplifying the piston engine. Plans available.

Table of contents !bout . 6fficial 9ebsite . . Plans . .2 !pplications .2 Patent .3 8ey 5eatures .> !dvantages .>. General %team 3ngine !dvantages .>.2 Green %team 3ngine !dvangates .; $omments .N $ontact 2 %ee also
&edit' About &edit' (fficial Website http@77www.greensteamengine.com7 &edit' Plans http@77www.greensteamengine.com7products.htm $omplete plans for constructing an engine. *ncludes@ drawings and dimensions of all the parts #iagrams for assembly $omplete parts list (elp-line for 1uestions and trouble shooting ! person familiar with the operation of a drill press, band saw and threading tools can make this engine. ! small metal lathe is optional. )ost of the parts are modified, off the shelf, items. &edit' Applications http@77www.greensteamengine.com7fle+=2<rod=2<applications.htm L)any new ideas for products will emerge from the L5le+ible Dod "ransmissionL . *n1uiries for manufacturing license agreements are welcome.L !ir and 9ater Pumps - )ultiple cylinders with overlapping phases supply a smooth flow of air with reduced load. "raffic .arrier %trip - Dotary output activated by a pull cable in same a+is as output shaft. P6P #isplays - )ultiple activation of separate parts with individual timing and amplitude. .icycle #erailleur - (ori/ontal movement without rotation by a pull cable. 9ater Propulsion #evice - Dotary output from reciprocal activation at a distance.

N
)odel !irplane, .oat or "rain 3ngine &edit' Patent AB% patent O NN>HF 3 Ahttp://pat-t.+spto.go3/netacgi/nph4 Parser?/ect"=P5O(!/ect(=675O11!p="!+=/netahtml/search4 bool.html!r="!-=8!l=9*!co"=:2;!d=ptxt!s"=%%<$#"=!O/=%%<$#"=!>/=%%<$#"=CC 2<<3, Green &edit' )ey Features Puoting from http@77www.greensteamengine.com7 "he properties of the patented crank mechanism Acalled a Lfle+ible rod transmissionLC invented by Dobert Green, provides this engine with the advantage of eliminating the typical crankshaft and cam that re1uires lubrication and precision machining. *t also provides the uni1ue configuration whereby the cylinders are aligned in the same direction as the main shaft. "he result is a compact, lightweight and slim engine that is e+tremely simple to construct and assemble.

"he pistons and valves operate off a short piece of fle+ible shaft. .ecause the fle+ible shaft is fi+ed and cannot rotate, the piston rods and valve push rod are held in position while being reciprocated. "he cylinders float, attached to a swivel ball fitting at their base. )uch of the structure and weight of a typical steam engine has been eliminated. "he uni1ue feature of the L5le+ Dod "ransmissionL is that it produces an intermittent movement whereby the valve movement is stopped in its open and closed position during the power and e+haust strokes. "his gives prolonged, fully opened valve timing. *n compliment, the pistons are held stationary while the valve moves between phases. "he output shaft continues rotation while the pistons stand still. "he result is that the efficiency is increased dramatically. "he overall friction of the engine is reduced due to the small number of light weight moving parts, and the use of ball bearings throughout. "he fle+ rod is nearly frictionless as the fle+ing is like a spring in which the energy re1uired to fle+ it is returned in e1ual amounts. &edit' A !antages &edit' General Steam Engine A !antages %team engines provide advantages such as@ less pollution, 1uiet running, high tor1ue at low speeds, no transmission re1uirements, runs on a choice of fuels, long life with low maintenance. &edit' Green Steam Engine A !angates ?+oting -rom http://www.greensteamengine.com/ !dding to this list of special advantages, the LGreen %team 3ngineL offers these uni1ue features@ Duns on very low steam pressure and low volume Afreewheels at 2 psiC, $osts little to build, ?early /ero lubrication re1uirements, $an be assembled or disassembled in minutes, 3+tremely lightweight, 5ew moving parts, .oiler re1uirements are minimal, $an run in any position like an electric motor.

Qery small profile for economy of space. )ay be variably configured for desired power vs speed re1uirements. Btili/es modern materials and methods previously not applied to steam power. (ighly versatile and elegantly simple.

&edit' "omments Rour comments here. &edit' "ontact Dobert Green 233H . !venida %evilla Saguna 9oods, $! G2N3H 3mail@ mailto@rgreenGGGJSworld.net0sub,ectKGreenI%teamI3ngineImentionedIatIP3%9iki.com Amailto:rgreen@@@,A world.net?s+b ect=8reen_/team_.ngine_mentioned_at_P./0iki.comC P(. G>G ;F 2;2G &edit' See also #irectory@%team 3ngines #irectory@3ngines - 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@GreenI%teamI3ngineL

Directory:Hortong Electron (rbit Energy Generator

From PESWiki

(6D"6?G is an electronic circuit that when connected to an electrical system is said to increase its efficiency considerably. 9orks for !$ or #$. (6D"6?G A3Kmc2C is a new process of transformation of energy with no need to use radioactive material to obtain the loosening of energy of the orbit of the electron. !pparently based on the work of )yron S. 3vans, who may be working with the company. *t is an energy from mass concept. About

This is a ne% page. Rou are welcome and invited to help us e+pand its contents. 6nce the page has become more mature and ade1uately populated, this notice can be removed.
&edit' (fficial Website http@77www.et3m.com7 - *n %panish &edit' Spanish*to*English Translation of Site 5ranslation by :ltaBista (ome page Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(-www.et=m. comC (6D"6?G, generator of the orbit of the electron Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(www.et=m.comC(-ser3*".htmC - 3+planatory page. Photos Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(-w ww.et=m.comC(-ser3*(.htmC )agg PowerADC Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C (-www.et=m.comC(-prod*".htmC - .asically a power factor correction technology. Puantum Power Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(-w ww.et=m.comC(-prod*(.htmC - Puantum Power 5uelT and #iesel engineT is electronic systems of magnetic orientation with the following 1ualities@ *t increases the engine powerM "he fuel mi+ture improves the combustion when UorderingVM *t increases the yield of the electrical system. Puantum )edic Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(-w ww.et=m.comC(-prod*=.htmC - fortifies the field of surrounding energy to the human with but recent body and the outpost power technology by means of electromagnetic fre1uency. %olar 3nergy Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(www.et=m.comC(-prod*<.htmC - regular panel installation service. #emo (ortong Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(www.et=m.comC(-prod*9.htmC - a device optimi/er of direct current, used for demonstration of the operation of the (ortong circuit, taking advantage of to the ma+imum the generated energy. Puantum Sight Ahttp://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(-w ww.et=m.comC(-prod*%.htmC - is used to replace ballasts in lamps of public lighting system, with sodium steam centers to high pressure, with powers from ;< to ><< 9atts. .esides to diminish the consumption of electrical energy considerably.

&edit' H(&T(+G, electron orbit energy generator 6O>5O28) generator o- the orbit o- the electron (http://world.alta3ista.com/babel-ish/tr+rl_pagecontent?lp=es_en!tr+rl=httpC=aC(-C(-www.et=m.com C(-ser3*".htm& 4 translated by :ltaBisa -rom http://www.et=m.com/ser3*".htmD with editorial clean4+p by /terling ;. :llan &"his technology' presents an important alternative to the generation problems and transformation of electrical energy that faces humanity at this time. (6D"6?G is an electronic circuit that when connected to an electrical system is said to increase its efficiency considerably. "he design of this electronic circuit is special for each application and power, not mattering that are systems of direct current A$#C or alternating current A$!C. 5ather of the contemporary Physics, the #r !lbert 3instein, in one of his theories says to us that it is possible to obtain great amounts of energy being started off of small amounts of mass A3Kmc2C, but never said or assured that the fission or nuclear fusion was the only means to obtain it. (6D"6?G A300Kmc2C is a new process of transformation of energy with no need to use radioactive material to obtain the loosening of energy of the orbit of the electron. "he atomic theory demonstrates that a kilogram of mass contains ninety thousand trillions of Joules, to kg K G.<+ < ; J, and if we transformed that kilogram of mass into 9atts-hour we have by each kilogram of mass twenty-five billion 8ilo9atts-hour, kg K 2.;+ < < 89(. *n our circuits of low power we used < mg of mass gallium-cuar/o silicio-germanium-arcenuruioM those < mg of mass give to two hundred fifty million 8ilo9atts-(ora A2;<-<<<,<<< to us 89(C and if we used this circuit to feed a motor on a 89 of consumption, it will be in continuous operation during 2F.;3< years, A3Kmc2C, A300Km c2C. "his one investigation is well situated to count as an economically profitable, viable power alternative. "here ist still much to research and development remaning, but already we have seen some circuits that have had good results, obtaining substantial savings of energy. &amount not given' WWend of e+cerpt:: &edit' )eely+et "omments 5he -ollowing statements were posted at Eerry ;eckerFs http://keelynet.com/ &edit' -./01/-2 %tefan (artmann writes L!dolf %chneider Afrom ?et-Journal )aga/ineC in %wit/erland is holding a conference with these guys from et3m soon. "hey want to be distributor for %wit/erland A3uropeC for this technology. Bntil the conference they keep all other things 1uiet,L he wrote. 7 )yron 9. 3vans work, focuses on atomic level physics, including Ldevelopment of energy e+ vacuo, theory and patented devices, and the theory of general unified field theory of sub atomic particles, with applications to nuclear waste stabili/ation.L ASooking at the 5ree 3nergy $hip image which shows > disconnected meters, then > connected meters attached to a Xblack bo+X which is apparently intended to operate the two !$ fans. * doubt the Xblack bo+X is e+tracting !$ from the vacuum unless it is rectified and stored as #$ to be fed into an internal *?Q3D"3D circuit which would provide N<h/ for the fan motors. Bnfortunately, the site provides no details as to power produced or components used. - J9#C &edit' -./03/-2 * Free Energy "hip * received this information from #uncan at ?e+us )aga/ine. U...V "he theoretical concepts behind the invention seem to be originating from research by a man named )yron 3vans. (e is said to have finally come up with a unified field theory, basing his own research on 3instein and 3lie $artan. (ereXs a website, that discusses him@ http@77www.atomicprecision.com7 *t seems that the invention has come a long way, definitely not out of nowhere. "hereXs a company, that is currently drumming up people worldwide to throw in venture capital into this, named 3!Q$573uro-!merican Qenture $apital 5ederation, based in 6regon, B%!. "he colleagues from ?et Journal Ahttp@77www.borderlands.de7inet.,rnl.php3C, a maga/ine around all things with free energy, seem to be heavily involved in the 3uropean marketing. "hey could probably tell you more. "hey might also be knowledgeable about where you could find a contact in the %outhern (emisphere. &edit'

<

Skeptics 5ree 3nergy $hip - Defutation of 3vans claims Y comments7notes Ahttp://$(."<.(*=."*</search?G=cache:H26@(Pm_ewwE:www.mathematik.t+4 darmstadt.de/Ibr+hn/>e-+tation_o-_.B:2/_>.1U5:57O2.pd-Je3ansJre-+tationJpd-!hl=en!ct=clnk! cd="C &edit' "ontact "ecnoloXgica $ompany of the "hird )e+ico )illenium. Aet3mC .alearic *slands O <-!, $ol. Sindavista, $.P. 3H3<<, S36?, Gto. )3Z*$6 *nternational calls "elephone and 5a+@[;2A>HHC-HH3-HF-<; $alls within the )e+ican Depublic@ A>HHC-HH3-HF-<; &edit' See also #irectory@?uclear - 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@(ortongI3lectronI6rbitI3nergyIGeneratorL

Directory:&auen En!ironmental Heat Engine

From PESWiki
! "op << "echnology

3nvironmental (eat 3ngine


"he %uperclassical heat engine of 8en Dauen is designed to be able to tap the heat of the environment as its heat source. *t is based upon the e+perimental evidence of the Proell effect, a macroscopic )a+well-s #emon. About &edit' (fficial Website ?one yet. "his present inde+ page is the most thorough coverage available so far as we know. &edit' (!er!ie% The Secon 4a% of Thermo ynamics #04T$ has ne!er been pro!en to be uni!ersal, that heat transformations must always go LdownhillL or create entropy. "he presumed universality of the 2S" is based upon a statistical truth, a description of particle collisions based upon the kinetic theory of heat A8"(C. +ot all particle collisions nee be ran om. 9hen a series of particle collisions has a net motion in any direction, it is called work, such as when a gas moves a piston. Piston motion need not be present for work to occur. (eat is transferred from a low temperature via particle collisions to a higher temperature without energy input, relying ,ust upon elastic collisions according to the 8"(, with work as the transfer medium, when a gas is displaced through a regenerator under constant volume conditionsM this is the Proell effect. The patente engine cycles apply this phenomenon. *n constant volume displacement cooling, part of the engine is refrigerated without work input, and this internal heat sink is used to advantage. "he waste heat flows of the engine fall into this sink and are recycled to the high temperature of the engine in the ne+t cycle. #epending on how the displacement and regeneration are done, either partial or complete recycling is accomplished. "arnot5s Theorem, the mathematical e1uation of theoretical ma+imum engine efficiency determined by a ratio of the highest and lowest absolute temperatures of an engine, and based upon the statistical mechanics of the 2S", is si esteppe , allowing higher engine efficiencies, and even the use of ambient heat as the heat input. "he patent shows practical application in definitive cycles with some mechanical embodiment, and the mathematical proofs show the full thermodynamic analysis with state variables, enough to satisfy the most rigorous academic scrutiny. -- 8en Dauen, June 2F, 2<<>

&edit' +E&4 Prototype Engine

!n engine was built in 2<< at ?ew 3nergy Desearch Saboratory, in .ow, ?ew (ampshire. *t resembles a %tirling engine. 5unding was small, the engine was designed by 8en who is ,ust a chemist, and mechanical problems prevented its full operation. Promising data was obtained, as seen in the pressure plot of the engine. "he cycle is a 3step cycle, and the pressure fluctuations

&edit' The Science 6ehin the 7n!ention "he non-random thermal energy transfer of the Proell effect circumvents the thermal randomness basis of the %econd Saw. "he constant volume process with displacement and regeneration has heretofore unrecogni/ed energy flows. "he %tirling engine doesn-t have a net Proell effect because there are two constant volume steps that cancel each other. "he %uperclassical has only one constant volume step. "he cycle is constant volume cooling, adiabatic compression, and constant pressure e+pansion. )ore heat is recycled in the constant cooling stroke than classical thermo recogni/es. $arnot is e+ceeded. )ath proofs with state variables are available. $arnot 3+cedence -- Patent and )athematical Proofs Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.com/academy/Karnot.xcedence/C Aby 8enneth DauenC - %uper-efficient thermodynamic e+change possible. ;-page Primer by 8en Dauen Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.com/academy/Karnot.xcedence/Karnot.xcedence_PrimerE+ly*< .docC - !bove and .eyond $arnot@ (ow and why $arnotXs "heorem can be circumvented. Sow temperature heat sources may be efficiently converted to work, and environmental heat can run heat engines. ! )athematical Proof of $arnot 3+cedence@ ?umber 3 Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.com/academy/Karnot.xcedence/'athProo-=/'ath_Proo-_=_postpate nt.docC AdocC - L"his proves $arnot can be e+ceeded.L ! )athematical Proof of $arnot 3+cedence@ ?umber ; Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.com/academy/Karnot.xcedence/'athProo-9/'ath_Proo-_9_postpate nt.docC AdocC - L"his proves <<= efficiency is possibleL

&edit' 8S Patent 8en was awarded B% patent number N,NGF,2<< . @ .--iciency thermodynamic engine Ahttp://pat-t.+spto.go3/netacgi/nph4Parser?/ect"=P5O(!/ect(=675O11!p="!+=/netahtml/search4 bool.html!r="!-=8!l=9*!co"=:2;!d=ptxt!s"=%)%@#)(**!O/=%)%@#)(**!>/=%)%@#)(**C for the %uperclassical engine A%$3C. A#ownload P#5 Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.com/academy/Karnot.xcedence/Kool.ng_Patent.P;1CC

5*3S# 65 "(3 *?Q3?"*6? "he present invention relates to thermodynamic heat engines, in particular to improve efficiency thermodynamic heat engines of at least three cycle steps. !.%"D!$" ! novel thermodynamic engines including a piston operating on a compressible fluid in a thermally insulated volume, which also includes a movable displacer which selectively divides the internal volume between a warm and a cold side, and a regenerator through which the fluid from the selectively divided volume passes and transfer its heat to or receives heat from, wherein the piston and displacer are each periodically moved in various comple+ motions according to the present invention to provide efficiency higher than $arnot efficiency. "he resulting novel structures and methods, generally referred to as L%uperclassical $ycleL engines, incorporate constant volume cooling and aspects of the LProell 3ffectL Arelative to coolingC to achieve improved efficiencies wherein the gas temperature on the cold side of a fluid displacer is below the lowest regenerator temperature due to Lself-refrigeration.L "hus according to the apparatus and methods according to the present invention, the traditional principals of the %econd Saw is further refined and higher operating efficiencies achieved. &edit' Proell Effect 7nfinite Energy Article "he best description of the Proell effect is found in the publication of the research in *nfinite 3nergy maga/ine-s *ssue ;2 Ahttp://www.in-inite4energy.com/iemagaLine/iss+e9(/index.htmlC.

&edit' Present Disposition *ronically, %eptember th, 2<< ended the funding for the %$3. %ince then, all hands-on work has stopped. 8en continues independent theoretical work and designs new mechanical configurations. .etter mechanisms are ready for prototyping, but funding and facilities are not currently available. $ommerciali/ation is possible, despite the invention still being deep in DY#. "he science is done and the basic technologies have been identified and are 2low tech.4 6ther patents can be filed for the technology. Good mechanical engineering and business administration are the biggest needs.

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&edit' &elate 7n!entions by &auen 8en Dauen has other inventions that are %econd Saw-breakers, some of them e+perimentally verified. "he details are too lengthy to be enumerated here. 6ne worth a short mention is another version of the %$3 that does not run on ambient heat, but instead can be used with a passive solar collector at an estimated ;<= efficiency. &edit' &elate 7n!entions/"oncepts by (thers

Ghosh Energy from Atmospheric Heat - Pranab Jyoti Ghosh seeks assistance for building a working prototype of a technology that would produce electricity from atmospheric heat, based on combining a number of well-proven concepts.

9a:%ell5s Pressure Demon an the Secon 4a% of Thermo ynamics #http://www.execonn.com/maxwell/maxwells_demon.html$ - John )arshall #udley describes his solid-state e+periments in e+tracting electricity from temperature differentials -- from the molecular motion of molecules of air. L)a+wellXs demon - !n imaginary creature who is able to sort hot molecules from cold molecules without e+pending energy...L A7n-inite .nergyM )ar7!pr, 2<<NC

8S 3-;<=;0 ** Po%er generation metho s an systems #http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7019 1!.html"highlight#7019 1!$ - ! closed loop system for generating mechanical energy at high efficiencies. "he system can have a heating source, a superheater, an e+pander, a receiver, an absorber, a desorber, and regenerator with pumps and controls. "he superheater heats a working fluid Aa refrigerant or steamC. ! positive li1uid7vapor e+pander e+pands a low temperature refrigerant, or steam vapor to the saturated state Ahaving both li1uid and vapor partsC utili/ing a low-pressure sub-atmospheric e+haust sink. !n absorber, generates a low-pressure sub-atmospheric sink using chemosorption which involves the e+othermic reaction7absorption of ammonia refrigerant in water. "he desorber is used to reconstitute inlet vapor Afor reuseC and the regenerator recovers heat generated by chemosorption. "he system can meet electrical power needs for residences, businesses or office buildings. "he system can supply electrical energy to power grids, and can be an alternative power generation plants. A*ssued )ar. 2F, 2<<NC

&edit' 6io of )en &auen 8en Dauen - bio page Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.com/abo+t/personnel/Henneth'>a+en/C &edit' "ontact 8en Dauen can be reached at ken.rauenJpesn.com. (e will be attending the !merican !ssociation for the !dvancement of %cience Pacific #ivision annual meeting in %an #iego in June, where there will be a symposium on the %econd Saw of "hermodynamics. *f opportunity arises from lecture cancellations, he will present a paper or two. &link to http@77www.sou.edu7aaaspd7%an#iego2<<N7*nde+.html' &edit' See also #irectory@"hermal 3lectric - 6ther #irectory listings

- P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@DauenI3nvironmentalI(eatI3ngineL

Directory:&e!etec "am*Dri!e Engine

From PESWiki
! "op << "echnology

"he Devetec cam-drive engine uses a pair of counter-rotating scissor cams instead of a crankshaft. "he result is three times more tor1ue than a conventional engine, and an overall engine efficiency up to ;<= more. D3Q3"3$ Simited is a design engine company and developer of the L$ontrolled $ombustion 3ngineL A$$3C. "he $$3 is an internal combustion engine that is lighter, cleaner and more powerful than e1uivalent conventional engines, and cheaper to manufacture, due to fewer components.

Table of contents !bout . 6fficial 9ebsite . . *mages . .2 Devetec-s 9orldwide clients7partners .2 3ngine #escription .3 !dvantages .> Patents .; Qalidations .N !pplications .H )anufacturing .F Sicensing .G *n the ?ews . < $omments . $ontact 2 %ee also
&edit' About

This is a ne% page. Rou are welcome and invited to help us e+pand its contents. 6nce the page has become more mature and ade1uately populated, this notice can be removed.
&edit' (fficial Website http@77www.revetec.com7 #escription Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/(=C Devetec 3ngine #esign Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=taxonomy/term/"@C (istory of Devetec Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/(<C $ompany 6verview Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=the4companyC *nvestor *nfo Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=in3estor4in-oC ?ews Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=latest4newsC $ontact Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=contactC' &edit' 7mages Gallery Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=galleryC Qideos Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=3ideosC 3# rendering Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/9(C in crank case Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/9@C finished engine Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/%<C dropping engine into car Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/9<C

&edit' &e!etec>s Worl %i e clients/partners 6rbital Ahttp://www.orbitalcorp.com.a+ C (udson Ahttp://www.rewaco.com.a+ C Pushkara, 3nterprises Ahttp://www.p+shkara .comC &edit' Engine Description -rom http://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/(=

"he D3Q3"3$ 3ngine design consists of two counter-rotating 2trilobate4 Athree lobedC cams geared together, so both cams contribute to forward motion. "wo bearings run along the profile of both cams Afour bearings in allC and stay in contact with the cams at all times. "he bearings are mounted on the underside of the two interconnected pistons, which maintain the desired clearance throughout the stroke. "he two cams rotate and raise the piston with a scissor-like action to the bearings. 6nce at the top of the stroke the air7fuel mi+ture is fired. "he e+panded gas then forces the bearings down the ramps of the cams spreading them apart ending the stroke. "he point of ma+imum mechanical advantage or transfer is around <deg !"#$ Athe piston moving appro+imately ;= of its travelC making the most of the high cylinder pressure. "his compares to a conventional engine that reaches ma+imum mechanical advantage around ><deg !"#$. Aafter the piston has moved through ><= of its travel, losing valuable cylinder pressureC. "he effective cranking distance is determined by the length from the point of bearing contact to the centre of the output shaft A?6" the strokeC. "he dual bearings contact the two cams in the opposite side which cancels the side forces out. "he piston assembly does not e+perience any side force which will reduce wear and lubrication re1uirements at the cylinder contact. "his also reduces piston shock to a negligible amount making ceramic technology suitable. 6ne module which comprises of a minimum of five moving components, produces si+ power strokes per revolution. *ncreasing the number of lobes on each cam to five produces ten power strokes without increasing the number of components. %ee also Devetec 3ngine #esign Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=taxonomy/term/"@C "heory Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=taxonomy/term/<(C &edit' A !antages -rom http://www.re3etec.com/?G=taxonomy/term/"@ %ummaries of $$3 advantages are as follows@ appro+imately one 1uarter the si/e and weight of a conventional engine Afor similar applicationsC combined with improved output substantially increases power7weight and tor1ue7weight ratio. fewer moving and total components. !s a result of fewer components, more easily manufactured than conventional engines. identical cylinder head assembly A2top end4C to conventional engines. )ost e+isting head technology can be either adapted or utilised. 5le+ible design - can be four-stroke, two-stroke, petrol, diesel or gas, natural of forced aspiration. 3liminated irregularly reciprocating components such as connecting rods. 6utput shaft can be run in either direction if multilobed cams with symmetrical lobes are employed. !ll rotational forces are counteracted via the counter rotating cam E eliminates the need for a heavy flywheel. "or1ue and power output can be varied using a fi+ed capacity and piston stroke. "he $$3 can be designed to operate at greatly reduced operating speeds while delivering high tor1ue output. %ubstantial reduction in stroke reduces heat loss through cylinder wall. 3+tended piston dwell is possible because engine design allows a lower than normal compression ratio to be used reducing power loss from compression cycle. )a+imum mechanical advantage can be applied to output shaft at only < degrees !"#$ utilising high cylinder pressure early in the stroke, compared to around N< degrees !"#$ for conventional engines. Sower emissions can be achieved due to increased control over combustion.

3+tremely low idle speed due to increase in mechanical efficiency at the top of the stroke. Sittle or no bore contact7piston side thrust, which reduces wear on cylinder bore. $an have different port timing on compression stroke than power stroke allowing better control two-strokeC. Sower centre of gravity. #ue to controlled piston acceleration rates the $$3 reduces engine vibration. ! hollow output shaft can be utilised for specialty applications, such as peristaltic pumps.

&edit' Patents Devolution 3ngine "echnologies Pty Simited Aa wholly owned subsidiary of Devetec SimitedC holds patents or has made patent applications for the $$3 design in 2 countries, including the Bnited %tates of !merica, 3urope, !ustralia, $hina, the Bnited 8ingdom and Japan. "he beneficial ownership of the patents and patent applications was assigned to Devetec on > %eptember 2<<;. ADef. Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=taxonomy/term/"(CC &edit' ?ali ations 3ngine "esting Progress Deport #ec. 2<<; Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/-iles/5esting42ext4Phase.pd-C LSeap had conducted an independent analysis which shows that the D3Q3"$ $$3 engine can produce about three times the tor1ue compared to a conventional engine with crankshaft for a given piston pressure profile.L &edit' Applications -rom re3etec website "he advantages of Devetec-s engine technology can be applied to most internal and e+ternal combustion engines for use in motor vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, pumps and generators, light aircraft engines, diesel and marine engines. "he $$3 integrates well with e+isting power plants and can utilise almost all e+isting engine technology with increased efficiency. "he $$3 engine is e+tremely well suited for high tor1ue applications such as generators, machinery and light aircraft. &edit' 9anufacturing Devetec has completed its design on its prototype, which could now be adapted by our customers to meet their specific re1uirements. ADef Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=the4companyCC L"he $ompany now A2<<3C has a Joint Qenture !greement with 6sman to produce engines in $hina in the near future.L ADef Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=node/(<CC &edit' 4icensing http@77www.revetec.com701Kta+onomy7term7 H LDevetec-s business model is simple E it proposes to licence its technologies to combustion engine producers worldwide.L &edit' 7n the +e%s http@77www.revetec.com701Klatest-news 6ig Shot #http://www.re$etec.com/"%#node/10& $ - 6ne of *ndiaXs largest industrial conglomerates and car manufacturers, the )ahindra Group, will test a new-generation, which may lead to its commercialisation.A5he :+stralianM )ar. 2G, 2<<NC 9otorists to 6enefit From &e!etec>s ne% Engine Design #http://www.a'stralianin$estor.com.a'/(aga)ine.asp"id#1900$ A:+stralian 7n3estor subscription re1uiredC &copy on company site Ahttp://www.re3etec.com/?G=latest4news!-rom="*C' Fuel*sa!ing breakthrough #http://www.re$etec.com/"%#node/&1$ - A/ydney /+nday 5elegraph 6ctober, 2 2<<;C &edit' "omments 3nter your comments here. &edit' "ontact http@77www.revetec.com701Kcontact &E?ETE" Hol ings 4imite !$?@ ; N2 3 H P6 .o+ F2<3

Gold $oast )ail $entre Gold $oast PS# !ustralia GH2N Phone *nternational@ [N H ;;3 N<;G 5a+ *nternational@ [N H ;;3 NGGH 3mail mailto@adminJrevetec.com0sub,ecKDevetecIfeaturedIatIP3%9iki.com Amailto:admin,re3etec.com?s+b ec=>e3e tec_-eat+red_at_P./0iki.comC &edit' See also #irectory@3ngines - 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@DevetecI$am-#riveI3ngineL

2<

Directory:Sun"one

From PESWiki

%un$one %olar 3nergy "hermal $oncentration %ystem

)ade of an alumini/ed film Ae.g. nylon or )ylarC with a transparent film over the end facing the sun, the %un$one, by .arnabus 3nergy, maintains its shape through air pressure. "he system is e+pected to be less e+pensive and labor-intensive than standard parabolic dish or trough design and re1uire less precise placement.

Table of contents !bout . 6fficial 9ebsite .2 6verview .3 #isadvantage .> Patent .; !dvantages .N Prototype .H Product #etails .H. !lternative #esigns .F $ost .G *n the ?ews . < $ontact 2 %ee also
&edit' About &edit' (fficial Website http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp &edit' (!er!ie% from http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp 5ocusing solar energy to high intensity can provide high temperatures at the target Afocal pointC in order to drive high-efficiency heat engines. Parabolic trough reflectors have been used effectively in this role. Parabolic dish mirrors can achieve even higher temperatures. "he problem with parabolic dish mirrors is that considerable precision is re1uired in their construction and maintenance. "he mirror facets are fairly e+pensive to manufacture. 3ach facet Aappro+imately one s1uare meterC must be mounted on a very rigid structure and must be precisely aligned to keep the sunXs image on the target. !bout once a week, each mirror must be re-aligned. 5or a << s1uare meter dish A m 2 per facetC, << mirrors must be realigned. Dealignment can be done by electronically-controlled actuators, but that re1uires two motors per mirror facet in addition to sophisticated electronics, thus adding to the e+pense of the solar collector. !nother problem with parabolic dish reflectors is that they have been known to start fires in grass when accidentally pointed in the wrong direction. "hey can also cause damage to human eyes if the mirror points in a direction that causes sunlight reflection toward a person or if the person looks at the target Afocal pointC. ! new system called 2%uncone4 provides an ine+pensive method of producing high-temperature solar energy collection using plastic films. 5igure Ahttp://www.barnab+senergy.com/en/pro ects/images/s+ncone_large_edited. pgC shows an artistXs conception of the %uncone solar collector. Sike the parabolic dish, it must be pointed toward the sun but

re1uires less precision than a parabolic dish or parabolic trough. !ir pressure within the enclosure maintains rigid configuration. &edit' Disa !antage from http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp "he problem with this design is that the entire cone is supported by its narrow end. "hus, wind could easily blow the cone to the side. *f guy wires are used, they tend to crumple the narrow part of the cone. &edit' Patent B.%. Patent >,2NH,F2> Ahttp://pat-t.+spto.go3/netacgi/nph4 Parser?/ect"=P5O(!/ect(=675O11!p="!+=/netahtml/search4 bool.html!r=9!-=8!l=9*!co"=:2;!d=ptxt!s"=<)(%$)#(<!O/=<)(%$)#(<!>/=<)(%$)#(<C describes an inflatable solar concentrator that consists of a fle+ible material inflated to the shape of a cone with a transparent end covering. *nternal air pressure maintains the shape. &edit' A !antages from http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp Sess e+pensive than other solar concentrators. Sighter weight. Produces high temperatures, similar to parabolic dish collectors. #oes not re1uire a boom to support a target at the focal point. De1uires less precision in sun orientation than solar dishes or troughs. Sess likely to be damaged by large hailstones. (igher efficiency than parabolic trough collectors. *ne+pensive to replace plastic films if damaged. Bnlikely to start fires on the ground, in contrast to parabolic dish mirrors. .rightly-lit target areas are shielded from human eyes. %uncone, with regular cones and conical metal reflectors, can achieve about 2,<<<\ $. .ut operating at N<<\ $, its solar collection efficiency is about G<=, depending on the geometry. "he cones in %uncone do not have to be precisely constructed. )inor flaws are insignificant. $omputer simulations were run with %B?$6?3 in which numerous perturbations of up to a half-centimeter were applied to the cone surface randomly. "he energy reaching the target rod was still above G<= of what a perfect cone would provide. "he mirror facets on a parabolic mirror must be precise. &edit' Prototype "he prototype is appro+imately 2 meters long with a .;-meter radius at the wide end. 6arnabus Energy Announces Sun"one Achie!es "ritical 9ilestone #http://www.mar*etwire.com/mw/release_html_+1"release_id#1111,-$ - .arnabus 3nergy, *nc. is pleased to announce that its principal contractor on the %uncone pro,ect, (R"3$, *nc. of Sos !lamos, ?), has achieved a significant milestone in its first phase of work@ "he construction of the first full-scale prototype, and commencement of engineering analysis. A'arket0ireM 5eb. 2H, 2<<NC &edit' Pro uct Details from http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp *n %uncone, the cones consist of thin alumini/ed )ylar, ?ylon or other film. *nstead of having air pressure inside the cone to maintain its shape, air pressure is applied inside a cylindrical enclosure. "he conical shape of the interior cones is maintained by tension on the film, since air pressure is pushing upward on the end of the unit. "he pressure inside and outside each cone is the same. !ir pressure maintains the cylindrical shape of the enclosure, which also consists of a strong plastic. "he transparent films that cover the ends of the cones are made of clear plastic, such as "ef/el, which has a transparency of GN=, a tensile strength of over 3<,<<< psi, is BQ resistant, and can tolerate weather for decades. %ince "ef/el is rather e+pensive, other suitable films may be used. 5igure 2 Ahttp://www.barnab+senergy.com/en/pro ects/images/s+ncone_-ig+re(_large. pgC shows a crosssectional schematic of one embodiment of %uncone. "he insides of the cones are alumini/ed for high reflectivity. "he outsides of the cones are coated by flat black, which radiates heat well. $omputer simulations show that the cone material remains cool, since the inside reflective layer allows little solar energy to enter the plastic, but the outside black layer radiates the heat away. "he enclosure should be clear so that it allows the radiant energy to pass through or should be black plastic or coated with flat black so that it

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absorbs the radiant heat from the cones and radiates the heat away on the outside. %ince the surface of the enclosure is parallel to the sunXs rays, it does not get hot from direct sunshine. "he sunXs rays are concentrated on the target rod, which may have channels inside for the flow of water or other working fluid. "he target rod should have a cylindrical glass tube around it to reduce convective heat loss, and the glass tube should be evacuated. %ince the rod will get 1uite hot, it is surrounded by a metal reflector. "he plastic cone is attached to the metal reflector with an insulating connector. "he metal reflector and the target rod are attached to the base, which is shown as a solid circular cylinder, but it may be any suitable assembly of metal beams. "he structure does not have to be as robust at that of a parabolic dish, since it does not have to be as rigid and since it does not have to support a long metal boom that holds a heavy target at the end. *n %uncone, the heat absorption is located ad,acent to the base. A%ome important details of the construction are not shown in these figuresC. 5igure 3 Ahttp://www.barnab+senergy.com/en/pro ects/images/s+ncone_-ig+re=_large. pgC shows a top-view schematic of %uncone with seven cones. ?ote the spaces between the cones that appears to be wasted area for solar energy collection. "he cones could be e+tended so that the total area is used, but the upper end would not be circular, which would not hurt the performance but would make construction more e+pensive. "he evacuated glass tubes that surround the target rod not only improve efficiency by reducing heat loss, but they also prevent hot convective air currents from flowing from the target rods to the plastic films. 5igures 2 and 3 show schematics of assemblies that have only a few cones. *f the cones are 2 meters AN.;N feetC long with a radius of .; meters at the upper end, it would re1uire H cones to provide a total of ;<m2 of solar collection. "his would be similar to the arrangement of 5igure 3 with a central cone surrounded by N other cones. 6f course, more cones can be added. 5or photovoltaic applications, the rods could be larger in diameter and coated with photovoltaic films. "he metal reflector might also be covered with photovoltaic films and would be conical in shape. "he concentration of light would provide higher energy collection per unit area of photovoltaic material. *t should be noted that the target rods are completely shielded from ground observers, so that eye damage to passersby is impossible. *f %uncone is accidentally pointed toward the ground, it will not be pointed toward the sun, so that it cannot start a grass fire. ! parabolic reflector, on the other hand, can intercept sunlight even when it is not pointed directly toward the sun, and the reflected light can ignite fires on the ground. %uncone units could be mounted in parking lots above cars to generate electricity for nearby buildings without concern for the safety of people or property below them. "hey could also be mounted on tops of buildings. 3ngineers would be reluctant to place parabolic reflectors in these locations. 5or high wind conditions, cables or cords e+tending from the base to the top can be reeled in to draw the top downward while the air pressure is reduced. "he plastic film portion of the unit would be withdrawn into a sturdy cylinder surrounding the lower part of the enclosure to shield against the wind. 3ven if the plastic materials are destroyed, they are ine+pensive to replace. &edit' Alternati!e Designs from http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp "he design illustrated in 5igure ; Ahttp://www.barnab+senergy.com/en/pro ects/images/s+ncone_-ig+re9_large. pgC would encase each cone with a cylindrical plastic film enclosure. !ir pressure would be supplied to each enclosure, which would ensure that the cone is tight and circular. "he enclosure would sustain the force produced by the air pressure on the clear window, thus eliminating large stress on the narrow end of the cone. 3ach of these units, incorporating the enclosure, cone, transparent window, and base sheet could be manufactured in a factory and assembled onto the base in the field. !fter each unit is installed, it would be attached to ad,acent units by adhesive or Qelcro. !n additional enclosure film could be wrapped around the entire assembly. 3+ternal and internal tether cords or cables Aguy wiresC will maintain structural stability. 5igure N Ahttp://www.barnab+senergy.com/en/pro ects/images/s+ncone_-ig+re%_large. pgC is an embodiment of the %uncone in which the sunrays are reflected into a hohlraum cavity, in which the target rod is placed. "he interior walls of the hohlraum chamber are coated with a light-absorbing layer. *t absorbs solar energy and becomes hot. "he cooling fluid that flows through the target rod can also flow through channels in the hohlraum chamber wall to be heated. !lternatively, the fluid can flow through pipes Anot shownC that are welded to the outside of the hohlraum chamber. ! hohlraum chamber tends to trap radiant heat. %ome of the radiation from the wall on one side is radiated to the opposite wall or to the target rod. Sikewise, much radiation from the target rod flows to the chamber walls. *nsulation Anot shownC on the outside of the chamber prevents loss of heat. "he advantage of this embodiment is that it is 1uite insensitive to the accuracy of a tracking mechanism that points the device toward the sun. *n this design, the cone is divided into two reflective film cone frustums in

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order to more closely match an e+ponential generatri+ for the collector shape. ! circumferential rigid ring holds the reflective cone frustums in place. "he top of the upper cone frustum is held in place by air pressure on the transparent cover Anot shown, but like that in 5igure 2C. "he bottom of the lower cone frustum is connected to the metal reflector, whose shape is defined by an e+ponential generatri+. Deflected sunlight passes through a glass window, which has the purpose of reducing convective heat losses. "he cavity can be evacuated for further reduction in heat losses. &edit' "ost from http@77www.barnabusenergy.com7en7pro,ects7suncone.asp (ydro-"ech 1uoted the price for their alumini/ed )ylar, with a reflectivity of <.G;, at 2< cents per s1uare foot. "he material cost for the cones in the above e+ample of a ;<-m2collector would be under ] <<. "ransparent windows would cost ];<<. "he enclosure and other plastic materials would cost ]F<<. "otal cost for plastic materials is ] ,><<. "he metal reflectors can be thin polished aluminum. *n mass production, they can be pressed into shape, so that the cost for seven of them would be ]><<. "he table below provides an estimate to the cost of a completed %uncone unit with ;< s1uare meter solar collecting area. "able - $6%" 56D ! ;<-%PB!D3 )3"3D %B?$6?3 B?*" Plastic materials ] ,><< %tainless steel target rods and piping H<< .ase structural materials N<< )etal reflectors ><< (ohlraum chambers ><< Pivot and foundation support ,;<< )iscellaneous hardware F<< !ssembly Amass productionC , << ---"otal ]N,G<< "his would provide an efficient solar collecting system with a cost of ] 3G per s1uare meter of collection area. "his does not include the cost of a sun-tracking system. Presently, trough collectors Awhich are not as efficient as %uncone collectorsC are running at about ]2;< per s1uare meter, and dish collectors are about ]><< per s1uare meter. &edit' 7n the +e%s 7nflatable Sun"one boosts efficiency an lo%ers price #http://renewa+leenergyaccess.com/rea/news/prod'ctstory./sessionid#0,E0!-E1E230!12,!1,& -9!3,2-&-,&4"id# -0&$ - )ade of an alumini/ed film Ae.g. nylon or )ylarC with a transparent film over the end facing the sun, the %un$one, by .arnabus 3nergy, maintains its shape through air pressure. A>enewable .nergy :ccessM )ar. G, 2<<NC 6arnabus Energy Announces Sun"one Achie!es "ritical 9ilestone #http://www.mar*etwire.com/mw/release_html_+1"release_id#1111,-$ - .arnabus 3nergy, *nc. is pleased to announce that its principal contractor on the %uncone pro,ect, (R"3$, *nc. of Sos !lamos, ?), has achieved a significant milestone in its first phase of work@ "he construction of the first full-scale prototype, and commencement of engineering analysis. A'arket0ireM 5eb. 2H, 2<<NC &edit' "ontact .arnabus 3nergy, *nc. ; > Qia de la Qalle, %uite 2<< %olana .each, $alifornia G2<H; *nvestor Delations -F<<-2;<-2N < infoJbarnabusenergy.com &edit' See also #irectory@%olar - 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@%un$oneL

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Directory:Walter Torbay5s 9agnetic Transgenerator

From PESWiki

)agnetic "ransgenerator prototype shown powering a light. *nventor from !rgentina presents a free energy device via the repelling AricochetC power of magnets, the deviation of the lines of magnetic force, and a comple+ mechanical system for controlling the acceleration, speed and power. L*t generates energy stable, free, does not contaminate the &environment', does not need maintenance, lasts &a long' time, the power source is not degraded and works as much in mainland, the air, under the air or in the deep spaceL. ADef.C "he device is alleged to be 1uiet, with very low friction, hence low maintenance, so that it could run for ;< years without inturruption. Present disposition unknown, and not stated on company website.

Table of contents !bout . 6fficial 9ebsite . . 3nglish "ranslation .2 !pplications .3 Patent .> )echanism .; Prototypes .N *n the ?ews .N. 2<<N K .N.2 Pre 2<<N .H *nventor .F $ontact 2 %ee also
&edit' About

This is a ne% page. Rou are welcome and invited to help us e+pand its contents. 6nce the page has become more mature and ade1uately populated, this notice can be removed.
&edit' (fficial Website http@77club.telepolis.com7S*$R"!7inde+.htm Ais in %panishC &edit' English Translation 5ranslation o- web pages by 8oogle (ome Page of *$R"* -- *ndependent %cientific *nvestigations and "echnologies Ahttp://www.google.com/translate?+=httpC=:C(1C(1cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(1 8:A.>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51#C Photos of Prototypes Ahttp://www.google.com/translate?+=httpC=:C(1C(1cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18: A.>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51#C )edia coverage of the technology from 2<<> 2<<N Ahttp://www.google.com/translate?+=httpC=:C(1C(1cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A.>7

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:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51#C *ntentions Ahttp://www.google.com/translate?+=httpC=:C(1C(1cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A .>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51#C - 6b,ective is to improve the 1uality of human life by collaborating with local scientists, and to dissemanating the knowledge to any nation, municipal organi/ation, university, scientific organi/ation, or non governmental organi/ation.

&edit' Applications motive power for automobiles, airplanes, boats, submarines illuminate cities heating &edit' Patent Patented in !rgentina in !ugust of 2<<> and with international patent Lin proceedingL. $alled Lmagnetic transgeneradorL and works by ricochet Ltaking advantage of the magnetic property e1ual poles and the deviation of lines of magnetic forceL, said the investigator. ADef. Ahttp://cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A.>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51# CC &edit' 9echanism "he system uses ?eodymium magnets of 2>,<<< Gauss, and allegedly can generate 2,;<< watts. "he generator uses a principle similar to the one of the magnetic trains, although in these the magnetism is generated in electrical form, whereas the one of "orbay uses the force of attraction of the magnet in rest, which is why the cost of energy generation is null.

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&edit' Prototypes "he first prototype was constructed in aluminum and was taken in 2<<> to the $ommission of %cientific A$*$C of the .uenosairean government, where studies began on the invention. $onrado Gon/^le/, member of the directory, confirmed that the invention is consideration of this organism. ! new prototype, made with rudimentary materials but that have been serving to show the operation principle, were constructed for three months by "orbay and remain in their factory-laboratory of %ea of the %ilver. ADef. Ahttp://cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A.>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51# CC &edit' 7n the +e%s )edia coverage of the technology from 2<<> 2<<N Ahttp://www.google.com/translate?+=httpC=:C(1C(1cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A.>7 :;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51#C - *$R"* compilation. )any of the links are dead. &edit' 0--2 @ ?39%P!P3D D3!%6? A.B3?6% !*D3%C F737<N http@77old.lara/on.com7diarioIlr72<<N7<37<F72- ;>G<>.htm http@77old.lara/on.com7diarioIlr72<<N7<37<F72- ;>G<3.htm http@77www.lara/on.com.ar7diarioIlr7hoy72- ;>G<3.htm ?39%P!P3D $D6?*$! A.B3?6% !*D3%C G737<N http@77www.cronica.com.ar7article7articleview7 > HNH<3<7 7N7 ?39%P!P3D 65 9(6%3 APD6Q. 65 %!? JB!?C G737<N http@77www.diariodecuyo.com.ar7home7newInoticia.php0noticiaIidKN<H>N ?39%P!P3D (6RAS! %*SQ3DC 737<N http@77www.diariohoy.net7notas7ver?oticia.phtml7html72 G>G;7 ?39%P!P3D "(3 3S3Q3? #*G*"!SAPD6Q. .3"933? D*6%C http@77www.eloncedigital.com.ar7especiales7nota.asp0idK32F;2 #3D5 A!G3?$R 65 "(3 ?39% 65 "(3 PD6Q*?$3 65 %!?"! 53C http@77www.derf.com.ar7despachos.asp0codIdesKNN GN "3S!) A?!"*6?!S !G3?$R 65 "(3 ?39%C H737<N F@2<(% http@77www.telam.com.ar7inde+Iinformaciongeneral.asp http@77www.telam.com.ar7contenidosIcartelera.htm &edit' Pre 0--2 They in!ent a magnetic system to generate energy %ith cost Aero #http://cl'+.telepolis.com5!06718T45!0946E:74DE0;T;<.htm=langpair#es571en=hl#en =ie#>T0&$ - ! scientist of %ea of the %ilver invented a magnetic system that produces energy without cost, since it does not use fuel some. (e would have a cost of ;< dollars and Lhe would allow that a house is supplied of electricity indefinitelyL. A.lonceM date not given &not current date, as shown'C Free an nonpolluting energy #http://cl'+.telepolis.com5!06718T45!0946E:74DE0;T;<.htm=langpair#es571en=hl# en=ie#>T0&$ - ! group of scientists and !rgentine investigators developed and patented a discovery that consists of a comple+ device that would manage to transform magnetic energy into stable mechanical

2H

energy. A>io 2egroM %eptember 2<, 2<<>C #Title obscure $ #http://cl'+.telepolis.com5!06718T45!0946E:74DE0;T;<.htm=langpair#es571en= hl#en=ie#>T0&$ - "he generator with cost /ero invented by 9alter "orbay is being reviewed for possible referral to a scientific committee to certify or to analy/e por1u_ of the operation AAaraL...M date not shownC : system that prod+ces energy witho+t costs (http://cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A.>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie =U51#&F - *t uses a type of artificial magnet, that could generate a force electrical of 2,;<< watts. *t was designed in a humble factory. A;iariohoyM date not givenC &edit' 7n!entor 9alter #ar`o "orbay, studied in the *ndustrial %chool of %ea of the %ilver and he perfected himself in *ndustrial $hemistry in the %ilver, works with four collaborators in a humble factory of the marplatense periphery. ADef Ahttp://cl+b.telepolis.comC(1A7KM5:C(18:A.>7:;.1O5O/.htm!langpair=esC$Ken!hl=en!ie=U51#C C &edit' "ontact *$R"* *?#3P3?#3?" *?Q3%"*G!"*6?% $*3?"*5*$!% !nd "3$?6S6G*$!% !rgentina *nternational "el.@ [;> <223 ;;-<; 22< email@ mailto@*$R"*$6?"!$"6JR!(66.$6).!D0sub,ectK"orbayImagneticoItransgeneratorIfeaturedIatIP3%9iki .com Amailto:7KM57KO25:K5O,M:6OO.KO'.:>?s+b ect=5orbay_magnetico_transgenerator_-eat+red_at_P. /0iki.comC %ite says to e+pect responses to take some time, as the number of in1uiries is great. &edit' See also #irectory@)agnet )otors

- 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php7#irectory@9alterI"orbayXsI)agneticI"ransgeneratorL

2F

(S:"D 9otor
From PESWiki
Rou are here@ P3%9iki : 6pen %ource : $# )otor

"D 9otor

$# )otor 6pen %ource Pro,ect


"his page concerns an e+periment that was developed between %ept 2<< -2<<> under the direction of "im (arwood in an 3group. *nspired by the claims of Dobert !dams and his e+otic pulsed motor technology, it was widely replicated. !dams, living, is careful not to let others speak on his behalf, so it should be made clear that the $# motor was developed wholly independently of )r. !dams. "he motor instructions posted herein are compiled by "im (arwood from that pro,ect. (e says that when followed they will result in a motor that has been demonstrated to manifest une+plained thermal properties Ai.e. drops in temperature below ambientC and back-emf surges in e+cess of F<= of input. (owever, none have yet been able to advance to the point of having a self-running system with power left over to use. *t it hoped with improved circuitry, core materials, and a 2><v apparatus input, the <<=-plus level can be achieved.

a ProBect home a 9hat to 3+pect a 5!P a $onstruction a Sayouts a $ircuitry a Deplications a #iscussion Sist Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.co m/gro+p/pes_K;_'otor/C - #irectory@$# )otor - $ategory@$# )otor - !dams )otor

"he ade1uacy of these plans now posted at P./0iki to provide sufficient information to build a replica as described has not yet been verified by a successful replication. ! version of the plans presented elsewhere, did result in successful replications. Table of contents !bout . 6verview . . . . . 9hat to e+pect .2 $aution .3 #isclaimer .> 5!P

.2 !ssembly .2. Sayout .2.2 $onstruction .2.3 !lternative layouts .2.> $ircuitry .3 Deplications .> #iscussion

2G

.; $ontacts 2 %ee also &edit'

About
&edit'

(!er!ie%
9hat is uni1ue about the $# )otor is that it was based upon a highly specific theory of operation, based upon the in-register geometry #irectory@$# )otor. 9hile previous claims about e+otic performance had either been vague, or talked about the battery, the $# motor has always been highly specific. .ased upon this tight theory, the goal was to design actual apparatus than conformed to it, while being as cheap and low cost as possible.

&edit'

What to e:pect
6%@$# )otor 9hat to e+pect 9hat should you be looking for after you have built the device0 &edit'

"aution
!?R e+perimentation undertaken is performed 3?"*D3SR !" R6BD 69? D*%8. &edit'

Disclaimer
"he $# )otor was developed wholly independently of )r. Dobert !dams. &edit'

FAC
6%@$# )otor 5!P !nswers to the most fre1uently asked 1uestions &edit'

3<

Assembly
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4ayout

"he motor could be said to be roughly based upon a rule-of-;. "hat is to say the stator head should be about 2<= of the cross sectional area of the rotor pm face, and the magnet duty should be kept to about 2<=, through the physical spacing of the pms on the rotor. &edit'

"onstruction
6%@$# )otor $onstruction !ssembly can be done cheaply and simply largely with household items. &edit'

Alternati!e layouts
6%@$# )otor Sayouts "hree layouts proved especially popular with old 3group members. &edit'

"ircuitry
6%@$# )otor $ircuitry Qarious strategies can be used to pulse the motor each with different advantages. &edit'

&eplications
6%@$# )otor old egroup replications

Sist a link to your replication from this P3%9iki pro,ect. &edit'

Discussion

#iscussion Sist Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/pes_K;_'otor/C - created for this pro,ect at P3%9iki "alk page for this pro,ect at P3%9iki

&edit'

"ontacts
"im (arwood posted these instructions and designed the original e+periment and ran the original egroup. 3mailed 1uestions will be replied to by additions to the 5!P. email@ Wtimharwood UatV usa.net: %ee also P3%9iki@$ontact &edit'

See also

#irectory@3lectromagnetic #irectory@Dobert !dams

- 6ther 6pen %ource Pro,ects - P3%9iki main inde+ - P3% ?etwork *nc. Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.comC Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php76%@$#I)otorL $ategories@ $# )otor

32

(S:&oss 9otor
From PESWiki
"heoretical overunity motor design presented by Jim Doss, based on theories put forth by "om .earden. 3nergy %huttling and d17dt blocking are the primary methods used.

Table of contents !bout . 6fficial 9ebsite . . *ntroduction and #escription .2 $omments .2. ?ot Sikely to be 5easible .2.2 5ascinating .3 $ontact 2 %ee also &edit'

About
This is a ne% page. Rou are welcome and invited to help us e+pand its contents. 6nce the page has become more mature and ade1uately populated, this notice can be removed. &edit'

33

(fficial Website

http@77www.mns-pc.com7 !n 3+ercise in 6verunity "hinking Ahttp://www.mns4pc.com/Page(.htmC - 6b,ective@ "o design a practical working overunity system primarily based on the theories put forth by "om .earden. "he main methods of achieving overunity are dm7dt Amass displacement currentC blocking and energy shuttling. )eans used to perform these methods result in other effects that enhance the systems performance. $omponent #etail Ahttp://www.mns4pc.com/component_detail.htmC - materials re1uired !dditional "houghts Ahttp://www.mns4pc.com/additional_tho+ghts.htmC - "his design is scalable and many configurations are possible. 6riginally a two motor shaft design was conceived. "his may be a good place to start. 5igures Ahttp://www.mns4pc.com/-ig+res.htmC

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7ntro uction an Description


?+oting -rom http://www.mns4pc.com/index.htm 5irst and foremost * must say that this system is only theoretical and the closest that it has come to being built is the virtual model shown above. "his design is a compilation of other peopleXs ideas placed in, what is hopefully, an original package. "he purpose of this site is to present this design to the public so that it inspires thought and constructive criticism. *f feedback proves the concepts wrong, then * will scrap it and start over. "his is an e+amination of the two shaft version of my virtual free energy device. *t uses many principles, but relies heavily on dm dt mass charge blocking and energy shuttling to achieve over unity. "he system has two shafts, with two motors on each shaft. ! third shaft has rotary air gap switches that are used for timing. !ll of the shafts are coupled together by way of belts and pulleys. "wo of the belts, in con,unction with their respective pulleys, are charge separators and act as the systems source dipole. ! large voltage is developed by the charge separator with a small but constant current. "he third belt insures that the motor shafts are timed properly with the rotary gap switches. ... "his configuration has been described as an electrostatic motor and has been demonstrated to work while re1uiring very little current. ... "here are two types of current.. mass and massless. )ass current flow destroys the source dipole and massless does not. "herefore it is permissible to have massless current flow through the source circuit and it is undesirable to have mass current flow. *t is not meaningless to have massless current flow as it is converted to mass current upon reaching the load. )ass charge blocking and massless current bridging is necessary for this system to achieve over unity. *n this system, the capacitor plates and lower rotors block the mass current from destroying the source dipole. 9hen charged, the capacitor plates would like nothing more than to have their charges come together and be neutrali/ed. "herefore they seek a path to one another in order to destroy the charge separation. 6f course this is contrary to what we are trying to accomplish. 9e wish to keep our source dipole so that we may continue using it. (owever we will take advantage of this situation and satisfy the capacitors desire to neutrali/e their charges by momentarily shorting the plates together by placing the coil between their plates. "he coil then develops a magnetic field not because of mass current

3>

flow but because of the large 3 field across it. "here will be some loss of energy due to mass current flow but the source dipole will be mostly intact. "he key is to develop as large of a magnetic field in the shortest amount of time so that the energy can be bridged or shuttled from the capacitor plates to the upper motor with minimal loss to the source dipole. .ecause of conservation of energy, the shuttling process converts the capacitor 3 field into a magnetic field, which performs work on the lower rotor, and then the conserved magnetic field is converted back to an 3 field to perform work on the upper motor.

"omments
&edit'

+ot 4ikely to be Feasible


* have e+amined the disclosure on the Doss )otor. *n terms of the interplay between the magnetics and the electromotive forces generated@ "he conversion of power to7from the rotational motion by the electromagnetic interplay would tend to be reasonably efficient, but there is no evidence that one would derive more electrical energy coming out than going in. 5urther, as in any piece of rotating machinery, there are unavoidable frictional losses, wherein the mechanical energy is converted to heat. "his contributes as well to a loss of efficiency of the motor. "hus, * would not e+pect that one would derive any benefit from this type design. Dotating and switching designs are common, but there is no evidence of an actual reduction of magnetic field strength in the permanent magnets which would provide additional usable output energy and hence produce an over-unity device. ADobert *ndech, Ph# P3, ?ew 3nergy $ongress memberM !pril H, 2<<NC &edit'

Fascinating
5ascinatingb *t is comple+ enough that * donXt understand it yet and likely will take awhile to get through it. A8en DauenM !pril H, 2<<NC &edit'

"ontact
Jim Doss email@ ,imross UatV be+.net

See also

#irectory@3lectromagnetic

- 6ther 6pen %ource Pro,ects - P3%9iki main inde+ - P3% ?etwork *nc. Ahttp://p+reenergysystems.comC Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php76%@DossI)otorL

3;

(S:6ill Williams5 Doe "ell


From PESWiki

Deplication Pro,ect
*n the first part of !pril, 2<<N, .ill 9illiams told a discussion list that he successfully tested a device known as the Joe $ell. *t allegedly feeds off 6rgone energy and uses electrically charged water as the LgateL or medium through which the aetheral energy is drawn from the surroundings and transferred to the automobile engine. (e was in process of disclosing how he accomplished this when confronted on !pril by two unidentified individuals who told him to cease all of his alternative energy work or there would be dire conse1uences. 9illiams complied, but others involved are doing all they can to make sure the information is republished and replicated widely. %ee story at P3%?.com Ahttp://pesn.com/(**%/*</"=/@%**(9$_Nill_0illiams_threatened/C A!pr. 3, 2<<NC. "he following inde+ page is to link to the various pertinent resources. *f you have information relevant to this pro,ect, please feel free to help build this inde+ page so that it is as streamlined as possible@ simple, clear, complete. "his is a publicly editable site. . Table of contents Pro,ect . )aterials .2 .lueprints .3 *nstructions .> Deplications .>. 5unctional .>. . .ill 9illiams .>. .2 Peter %tephens

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.>. .3 James 9ildman .>. .> Joe .>.2 .uilding .; *mages .N Qideos .H 5!P .H. P. 9hat si/e of tubes do you use0 .H.2 P. 9hat kind of water do you use0 .H.3 P. (ow long do you charge the water0 .H.> P. )ust there be bubbles in the water0 .H.; P. (ow will you know if the cell is charged0 .F %upression Desponse .G "heory . < #iscussion Sists . !ssistance 2 %ee also &edit'

ProBect
&edit'

9aterials

Deplication *nstructions Ahttp://www.silent4r+nning.com/cell/72;.O.65'C - Group of pages is for the purpose of documenting my e+periences in building the e+perimental orgone accumulator known as the LJoe $ellL. Joe $ell )aterial De1uirements Ahttp://www.silent4r+nning.com/cell/-+el.htmC $harging Joe $ell )aterial De1uirements Ahttp://www.silent4r+nning.com/cell/cones.htmC Joe$ell )ethods and )aterials Ahttp://www.silent4r+nning.com/cell/mandm.65'C Joe $ell $onversions *nformation Ahttp://www.silent4r+nning.com/cell/con3ert.65'C 3+perimenterXs Guide to the Joe $ell Ahttp://www.n+tech(***.com/prod=%.htmC - booklet for saleM also available in German translation. A2+5ech(***C P$Q not recommendedM try using aluminum tubing & ' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/$C

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6lueprints

.lueprints for Joe $ellM Devision ; Ahttp://www.p+reenergysystems.com/news/(**%/*</"=/@%**(9$_Nill_0illiams_threatened/Eoe_ Kell_re39_:pr"<_(**%.pd-C ApdfC - $urrent as of !pril >, 2<<N. Joe $ell blueprintsM rev. ; Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/9<C - alt copy A!pr

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>, 2<<NC ----

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3G

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7nstructions
*n process of postingM not yet complete. %ilver %older is okay. 9ould be better than running leads in the cell as they produce a feild and only allow the top of the cell to produce Joe energy bubbles. !lternatively, put a hole in the centre bottom of the container cell. )achine or weld a plate and bolt on to the centre cathode. %eal with sikafle+ 2G )arine grade and seating washers Aknife cutting board teflon type materialC. $onnect the negative onto the bolt and tighten to earth on the vehicle. Put the lid on and start. &2' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/"9C

#ownload Ahttp://www.mega+pload.com/?d=@7'E?H$'C Alink not functioning0C - #escription@ Joe $ell design by .ill 9illiams, runs a car without any fossil fuelM 5ilename@ .*SS.pdfM 5ilesi/e@ N2.>> 8.

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><

&eplications
post here &edit'

Functional
&edit'

.ill 9illiams
(ad operational truck running on Joe $ell with tremendous power. 9as visited by two men who told him to stop all alt energy activities. (e complied, destroying his lab notes, etc. %ee story at P3%?.com Ahttp://pesn.com/(**%/*</"=/@%**(9$_Nill_0illiams_threatened/C A!pr. 3, 2<<NC.

5ord "est #rive Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/"%C - .ill describes how his 5ord performed with the Joe $ell. L*t the throttle response was very crisp or touchy. 9ith about a 7FL of movement the ne+t thing * new * was booking at close to F< mph. *f * lifted of ever so slightly on the throttle and it felt like * was putting the brakes on and the speed would drop down to 3< mph or so.L A!pr N, 2<<NC LResL Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/==C - .illXs answer to 1uestion@ Lhave you been threatened by men touting gunsL. A!pr , 2<<NC

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Peter %tephens
John $arter said he took a ride the other day in a 5ord 3conovan that Peter %tephens converted to run on a Joe $ell. (e said the car Lrocketed up the hillL it had so much power. ADef Ahttp://pesn.com/(**%/*</"=/@%**(9$_Nill_0illiams_threatened/C.C &edit'

James 9ildman

my ,oe cell Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=#C - Lthe truck has twice its normal power, ...but will not yet run on the cell aloneL A!pr 2, 2<<NC De@ my ,oe cell Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/<*C - LPosted pics of my test cell in ,imXs cells folderL A!pr 2, 2<<NC

* suggest that we could use the phenomenom of the cellXs overe+pansion of water as a method of measuring acclamation of the engine.. *3, if you advance too far the cell will overe+pand the water and empty itself.. ! few degrees back toward normal and its fine.. !s the engine acclimates this threshold should migrate toward advance until you can run on cell energy alone... &edit'

Joe

*nteresting day with Joe Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/<9C - Peter describes some unusual phenomena that Joe showed them. LRou could even put your finger close to the point of entry yet not be booted.L A!pr 3, 2<<NC D3@ *nteresting day with Joe Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/<$C - #amien (olyoak describes more from the visit. A!pr 3, 2<<NC

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>

6uil ing

?ick Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/%C - mostly built A!pr ;, 2<<NC &3' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/"(C &>' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/"<C .ernie (eere Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/"=C A!pr N, 2<<NC .rendon Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/@C - intends to build A!pr ;, 2<<NC J. .ob Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/"$C - !waiting tubes. A!pr N, 2<<NC .rad Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/("C - considering buying tubes from ?u"ech A!pr N, 2<<NC &;' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/((C Dob Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/($C - getting the parts A!pr H, 2<<NC &N' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=9C Pat Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/99C - intention A!pr >, 2<<NC

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7mages
post here

Photo !lbum at Joes$ells2 RahoobGroup Ahttp://ph.gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/photos/browse/%ee%C - need to ,oin Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/C the list to access this feature. Joining is automatic, not approval re1uired.

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?i eos
post here &edit'

FAC
&edit'

C' What siAe of tubes o you useE


* have found using the HL"ube lengths of 2L$athode 2.;, 3, 3.; works well and < to 2Llength + >L Qessell $ontainer works. * find all Joe $ells are working but not enough energy seems to come away in the smaller cells. -- Peter &H' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/<(C &edit'

C' What kin of %ater o you useE


Just use any water that you find handy. * precharge mine but have used spring water dam ater &00' bore water and find that ground water works ,ust fine. -- Peter &F' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=%C &edit'

>2

C' Ho% long o you charge the %aterE


Rou have to only charge for three to ten minutes then take the positive lead off and allow vacuumn to do her thing. -- Peter &G' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=%C &edit'

C' 9ust there be bubbles in the %aterE


Joe says we donXt need the .ubbles. -- Peter & <' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=%C &edit'

C' Ho% %ill you kno% if the cell is charge E


Possibly youXll know the cell is charged when hairs on the back of your kneck tell you. "ry as you put the back of your hand near the $ell and see if the hair lifts. .ill could you check that on your $ell and others ,ust to confirm but a voltage readout shows anywhere from at rest pulsing 32-3<<milli Qolts dc- 3.; Q #$ with Power on but generally youXll be earthed out to the motor and chassis as your working around the $ell and wont notice it as your grounded not 1uiet the same as a "Q screen discharge ,ust energy from the cathode. ! meter will discharge the cell. -- Peter & &edit' ' Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=%C

Supression &esponse
$omments in reply to the threats Ahttp://pesn.com/(**%/*</"=/@%**(9$_Nill_0illiams_threatened/C issued to .ill 9illiams.

)omentum on side of positive change Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/<"C (amish Dobertson encourages the Joe $ell revolution. L"he status 1uo will change very 1uickly when &)r.' !verage realises that the guy down the road is paying nothing for gas while heXs getting sucker punched for ]><< bucks every moth.L A!pr 2, 2<<NC De@ %pooks and (orse]h t Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/<@C - #aniel )oeck ,oins discussion list out of rebellion to the supression of .ill 9illiams. A!pr 3, 2<<NC * donXt get it Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/9$C - why would they do that0 A!pr >, 2<<NC De@ 9e all hang together... Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/%$C - .ill Sang says L"he (ydrogen 3conomy begins at (omeL and encourages the revolution for energy independence from the big boy bullies. A!pr >, 2<<NC i heard what happen to bill william this is terrible Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/%@C - Li hope i am not on the mib hit list as well. i ,ust published the 3rd book Ahttp://www.e4 booktime.com/'erchant(/merchant.m3c?/creen=P>O;!Prod+ct_Kode=/84 PN!:--iliate=pesnetwork!Kategory_Kode='PC which contain ideal reality of the ,oe cell in machnical form .L A!pr >, 2<<NC Probably ,ust mob Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/$(C - 8el says L*t seems if it was a government group they would flash some badges and claim Lnational securityL reasons, but they wouldnXt threaten personal harm, only thugs do that.L A!pr >, 2<<NC )ore back-up Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/$9C - L,ust renewing my web site for the new cad drawings posted from bill and photos so soon have more locationsL A!pr >, 2<<NC

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&edit'

Theory

9orks on *mplosion Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/9(C - con,ecture by 8yle "ala,ic A!pr >, 2<<NC

&edit'

Discussion 4ists

E*gas, was the original list where .ill 9illiams was posting his information, which was discontinued by Rahoo. Joe $ell 5ree 3nergy #evice Rahoogroups Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+ps/ oecell-reeenergyde3iceC JoeXs $ell 2 Rahoogroups Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/C - was started by .ill after 3-gas was shut down. Qiew )essages Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/messages/"C - commenced !pril >, 2<<N. Sast message A2 C before .ill turned list posting off Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/(@C LRou might have ?!%! knocking on your doorL A!pr F, 2<<NC Peter restores list Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/=*C - L* have been able to restore the site to fully operational lets get this movingL A!pr , 2<<NC "his P3%9iki pro,ect page is announced Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/9"C A!pr >, 2<<NC

Assistance
Peter, who is runnig a 5ord 3conovan using the Joe $ell, is glad to answer 1uestions about how to build one, and has agreed to help post a very clear set of plans for any who wish to do so. (e may be reached at ingnventor UatV yahoo.com.au (is skype username is ingventor

(elping (and Ahttp://gro+ps.yahoo.com/gro+p/EoesKell(/message/9C Peter says, Lwould anybody need any help getting their $ell working *Xm happy to look and make recomendations to improve itL

See also

#irectory@Joe $ell

- 6ther #irectory listings - P3%9iki home page Detrieved from Lhttp@77peswiki.com7inde+.php76%@.illI9illiamsXIJoeI$ellL $ategories@ Joe $ells

>>

Advanced Resonant Fields


Posted on Saturday, March 25, 2006 @ 23:47:37 PST by vlad H ! have added a l n" to your #ebs te$ Than" you %or your ass stance$ !n add t on to the announce&ent belo#, ! have attached a very nterest n' art cle conta n n' so&e o% the easy (roo% o% the )esonant * eld Theory$ Than"s +r$ Ha t ,see -.orrected /uantu& Mechan cs and )elat v ty- doc n our +o#nloads sect on 0 1lad2

7f you un erstoo ho% Fe!erythingG in uni!erse %orke , %hat fiel s coul you re!olutioniAeE Announcing: The first &ussian/American 7nternational Seminar on A !ance &esonant Fiel s'
T tle:

7ntro uction to &esonant Fiel Theory %ith special application to Photonic "omputing' April 0H*03, 0--2. 6n beautiful and tropical Saipan in the ?orthern )ariana *slands, B%!. "hree hours %outh of "okyo.
The )esonant * eld Theory s the % rst truly un % ed and easy0to0understand theory o% everyth n'$ Th s deta led set o% se& nars # ll cover the &ost recent and advanced sc ence, co&b n n' )elat v ty # th corrected /uantu& Mechan cs$ !t # ll e3(la n the %unda&ental &echan s& o% (hys cs, and # ll ans#er &any lon'0(end n' 4uest ons nclud n' 4uantu& 'rav ty, ant 'rav ty, and 4uant 5ed (hoton c co&(ut n'$ 6ecause o% ts %unda&ental nature, t s e3(ected that t # ll have a d rect e%%ect on your (art cular % eld, because t (rov des substant ally better &ethods %or &ore accurate subato& c &easure&ents, and understand n' o% &olecular asse&bla'e$ 6ecause o% ts %unda&ental nature, )esonant * elds # ll have a 'reat and 'lobal &(act on sc ence$ 7very school, every bus ness, and every h 'h0(ay n' (os t on has co&(et t on$ !t e3 sts, and you # ll have to deal # th t$ !t8s the real #orld$ So cons der:

"oul you %in up obsolete, e!en before your gra uateE *tXs worth thinking about. *tXs worth checking it out.... ,ust in case. RouXve got a lot on the line. Sogically, you will want to be first in line. )ore information is provided, including a preview of some Desonant 5ield "heory evidence. www.rmrc.org7rfi7broch.htm. $omplete details of the seminar itself, including pre-registration are available at http@77www.resonant7.
Than"s %or read n' +r$ 9ohn :$ Ha t

,haitJresonantfieldsinc.com D5* $hief %cientist and Professor of Desonant 5ields, http@77www.r7.


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

>esonant 1ields /eminar) :pril (94($) (**% .xciting /cience Neyond .instein. .instein died trying to complete his Uni-ied 1ield 5heory) a comprehensi3e) int+iti3e explanation o- the way e3erything in the +ni3erse operates... a 5heory o- .3erything. 1eynman longed -or a basic mechanism that wo+ld enable +s to know not +st P6ow the .arth mo3es aro+nd the /+n) b+t what makes

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it go.P ;isco3ery o- that basic mechanism) >esonant 1ields? has finally 'nited all of physics into a comprehensi3e) int+iti3e explanation o- the way e3erything works... +st like .instein and 1eynman dreamed o-. 5h+s) the >esonant 1ield 5heory is expected to ha3e a signi-icant and immediate impact on science) technology) ed+cation) commerce) and e3en society. 5his breakthro+gh4disco3ery has already laboratory4pro3en that the resonant -ields) o- which e3erything in the +ni3erse is made) 3iolate the 3ery -o+ndation o- ?+ant+m 'echanics) namely 6eisenbergFs Uncertainty Principle) by o3erwhelmingly demonstrating an organiLed deep4-ield reality) rather than a random one. /+b4-ield interactions are not random as pre3io+sly tho+ght) b+t ha3e been demonstrated to be pse+dorandom. 5h+s) they may appear random to h+mansQ b+t +pon closer examination they are not. ;eep reality existsR :nd) has been shown to be G+ite deterministicQ strictly ca+se4and4e--ect like the rest o- science. 7tSs been -o+nd that energy4-low patterns deep within atoms) light) gra3ity) and e3erything else) are similar to the pse+dorandom algorithms +sed to encrypt secret messages) where the order otheir precision acti3ity) while con3ol+ted) is concealed within their complexity. 5h+s o+r meas+rements) o+r knowledge) and o+r +nderstanding need no longer be limited by T+ncertaintySQ b+t can become precisely TcertainSQ expanding o+r +nderstanding o- the processes and machinery o- resonant -ields. :nd since e3erything has been shown to be composed o- resonant -ieldsQ we now ha$e an open window on e$erything@ Pse+dorandom deep4reality -inally reconciles an +pdated ?+ant+m 'echanics and >elati3ity. 7t +nco3ers the big mysteries o- the (*th cent+ry like: G+ant+m gra3ity) black holes) antigra3ity) action4at4 a4distance) s+batomic interactions) electricity) magnetism) light) d+ality) G+arks) strings) mo3ement) radioacti3ity) the +ni3ersal speed limit) and the 9th dimension. 2ow we +nderstand why they are ne$er 'ncertain abo+t what they do) or how they do it. Unlike the random (and now obsolete& G+ant+m4mechanical +nderworld) real atoms) light) and gra3ity always get it right and ne3er -orget how to do itR 1inally) the >esonant 1ield 5heory explains that -+ndamental mechanism o- physics in easy4to4 +nderstand) int+iti3e terms... +st like .instein and 1eynman longed -or. 7t means that we can now +egin decrypting those nat+ral energy4-low patterns to re3eal their hidden secret messages. KonseG+ently) many age4old secrets that ha3e held +p science -or years) are now being re3ealed with TcertaintySQ -or the -irst time) by means o- the >esonant 1ield 5heory. .3erything has -inally been 'ade /imple. 0hat co+ld be more exciting? Aogically) >esonant 1ields) 7nc. has sched+led its -irst in4depth three4day seminar) :pril (94($) (**% in /aipan) 2orthern 'ariana 7slands) U/:. ;etails are on the web at http://www.resonant-ieldsinc.com/) click Useminars.V 5he ad3anced text U>esonant 1ields) the -+ndamental mechanism o- physics made easy to +nderstand.V Klick on Uprod+ctsV. 5o -acilitate international cooperation and +nderstanding) >17 is also seeking 3ol+nteers to translate the entire = days into >+ssian. Persons with a good command o- both scienti-ic lang+ages will be appreciated by all. Please -orward this to yo+r colleag+es so they will also ha3e the opport+nity to e3al+ate the presentation.

>N

re:research'com Home

Doseph +e%man Gyroscopic 9agnetic Particle 9otor


Transcribe from )eey+et AS"7 Files:

+e%man5s Gyroscopic Theory


"he theoretical basis of Joe ?emansX Devolutionary 3nergy )achine challenges many accepted laws of physics. "he starting point for understanding ?ewmanXs ideas is his assertion that the fundamental building block of all matter is the gyroscopic particle, an infinitesimal unit of matter that spins like a gyroscope. ?ewman claims that the mechanics of magnetism and electricity, which have never been fully e+plained, can be described in terms of how gyroscopic particles react and interact. "he idea that a single type of particle is responsible for the forces at work in the universe is an old one, yet some of the latest research in physics involves the investigation of particles. ?ew and smaller particles with previously unknown properties are being discovered on a regular basis. ?ewmanXs theories also depend heavily on the idea that all matter is concentrated energy, which can be released if one has a mechanism for unlocking it. "hat notion is at the heart of 3insteinXs work and the e1uation 3 K mcc2, then the argument that he is trying to patent a perpetual motion machine has no merit. "heoretically, ?ewmanXs machine could run indefinitely, but --- according to him --- not because it is $D3!"*?G energy to run itself, but because it is converting matter to energy. *n radically oversimplified terms, this is what happens when Joe ?ewman throws the switch on the Devolutionary 3nergy )achine@ C !n electrical current is sent through a long Amiles longC coil of copper wire, magneti/ing it and creating a strong magnetic field. 2C ?ewman describes the mechanics of the magnetic field as Lshells of forceL composed of gyroscopic particles that move in a spiral pattern around the wire. 6riginally *? the wire, the particles e+pand outward and thus create the magnetic

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field. 3C 9hen the particles form a magnetic field, ?ewman says, they are traveling at the speed of light in two directions --- in the spiral pattern around the wire, and in their own normal gyroscopic spin. "his gives him the right side of the 3 K mcc2 e1uationM the particles AmassC multiplied by the speed of light s1uared. >C "he machine operates in pulsesM that is, the electrical current is continually turned on and off. "his causes the magnetic field --- in other words, the gyroscopic particles --- to e+pand and collapse. ;C 9hen the trillions of gyroscopic particles that have been released collapse back into the wire, some of them collide with other gyroscopic particles. .ecause of the nature of the gyroscopic spin, the collisions cause the loose particles to bounce off at right anglesM those particles emerge at one end of the wire as electrical energy.

4tlanta Ao'rnalB1onstit'tion #3*;.*12$

Will Doseph +e%man5s Energy 9achine &e!olutioniAe the Worl E


by

&aa "a%thon
Staff Writer SB$3#!S3, )iss. - *n the piney woods southwest of this southwest )ississippi town, off the broken blacktop and two miles down a rutted sand and dirt road, through three gates, past the L8eep 6utL and L.eware of the #ogsL signs, smack in the middle of nowhere, sits Joseph 9estley ?ewman, a man who says he can change the world. *n this land where heat devils beat from the ground in waves, ?ewman says he can bring water to the desert places of the world, eliminate poverty, and improve the 1uality of everyoneXs life. *f only ?ewmanXs enemies will let him. ?ewman does not look the part of a savior. (e sports hair waved across his head in the style of a .aptist deacon. *n the heat ?ewman is calm, cool and certain. (e carries a ga/e direct as a laser. (e says, L9hat * have done will revolutioni/e the world.L 9hat has Joe ?ewman done0 (e has built the Devolutionary 3nergy )achine. (is government, ?ewmanXs proclaimed enemy, says his machines are frauds. ?ot so, says ?ewman. *nstead they are the bootstraps by which mankind can pull itself up. !cross the tidy, tilefloored workshop from ?ewman sits a copper-sheathed canister the height and diameter of a fire hydrant.

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!t the far end of the workshop, swaddled in miles of copper wire, is another machine, a G,<<<-pound version the si/e of a five-person hot tub, its circular rim topped with a circle of light bulbs. "hese are two of ?ewmanXs Devolutionary 3nergy )achines, which he knows will free the world from drudgery and make the 5irst, %econd, and "hird 9orld as one. *t is these machines and others like them, using ?ewmanXs same revolutionary theory, that ?ewman claims produce more energy than they consume. "hat would allow men to light cities for pennies, power cars without pollution or gasoline, drive machines to make salt water fresh. .ut it is his own government, represented by the ?ational .ureau of %tandards and the B.%. Patent 6ffice, that ?ewman says is his and mankindXs foe. *t is his own government that ?ewman claims has waged a seven-year war to keep his invention from improving the world. L!ll * am doing is opening doors,L ?ewman says. "he government, through its unwillingness to grant him a patent, says ?ewmanXs machine, which he has invested about ]H<<,<<< in developing and defending, does not do what he claims. L"he ?.% results show that the device behaves in a manner which is entirely consistent with the well-established laws of physics,L says the report, released June 2N. "he Lwell-establishedL laws of physics say a machine cannot put out more energy than it consumes. Go!ernment report Ia mockery of Bustice5 *** ?ewman says he knew what the ?.% report would show. !s a matter of fact, so certain was ?ewman that he issued a press release before the report became public saying it was a Lmockery of ,ustice.L "he inventor says he is certain his machine works, can demonstrate that it works, and is willing to defend his machine in public debate against anyone from the ?.% or the B.%. Patent 6ffice or any university or anyone who claims to know what he is talking about. ?ewman has taken his Devolutionary 3nergy )achine on the road, demonstrating it in the Souisiana %uperdome and in !tlanta. *n each place he challenged an e+pert on physics to debate his theories in public. ?obody showed up. ?ewman, who was raised in )obile, dropped out of high school and left home at ;, went in the armed services, roughnecked in the oil fields, got a degree in accounting and economics, and decided - in his early 2<s, after casting around through several ,obs - that he wanted to be an inventor. 6ver the course of the ne+t two decades he registered patents for several inventions --- a machine to pick oranges, plastic barbells, a new type of knife --and pursued his self-taught odyssey into electromagnetics.

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3tched in the concrete of ?ewmanXs workshop walkway is LPuestion [ "hinking K "ruth.L ?ewman says that because he is not burdened by conventional teachings, his mind is free to challenge 1uestions without the constraints conventional physicists place on themselves. ?ewman already has won over a number of physicists, electrical engineers and chemists who have seen his Devolutionary 3nergy )achine and heard his e+planation. #r. Doger (astings, a physicist with %perry-Bnivac $orp., has conducted hundreds of tests on ?ewmanXs machine. (is opinion0 L"he future of the human race may be drastically uplifted by the large-scale commercial development of this invention,L he says. !nd ?icholaos "soupas, a physicist who works at .rookhaven Saboratory in ?ew Rork and once taught at Rale Bniversity, said, L* know for a fact that many scientists consider his invention unorthodo+ and unacceptable, possibly because his theories do not fully comport with todayXs university teachings. (owever, )r. ?ewman has demonstrated that his invention works the way it claims. "he Patent 6ffice should not have denied him a patent.L .ut the Patent 6ffice did. ?ewman applied for a patent for his machine )arch 22, GHG. *n January GF2 the Patent 6ffice denied him the patent, claiming his invention Lsmacked of perpetual motion.L ?ewman appealed the ruling and in GF3 filed suit against the Patent 6ffice. 5ederal #istrict Judge "homas Jackson, who was hearing the case, appointed a special master to evaluate ?ewmanXs machine. "he special master, 9illiam %chuyler Jr., a former commissioner of the B.%. Patent 6ffice, concluded that the machine did what ?ewman claimed and recommended that a patent be granted. Jackson, in an action that many people familiar with similar patent cases claim was almost unheard of, refused to accept the recommendation of %chuyler and sent the issue back to the Patent 6ffice for more study. *n 6ctober GF;, Jackson ordered ?ewman to turn his machine over to the ?.% for testing. JacksonXs order also prevented ?ewman or any of his representatives from attending the tests. .ut when the 3<-day period passed and the machine had not been tested, ?ewmanXs attorney, John 5lannery, attempted to retrieve the machine. Jackson ordered it impounded. !fter finally testing it, the Patent 6ffice on June 2N issued a report claiming that the machine does not do what ?ewman says it will. L"he .ureau of %tandards is coming into this tainted,L ?ewman says, noting that he still has not recovered the machine the ?.% has had since GF;. L* have spent 2 years working on this machine and seven trying to get it patented. * am devoted to this.L 9hy give away a billion-dollar theory0 %o devoted is he that he has written a book outlining the secret of his machine. "he red-covered, hard-bound book is titled in gold@ LJoseph ?ewmanXs Devolutionary 3nergy )achine.L

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*nside, the pages are packed with diagrams, e1uations, theories and philosophies on the power of electromagnetics. L!nyone with any knowledge of electromagnetic energy can read this book and build a machine,L ?ewman says. "hey also can study ?ewmanXs theories about how the weather can be controlled by directing electromagnetic energy and how ?ewman believes the present educational system trains originality out of children. 9hy would someone develop a theory that he claims will change the world, a theory worth billions of dollars, and then give it away in a book0 L.ecause the technical process is <,<<< times more important than the machine itself,L ?ewman says. (e points to his head. L*f * keep the knowledge up here, what will happen to it if something happens to me0 *f you understand the technical process, then you donXt ,ust copy what * have done, you can apply it in many different ways.L ?ewmanXs machine, if it works, truly could change the face of the world. 3nergy would be dirt cheap and non-centrali/ed. )ultinational oil cartels would be restructured or collapse. Btility companies that have invested billions in nuclear energy would see the plants as costly millstones, dragging them into bankruptcy. Great stockpiles of coal, as well as the companies that mine it, would lie almost useless. %o it is little wonder that ?ewman, who says he has gotten mysterious, anonymous threatening telephone calls lately, thinks there is a tremendous conspiracy, worldwide in scope, to prevent his invention from coming into widespread usage. L)y machine is a threat in terms of changing the financial structure and the power structure of the world,L he says calmly. L* believe this conspiracy goes all the way to the president.L ?ewman has written every president since Syndon Johnson stating that this new energy technology was on the hori/on. )ost of his letters went unanswered, presumably ignored. (owever, in GF3 ?ewman sent Deagan a package of material about his machine. *n a letter he asked the administrationXs help Lfor the people of the world.L *ncluded in the package was a videotape of the machine that had aired on a ?ew 6rleans television news show. ?ewman got the package back with a form letter indicating that it had not been opened. .ut when he opened the package to file the material, ?ewman found something he had not included. L"here was a video review sheet from an office in the 9hite (ouse,L ?ewman says, showing the sheet. L*t indicated that not only had the package been looked at, but it had been looked at rather closely.L "he review sheet states, among other things@ L%ome scientists believe this invention could change the world.L L9hen * called to find out what the review sheet was all about, the fellow at the 9hite (ouse was furious that * had seen it,L ?ewman says. L"hey wanted to know

how * had gotten hold of a copy of that sheet.L ! 9hite (ouse spokesman said hundreds of videos are received by the 9hite (ouse annually and that many of them are reviewed by volunteers. L9hat is on the review sheet is not the opinion of anyone on the 9hite (ouse staff,L the spokesman said. L*t is merely a review of whatever is on the tape.L IPeople are traine not to accept change5 *** .ut ?ewman is sure that a conspiracy e+ists. (e leans back in a chair in his workshop and ruminates. L*tXs strange that they are capping all these oil wells now,L he says. L"he reasons they are giving, the dropping prices and such, are the same ones youXve heard for three, four years. * donXt see one factual piece of evidence for this to be happening. L*Xll bet in the last two years, if you could find out whoXs buying the copper mines, whoXs buying material for magnets. . . *Xd bet you anything that when the wash is out, the oil companies have bought them.L ?ewman says his machine is not a perpetual motion machine and that it does not create energy, two claims that have hurt its image. *nstead, it is a new way of tapping the electromagnetic energy field that is already there. Qery simply put, the machine works like this@ Power is used to rotate two magnets wrapped in copper wire. "he rotating magnets and the atoms that align within the copper wire create an electromagnetic field that can be tapped. "he revolutionary aspect of the machine is that the amount of energy needed to align the atoms and rotate the magnets creating the energy field is less than the energy created. %o there is a net gain in power created. "heoretically, with ?ewmanXs technology you could produce an unlimited, selfperpetuating source of pollution-free energy. L* e+pect to have one of these machines running a car within si+ months,L ?ewman says matter-of-factly. "he fight for a patent for the Devolutionary 3nergy )achine has become more than a fight to get an invention patented. ?ewman says the battle with the government has given him a new insight into the way people are taught to think in this country. "he battle has defined for ?ewman a philosophy. LPeople have been trained, are being trained, not to accept change,L he says. L)y powers of reason are greater than many peopleXs because my feet are not bound by traditional thought. ?ewman sits back and looks out the window of his workshop, past his Devolutionary 3nergy )achine, out into the pine trees. L"o be a good scientist, you have to be a humble person. Rou have to believe that you donXt know everything,L he says.

;2

J 8nkno%n Title / Publication K


by

Warren E' 4eary


!P %cience 9riter

9!%(*?G"6? A!PC -- Government engineers say a backwoods inventorXs ama/ing energy machine has a number of uni1ue features but lacks a critical one -- it doesnXt work. "he ?ational .ureau of %tandards said "hursday that more than two months of court-ordered testing has failed to prove Joseph 9. ?ewmanXs claims that his controversial machine produces more energy than it consumes. L!t all conditions tested, the input power e+ceeded the output power,L the governmentXs standards-setting agency said in a report. L"hat is, the device did not deliver more energy than it used.L ?ewman, who terms himself a self-educated, backwoods inventor from Sucedale, )iss., who used common sense to come up with his machine, immediately re,ected the test results as biased and meaningless. "he agency by its own admission used unconventional instruments and methods to reach its conclusions, said ?ewman, whose 1uest for a government patent has attracted national attention. L* do not accept these results at all,L ?ewman said in a telephone interview. L* predicted this decision. *tXs ,ust another e+ample of the in,ustice *Xm fighting against.L "he bureauXs report said that because of unusual electrical characteristics of the machine, it had to design a test plan and combination of instruments specifically for ?ewmanXs non-standard device. .ut it said it carefully checked the instruments to assure the accuracy of the tests. ?ewman said he would not accept results coming from unconventional testing that could not be repeated by others. L*f * built my own test e1uipment and said that it proves my machine worked, no one would give me much credit, no one would believe me,L ?ewman said. L.ut thatXs what the .ureau of %tandards has done and they e+pect people to believe them.L "he inventor has been trying for si+ years to get the B.%. 6ffice of Patents and "rademarks to issue a patent on an energy machine that defies accepted laws of physics.

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Patent e+aminers say the invention looks like yet another proposal for a perpetual motion machine, one that would produce more energy than it uses so that, theoretically, it could run forever. "his has been the goal of inventors for centuries, but conventional science says it is impossible. ?ewman contends his device is not a perpetual motion machine, but a revolutionary energy source that uses the previously unknown magnetic properties of copper coils to release more energy than it consumes. B.%. #istrict Judge "homas P. Jackson, presiding over ?ewmanXs suit against the patent office, ordered a new trial date after getting results of the tests he ordered from the bureau. John P. 5lannery, ?ewmanXs lawyer, said Jackson set #ec. F as the date for a non,ury trial to determine if the inventor will be awarded the patent. 5lannery said he asked the ,udge to permit ?ewman to e+amine the special e1uipment used to test the energy machine, but that Jackson refused to order it. *f the Patent 6ffice does not allow e+amination of the test devices, 5lannery said, he would seek another court order to do so. "he .ureau of %tandards said that during the testing, it found that ?ewmanXs device Lbehaves in a manner which is entirely consistent with well-established laws of physics.L ! device would be called << percent energy efficient if it simply transmitted all the energy coming into it back to the outside, the report said, and it would have to show an efficiency of greater than << percent to make more power than it consumed. "he bureau said the efficiency of ?ewmanXs machine ranged between 2H percent and NH percent, depending upon the test being run. ?ever did the energy coming out of the machine e+ceed the battery power going into the device to get it running, the report said.

A Description of the +e%man 9otor


by

&oger Hastings, Ph'D'

"his document is intended to provide information regarding the energy device invented by )r. Joseph ?ewman of Sucedale, )ississippi. * have prepared the material in response to numerous re1uests for information. "he number of these re1uests has increased dramatically since ?ewmanXs public demonstration of his motor at 9ashington, #.$., in )ay, GF;. "his paper provides a personal history

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to date of my involvement with ?ewman, presents data which was taken at the 9ashington demonstration, provides an analysis of the data, and presents my current thoughts regarding a mathmatical description of ?ewmanXs motor. (*%"6DR * first met )r. ?ewman in %eptember, GF . ?ewman is an inventor, and he had travelled to )innesota to present a toy invention to "onka "oys $orp. )y brother, John, was at the time in charge of new products for "onka, and he interviewed ?ewman. John and Joe wound up discussing their respective theories of matter and energy, and JoeXs motor. !t that time, Joe was looking for people to verify the operation of his motor for the patent office. (e invited John to Sucedale, but John said that his brother AmeC had a Ph.#. in physics, and therefore better credentials to offer for the testing of a motor. )y first reaction to the news of ?ewmanXs energy producing motor was 1uite negative. * had been a professor for four years, and had encountered several people with Lworld savingL energy devices which they wanted evaluated by the Bniversity. *n all cases such devices had proven to be inoperative as net energy producers. ?ewman offered to fly me to Sucedale to test his motor, and * responded that he would be wasting his money and our time because * would certainly prove him wrong. (e insisted, and * complied. "he motor that * saw on that first visit was a monument to Dube Goldberg, and to an incredible personal effort at building such a large device. *t consisted of five thousand pounds of O; gauge wire wound as a solenoid. 9ithin the solenoid, a N<< pound ceramic magnet rotated on 1uestionable bearings. "he bearings were mounted in a wooden structure. 6n the shaft of the rotor was a mechanical commutator consisting of three home made wheels, and brushes whose tension was ad,usted with rubber bands. "he commutator received its power from a bank of si+ volt lantern batteries. !s the huge magnet rotated, the whole structure creaked and groaned. !t that time, ?ewman was taking energy output from a secondary coil wrapped around the motor primary solenoid. * measured the voltage and current input simultaneously on an oscilloscope. "he output load was a resistor, and * similarly measured the output voltage and current. )ultiplying voltage and current to find power, * determined that the motor was about G<= efficient. ?ewman claimed that his motor was not performing up to par on that day, and said that he would ask me back when he had the device tuned up properly. !lthough * had proven that the motor at that time was not producing a net energy gain, several aspects of ?ewman and his motor were fascinating. 5irst, the motor was not designed efficiently. Sarge mechanical losses were evident, and a G<= efficiency seemed highly unusual. %econd, the huge magnet was rotating at some N< DP) with an input power of only a few watts. 5inally, ?ewman himself, while unconventional, seemed highly intelligent, definately a creative thinker, and intensely dedicated to his scientific work. (e informed me that he had evolved his theory and filed for a patent before he had built a prototype motor. A* will discuss his theory later.C * travelled again to Sucedale and indeed ?ewman had tuned up his motor. 5rom that point foreward * consistantly measured efficiencies in e+cess of <<=. !t this point * began an effort to attract scientific interest in ?ewmanXs motor, and to aid

;;

him in obtaining a patent. * wrote several affidavits and documents describing my measurements and generally supporting ?ewmanXs efforts. * have spent countless hours of my spare time over the past four years on this effort, withour renumeration. *t takes little immagination to understand the benefit to the human race which would result from an economical device which generates energy with no e+ternal input. *n my opinion, ?ewmanXs motor has performed well enough that the scientific community should be showing great interest. 6ver the years, a number of generic 1uestions have repeatedly been asked. *s there a hidden energy source0 "he device can be viewed from all sides, and there are no e+ternal connections. "he motor has been transported across country, and works e1ually well at all locations. "he motor has been duplicated by at least one other person, who claims that it works. ?ewman would not be acting in his own self interest to simultaneously invite publicity and commit fraud. *t is generally known that ?ewman is sincere and honest. 9hy isnXt the motor running itself without the need for batteries0 9hile in concept the motor should be capable of running itself without batteries, the technological problems have not been solved which would allow such operation. *n a sense, however, the motor does run itself. "he motor has shown the capacity to charge up the batteries which provide voltage to the motor. "ests have been run in which up to ; amphours of output have been drawn from the motor, and in which the si+ volt lantern batteries powering the motor have shown no evidence of an energy loss Athe battery condition was verified in the labs of Day-6-Qac .attery $o.C. "ests have been run in which apparently dead batteries have been connected to the motor. "he motor has charged up these batteries to the point where they can power other devices. "he same batteries can be drained down Ae.g. through a resistorC, then be re-connected to the ?ewman motor and be charged up while they run the motor. 9hy isnXt ?ewmanXs motor powering a home or auto0 *n my opinion such a demonstration would convince all skeptics, and create a great demand for the motor. ?ewman has proceeded in this direction. (e has built at least four prototype motors to study the effect of varying motor parameters. (e has steadily improved upon his large prototype, and has succeded in generating up to about 2<< watts of power. .y contrast, an average home re1uires one to three thousand watts on the average, with peak demands of up to 2< thousand watts. *n this regard, it would be e+tremely helpful for establishments with high tech capabilities to aid Joe in scaling up the motor output. (is approach has been to reduce the physical si/e of the motor to make it economical, and the output power. (is greatest technical problem has been high voltage switching. 9hy does ?ewman keep his technical process a secret0 "his 1uestion was answered at 9ashington in )ay, when ?ewman revealed the construction details of his motor to the public. (e has published a book AL"he 3nergy )achine of Joseph ?ewmanL, available from ?ewman Publishing, Dt. , .o+ ;2, Sucedale )ississippi 3G>;2C, in which he describes his theory and his motor. Joe had kept the process secret to avoid patent infringement. !lthough his patent is still pending in the B.%., it has issued in other countries. Presumably his patent rights will be protected in the B.%., although it should be noted that his motor is being copied by others, so that issuance of his patent in the B.%. is of immediate importance. Garland Dobinnett of $.% news in ?ew 6rleans has run a number of reports on ?ewmanXs struggle with the B.%. Patent office.

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* do not fully understand why the scientific community in this country has not shown more interest in ?ewmanXs motor. (e has had support from about 3< independent scientists and engineers, most of whom own their own engineering or consulting firms. (e has also received some financial support from investors, who represent a range of interests, including oil and electrical power interests. * know of no one who has observed ?ewmanXs motor and taken measurements who has been able to show that his claims are invalid. 6n the contrary, most observers come in as skeptics, and leave as believers. 6ver the years my colleagues have consistantly provided me with arguments 1uestioning the validity of my measurements. * have responded to these 1uestions by modifying the measurement proceedures and creating new tests. *n all cases the ?ewman device has passed the tests to my satisfaction. *n my opinion, ?ewman has at least discovered some interesting and unusual new phenomena, and at most has discovered a process which will end manXs dependence upon limited and polluting energy resources.

+e%man5s Theory
by

&oger Hastings, Ph'D'


"ranscribed .y George 9. #ahlberg P.3.

* do not intend to recapitulate the theory presented in ?ewmanXs book, but rather to briefly provide my interpretation of his ideas. ?ewman began studying electricity and magnetism in the mid- GN<Xs. (e has a mechanical background, and was looking for a mechanical description of electromagnetic fields. "hat is, he assumed that there must be a mechanical interaction between, for e+ample, two magnets. (e could not find such a description in any book, and decided that he would have to provide his own e+planation. (e came to the conclusion that if electromagnetic fields consisted of tiny spinning particles moving at the speed of light along the field lines, then he could e+plain all standard electromagnetic phenomena through the interaction of spinning particles. %ince the spinning particles interact in the same way as gyroscopes, he called the particles gyroscopic particles. *n my opinion, such spinning particles do provide a 1ualitative description of electromagnetic phenomena, and his model is useful in understanding comple+ electrical situations Anote that without a pictoral model one must rely solely upon mathematical e1uations which can become e+tremely comple+C. Given that electromagnetic fields consist of matter in motion, or kinetic energy, Joe decided that it should be possible to tap this kinetic energy. (e likes to say L(ow long did man sit ne+t to a stream before he invented the paddle wheel0L. Joe built a variety of unusual devices to tap the kinetic energy in electromagnetic fields before he arrived at his present motor design. (e likes to point out that both )a+well and 5araday, the pioneers of electromagnitism, believed that the fields consisted of matter in motion. "his is stated in no uncertain terms in )a+wellXs book L! #ynamical "heory of the

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3lectromagnetic 5ieldL. *n fact, )a+well used a dynamical model to derive his famous e1uations. "his fact has all but been lost in current books on electromagnetic theory. "he 1uantity which )a+well called Lelectromagnetic momentumL is now refered to as the Lvector potentialL. Going further, Joe reali/ed that when a magnetic field is created, its gyroscopic particles must come from the atoms of the materials which created the field. "hus he decided that all matter must consist of the same gyroscopic particles. 5or e+ample, when a voltage is applied to a wire, ?ewman pictures gyroscopic particles Awhich * will call gyrotons for shortC moving down the wire at the speed of light. "hese gyrotons line up the electrons in the wire. "he electrons themselves consist of a swirling mass of gyrotrons, and their matter fields combine when lined up to form the magnetic lines of force circulating around the wire. *n this process, the wire has literally lost some of its mass to the magnetic field, and this is accounted for by 3insteinXs e1uation of energy e1uals mass times the s1uare of the speed of light. !ccording to 3instein, every conversion of energy involves a corresponding conversion of matter. !ccording to ?ewman, this may be interpreted as an e+change of gyrotrons. 5or e+ample, if two atoms combine to give off light, the atoms would weight slightly less after the reaction than before. !ccording to ?ewman, the atoms have combined and given off some of their gyrotrons in the form of light. "hus 3insteinXs e1uation is interpreted as a matter of counting gyrotrons. "hese particles cannot be created or destroyed in ?ewmanXs theory, and they always move at the speed of light. )y interpretation of ?ewmanXs original idea for his motor is as follows. !s a thought e+periment, suppose one made a coil consisting of FN,<<< miles of wire. !n electrical field would re1uire one second to travel the length of the wire, or in ?ewmanXs language, it would take one second for gyrotons inserted at one end of the wire to reach the other end. ?ow suppose that the polarity of the applied voltage was switched before the one second has elapsed, and this polarity switching was repeated with a period less than one second. Gyrotons would become trapped in the wire, as their number increased, so would the alignment of electrons and the number of gyrotons in the magnetic field increase. "he intensified magnetic field could be used to do work on an e+ternal magnet, while the input current to the coil would be small or non-e+istant. ?ewmanXs motors contain up to ;; miles of wire, and the voltage is rapidly switched as the magnet rotates. (e elaborates upon his theory in his book, and uses it to interpret a variety of physical phenomena. D3$3?" #!"! 6? "(3 ?39)!? )6"6D *n )ay of GF; Joe ?ewman demonstrated his most recent motor prototype in 9ashington, #.$.. "he motor consisted of a large coil wound as a solenoid, with a large magnet rotating within the bore of the solenoid. Power was supplied by a bank of si+ volt lantern batteries. "he battery voltage was switched to the coil through a commutator mounted on the shaft of the rotating magnet. "he commutator switched the polarity of the voltage across the coil each half cycle to keep a positive tor1ue on the rotating magnet. *n addition, the commutator was designed to break and remake the voltage contact about 3< times per cycle. "hus the voltage to the coil was pulsed. "he speed of the magnet rotation was ad,usted by covering up portions of the commutator so that pulsed voltage was applied for a fraction of a cycle. "wo speeds were demonstrated@ 2 D.P.). for which 2

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pulses occured each revolutionM and 2< rpm for which all commutator segments were firing. "he slower speed was used to provide clear oscilloscope pictures of currents and voltages. "he fast speed was used to demonstrate the potential power of the motor. 3nergy outputs consisted of incandescent bulbs in series with the batteries, flourescent tubes across the coil, and a fan powered by a belt attached to the shaft of the rotor. Develent motor parameters are given below@ $oil weight @ G<<< lbs. $oil length @ ;; miles of copper wire $oil *nductance@ , << (enries measured by observing the current rise time when a #.$. voltage was applied. $oil resistance@ HH< 6hms $oil (eight @ about > ft. $oil #iameter @ slightly over > ft. *.#. )agnet weight @ H<< lbs. )agnet Dadius @ 2 feet )agnet geometry@ cylinder rotating about its perpendicular a+is )agnet )oment of *nertia@ >< kg-s1.m. A).8.%.C computed as one third mass times radius s1uared .attery Qoltage@ ;G< volts under load .attery "ype @ %i+ volt Day-6-Qac lantern batteries connected in series ! brief description of the measurements taken and distributed at the press conference follows. 9hen the motor was rotating at 2 rpm, the average #.$. input current from the batteries was about 2 milli-amps, and the average battery input was then .2 watts. "he back current Aflowing against the direction of battery currentC was about -;; milli-amps, for an average charging power of -32 watts. "he forward and reverse current were clearly observable on the oscilloscope. *t was noted that when the reverse current flowed, the battery voltage rose above its ambient value, varifying that the batteries were charging. "he magnitude of the charging current was verified by heating water with a resistor connected in series with the batteries. ! net charging power was the primary evidence used to show that the motor was generating energy internally, however output power was also observed. "he ;; m-amp current flowing in the HH< ohm coil generates 2.3 watts of heat, which is in e+cess of the input power. *n addition, the lights were blinking brightly as the coil was switched. "he back current from the coil switched from /ero to negative several amps in about milli-second, and then decayed to /ero in about <. second. Given the coil inductance of << henries, the switching voltages were several million volts. $uriously, the back current did not switch on smoothly, but increased in a staircase. 3ach step in the staircase corresponded to an e+tremely fast switching of current, with each increase in the current larger than the previous increase. "he width of the stairs was about << micro-seconds, which for reference is about one third of the travel time of light through the ;; mile coil. )echanical losses in the rotor were measured as follows@ "he rotor was spun up by hand with the coil open circuited. !n inductive pick-up loop was attached to a chart recorder to measure the rate of decay of the rotor. "he energy stored in the rotor Aone half the moment of inertia times the s1uare of the angular velocityC was plotted as a function of time. "he slope of this curve was measured at various

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times and gave the power loss in the rotor as a function of rotor speed. "he result of these measurements is given in the following table@ Dotor %peed Power #issipation Power7A%peed %1uaredC radian7sec --- watts --- watts7Arad7secCc2 >.< --- N.3 --- <.3G 3.H --- ;.F --- <.>2 3.3 --- ;.< --- <.>N 3.< --- 3.; --- <.3G 2. --- 2.< --- <.>; .H --- .2 --- <.>2 .2 --- <.H --- <.>H "he data is consistant with power loss proportional to the s1uare of the angular speed, as would be e+pected at low speeds. 9hen the rotor moves fast enough so that air resistance is important, the losses would begin to increase as the cube of the angular speed. Bsing power K <.>3 times the s1uare of the angular speed will give a lower bound on mechanical power dissipation at all speeds. 9hen the rotor is moving at 2 rpm, or .3 rad7sec, the mechanical loss is <.H watts. 9hen the rotor was sped up to 2< rpm by allowing the commutator to fire on all segments, the results were 1uite dramatic. "he lights were blinking rapidly and brightly, and the fan was turning rapidly. "he back current spikes were about ten amps, and still increased in a staircase, with the width of the stairs still about << micro-seconds. !ccurate measurements of the input current were not obtained at that time, however * will report measurements communicated to me by )r. ?ewman. !t a rotation rate of 2<< rpm Acorresponding to mechanical losses of at least G< wattsC, the input power was about N watts. "he back current in this test was about <.; amps, corresponding to heating in the coil of G< watts. !s a final point of interest, note that the P of his coil at 2<< rpm is about 3<. *f his battery plus commutator is considered as an !.$. power source, then the impedance of the coil at 2<< rpm is 23,<<< henries, and the power factor is <.<3. *n this light, the predicted input power at H<< volts is less than one wattb )!"(3)!"*$!S #3%$D*P"*6? 65 ?39)!?X% )6"6D %ince * am preparing this document on my home computer, it will be convenient to use the .asic computer language to write down formulas. "he notation is d for multiply, 7 for divide, c for raising to a power, and * will use -dot to represent a derivative. ?ewtonXs second law of motion applied to ?ewmanXs rotor yields the following e1uation@ )*d"(-dot-dot [ Gd"(-dot K 8d*d%*?A"(C A C where )* K rotor moment of inertia "( K rotor angular position AradiansC G K rotor decay constant 8 K tor1ue coupling constant * K coil current *n general the constant G may depend upon rotor speed, as when air resistance becomes important. "he term on the right hand side of the e1uation represents the tor1ue delivered to the rotor when current flows through the coil. ! constant

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friction term was found through measurement to be small compared to the "(-dot term at reasonable speeds, but can be included in the LconstantL G. "he e1uation for the current in the coil is given by@ Sd*-dot [ Dd* K QA"(C - 8dA"(-dotCd%*?A"(C A2C where S K coil inductance * K coil current D K coil resistance QA"(C K voltage applied to coil by the commutator which is a function of the angle "( 8 K rotor induction constant *n general, the resistance D is a function of voltage, particularly during commutator switching when the air resistance breaks down creating a spark. ?ote that the constant 8 is the same in e1uations A C and A2C. "his is re1uired by energy conservation as discussed below. "o e+amine energy considerations, multiply 31uation A C by "(-dot, and 31uation A2C by *. ?ote that the last term in each e1uation is then identical if the 8Xs are the same. 3liminating the last term between the two e1uations yields the instantaneous conservation law@ *dQKDd*c2 [ GdA",-dotCc2 [ .;dSdA*c2C-dot K.;d)*dAA"(-dotCc2C-dot *f this e1uation is averaged over one cycle of the rotor, then the last two terms vanish when steady state conditions are reached Ai.e. when the current and speed repeat their values at angular positions which are separated by 3N< degreesC. #enoting averages by W :, the above e1uation becomes@ W*Q: K WDd*c2: [ WGdA"(-dotCc2: A3C "his result is entirely general, independent of any dependences of D and G on other 1uantities. "he term on the left represents the input power. "he first term on the right is the power dissipated in the coil, and the second term is the power delivered to the rotor. "he efficiency, defined as power delivered to the rotor divided by input power is thus always less than one by 31uation A3C. "his result does re1uire, however, that the constants 8 in e1uation A C and e1uation A2C are identical. *f the constant 8 in e1uation A2C is smaller than the constant 8 appearing in e1uation A C, then it may be varified that the efficiency can mathmatecally be larger than unity. 9hat do the constants, 8, mean0 *n the first e1uation, we have the tor1ue delivered to the magnet, while in the second e1uation we have the back inductance or reaction of the magnet upon the coil. "he e1uality of the constants is an e+pression of ?ewtonXs third law. (ow could the constants be une1ual0 $onsider the se1uence of events which occur during the firing of the commutator. 5irst the contact breaks, and the magnetic field in the coil collapses, creating a huge forward spike of current through the coil and battery. "his current spike provides an impulsive tor1ue to the rotor. "he rotor accelerates, and the acceleration produces a changing magnetic field which propagates through the coil, creating the back emf. %uppose that the commutator contacts have separated sufficiently when the last event occurs to prevent the back current from flowing to the battery. "hen the back reaction is effectively smaller than the forward impulsive tor1ue on the rotor. "his suggestion invokes the finite propagation time

of the electromagnetic fields, which has not been included in 31uations A C and A2C. ! continued mathmatical modeling of the ?ewman motor should include the effects of finite propagation time, particularly in his e+traordinary long coil of wire. * have solved 31uations A C and A2C numerically, and note that the solutions re1uire finer and finer step si/e as the inductance, moment of inertia, and magnet strength are increased to large values. "he solutions break down such that the motor Ltakes offL in the computer, and this may indicate instabilities, which could be mediated in practise by e+ternal pertubations. * am confident that )a+wellXs e1uations , with the proper electro-mechanical coupling, can provide an e+planation to the phenomena observed in the ?ewman device. "he electromechanical coupling may be embedded in the )a+well e1uations if a unified picture Asuch as ?ewmanXs picture of gyroscopic particlesC is adopted.

<cience #;- Feb' ;<1=$, pp' H3;*H30

+e%man5s 7mpossible 9otor


5he patent o--ice does not belie3e that Eoseph 2ewman has b+ilt a generator that is more than "** percent e--icient) b+t 2ew Orleans does. by

Eliot 9arshall
!t least one physicist in Souisiana swears that the $.% ?ews anchorman #an Dather was smiling on G January when he reported that an inventor near ?ew 6rleans has built a generator that defies the second law of thermodynamics. 6thers did not see any smile. 9hat they did see, to their surprise, was an earnest but fantastic news story that has been running on ?ew 6rleansX biggest television channel being repeated over the network news. "he story is about an inventor, a self-educated )issisippian named Joseph 9esley ?ewman. (e was pleased with the $.% broadcast because it make help him in a fight with the B.%. Patent and "rademark 6ffice, which has denied him a patent on the grounds of his latest invention, Lsmacks of a perpetual motion machineL, meaning by definition it cannot do what it claimed. 6n 2; June, the B.% #istrict $ourt for the #istrict of $olumbia will hear a suit ?ewman has brought against the patant office arguing that his device does not aim at perpetual motion but converts mass to energy in a finite but very efficient manner. (e simply wants a patent. ?ewmanXs invention is hard to describe, partly because its behavior seems to be at odds with the laws of physics and partly because the details are being kept secret while the ligation goes on. ?ewman says his own theory of magnetism is L <,<<< times more importantL than the invention itself, which be built to demonstrate the concept. (e claims to have discovered the mechanical principles of a gyroscopic particle of matter that orbits in a magnetic field much as an electron orbits in an atomic shell. %everal readers of his theory say it is incomprehensible and would not get attention were it not for the illustrative devices. "he patent ?ewman seeks

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is for an L3nergy Generation %ystem (aving Sarger 6utput than *nputL. "hose who have seen it say it is a crude direct current motor powered by a bank of lantern batteries with a heavy, rotating magnet at its center. Deadings of the machineXs performance, like those of #an DatherXs e+pression, depend on the reader. !s a result of the "Q coverage, the people of ?ew 6rleans may be convinced that ?ewman has invented a simple device that produces more energy than it consumes and could end the worldXs energy s1abbles if only an arrogant scientific community would pay attention. "hat is ?ewmanXs message. *t has been taken up and broadcasted in a sort of crusade by Garland Dobinette, the evening news anchorman at the $.% affiliate in ?ew 6rleans, 99S-"Q. Sast autumn Dobinette aired an eight-part series on ?ewmanXs device, charging that ,ealous academics and frightened e+ecutives tried to stifle information about it. Dobinette concedes that his intense coverage of ?ewmanXs began on a slow news day when he was looking for a cute show-closer. (e claims he was skeptical at first and saw ?ewmanXs invention as a curiosity. .ut the story soon grew into a Lmonster that * couldnXt let goL when ?ew 6rleans viewers, facing a 2<< percent increase in utility rates, demanded to know more. 5urthermore, a )issisippi state energy offical and a credible scientist had recently vouched for ?ewmanXs claims. Dobinette says that since he began reporting on the invention, no one has come forward to rebut ?ewman. (e challenges people to come to Lget this story off my backL. ?ewman has benefited from the television coverage and from several weighty endorsements. 5or e+ample, the television engineers watched him. Sast year, Dobinette dragged two reluctant engineers on 99S-"Q staff to ?ewmanXs garage in Sucedale, )issisippi., about 2 72 hours from ?ew 6rleans. "hey werde sceptics at first, but, after looking at oscilloscope readings and watching the machine recharge batteries, they agreed with their anchorman that the claims seemed valid. 3ngineer Dalph (artwell described the tests he ran. 9hen he arrived at ?ewmanXs (ouse, he connected some weak penlight batteries he had brought along to a small conventional motor in ?ewmanXs back yard. *t was allowed to run until the batteries were drained of power, taking about minute. (e then moved the dead batteries over to the smallest of ?ewmanXs demonstration motors, connected them as a power source, and started this motor spinning. *t ran until it was time for the camera crew to leave, for something between ans 2 hours. 5inally, the batteries were taken fram ?ewmanXs machine back to the conventional motor and reconnected. "his time the motor ran for about 3 minutes. (artwell ran annother e+periment on a large device and concluded that it also appeared to generate more power than it used. 6ther measurements were taken with oscilloscopes and current meters, but these readings have been 1uestioned. !fter signing a confidential pledge, (artwell was allowed to e+amine the machineXs inner wiring. (e is certain that there is no hidden source of energy. !lthough he feels uncomfortable about it, he says he could not disprove ?ewmanXs claim and would like to see a universtity run a controlled test. ?ewmanXs key endorsement comes from Doger (astings, a solid-state physicist for the %perry Bnivac $ompany in )inneapolis. ! colleague who knew him as a postdoc fellow at the Bniversity of Qirginia says (astings was regarded as an adventurous and e+cellent theorist. (astingXs brother, a screener for new ideas for

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"onka "oys, met ?ewman when he submitted an invention to "onka. !lthough sceptical, (astings Athe physicianC was persuaded to make a trip to Sucedale. L* used to teach physics at ?orth #akota BniversityL, says (astings, Land we would get three or four people a year who had some kind of device that was going to save the world. * assumed it was the same.L ?ewman talked (astings into fly down for a visit anyway. (e returned five times, testing and retesting the motors, until he was satisfied that he had made no mistake. (e eventually signed an affidatvit describing the invention in detail and stating une1uivocally that it runs at greater than << percent efficency, producing more power than it consumes. L*Xm sticking my neck out,L he says, Lbecause this is an important issue that should be resolved.L 3ndorsements such as this are essential for the credibility of the patent application. !lthough ?ewman has read the works of the great electrical thinkers )ichael 5araday and James $lerk )a+well, he is not proficent in math or physics. ?ewman is collecting seval more endorsements. (e claims to have won the backing recently of, a Geman aerospace engineer and a liaison officer between the ?ational !eronautics and %pace !dministration A?!%!C and the 3uropean space consortium. Gerald )iller, a mechanical engineer, student of advanced physics, and electical industiy consultant in $alifornia, has inspected the devices and says, L* saw things that * cannot e+plain in conventional terms.L (e found that the device produced more energy than it used, adding, L* am absolutely certain that there is no hidden energy source. )ilton 3verett, a mechanical 3ngineer and director of the biomass program for the )issisippi #epartment of 3nergy and "ransportation, says, L* think Joe has discovered something that the world is going to benefit from. *tXs nor a perpetual motion machineM it converts mass to energy.L 3+cluding inverstors, ?ewman claims to have about 2H such endorsers. .ut there have been and continue to be prominent doubters. 6ddly, "Q anchorman Dobinette has given little attention or credence to the only thorough analysis ever performed on ?ewmanXs device. *t was aranged by 3verett Abefore he became a full convert to ?ewmanXs causeC and was paid for by the )issisippi energy department. "wo electrical engineers from )issisippi %tate Bniversity A)%BC, --- 8arl $arlson and #onald 5it/gerald --- tested one of the ?ewmanXs devices last )arch. "he conditions were unfavourable, because the motor kept breaking down every Lcouple of minutes,L says $arlson, as a huge spark from the induction coil shorted out a switch on the commutator. "hus, while it war fairly easy to measure the power going in, it was not easy to tell what was coming out. ?ewman has built a smaller, less 1uirky motor since then. "he pattern on the oscilloscope at the output end of a cycle was difficult to read because as one observer says, the discharge spark appeared as La bright flashL or La messL on the face of the screen. ?ewman sweeps this point aside as a 1uibble, saying it merely indicates his machineXs tremendous power. "he efficiency claimed for this device is anywhere from the impossible Aslightly over << percentC to the fantastic AF<< percent and upC. ! normal electric motor may be F< percent efficient, $arlson says, and transformers are generally in the G<Xs. $arlson and 5it/gerald found that ?ewmanXs machine was between ;; and HN percent efficient, based on their reading of the most favourable oscillograms. "hey wrote that they found Lan output which is definitely less than the input.L

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(owever, they hedged by saying it was impossible to measure the mechanical energy lost in the machine, which could affect the rating. "hey declined to call ?ewmanXs invention a breakthrough but reported that it was remakably efficient given its Lobvious crude configuration.L *n a standard tag line, they wrote that Lfurther investigation is in order.L ?ewman reads this 1ualified re,ection as a 1ualified endorsement, e+plaining when it comes to praising new discoveries, academisc are mean. (e speaks of $arlson and 5it/gerald with harsher ad,ectives. "he physics faculties of Soyola and "ulane Bniversities, both in ?ew 6rleans, have protested DobinetteXs reports. #aniel Purrington, "ulaneXs physics chairman, says@ L9e all dispute it. ! number of us have told him &Dobinette' we think what heXs doing is irresponsible. * talked to him for about 2 hours about the principles involved.L $arl .rans, a theorist at Soyola, wrote Dobinette a two-page letter of protest. L*tXs ,ust sensational ,ournalism. *n our opinion, itXs not worth the cost,L to try to take the measurements that would end the discussion. #avid 8eiffer, an e+perimental physicist at Soyola, along with other faculty member, offered to check ?ewmanXs device if he would bring it to the laboratory. A?ewmanXs patent attorney is a physics graduate of Soyola.C .ut in the preliminary talks, 8eiffer says, ?ewman insisted that he be present during the entire procedure. "hen he and 8eiffer got into an argument. ?ewman packed up and left, never to return. "he Soyola physicist also sought to advise 99S-"QXs engineers on testing the device, but this proved to be a touchy proposition, because 99S is owned by Soyola and was originally founded by SoyolaXs physics department. ?o one wanted the advice to be interpreted as pressure. L* have a fairly good reputation here,L Dobinette says of his science reporting, Land this thing ,ust has the potential to make me look like an absolute ignoranmus. %o *Xve tried desperately to disprove this and all *Xve done so far is get more and more people who are convinced.L 9hat about the negative conclusion reached by the )%B engineers0 Dobinette maintains Alike ?ewman and 3verettC that while the engineers were testing the machine, they agreed that it was producing more energy than it used. .ut Lwhen they went back, they wrote an ambigous response that didnXt say it didnXt work and didnXt say it did.L Dobinette mentions that the )%B engineers are retired, as though to diminish their reliability. (e finds it Lvery surprising that they never called to challenge his report, which gave the ?ewman-3verett version of events. %ome who might otherwis voice scepticism seem to sypathi/e with ?ewman because of the way the patent office rebuffed him. *n court filings, the patent office concedes that ?ewman is correct that it re,ected his claims without fully reading the documents he submittedM that his application was handled by an e+aminer --- #onovan #uggan --- who seems to speciali/e in re,ecting perpetual machinesM that #uggan said he would not allow a patent on ?ewmanXs device, no matter how much supportive evidence was submitedM that the office officials never tested the ?ewman device for efficacy and refused to observe oscilloscope readings of its input and outputM and finally, that the office issued a patent GHG to a man named (oward Johnson for a perpetual motion machine that Johnson since then agreed is inoperable. *f there were an association of militant patent re,ectees, ?ewmanXs battle with the patent office could be its rallying cause. .ut there is no such association.

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(owever, ?ewman has done reasonably well attracting attention by himself, especially in ?ew 6rleans. *n a few months, he will get his day in court.

<cience #;2 +o!' ;<1=$, p' 1;3

An En less Siege of 7mplausible 7n!entions


by

&' Deffrey Smith

*n the modern world of commerce, the B.%. patent and trademark office is a street-corner cop with the power to arrest the development of any product that promises the impossible. *ts book of statutes contains the basic laws of physics, the a+ioms of mathematics, the fundamental principles of mechanical engineering. 9ith particular enthusiasm, its employees serve as guardians of the public in a never-ending battle against mechanical devices allegedly capable of perpetual motion. "his, at least, is how they see themselves. *nventors such as Joseph ?ewman are more apt to view them as La bunch of narrow-minded people who have conducted themselves outside the federal law and the human raceL. 5or more than ; years, ?ewman, >F, has been frustrated in his efforts to obtain a patent for an L3nergy %ystem (aving (igher 6utput "han *nputL. *n GF2, the patent office told him that because such a device is simply infeasible, his application was denied after something less than a comprehensive, time-consuming review A/cience, < 5ebruary GF>, p. ;H C. Decently, however, with the help of some une+pected scientific endorsements, ?ewman persuaded the B.%. #istrict $ourt in 9ashington, #.$., to order that his application be granted a full review by an e+aminer --- in short, a second chance. ?ewman believes that the decision is a slap in the face for the patant office and a partial vindication of his claims. !ctually, the dispute reveals how easy it can be for inventors to ,erk the patent office around. "he ruling, made by Judge "homas Jackson on 3 6ctober, places the office in the difficult position of determining whether ?ewmanXs Lenergy generation systemL -- a powerful electric motor -- is ade1uately described in his application, and whether it is similar or identical to motors with e+isting patants. ?either topic was given serious consideration on the first go-around, for reasons the patent office believes obvious. "he decision resulted from an unusual hearing in which a phalan+ of attorneys in ?ewmanXs employ repeatedly cited patent case law, while Jere %ears, deputy solicitor in the patent office, repeatedly invoked the second law of thermodynamics. *n its essence, that law states that the energy produced by a mechanical device such as ?ewmanXs will always be less than the energy needed to operate it. *n addition to basing the case on Lall of recorded scienceL, as %ears put it, he relied heavily on an affidavit from Jacod Dainbow, a former chief research engineer at the ?ational .ureau of %tandards and well-known debunker of perpetual motion machines. Dainbow has several ob,ections to the patent

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application, but his primary claim is that the motorXs output of energy has been measured incorrectly. !lthough he has not seen the device or tested himself, he is willing to bet Lany moneyL that it operates at well under << percent efiicency. !s strong as the gouvermentXs argument was, it was sharply undercut by two affidavits. 6ne was written by )ort eimmerman, the president of $ommercial "echnology, *nc., in #allas. eimmerman said his ><<-person firm Lhas independently ... constructed, operated, and tested several crude prototype devices based on the ?ewman invention, and has confirmed for itself that these prototype devices which embody the ?ewman invention operate and produce power as claimed by ?ewmanL at more than percent efficiency. eimmerman was enthusiastic enough to purchase an option for the right to manufacture and sell ?ewmanXs motor in north "e+as. ADecently, he told /cience that the motor Lneeds further development for practical utili/ation, and weXre not completely convinced that we can get there.LC "he second affidavit was prepared from Sawrence 3. 9harton, a physicist in the Saboratory 5or !tmospheric %ciences at the Goddart 5light %pace $enter in )aryland. *nitially, 9harton, who volunteered his services to the patent office as a sceptic of ?ewmanXs claims, vigorously attacked eimmermanXs statement. %hortly before the court hearing, however, he recanted some of his arguments, and declared that the motorXs efficiency Lis in substantial e+cess of << percentL and perhaps as high as N<< percent, if ?ewmanXs measurements are correct. "he change of heart came, he said, after ?ewman argued with him in a long telephone conversation. .oth of these statements apparently made a strong impression on 9illiam %chuyler, an attorney and one-time commissioner of B.%. patents who was appointed by the ,udge as a Lspecial masterL to help resolve some of the technical disputes. *n his report, %chuyler agreed that the operation of ?ewmanXs motor Lseems clearly to conflict with recogni/ed scientific principles relating to thermodynamics and conservation of energy.L .ut he insisted ther was an LoverwhelmingL evidence that the motorXs output energy e+ceeded the e+ternal input energy, adding that Lthere is no contradictory factual evidence.L (e went so far as to state that ?ewman was entitled to a patent as long as it did not conflict with any e+isting patents. !ll of this came as a great shock to %ears. *t was he, not ?ewman, who nominated %chuyler. L9e felt reasonably safe with a person of his background,L he e+plains. *n a final pleading to the ,udge, %ears asked, L9hy are we still paying power bills if ?ewman has actually achieved his claims0 "he $ourt should e+ercise some common sense and refrain from ,oining those who apparently believe in the tooth fairy... )anifestly, this court has no power to abrogate a natural law.L *n his ruling, Judge Jackson accepted the ma,or points of %chuylerXs report, but said he was unwilling to conclude as yet that ?ewman has produced a Ltruly pioneering invention.L "hat decision awaits aanother hearing, now set for January. %ears denies that this decision has any implications for the general patent review process. .ut one effect may be to bar the office from dealing summarily whith such unusual claims in the future -- a development that could sharply increase the e+amination delays e+perienced by inventors with more plausible claims. "o ?ewman, the dispute has become a crusade. (aving spent thousands of dollars

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already in lawyerXs fees, consulting fees, and court costs, he will soon pay to publish a book describing both his invention and the patent fight. (e says that Lthe world is fortunate that *Xm not afraid of a ruckus, * intend to fight this untill hell free/es over.L

<cience #Duly ;;, ;<12$, ?ol' 0..

+e%man5s L Energy (utputL 9achine Put to the Test


by

9arBorie Sun

9hatXs a device with a battery pack, a magnet, and a coil wired together0 5or the past N years, Joseph ?ewman, an inventor from )ississippi, has been loudly proclaiming that itXs a revolutionary machine which produces more power than it uses. "he ?ational .ureau of %tandards recently issued its own verdict after analy/ing ?ewmanXs machine@ L*n none of tests did the deviceXs approach <<=.... 6ur results are clear and une1uivocal,L the bureau said. ?ewman has gone to great lengths to try to win a patent on his energy output machine. 9hen the B.%. Patent and "rademark 6ffice indicated in GF> that the device did not work, ?ewman sued the agency. (e hired a publicist, and the media often portrayed him as an underdog pitted against the scientific establishment. "hen the court ordered ?ewman to submit the machine to the ?ational .ureau of %tandards for testing. ?ewman reluctantly complied. ! physicist and two electrical engineers from the bureau tested the machine in a variety of ways to measure its energy input and output and used instrumentation that is common in research engineering laboratories. "he sole power source of the device was N G-volt batteries. !ccording to the test results, the deviceXs efficiency ranged from 2H to NH=, depending on the voltage, the power drawn from the device, and the condition of insulating tape on one of the parts. A"he tape kept burning from sparks generated by the machine, which caused the efficiency to drop and had to be replaced fre1uently.C !ccording to John Syons, director of the bureauXs ?ational 3ngineering Saboratory, the device basically converted direct current to alternating current. (e noted that there are several machines already on the market that do the same thing, but they run at G<= efficiency or higher. ?ewman had court permission to observe the bureauXs tests, but never appeared for any of the e+periments, which were conducted between )arch and June. (is spokesman 3van %oule said ?ewman will ask the court to order the testing of the test e1uipment. ?ewman said in an interview, L* have no respect for the ?ational .ureau of %tandards. "his is a conspiracy against me.L "he testing cost the bureau ]H;,<<<, which it hopes to recoup from the patent

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office. "he patent office will submit the results to B.%. #istrict $ourt for the #istrict of $olumbia, which will try the case in #ecember.

9easurement M Analysis of Doseph +e%man5s Energy Generator


by

Dr' &oger Hastings, Ph'D'

Abstract N "he author has made numerous measurements on the 3nergy )achines developed by Joseph ?ewman of Sucedale, )ississippi. "he machines are large, air core, permanent magnet motors. "he most important design rule specified by the inventor is that the length of wire in the motor coil be very longM preferably long enough so that the switching time between current reversals is shorter than the time re1uired for propagation of the current wavefront through the coil. Qarious models contain up to ;; miles of wire, with air core coil inductances of up to 2<,<<< (enries. "he permanent magnet armatures have very large magnetic moments. "hus the motors e+hibit high tor1ue with low current inputs. "he motors generate large back current spikes consisting of pulsed rf in the <-2< )(/ fre1uency range. "hese spikes provide large mechanical impulses to the rotor, energi/e fluorescent tubes placed across the motor, and tend to charge the dry cell battery pack. "he total generated energy --- consisting of mechanical work, mechanical friction, ohmic heating, and light --- is many times larger than the battery input energy. ?ewmanXs theories and machines will be described. )easurements indicating net energy gain from the devices will be presented. ! phenomenological mathematical description of the motor will also be presented. 5inally, the author will present his personal impressions of ?ewmanXs work. +e%man5s Theory *** Joseph ?ewman is an inventor who lives and works at his home in Sucedale, )%. (e became interested in electromagnetic energy some 2; years ago, and began a self-study program. !fter searching standard te+ts for a mechanical description of electromagnetic interactions, he concluded that no such description e+isted. ?ewman decided that he would have to generate his own mechanical theory of electromagnetism, and over the following several years he evolved his gyroscopic particle theory. "his theory, or model states that all matter and energy is composed of a single elementary spinning particle which always moves at the speed of light. "he gyroscopic particle has mass, and it can neither be created or destroyed. !ll energy conversions, in this theory, involve an e+change of gyroscopic particles. 3 K mcc2 is the e+pression of this concept, and simply represents an accounting of gyroscopic particles during an energy conversion. 3lectric and magnetic fields consist of gyroscopic particles flowing at the speed of light along the field lines. 9hen an electric or magnetic field is created, the

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particles initially come from the materials which energi/ed the field. 5or e+ample, when a battery is connected to a wire, gyroscopic particles flow at the speed of light down the wire, and they tend to align the gyroscopic particle flow fields of the electrons in the wire. "he electricgyroscopic particle flow field e+tends outside the wire creating the circumferential magnetic field of the wire. "he energy in the magnetic field is ?mcc2, where ? is the number of particles in the field, and m is the mass of an individual particle. "his energy, or these particles, came from the electrons of the copper. "hus, ?ewman considers the current flowing in the wire to be a catalyst which energy to emanate from the atoms of the wire. (e claims that he has developed a mechanism whereby field energy can be pumped out of the copper atoms in the wire, thereby reducing their mass without consuming the voltage source which has supplied the catalytic current flow. %ince the mass is consumed totally, there is no pollution in this process. 6ne gram mass, if totally consumed,could supply enough energy to power a home for one thousand years. ?ewman describes his theory and its applications in his book, "(3 3?3DGR )!$(*?3 65 J6%3P( ?39)!? & '. Description of +e%man 9otors *** ?ewmanXs motors may be described as two-pole, single phase, permanent magnet armature, #$ motors. "hat is, the armature consists of a single permanent magnet which either rotates or reciprocates within a single coil of copper wire. "he coil is energi/ed with a bank of dry cell, carbon /inc batteries. *n the rotating models, which will be emphasi/ed in this paper, the battery voltage to the coil is reversed each half cycle of rotation by a mechanical commutator attached to the shaft of the rotating armature. )otor operation is sensitive to the angle at which the voltage is switched, and this is optimi/ed e+perimentally. 6n some models, the commutator also interrupts the voltage several times per cycle, creating a pulsed input to the coil. "he coils are constructed with a very large number of turns of copper wire. *n all models, the coil inductive reactance is much larger than the coil resistance at operating speed. (owever, the coil resistance is large enough so that even in the locked rotor condition, very little current flows through the coil. "he motors typically draw less than ten milliampere so that small capacity batteries Ae.g., G volt transistor batteriesC can be used in series for the power supply. %elf resonant fre1uencies Afre1uency at which the coil inductive reactance e1uals the coil distributed capacitive reactanceC are typically on the order of the armature rotation fre1uency. "he permanent magnet armature is very strong, and "*G(" $6BPS*?G "6 "(3 $6*S is emphasi/ed in ?ewmanXs later models &emphasis added'. (is early models used up to H<< pounds of ceramic magnets, while later models used smaller armatures made with powerful neodymium-boron-iron magnets. "he commutator is protected by fluorescent tubes placed across the motor. 3nough tubes are placed in series so that the battery voltage will not break them down. 9hen the coil is switched, the tubes are lit by the resulting high voltage, minimi/ing arcing across the commutator. ?ewmanXs motors e+hibit the following e+traordinary characteristics@ C (igh tor1ue is reali/ed with very little input current and very little input power. "he battery input power is typically several times smaller than the measured

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frictional power losses occurring when the armature rotates at its operating speed. (is motors are at least ten times more efficient than commercial electric motors Aperform the same work with one tenth the input power.C 2C "he batteries last much longer than would be e+pected for the current input. *t has been demonstrated that LdeadL dry cell batteries will charge up while operating a ?ewman )otor, and subse1uently be able to deliver significant power to normal loads Ae.g., lightsC. "he batteries fail by internal shorting rather than be depletion of their internal energy. 3C %ignificant rf power is generated by the motor Aprimarily in the ten to twenty megahert/ rangeC. "he rf is a high voltage relative to ground, and will light fluorescent or neon tubes placed between the motor and ground in addition to lighting the tubes placed across the motor coil. "he rf current flows through the entire system, and has been measured calorimetrically to have an rms value many times larger than the battery input current. 3ZP3D*)3?"!S #!"! ! large amount of data has been collected by many individuals on the various ?ewman )otors. 9hile ?ewmanXs most recent prototypes are perhaps the most interesting because of their reduced volume, * will present data on his original prototype large machine which has been more e+tensively investigated. )easured motor parameters are listed below@ $6*S P!D!)3"3D%@ 9eight ........................... G,<<< pounds $opper 9ire Sength ...... ;; miles $oil *nductance ............. , << (enries $oil Desistance .............. HH< 6hms $oil *nside #iameter ...... > feet $oil (eight .................... > feet D6"6D P!D!)3"3D%@ Dotor 9eight ..................... H<< lbs. ceramic magnets Dotor Sength ..................... > feet )oment of *nertia .............. >< 8g-s1.m. )agnetic )oment ............. << "esla-cu.in .!""3DR P!D!)3"3D%@ .attery "ype ..................... N Qolt Day-6-Qac Santern "otal %eries Qoltage .......... ;G< Qolts #R?!)*$ P!D!)3"3D%@ "or1ue $onstant ................ ;,><< o/. in.7amp #rag $oefficient ................. <.<<; 9atts7s1.rpm. P at 2<< rpm ..................... 3< Power 5actor, 2<< rpm ...... <.<3

"he tor1ue constant was measured at #$ and agrees with calculations. "he drag coefficient was measured by plotting the motor speed versus time after disconnecting the batteries. *t was found that the decay is e+ponential with the drag tor1ue being proportional to the angular speed. 9ith the motor operating at 2<< rpm, the following measurements and calculations were obtained@ D3%BS"%@ 2<< DP) at ;G< Q6S"% .attery *nput $urrent ............ < milliampere .attery *nput Power .............. N 9atts Dotor 5rictional Sosses .......... 2<< 9atts D5 $urrent ArmsC ................. ;<< milliampere D5 6hmic Sosses in $oil .......... G< 9atts !dditional Soads ................. 5luorescent "ubes *ncandescent .ulbs 5an Abelt drivenC "he frictional losses are computed from the measured drag coefficient. "he ohmic losses are computed from the coil resistance. 9ithout considering the additional loads, it is seen that the output energy of the machine e+ceeded the input by a factor of N;b 6scillograph photos show that the current waveform is dominated by the very large spike which occurs when the magnetic field of the coil collapses. "he leading edge of this spike is shown in 5igure . "he staircase current rise is typical of the ?ewman )otors, with the width of the stairs in all cases being appro+imately e1ual to the length of the coil winding divided by the speed of light. !lthough the average current in the spike is at #$, the actual current waveform under the stairs is pulsing at a fre1uency of about 3 megahert/. "he time average current in the waveform agrees with the calorimeter measurement of the rf current. Figure ; &?ot shown'. Deproduction of oscillographs showing ?ewman )otor switching current spike. %pike leading edge is shown with the magnified time base in second and third oscillograph. Dotor speed was 2< rpm. P(3?6)3?6S6G*$!S "(36DR ! phenomenological theory of operation is suggested here, which involves the following se1uence of events@ C "he battery is switched across the coil and a current wavefront Agyroscopic particlesC propagates into the coil at a speed determined by the coilXs propagation time constant. 2C .efore the wavefront completes its ,ourney through the coil, the battery voltage is switched open. !t this point the coil contains a charge e1ual to the current times the on-time. 3C 9hen the switch is opened, all of this charge leaves the coil in a very short time, creating a very large current pulse in the coil. >C "he magnetic field generated by this current pulse Agyroscopic particle flowC

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propagates out to the permanent magnet armature, and gives it an impulsive tor1ue. ;C "he magnet accelerates, and the resulting magnetic field disturbance of the permanent magnet is propagated back to the coil, creating a back-emf. (owever, by the time this occurs, the switch is open so that the back emf does not impede the current flowing in the battery circuit. "hese notions agree 1ualitatively with the measured waveforms. !fter one-half cycle of rotation, a charge on the order of <.< $oulombs will be contained within the coil. 5rom the oscillograph this is seen to be dumped in a few milliseconds, creating a current of several amps. "his current continues to flow for some ten milliseconds before decaying to /ero. ?ewmanXs )otor can be described by the following set of e1uations@ A C J0 [ 5A0C K 8Asub tC* sin A0C A2C S* K D* K QA0C - 8Asub iC0 sin A0C where@ J K Dotor )oment of *nertia 5 K 5riction and Soad "or1ue 8Asub tC K "or1ue $onstant * K $oil $urrent S K $oil *nductance Q K !pplied Qoltage 8Asub iC K *nduction $onstant 0 K Dotation !ngle "he first e1uation is ?ewtonXs second law applied to the rotating magnet, the second is the coil current circuit e1uation. "he voltage is the value applied to the coil within the commutator. *f the first e1uation is multiplied by 0 and the second e1uation is multiplied by *, and both e1uations are averaged over one cycle, the sum of the resulting e1uations gives@ A3C W*Q: K W05: [ W*c2D: [ A8Asub iC - 8Asub tC W0*sin 0C where the brackets indicate a time average over one cycle of rotation. "he term on the left is the power input. "he first two terms on the right represent the mechanical power output Acombined frictional losses and load powerC, and the ohmic heating in the coil windings. "he last term is /ero if the tor1ue constant is e1ual to the induction constant, as would be the case in a conventional motor. (owever, as postulated above, if the induction constant is smaller than the tor1ue constant, the last term supplies the negative power. "o view this another way, assume that the input voltage, through the commutator action varies as Q K QAsub oCsin A0C. *f we also assume that the rotor angular speed, 0, is nearly a constant, w, the following e+pression applies for the motor efficiency@ Ww5: 8Asub tCwW*sin 0: 8Asub tCw

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A>C 3 K IIIIII K IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII K IIIIIIIIIII W*Q: QAsub oCW*sin 0: Q Asub oC "he following two e1uations can now be solved for the presumed constant motor speed@ A;C S* [ D* K AQAsub oC - 8Asub iCwCsinAwtC ANC W5AwC: K 8Asub tCW* sinAwtC: "he solution depends upon the details of the mechanical load function, 5AwC. *f, however, the tor1ue constant and voltage are both very large Aas they are in ?ewmanXs )otorC, then the angular speed is appro+imately &2'@ QAsub oC w apr.K IIIIIIIIII 8Asub iC and the e+pression for the efficiency becomes@ 8Asub tC 3 apr.K IIIIIIIIII 8Asub iC *f the tor1ue and induction constants are e1ual, the motor is nearly one hundred percent efficient. *f the tor1ue constant e+ceeds the induction constant, the efficiencyd e+ceeds <<=. &d?ote@ the PD6#B$"*6? efficiency can e+ceed <<= the $6?Q3D%*6? efficiency cannot e+ceed <<=' $6?$SB%*6?%@ Joseph ?ewman has demonstrated that his "heory is a useful tool by which predictions of circuit function can be made without mathematics. 5or e+ample, his gyroscopic particles interact as spinning particles Athrough the cross product of their spinsC, and this 1ualitatively describes magnetic induction. *n complicated electromagnetic systems, e+act solutions to )a+wellXs e1uations may be difficult or impossible to obtain, while a phenomenological mechanical picture can be visuali/ed to give 1ualitatively correct results. )echanical models of electromagnetic interactions were considered essential by scientists of the Gth century. )a+well originally derived his famous e1uations by using a mechanical model of the electromagnetic field, and stated the following &3'@ L"he theory * propose may therefore be called a theory of the electromagnetic field because it has to do with the space in the neighborhood of the electric or magnetic bodies, and it may be called a dynamical theory because it assumes that in that space there is )!""3D *? )6"*6?, by which the observed electromagnetic phenomena are produced .... *n speaking of the energy of the field, * wish to be understood literally@ !SS 3?3DGR *% "(3 %!)3 !% )3$(!?*$!S 3?3DGR..L &3mphasis added.' Degarding Joseph ?ewmanXs )otor, * have no doubt about its performance or

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about the profound importance of its future applications. dd!" "(*% "*)3 *" !PP3!D% "(!" "(3 5*D%" !PPS*$!"*6?% 9*SS .3 D3PS!$3)3?"% 56D 3Z*%"*?G 3S3$"D*$ )6"6D%. &3ditor@ 3mphasis added.' Degarding a rigorous mathematical description of the underlying phenomena, it is clear that much effort, both theoretical and e+perimental, will be re1uired to achieve this end. D353D3?$3%@ & ' "(3 3?3DGR )!$(*?3 65 J6%3P( ?39)!?, Joseph 9. ?ewman author, 3van %oule, editor. Joseph ?ewman Publishing $ompany, Dt , .+ ;2, Sucedale, )% 3G>;2 & st 3dition published in GF>.' &2' "he precise condition for this appro+imation to be valid is that the locked rotor tor1ue be much larger than the applied mechanical tor1ue at speed multiplied by one plus the s1uare of the ratio of inductive reactance and resistance. "his condition applied to some of ?ewmanXs )otors, and in particular to the most recent small volume devices. *n the larger motors the voltage is applied with a phase shift chosen to optimi/e efficiency, and it can be shown that 31uation F still applies in the limit of large inductance. &3' ! #R?!)*$!S "(36DR 65 "(3 3S3$"D6)!G?3"*$ 5*3S#. James $lerk )a+well, ".5. "orrance, ed., %cottish !cademic Press Std., 3dinburgh A GF2C. &5rom )a+wellXs Presentation to the Doyal %ociety, FN>C. "he above was written by #r. Doger (astings, Ph.#., in GFH for apresentation before a ?ational $onference of the *nternational "esla %ociety. !.6B" "(3 !B"(6D@ #r. Doger (astings has a Ph.#. in Physics, Bniversity of )innesota, GH;M )% in Physics, Bniversity of #enver, GH M .% in Physics, Bniversity of #enver, GNG. #r. (astings was a Postdoctoral 5ellow at the Bniversity of Qirginia, GH;-HH with research in organic superconductors and the physical properties of solutions of macro-ions and viruses. $urrently, #r. (astings is a Principal Physicist with the B?*%R% $orporation. !s a consultant, #r. (astings also designs electric motors for other corporations. d"he latest commutator design enables higher voltages to be utili/ed. 2ote: "he above article was written several years ago. "he principles described above are generally applicable Lacross the breadth of the technology.L (owever, considerable improvements to the commutator design have been made in the recent past. "hese improvements are intended to actually reduce the intensity of the sparking by distributing the physical connections over a wider area. "he reader should bear in mind that there are "96 totally different design systems Abut many sub-configurations within each basic designC@ there is one commutator design when the energy machine is intended to function as a G3?3D!"6D and a totally different commutator design when the energy machine is intended to

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function as a )6"6D. "he latest design improvements to the commutator system apply to the machine operating as a )6"6D. %ubse1uent tor1ue can be utili/ed for mechanical systems or can be used in con,unction with a conventional generator.

Doseph W' +e%man: South African Patent Application O 1.;,0<2 LEnergy Generation System ha!ing Higher Energy (utput Than 7nputL
6ackgroun of the 7n!ention: ;' Fiel of the 7n!ention N "he present invention relates generally to devices or systems Aincluding methods for generating useable energy such as for e+ample electrical energy from electromagnetic fields, electrical energy or electromagnetic fields from matter, and more particularly to devices or systems Aincluding methodsC for producing electrical current flow for use as electrical power, and magnetic fields of force which cause motion Aobvious workC, or electrical current flow or for increasing electromagnetic potential energy available for use or mechanical energy available for use. 0' Prior Art N "here have been many devices proposed over the years for producing electrical energy, with mechanical friction, thermo-electricity, photoelectricity, pie/oelectricity, electrochemistry and electromagnetic induction being the chief forms of primary energy capable of producing electricity. 6f these, the only significant source of commercial electrical power has been the mechanical actions of electric generators, and for mobile power the chemical action of batteries has been important. Bseable motion has resulted from the interactions between the input of electrical energy and the magnetic and7or electromagnetic fields of force Aelectric motorsC and heat or light as a result of input of electrical energy through conventional mechanical systems, heaters, lightbulbs, etc. !ll of the prior art systems are designed according to rigid mathematical laws taught both in physics and electrical engineering that coincide with the hypotheses rigidly accepted by the industrial and scientific communities concerning the %econd Saw of "hermodynamics A F;<C. 5rom the foregoing generally accepted hypothesis it has also been generally accepted and rigidly taught in physics and electrical engineering that the electric current flowing in a closed circuit from a battery, electrical generator, etc., is used up in the mechanical device being operated by this flow of electric current, and that all such electric current producing systems would only put out at most work e1ual to the work initially put into the system, or in accordance with generally accepted laws stating that a particular electrical system was only capable of a given output of energy and no ore. "hese beliefs have till this date remained rigid in both the industrial and scientific communities in spite of proof of 3instein-s e1uation of 3 K )$2. ?uclear reactors convert matter into useable electromagnetic energy in the form of heat, which converts water into steam to turn conventional turbines for production of electric current by conventional

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electrical generating means. "his system is e+tremely inefficient, using less than = of the energy of the atom and producing a deluge of contaminated materials that have caused a serious problem of safe disposal. !dditionally, the basic electrical generators in use throughout the world today utili/e the principle of causing relative movement between an electrical conductor Afor e+ample a rotorC and a magnetic field produced by a magnet or an electromagnet Afor e+ample a statorC, all using the generally accepted hypothesis that the greater the electrical conductivity of the material being moved through the field, the more efficient will be the electrical generation. 5rom the foregoing generally accepted hypotheses, it also has been generally accepted that there should always be movement between, for e+ample, the rotor and stator elements, and that only generally accepted electrical conductors, that is materials with high electrical conductivity, will effectively serve in an electrical generation system. (owever, in one of the systems AFigure .C of the present invention, electrical generation can occur with the relatively static elements and with materials that are not generally considered to be of high electrical conductivity, although of course the present invention likewise can utili/e relatively moving elements as well as materials of generally accepted high electrical conductivity, if so desired, as occurs in the systems of the present invention illustrated in Figure H and Figure 2. "he prior art has failed to understand certain physical aspects of matter and the makeup of electromagnetic fields, which failure is corrected by the present invention. 6rief Description of Dra%ings: 5or a further understanding of the nature and ob,ects of the present invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description, taken in con,unction with the accompanying drawings, in which like parts are given like reference numerals and wherein@ Figure ; is a schematic, side view in generali/ed, representational form of a first embodiment of an electrical generator based on the principles and guidelines of the present invention. Figure 0 is a close-up view in general form of an electrical charge pickup element that can be used in the generator illustrated in Figure ;. Figure . is a schematic view in generali/ed, representational form of a second embodiment of an electrical generator based on the principles and guidelines of the present invention. Figure = is a schematic view in generali/ed, representational form of the negative and positive particles e+hibiting gyroscopic actions that emanate from a magnet to form an electromagnetic field. Figure H and Figure 2 are schematic views in generali/ed, representational form of third and fourth embodiments of a combined electrical generator and motor utili/ing a static, relatively large coil energi/ed by a relatively low current driving a rotatable magnet, wherein the embodiment of Figure H the rotatable magnet is positioned along side of the coil and in the embodiment of Figure 2 the rotatable magnet is positioned within the open core of the coil. Detaile Description of Preferre Embo iments 6asic Principles M Gui elines N

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*n accordance with the principles of the present invention and as generally illustrated in Figure ., an electromagnetic field < comprises flows of 1uanta or particles 2<, 3< of electrical energy flowing from each of the poles 2 , 3 of a magnet Aor electromagnetC >< to the other pole, following the Llines of forceL of the electromagnetic field. "hese particles 2<, 3<, believed to be traveling at the speed of light, are always coming out of one end 2 , 3 , respectively, flowing from a relatively high-energy source to a low-energy source. "hese particles 2<, 3< are, it is believed, negative and positive charges and have a spin producing a gyroscopic motion and follow the mechanical laws of gyroscopic action. "he mass of each of the particles 2<, 3< e1uals the energy of the particles divided by the speed of light s1uared. "he peripheral speed of the gyroscopic particles is believed to be the speed of light. 5or purposes of illustration only and as a matter of nomenclature, the positive charge particle 2< is going in one direction A? to %C with a clockwise spin, and the negative particle 3< is going in the opposite direction with a counter-clockwise spin. 6f course, if a particle such as 2< or 3< is flipped around F< degrees, it becomes the opposite charge or type of particle. "he electromagnetic field < is thus the orderly flow of the positive and negative charges 2<, 3<, moving at the speed of light from the north and south poles 2 , 3 , to the south and north poles 3 , 2 , respectively, and follow the paths of what is termed in the art as the lines of force of the electromagnetic field <. !s is known from the laws of gyroscopes, a gyroscopic particle or body moves at right angles to the direction of an applied force. "herefore, when a force is applied to the electrical energy particles 2<,3<, they will move at right angles to that force. *t should also be noted from known gyroscopic laws that the electrical energy particles 2<, 3<, when they move with their gyroscopic a+is straight into an ob,ect, tend to knock that ob,ect straight, but if that ob,ect hits the particles at an angle to the a+is other than at /ero or F< degrees, the particles are moved off at an angle from the straight. !dditionally, it is noted that a magnetic field caused by a current flowing through a wire comes from negative and positive particles, such as 2<, 3<, with a net flow of such particles going in the same direction but with opposite spin. *n the system and method of the present invention, the foregoing principles serve as guidelines in the present invention. Deference is further had to pages ##23 through ##2H of the #isclosure #ocument and to Page F, Sine 2N through Page , Sine 23 of the prior !pplication %erial number 2;,G<H and its 5igures H- <. 5rom the foregoing disclosures, many different devices, structures, and methods are possible to embody the principles and guidelines of the system of the present invention, which in general will utili/e a material or substance or structure to place a force at the proper angle to the gyroscopic particles 2<, 3< wherein the particles 2<, 3< follow a path or paths which do not cancel one another out, thereby producing electrical current at appropriate outputs for further use or for increasing available potential electrical for ultimate use First Embo iment #Figure ;$ N 6ne possible, e+emplary embodiment using the principles of the system of the present

HF

invention is schematically shown in the generali/ed illustration of Figure ;. !s illustrated in Figure ;, there is provided an electrical current generator << comprising an outer keeper housing ; and an inner, pressure-containing, closed housing N supported therein by insulated supports <;. ! vacuum e+ists in the area <N between the two housings ;, N, which vacuum is regulated and induced by means of the vacuum line <> with its gauge <H and its control valve <F. "he outer housing ; acts as a keeper for magnetic fields of force, and can be made for e+ample of soft iron, while the vacuum in area <N prevents the leakage or discharge of static electrical charges that might build up on the e+terior of the inner housing N. ! gas or gas-li1uid mi+ture H which may also include solid particles such as for e+ample lead or brass filings, is included within the inner housing N surrounding a series of aligned magnets 2< carried by insulating braces or supports 2 and producing a high, combined electromagnetic field. "he magnets 2<, which can for e+ample be cryogenic magnets, have their LnorthL and LsouthL poles aligned Aas illustrated by the L?nL and L%sLC so that their magnetic fields reinforce one another. "he level of the gas or gas-li1uid mi+ture H in the housing N is regulated by means of the line 22 with its gauge 23 and control valve 2>. 3lectric current output wires G are provided and e+tend down to electrically connect with a wire pick-up system F Ashown in close-up in Figure 0C, which can for e+ample be in the form if very small wires forming a closely spaced network or mesh or of a porous conducting metal body or sheet, located in and e+tended throughout the fluid H in the housing N. *t is noted that a thimbleful of gas contains a fantastically large number of e+tremely tiny bodies that are in continuous, random motion moving at e+tremely high speeds. (ence, the fluid H continuously applies a force to the gyroscopic particles Aanalogous to particles 2<, 3< of Figure .C moving at the speed of light in the high electromagnetic field Aproduced by the magnets 2<C as they continuously collide with each other, which results in the fluid H becoming electrically charged. "he charged fluid H discharges its electrical charge to the pick-up wire network F positioned in the fluid, and the electric current so produced and generated is taken off for use via the electrical output wires G. !s an alternative to having internally contained magnets 2<, the electromagnetic field needed in the fluid H could be produced by a source located outside of the confines of the fluid H as long as the significant field was produced within the fluid H. Secon Embo iment #Figure .$ N ! further e+emplary, generali/ed embodiment utili/ing the principles of the system of the present invention is shown in schematic form in Figure .. "he electrical current generator 2<< of Figure . comprises an e+tended member 2< of a special material having its atoms especially aligned to produce electric current when positioned in an electromagnetic field but which does not on its own e+hibit any substantial magnetic field outside of its boundary surfaces but substantially contains the filed within itself. "his is in contrast to LmagneticL materials which likewise have atom alignment but which also e+hibit or produce a substantial magnetic field in the area surrounding it. "he generator 2<< further comprises for e+ample two magnets 2<2, 2<3, with their north and south poles facing each other, with the member 2< positioned between them, and with the three elements 2< -2<3 held static with respect to each other. .ecause of the special nature of

HG

the material of the member 2< and its special atom alignment, it will produce a direct current through output line 2<> as a result of the gyroscopic actions of the particles of the electromagnetic field 2<; produced by the facing magnets 2<2, 2<3, on the specially aligned atoms in member 2< , which phenomenon occurs even when and even though the member 2< is completely static with respect to the magnets 2 2, 2<3. *t may be desirable in some applications, however, to allow or produce some relative movement between the generator elements 2< -2<3. "he output line 2<> e+tends to an appropriate LloadL 2<N for using the electrical current generated by the generator 2<<. ! return line 2<H completes the circuit back to the member 2< . .ased on e+periments to date, it is believed that brass and lead are materials that can have their atoms especially aligned to interact with the gyroscopic particles Aanalogous to particles 2<, 3<C flowing between the magnets 2<2, 2<3 and will substantially contain within their surface boundaries the magnetic field produced by the aligned atoms or molecules. 9ith respect to producing the proper material with atom alignment for the member 2< , it is noted that most materials seem to align their atoms in random directions when formed by conventional methods of production. *t can be observed, however, that certain materials can be made magnetic by putting the material in an electromagnetic field while cooling from a temperature of around <<< degrees $. "he magnetism is the result of atom alignment of the material in a given direction A%ee pages ## G through ##2 of the #isclosure #ocumentC. !ll materials are affected so as to align parallel or across lines of force when in a powerful electromagnetic field. !ccordingly, if a material while being formed is cooled in an e+tremely powerful electromagnetic field, the atoms of the material will take on a particular alignment. "he atom alignment direction could be varied depending on whether the electromagnetic field was aligned with the material or at a G< degree angle to the material. "his would result in the atoms of a material having their particular electromagnetic spin direction primarily along the same a+is. )erely having atom alignment, however, is not sufficient. !dditionally the material for the invention should be such that it e+hibits very little if any magnetic field in the area surrounding it. "hus it should be noted that the e+terior electromagnetic field that occurs from the atom alignment of the conventional magnet is not duplicated in the material of the invention, because the electromagnetic energy resulting from atom alignment in the material of the invention will be primarily contained within the boundaries of the material. *t is believed that lead, made super-conductive by immersion in a bath of li1uid helium, for e+ample, is such a special material and cold serve as the material for member 2< . "his then results in having a material that would place a force at the proper angle on the gyroscopic type particles moving in the electromagnetic field so as to cause an 3)5 to be produced even when the material was sitting still A%ee also the first paragraph of page ##23 and paragraphs >, ! through 3, of page ## G in the #isclosure #ocumentsC. *t is believed that high, contained pressures, as well as other methods, can also probably produce atom alignment as the atoms of a conductor or any material will react to sufficient e+ternal force A%ee the first paragraph of page ##3; of the #isclosure #ocumentC. "his possibility also is indicated by the fact that hard knocks or impacts will demagneti/e a magnet. "he proper procedure of material production in achieving atom alignment with internally contained fields of force will cause the controlled release of electrical energy in

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electromagnetic fields of force when the material of the invention is placed in the lines of force of the electromagnetic field. Thir M Fourth Embo iments #Figure H M Figure 2$ N A' &elate Principles N A C ?umerous scientific tests and e+periments made by the inventor indicate that the magnetic field resulting from an electrical current flowing through a conductor is the result of atom alignment within that conductor at an e+tremely fast speed with an ability to reverse atom alignment ,ust as rapidly without the magnetic hysteresis associated with conventional materials considered LmagneticL. Prior to this time it has been believed and taught by the scientific community that the magnetic field associated with an electric current carrying conductor was the result of the electric current itself and not of the conductor material, for e+ample copper, which was considered to be Lnon-magneticL. 3ven the inventor was influenced and misled by these teachings and attempted to mechanically e+plain and ,ustify the prior teachings, as is seen on page ##2H of the #isclosure #ocument, which is an important part of this patent application. !s taught in the present invention, however, what mechanically happens is that the gyroscopic particles making up the electric current moving in a conductor interact with the electromagnetic makeup of the atoms of the conductor, causing them to align e+tremely rapidly, thereby then releasing some of their electromagnetic makeup in the form of a magnetic field e+actly as e+plained in great detail for conventional magnetic materials in the #isclosure #ocument. "his is easily proven and understood by taking for e+ample a si/e > gauge conductor one foot long, winding it into a coil, and connecting the coil to a meter and a .; volt battery. "he total current registered on the meter will be .; volts and the strength of the magnetic field created from the short conductor will be e+tremely small. ?e+t, the same type of test is run again but with the length of the conductor increased to 2<<< feet, for e+ample. "he total current registered on the meter will now be considerably less, but the strength of the magnetic field given off from the conductor will now be e+tremely largeb "his shows that the magnetic field is not from the electric current flow, but is the result of the interaction of the gyroscopic particles that make up the electric current interacting with the atoms of the conductorb "his causes the gyroscopic particles of the electric current not to be able to make the circuit back to the battery so 1uickly, and therefore the meter shows less current used. "he magnetic field is the result of the atom alignment of the conductor. "he more atoms in a conductor Aup to a pointC, the stronger the magnetic field produced from a given amount of electric current input. !gain, this is proven by changing the diameter of the conducting wires and, with the lengths being the same, the strongest magnetic field will result from the conductor with the largest diameter. "he reason for this is that there are more conducting atoms to interact with the gyroscopic particles of the electric current moving through the conductor, which results in a greater number of conducting atoms being aligned, thereby then releasing some of their electromagnetic makeup, e+actly as has been e+plained in great detail in the #isclosure #ocument as being possible for all matter. *f the magnetic field produced was strictly based on the amount of current going through a conductor, as taught in the prior art, then the strongest magnetic field would result when

current went through a large diameter and short length conductor, because the current flow through the entire circuit is greatest at that time. (owever, e+periments prove that the shorter a conductor is made, the greater the current flow through the entire circuit and the less strength of the magnetic field surrounding that conductor. "he longer that same conductor is made Aup to a pointC, the greater the magnetic field surrounding the total mass of the conductor and the less current that makes the complete circuit of the entire system. Deason@ more atomsb A2C ?umerous scientific tests and e+periments made by the inventor also indicate that the magnetic field created when an electric current moves in a conductor does not use up measurable energy when performing obvious or unobvious work, force or power. "his is true no matter how strong or how immense the power of the motor or electromagnets is. Deason@ the magnetic field coming from the conductor is the result of e+tremely 1uick atom alignment within that conductor. "herefore the energy in the magnetic field is the energy that makes up the atom of the conductorb "his energy is literally 3instein-s e1uation of 3 [ )$2, and therefore the energy is believed to be moving at the speed of light. "his energy use cannot be measured by today-s measuring instruments. "his has been e+plained in great detail in the #isclosure #ocument and is believed to be true of all matter. A3C "he same is true for the electric current that comes from a conventional battery. "he electromagnetic energy coming from the battery is the energy that makes up the atoms of the material of the battery. !gain, this energy use is not measurable by today-s measuring instruments. 3lectric meters of all types are simply mechanical devices that measure the amount of electric current that comes into that instrument. "hey do not measure the amount of mass that has been converted into electromagnetic energy. Present techni1ue in science states that the electric energy flowing from a battery is used up in the device operated by that flow of electric current. "his is not true at allb "he electromagnetic energy released from the atom makeup of a battery has a relatively infinite capacity to do obvious work, force, or power. "his is easily proven even with a small motor and a .;-volt battery. 9ith a battery connected to the motor to operate it and with a meter to take readings, the motor is then physically stopped from turning by holding or restraining the shaft. !t that moment the motor is performing no obvious work, force or power, but the meter will register a greater flow of current. "he magnets of the motor can be taken out and the reading will be the same. *f the electricity was being used to operate the motor, the meter would register more current when the motor was running. "he electric current not only will operate the motor but, once it flows through the complete circuit back to the battery, it also does additional work based on 5araday-s Saws of 3lectrolysis within the battery itself. 9hat has happened is that the electromagnetic energy released from the atoms of the material of the battery, once they have completed the circuit, then take a Lshort cutL and move large pieces of the mass of one material of the battery over to the other material of the battery. "he inventor has stated and shown throughout the #isclosure #ocument that the effect of gravity was the unobvious effect of electromagnetic energy. 6nce the materials of the battery have combined, the e+treme desire for the two materials to merge is physically reduced. "hese materials will attempt this merger in any way possible and, if the electric current initially released from a battery is not allowed by mechanical means to complete the circuit back within itself, the electromagnetic energy then in the mechanical means will perpetually Ain a relative, theoretical senseC perform obvious work, force or power. "he reason@ the force that initiated this flow of current Aelectromagnetic makeup of atoms of materialC is constant, similar to hydraulic pressure, with the noticeable

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e+ception that it is moving Ait is believedC at the speed of light and will interact with the electromagnetic makeup of the atoms of other materials, causing them to release some of their electromagnetic makeup in the form of a magnetic field. "his then multiplies the capacity for doing obvious or unobvious work, force or power, which can then react with another conducting coil or with the electromagnetic energy within the magnetic field or a conventional magnet and multiply this effect even further, on and on for a relatively unlimited source of energy. "he same is true in not letting the current get back to a conventional generator. *f a mechanical means is set up so that the electric current is LtrappedL without completing a circuit, the gyroscopic particles of the current have a capacity for continuous work without increasing the power input into the generator system. *f, however, the circuit is complete and the electric current moving in the system does absolutely no obvious work, power or force, the gyroscopic particles making up the current and retuning to the generator will then increase the need for more power input into the system. "he reason is in the opposing effect of magnetic fields as defined in Sen/-s Saw. "his law is simply an observation of this effect, which before now has never been fully understood. >. ?umerous scientific tests and e+periments made by the inventor also indicate that there is a correlation between the electromagnetic spin orientation of the atoms of non-conductors, semi-conductors, and conductors, and the varying results achieved with an electric current in attempting to move through these materials, or when moving these materials through a magnetic field attempting to induce electric current. "he gyroscopic particles in a moving electric current interact with the atoms of the material through which the current is moving. 3ach atom can efficiently interact with only an e+act amount of electric current, and if e+ceeded, there is an interruption of orderly movement. "hen the angle of release of the gyroscopic particles from the atoms are such that the electromagnetic release of the gyroscopic particles are such that the electromagnetic release from these atoms are in the form of heat, e+actly as e+plained in great detail in the #isclosure #ocument. "his effect is easily observed by the fact that the resistance decreases relative to an increase of the cross-section of the material. Deason@ more atoms are within that given area, and for a fi+ed input of electric current there are more atoms to receive and interact efficiently with the gyro-particles making up the electric current. !gain, the same is true for resistors designed for deliberately producing heat. %uch resistors are not materials that are considered to be good conductors of electric current. *t is stated and shown in great detail in the #isclosure #ocument that the electromagnetic spin orientation of the atoms of a non-conductor are different from that of conductor atoms, and therefore different results will occur from the same inputs of electromagnetic energy. "his is easily seen by the fact that, in a resistor, for a given amount of electric current input, the heat release increases as the diameter increases. 9hat that means is that the property of resistance has decreased. 6n a conductor it is ,ust the opposite. *f the diameter is increased the resistance is decreased, but so is heat release. !gain, this is an indication that the gyroparticles in the electric current movement interact with each atom of the material. "his same effect shows up again in conventional electrical induction from a conductor interacting with a magnetic field. 3+periments by the inventor have indicated that the property of conventional induction is the result of the same property of resistance.

F3

*f one increases the diameter of a conductor, lengths staying the same, one decreases the amount of electric current relative to the total number of atoms within the conductors under consideration. 6r, if one takes a given number of wires of the same diameter and length and moves a magnet across them, the current produced will be considerably less than if one takes the same diameter wire, but only one wire, and increases its length considerably and then forms it into a coil forming the same number of wires on any one side and then moves the same magnet across only one side of that coilM the electric current generated will then be considerably greater. Deason@ the property of resistance. "his is a mechanical effect within the gyroscopic electromagnetic makeup and orientation of the atoms of all materials that have the mechanical ability to perform a given task efficiently up to a point concerning input of additional electromagnetic energy and then mechanically causes varying results once this threshold is e+ceeded. "his and all other thoughts and innovations in this and the previous disclosures of the previous application and the #isclosure #ocument previously put forth show that there are many different mechanical ways to release a relatively unlimited source of energy from electromagnetic energy that makes up all matter and which results from this invention. 6' Working Prototypes N Figure H and Figure 2 illustrate rough working prototypes of this aspect of the invention. "hese embodiments are only relatively inefficient prototypes built by hand for the purpose of demonstrating the invention. *t should be self-evident that the prototypes by various mechanical means and designs can easily be made e+tremely efficient, and the illustrated embodiments are being presented only for general representational purposes. !s is illustrated in Figure H, there is provided a combined electrical current generator and an electromagnetic motor comprising a rotatable mounted permanent magnet 2<<, a battery 2< , brushes and commutator 2<2, bearings 2<3 and power, mounting shaft 2<>, and a first, primary magnetic producing coil 2<; and a secondary electrical producing coil 2<N. "he two coils 2<; and 2<N are ,u+taposed together in parallel disposition with concurrent core center lines, with the magnet 2<< positioned alongside of coil 2<; at or near its core center line with the rotational a+is of the shaft 2<> positioned orthogonally to the center line. *n the prototypes a very small battery 2< , for e+ample si/e L?L of .; volts is used. 9hen the circuit is completed, the battery 2< converts an immeasurable amount of its mass into electrical current Agyroscopic particles moving at the speed of lightC which goes through the commutator and brushes 2<2, and then enters magnetic producing coil 2<; made for e+ample from insulated O > or O ; gauge copper wire with the total weight of the coil 2<; being for e+ample H< to G< pounds. "his causes the atoms of coil 2<; to align e+tremely fast and then release some of their electromagnetic makeup Agyroscopic particlesC in the form of a magnetic field. "his field then interacts with the gyroscopic particles making up the magnetic field coming from the atoms of the material of the permanent magnet 2<<. "his causes magnet 2<< to attempt to align its magnetic field movement with the magnetic field movement coming from the atoms of coil 2<;, resulting in the rotation of magnet 2<< and the shaft 2<> to which it is attached. "his then changes the position of the commutator and brushes 2<2 relative to each other-s initial positions, which then causes the electric current coming from battery 2< to be going in the opposite direction into coil 2<;, causing the atoms of coil 2<; to e+tremely 1uickly reverse their alignment and the polarity of their magnetic field that they are emitting. "he reversed field then interacts again with the magnetic field of permanent magnet 2<<, causing it to rotate further.

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"his process is then continuously repeated, producing continuous rotation of the shaft 2<> which can be used as a source of motive power in many different ways. ! power belt wheel 2<H, for e+ample, using a continuous Q-belt is illustrated as a general representation of this motive power source for producing useful, obvious work. *n a prototype test run with a small .;- volt type L?L battery, the shaft 2<> and the magnet 2<< rotated at a high speed for appro+imately 2 hours before running down. .y improving the particular design features of the prototype and by using longer lasting batteries, the rotation time of the shaft 2<> can be greatly increased to a theoretical point approaching LperpetualL for all practical purposes. !t the same time, the alternating magnetic field produced by coil 2<; induces into coil 2<N electrical induction which then causes coil 2<N to produce an alternating current across its LloadL, which current can be made to e+ceed the conventional output of battery 2< . "he battery source 2< can be replaced as needed. *t is very important to understand that the longer the length of the conducting wire in coil2<;, the stronger will be the magnetic field and the less electric current that will complete the circuit and get back into the battery and destroy the mechanical source of the electrical current. "his effect can be increased further by increasing the diameter of the conducting wire in coil 2<; and then greatly increasing its length still further in the coil. Deason@ the gyroscopic particles making up the electric current interact with the atoms of coil 2<;. "he more atoms in coil 2<;, relative to length, the longer it takes the gyro-particles of the electric current to influence them and get out the other end of the coil. *t is then easily seen that if the direction of the current into coil 2<; is then reversed, this then further increases this lag time. Deason@ "he gyroscopic particles have inertia and are believed to be moving at the speed of light and are interacting with the gyroscopic particles making up the atoms of conducting coil 2<;. "hese atoms also have inertia, and when the direction of current is reversed into coil 2<;, the incoming current then collides with the current already in coil 2<N going in opposite directions. "his causes a brief hesitation during the time the current already in the coil is being forced to reverse its direction of the atoms within coil 2<; that have already been influenced to become aligned. "his causes a constant force throughout the circuit, but does not allow very much current to get back into the battery 2< to destroy the mechanical means that initiated the release of electric current in the first place. "herefore, it should be further understood that the faster the current direction reverses into the coil 2<;, the more efficiently the matter of battery 2< is converted into pure electrical energy A3 K )$2C without the destruction of the mechanical situation that initiates the electrical current release. *t is also important to understand that the stronger the magnetic field coming from the mass of magnet 2<<, the greater will be its rotational speed. !dditionally, the greater the magnetic field coming from the mass of coil 2<;, the greater will be the rotational speed of magnet 2<< and, up to a point, the greater the electric current input from battery 2< , the greater will be the percentage of the atoms making up coil 2<; that are aligned. "his probably has the same relationship as does achieving atom alignment in conventional magnetic materials. 6nce complete atom alignment is reached in coil 2<;, no amount of current will cause those atoms to increase the strength of the magnetic field emitting from those atoms. "herefore, it should be clear that for a given input of electric current from battery 2< , the most efficient design is one in which most of the atoms of coil 2<; are influenced to atom alignment by that given electric current, which means increasing the diameter and the length of the conducting wire of coil 2<; to the point that the strength of the magnetic field produced

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is sufficient to cause rotation of the magnet 2<< to a speed that allows none or at least very little of the electric current that initially comes from the battery 2< to complete the circuit and get back into battery 2< and destroy or reduce the mechanical effect that induced the conversion of the matter of the battery 2< in electric current in the first place. !gain this desired effect can be increased by increasing the strength of the magnetic field given off by the atoms of the permanent magnet 2<<. *n the second embodiment of 5igure N, the structure and operation of the prototype is substantially identical to that of Figure H with the ma,or e+ception being that the magnet 3<< and shaft 3<> elements Aand related sub-elements 3<2, 3<3, and 3<HC are positioned inside of and within the core of the primary coil 3<;, as compared to the placement of the magnet 2<< and shaft 2<> elements ne+t to and along side of the coil 2<; of Figure H. "herefore, for purposes of brevity, a detailed description of the elements of Figure 2 will not be repeated, but it is noted that the corresponding and analogous elements and sub-elements are similarly numbered in Figure H and Figure 2. *t is also important to again stress the fact that the prototype designs shown are presented simply to prove the correctness of the invention, and it should be clear that the invention can be made e+tremely more efficient by utili/ing all of the magnetic field produced by coil 2<; and designing the magnet 2<< of a shape and strength that efficiently interacts wit the ma,ority of the magnetic fields from coil 2<;. "he illustrated prototypes are relatively highly inefficient in this regard, but even so, the results of the invention itself greatly e+ceed the prior art as to the use of electric current from whatever source and interaction with an electric motor or whatever work was conventionally performed. "he applicant feels it is very important to again stress that, in building many varying designs of this invention, consideration must be given to the fact that the energy in the field of force of any type of magnet is the energy that makes up the atoms of the material from which it comesb "his energy is a real entity with Ait is believedC a gyroscopic action. *t is literally 3instein-s e1uation of 3 K )$2. !nd it is believed that this energy moves at the speed of light and makes up all matter, and that this energy has a constant pressure effect back to the atoms of the material from which it came, similar to hydraulic pressure. "his effect is additionally more fully understood by stating the following results obtained from e+perimentation by the applicant in the process of this invention. AaC 9hen the system is initially attached to a .; volt si/e ? battery 2< or 3< and the magnet 2<< or 3<< and related rotation entities are placed close to or in the center of coil 2<; or 3<;, the following results are observed@ *f the electric current produced in coil 2<N A3<NC is then fed back into coil 2<; A3<;C in accordance with proper polarity, the rotation speed of magnet 2<< A3<<C will then accelerate. *f fed back into coil 2<; A3<;C in wrong polarity, the rotation speed of magnet 2<< A3<<C will slow down. "his proves that the total force from coil 2<; A3<;C interacting with the magnet 2<< A3<<C is greater when the electrical energy from coil 2<N A3<NC is fed back into coil 2<; A3<;C than when only the initial electrical energy from battery 2< A3< C is fed into coil 2<; A3<;C. 9hen two or three batteries are electrically connected together in series so as to create for e+ample three or four and one-half volts of electrical input, this effect is multiplied. Demember that, up to a point, the greater the electrical input, the greater the percentage of

FN

atom alignment within the coil 2<; A3<;C. "his further proves that the electric current produced in coil 2<N A3<NC is a result of the gyroscopic particles of energy released from the magnetic fields that came from the electromagnetic makeup of the atoms of coil 2<; A3<;C, and is not part of the initial electrical energy released from the atoms making up the materials of battery 2< A3< Cb "he coil 2<N A3<NC can be taken out of the system, or its electrical current fed away from the system, and the rotational speed of the magnet 2<< A3<<C will not observably change. "he rotational speed of the magnet 2<< A3<<C will noticeably change, however, when the electric current from coil 2<N A3<NC is fed back into coil 2<; A3<;Cb ?ow a different result@ AbC 9hen the electric current from battery 2< A3< C becomes weaker to the point that the magnetic field coming from coil 2<; A3<;C has weakened and shrunk allowing the magnetic field of the rotating magnet 2<< A3<<C to e+pand and then noticeably induce electric current into coil 2<N A3<NC and into coil 2<; A3<;C, then reverse results are observed. 9hen the magnetic field from coil 2<; A3<;C is large, then the magnetic field from magnet 2<< A3<<C is retainedb *f coil 2<N A3<NC is then short-circuited, the rotation of magnet 2<< A3<<C will noticeably slow down. *f the electric current from coil 2<N A3<NC is fed back into coil 2<; A3<;C in wrong polarity, the rotation of the magnet 2<< A3<<C will stop. *f fed back into coil 2<; A3<;C in correct polarity, the rotation of the magnet 2<< A3<<C will slow down. !t that point, the rotation of the magnet 2<< A3<<C will not accelerate, no matter how connectedb "hese results show that, at this time, the magnetic field from magnet 2<< A3<<C noticeably induces a current in coils 2<N A3<NC and 2<; A3<;C that opposes the rotation of the magnet 2<< A3<<C. "his effect has already been mechanically e+plained, and it has been shown that Sen/-s Saw was simply an observation of that mechanical e+planation. "hese results further demonstrate that the e+panding and collapsing magnetic fields from coil 2<; A3<;C and 2<N A3<NC do not noticeably affect each other detrimentally because the resulting magnetic fields from all the coils are the results of fluctuating atom alignment within the coilsb Demember, the gyroscopic energy particles making up the magnetic fields have a hydraulic pressure effect back to the atoms from which they came. !lso remember that the atoms making up the material of the permanent magnet 2<< A3<<C are stationary as to atom alignment directionb "herefore, the pressure effect resulting from an opposing field that the magnet 2<< A3<<C induced is immediate, as is hydraulic pressure. "he magnetic field emitted from the atoms of coil 2<; A3<;C, relative to induction into the atoms of coil 2<N A3<NC, however, are fluctuating and out of step, so to speak, and therefore in harmony with each other. "he pressure effect from the induction of coil 2<; A3<;C into coil 2<N A3<NC is an action of the atoms of coil 2<; A3<;C and back into the atoms of coil 2<N A3<NC. "his action is seen again when the invention is hooked into A3< C is not used. ; volt !$, and battery 2<

"he magnet 2<< A3<<C will not rotate even though the magnetic field from coil 2<; A3<;C is strong and is alternating. Deason@ "he fluctuating magnetic field is so fast that the inertia mass of magnet 2<< A3<<C cannot get started in one direction before the magnetic field from coil 2<; A3<;C has reversed, thereby causing magnet 2<< A3<<C to vibrate only microscopically at N< cycles per second. !nd, if a N<-watt bulb is connected to the system of coil 2<; A3<;C, it will light only dimly,

FH

and there is a lag time of two or three seconds before it lights. *f then coil 2<N A3<NC is connected to a meter, there is a reading of >G volts, and if the meter is replaced by another N<-watt bulb, it will light only e+tremely dimly. "he N<-watt bulb connected to coil 2<; A3<;C, however, will now become noticeably brighterb "his again shows that the action and reaction results of the atoms of the coils are not noticeably detrimental to each other because of the lag time Aout of step, so to speakC resulting in reinforcing the flipping atom alignment of the coils. 5rom this further e+planation of the invention it is seen that desirable results may be obtained by the following@ 5or e+ample, in Figure 2 the magnet 3<< may be of a design and7or be located at a distance from the inside diameter of coil 3<; and coil 3<N, whereby the ma,ority of the magnetic field from the magnet 3<< do not cut the conducting loops of coil 3<; or 3<N. Ret the alternating magnetic field produced by coil 3<; should efficiently have the ma,ority of its gyroscopic particles interacting with the ma,ority of the gyroscopic particles making up the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 3<<, but not directly reacting with the atoms making up coil 3<;, or magnet 3<<b 9hen the magnetic lines of force of the magnet 2<< A3<<C cross at right angles with the conducting wires of coil 2<; A3<;C, 2<N A3<NC, a braking action is incurred. *t should be noted that, as the inner diameter of coil 2<; A3<;C increases, the percentage of time of braking effect decreases. !long this same line of instruction, the commutator segments 2<2 A3<2C can be made of a large diameter and the area of brushes made small, whereby, when the brushes cross over the gaps in the commutator segments, there will be no short circuit at any tie directly back to the battery 2< A3< C. .y combining the slip rings and brushes Athe slip rings can be made of a small diameterC to the side or sides of the brushes and commutator segments 2<2 A3<2C, then battery 2< A3< C does not have to rotate with magnet 2<< A3<<C. "he no. > and ?o. ; gauge copper insulated wire of H< and G< pounds A3 .; and ><.; kilogramsC used for the motor coil 2<; A3<;C and the generator coil 2<N A3<NC respectively in the first hand-made prototypes of the embodiments of Figure H and Figure 2 for demonstration purposes only, come in standard buckets of varying weights from wholesale outlets. *t was then wound in coils as shown and, as taught, the more conducting wire sued, the better the results. "he magnets 2<< and 3<< were each initially about a 2- 72 inches AN.2; cmC cube and can be any si/e and strength desired. *n a further, rough, hand built demonstration, working prototype of the invention of the type illustrated in Figure 2, the primary motor coil 3<; was made of ?o. ; gauge copper wire in a single, continuous wire form weighing appro+imately >, << pounds A ,F>; kg.C with a coil lop diameter of >- 72 feet A 3; cmC, while the secondary or generator coil 3<N was made of ?o. 2> gauge copper wire in a single, continuous wire form weighing appro+imately 3<< pounds A >; kgC with the same, appro+imate loop diameter of >- 72 feet A 3; cmC with both coils 3<;, 3<N coincidently forming a cylinder of appro+imately 3< inches AH; cmC in length. "he coils 3<;, 3<N were built around a cylindrical fiberglass core body of appro+imately 2<< pounds AG< kgC having a vertical longitudinal center-line a+is. "he rotating magnet 3<< was made up of si+ separate parallel cylindrical magnetic columns spaced and disposed about the periphery of a hollow cylindrical fiberglass surface of appro+imately 2< inches A;< cmC diameter. 3ach column was 3< inches AH; cmC long and was composed of a stack of H< individual ceramic ring magnets in disc form as made by Jobmaster )agnets ADandallstown, )# 2 33 B%!C. 3ach disc had a thickness of H7 N inch A .<G3H; cmC, an inner diameter of one inch A2.; cmC and an outer diameter of > inches A <

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cmC. "he discs were stacked and secured together in >-inch A < cmC diameter fiberglass tubes longitudinally mounted on the inner surface of the 2<-inch A;< cmC diameter fiberglass cylinder. "he composite magnet 3<< had a total weight of appro+imately ><< pounds A F< kgC and a total length of 3< inches AH; cmC and an appro+imate diameter of 2< inches A;< cmC. "he magnet 3<< was mounted for rotation on a hori/ontal shaft 3<> e+tending across the hollow core of the coils 3<;, 3<N crossing through the center point of the longitudinal centerline of the cylinder and orthogonal to the longitudinal center-line of the magnet 3<< for rotation within the open center area of the cylindrically disposed coils 3<; and 3<N with the longitudinal center-lines of the coils being vertically disposed. 9ith a #$ battery source 3< of two 2-volt lantern batteries and seventeen N-volt lantern batteries all ins series Atotaling 2N voltsC, a measured voltage of 2N volts and a measured current of GG milliamps was noted in the primary coil 3<;. $oncurrently a voltage reading of N>< volts and an amperage measurement in e+cess of 2< milliamps were noted in the secondary or generating coil 3<N, with the magnet 3<< rotating at a speed of 2< rpm. "hus the system was outputting and producing in the generating coil 3<N useable electricity in e+cess of <2 = of that being input in the motor coil 3<;b "his e+cess useful electrical energy of course is in addition to the further useful mechanical energy available at the e+emplary drive takeoff 3<H on the rotating shaft 3<>, on which the ><<-pound, 3<-inch long magnet 3<< was rotating at 2< rpmb "hus the invention, by utili/ing the energy of the gyroscopic particles in the magnetic field, produces a greater energy output than the energy input to the system, thus producing results beyond presently accepted scientific teachings of the world. "his prototype achieves e+actly what has already been described in great detail in applicant-s prior patent applications. *n this prototype there was simply used a stronger magnet and a larger diameter conducting wire of great length that has a considerably greater number of atoms aligned when current is put into the system, and used a greater number of atoms in the generator coil of fine diameter conducting wire. 9hile the results of the energy released from this particular prototype is highly impressive to others, applicant still has only scratched the surface of the energy that can be released using the principles of the present invention. !gain, as has already been stressed, the most efficient design is one in which the least amount of input of current causes the greatest amount of atom alignment. "his data does not constitute any departure from the applicant-s previous work, but is only to further document that which has already been stressed in the prior patent applications. Qarying the #$ voltage for the battery source 3< shows that obvious efficiency will continue will continue to rise as the voltage input goes upb !lso, the leverage factor advantage of the invention, combined with the inertia of the ><<pound magnet 3<< rotating at 2< rpm Aeven while causing the electrical generator to put out over <<= of energy inputC proves the invention to be greatly over <<= efficient even at this slow rpm. *t is contemplated that the ne+t prototype will use super-conducting type material for the coil 3<; with a magnet 3<< having a magnetic material comparable to that of cryogenic-type magnet relative to percentage of atom alignment or si/e. "his will result in the si/e of the invention being much smaller and yet with the available work output being much greater than the prototype ,ust described. Deason@ "he most efficient type design is one whereby the least amount of current input into the motor coil produces the greatest atom alignment of said motor coil and having rotatable magnet also comparable in strength, relative to si/e.

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"he invention can be made without using the coil 2<N A3<NC and producing ,ust useful mechanical energy. $oil 2<N A3<NC can be merged or wound with coil 2<; A3<;C. "he magnet 2<< A3<<C can be an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a cryogenic magnet, or any magnet. "he design of magnet 2<< A3<<C can create a strong but retained magnetic field. "he design of coil 2<; A3<;C can be used to further retain the magnetic field of magnet 2<< A3<<C. !lternating current can be used in place of the #$ battery 2< A3< C, if the magnet 2<< A3<<C is designed accordingly. "he coils 2<; A3<;C and 2<N A3<NC may be made up of several coils rather than a single coil. "he magnet 2<< A3<<C may be made up of several individual magnets rather than from ,ust a single magnet. 5rom the foregoing it should be understood that, unlike the teachings of the prior art, the following is desired in the design of the coil 2<; A3<;C under the principles of the present invention@ AaC $urrent initially flowing into and through the coil should be small compared to the energy output of the systemM AbC ! relatively large diameter wire or its e1uivalent is used for the coilM AcC ! relatively large number of coil loops or coils is usedM AdC ! relatively long, continuous length of coil wire or its e1uivalent is usedM and AeC "he greatest magnetism for a given mass of the magnet 2<< A3<<C is desired but may be designed to that the magnetic lines of force will not cut the coils at a right angle. "he present invention applies to any mechanical device that is operated by electrical energy. *n accordance with the principles of the present invention, the mechanical device should be designed wherein the electrical current as much as is feasible cannot get back to its source, but the circuit is completed whereby the pressure force is constant throughout the system. 9hat has been invented, built and disclosed is an invention of immense importance to the well-being of the entire world. "here will be many devices built from what has been shown and taught. *t should now be known that all matter is made up of electromagnetic energy and that there are many mechanical ways to release this energy, as has been stated throughout the five prior related patent applications hereof and the #isclosure #ocument. !ll of these future developments will be as a result of the present invention, which releases energy above and beyond conventional energy release mechanisms prior to this invention "laims N 9hat is claimed is@ A C !n electrical energy generation system for generating useable electrical energy, comprising@ a source of at least one magnetic fieldM useable electrical energy output means associated with said magnetic field for making available for sue the useable electrical energy generated in the systemM and application means associated with said magnetic field for applying an ade1uate force at the proper angle to the gyroscopic type energy particles making up said magnetic field to cause said gyroscopic type energy particles to follow a desired direction producing useable

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electrical energy at said output means, the amount of said useable electrical energy being greater than the amount of any e+ternal energy input to said source and said application means. A2C "he system of $laim A C, wherein said application means comprises magnetic means for producing a magnetic field and a closed housing associated therewith containing a fluid in the magnetic field produced by said magnetic means, said fluid becoming charged as a result of its interaction with the gyroscopic type energy particles making up said magnetic field. A3C "he system of $laim A2C, wherein said magnetic means is a series of aligned magnets positioned centrally within said housing but electrically insulated therefrom. A>C "he system of $laim A2C, wherein there is included a further, keeper housing surrounding said closed housing and electrically insulated therefrom, said keeper housing tending to keep and concentrate the magnetic field produced by said magnetic means within it. A;C "he system of $laim A2C, wherein said output means includes a network of metallic surfaces immersed in said fluid to pick up the electrical charges on said fluid. ANC "he system of $laim A C, wherein said application means comprises a member having its atoms aligned to produce a net magnetic field which is at least substantially contained within the surface boundaries of said member. AHC "he system of $laim ANC, wherein said member is positioned in operative association with at least one magnet, and said member and said magnet are held static with respect to one another. AFC !n energy generation system for generating useable energy, comprising@ at least one mass of material producing a source of at least one magnetic fieldM useable energy output means associated with said magnetic field for making available for use the useable energy generated in the systemM alignment means associated with said mass for causing at least some of the atoms of said mass to alternately align and disalign, releasing some of the internal energy making up the affected atoms of said massM and utili/ation means for utili/ing some of the energy released from the affected atoms of said mass producing useable energy at said output means, the amount of said useable energy being greater than the amount of any e+ternal energy input to said mass, said alignment means and said utili/ation means. AGC !n energy generation system for generating useable energy, comprising@ at least one mass of material producing a source of at least one magnetic fieldM useable energy output means associated with said magnetic field for making available for use the useable energy generated in the systemM alternating electric current means associated with said mass for producing an electric current in said mass in an alternating direction, causing an alternating magnetic field to encompass said massM and current retarding means associated with said mass for at least partially entrapping said electric current in said mass an effective amount for producing useable energy at said output means of an amount greater that the amount of energy input into said mass from said alternating electric current means. A <C "he system of either one of $laim F or G, wherein@ the energy generation system comprises an electrical energy generation systemM and said useable energy output means comprises an electrical power output means.

C "he system of either one of $laims F or G, wherein@

the energy generation system comprises a motion generation systemM and said useable energy output means comprises useable motion output means. A 2C "he system of $laim AGC, wherein said current retarding means includes at least one coil of wire of effective si/e having an effective number of turns of wire of an effectively large diameter and an effectively great length for at least partially entrapping said electric current. A 3C "he system of $laim AGC, wherein said current retarding means includes a rotary magnetic mass designed to react said alternating magnetic field encompassing said mass of material, said alternating magnetic field reversing no faster than the atoms of said mass of material can flip and realignM said rotary magnetic mass being made long to ad,ust to this re1uirement, the distance of the arc of circle traveled by the ends of said rotary magnetic mass being greatM great leverage from said alternating magnetic field of said mass of material being applied to said rotary magnetic mass, and, in addition to the increased distance of arc traveled by the ends of said rotary magnetic mass before the magnetic field of said mass of material reverses, greatly increasing the time in which a ma+imum force is e+erted by the gyroscopic type energy particles moving in a magnetic field coming from the ma+imum number of atoms aligned in said mass of material, causing a longer time of acceleration of said rotary magnetic mass before the atoms of said mass are re1uired to reverse. A >C "he method of generating suitable useable energy, comprising the steps of@ AaC providing a magnetic device that has a material mass into which an electrical current is introduced, which results in causing pertinent atom alignment within said material mass, thereby releasing some of the electromagnetic energy making up the atoms of said material mass in the form of a magnetic field, causing the gyroscopic type energy particles of said magnetic field to then interact with the gyroscopic type energy particles making up a magnetic field coming from the atoms of a different material massM and AbC having the magnetic device then cause a release of useable energy through at least one power outlet and resulting in producing a greater energy output than e+ternal energy input to the device. A ;C "he method of $laim A >C, wherein the material mass into which the electric current is introduced is a superconducting material, and said separate magnetic mass is at least e1uivalent to a cryogenic magnet. A NC "he method of $laim A >C, wherein step AaC is achieved by the step of having said material be a conducting material and said separate magnetic mass be of any desired configuration of strength or type. A HC "he method of $laim A >C, wherein the material massAesC are made of a material or substance that allows for e+tremely fast atom alignment without the delay or conventional degrees of hysteresis loses normally associated with conventional iron atom alignment. A FC ! method of generating useable electrical energy from a source of at least one magnetic field, comprising the following step@ applying an ade1uate force at the proper angle to the gyroscopic type energy particle to follow a desired direction producing useable electrical energy at an output means of an amount greater than the amount of any e+ternal energy input to the system. A GC "he method of $laim A FC, wherein there is further included the step of@ maintaining all of the elements of the system in fi+ed locations without any normal, visible movement taking place within the system. A2<C ! device that increases the availability of useable electrical energy or useable motion, or both, from a given mass or masses by a device causing a controlled release of, or reaction to,

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the gyroscopic type energy particle making up or coming from the atoms of the mass or masses, which in turn, by a properly designed system, causes an energy output greater than the energy input. A2 C "he method of producing useable energy, comprising the following steps@ AaC inputting energy into a device from an e+ternal sourceM AbC having electrical current flow within said deviceM and AcC utili/ing the internal electromagnetic energy of at least some of the matter in the device to add to the energy being input to the device from the e+ternal source to produce useful energy for use outside of the device having an amount greater than the energy being input to the device. A22C ! method for generating useable energy from at least one mass of material producing a source of at least one magnetic field, comprising the following steps@ AaC producing an electric current in said mass in an alternating direction, causing an alternating magnetic field to encompass said massM and AbC at least partially entrapping an effective amount of said electric current in said mass for producing useable energy at said output means of an amount greater than the amount of energy input to said mass from said alternating electric current means. A23C "he method of $laim A22C, wherein in step AbC there is included the step of providing a separate magnetic source positioned so that its magnetic lines of force avoid significantly cutting the material through which the electrical energy flows, avoiding a braking effect that would retard the desired motion of said magnetic source. A2>C "he method of $laim A22C, wherein in step AbC there is included the step of@ AcC retarding the flow of current through said mass to a very great e+tent, producing at most a relatively small negative current flow through said mass. A2;C "he method of $laim A2>C, wherein step AcC is achieved at least in part by a step of providing at least one relatively large coil of wire having a relatively large number of turns of wire of a relatively large diameter and a relatively great length. A2NC "he method of $laim A2>C, wherein step AcC is achieved at least in part by the step of utili/ing a retaining means by which the electric current is at least mostly retained within at least one member outside of the source of said electric current and then, as a result thereof, is capable of producing a continuous electromagnetic product. A2HC ! method for generating useable energy from at least one mass of material producing a source of at least one magnetic field, comprising the following steps@ AaC causing at least some of the atoms of said mass to alternately align and disalign, releasing some of the internal energy making up the affected areas of said massM and AbC utili/ing some of the energy released from the affected atoms of said mass, producing useable energy at an output means of an amount greater than the amount of any e+ternal energy input to the system.

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di 3ugenio 6dorifero !prile 2<<N. !i nuovi lettori di !.%. raccomando la lettura delle parti precedenti rispettivamente nei numeri >2, >>, >; e >H. !ltrimenti la comprensione del testo potrebbe risultare difficoltosa. *n 1uesta parte, ho terminato il dispositivo e ini/iato i primi test. #a adesso si comincia a fare sul serio... Status el progetto !lla fine della parte precedente avevo scritto una road map da seguire per completare il progetto. Sa ripropongo 1ui come tabella, con gli attuali progressi in atto. 4tti$itC
0inire il rotore come specificato !erificare la presen5a) o almeno la possibilit< $i un ren$imento superiore al :;;=. Appena il rotore > in gra$o $i girare $ecentemente girare un primo filmato. #ostruire e poi aggiungere gli altri elettromagneti. "estare stra$a facen$o. Appena raccolti $ei $ati $i 9ualche interesse s olgere una $ocumenta5ione pi? $efiniti a. Pubblicare questa documentazione (su A. .! in rete o su altre ri"iste# e a isare il mon$o $ella free&energy . @A "ro are un posto $ecente Be relati amente sicuroA $o e curare meglio il progetto e magari fare $imostra5ioni pratiche. Sembra un $ettaglio banale ma al momento non c->. Proseguire la costru5ione aggiungen$o ulteriori $ati) noti5ie e bilanci. Aggiungere altre foto e ulteriori filmati) specie se si crea interesse.

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#i seguito, naturalmente, saranno discussi e mostrati i punti in atto. "ompletamento el &otore *l periodo che f seguito alla pubblica/ione della 1uarta parte f servito, oltre a completare il rotore stesso, per una discussione su come implementare gli elettromagneti. 3X emerso intanto che il 2minimo sindacale4 da costruire era costituito da due elettromagneti@ uno per lXindu/ione e uno naturalmente per spingere il rotore. !bbiamo constatato che, in entrambi i casi, occorre 1uantomeno un diametro di un centimetro in pig rispetto al magnete permanente E 1uindi 3.2 cm. Per il resto, le altre misure sono@ C filo da <.3;mm, alte//a 2.Hcm 2C filo da <.2mm, alte//a <.;cm Ausato per lXindu/ioneC

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?onostante la diversith degli elettromagneti, la sorpresa f che in indu/ione non sono molto diversi@ Qolt e <<m!, sempre con lo stesso tipo di test manuale. Pui di seguito lXimmagine delle bobine prima di montarle.

Se immagini sottostanti mostrano il rotore completato e montato con i suddetti elettromagneti.

?on manca 1ualche svista progettuale. SXesempio pig lampante f lo spostamento da un lato di entrambi i rotori Agih visibile nelle foto di sopraC per far posto alle boccole e ai relativi spinotti dellXelettromagnete grosso E e posso garantivi che anche cosi entrano a stento. Pualche problema anche con lXelettromagnete piccolo.

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*n ogni caso, 1uesto f lXattuale assetto delle bobine.

Primi Test /pinta a mano Qa da s_ che la prima cosa che ho fatto f stato attaccare il tester alla bobina di indu/ione dargli una spinta a mano e vedere 1uello che succedeva. *l risultato f stato un massimo .H Qj. ?on f andato malissimo, comun1ue credevo di pig.

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Pro3a col reed " ?on poteva mancare lXinterruttore magnetico E ogni altro sensore ha unXimplementa/ione pig complessa. Per esperien/e precedenti sono partito con lXalimenta/ione minima. #i per s_ i risultati non sono stati molto diversi dal test a mano libera, ma la cosa che mi preoccupava di pig, e che ho visto manifestarsi anche a 3Q, f la 2scintilla4 del reed che degrada il componente stesso molto rapidamente Alo brucia a poco a poco - i primi momenti non ci si accorge nemmenoC. Puesto mi ha spinto a usare il metodo suggerito da *nnocenti tempo addietro@ collegargli un condensatore in parallelo. Pro3a col reed ( ?ella scelta del condensatore ho scelto semplicemente il pig piccolo che avevo a disposi/ione@ 22 k5. !ppena provato ad utili//arlo le scintille hanno smesso immediatamente pur mantenendo il pieno fun/ionamento dellXapparato. 3sperimento riuscito. 5est con la resistenLa 3ariabile (o scelto una resisten/a variabile di 8l e lXho collegata in serie prima del condensatore. Sa performance f stata disastrosa anche a valori bassissimi A2l e poco oltreC. #a 5ranco avevo misurato 1uanto consumava la bobina di eccita/ione@ N<<m!. "antissimo. "uttavia nei test compiuti finora, e in 1uelli che seguiranno, lXalimenta/ione f di ;<<m!, 1uindi gih sottoalimentato. 3videntemente non poteva andare oltre. 3sperimento fallito. 5est di mis+raLione n." W :limentatore 9** m: Puesto test f forse 1uello pig importante tra 1uesti primi. !nticipo subito che f unXinsieme di successo e fallimento e che comun1ue si possono dedurre molte cose interessanti e che mXincoraggiano a continuare. *l test sul voltaggio f stato fatto col multimetro digitale gih precedentemente fotografato. "uttavia per la misura/ione dellXamperaggio Ain alternataC e la fre1uen/a ho dovuto ricorrere al prestito di un multimetro pig avan/ato. Puindi per lXingresso i valori sono 1uelli dichiarati dallXalimentatore Asia volt che gli ampereC per il voltaggio in uscita sono ricorso al multimetro personale per lXamperaggio e la fre1uen/a in uscita i valori sono 1uelli del multimetro avan/ato. Per lXamperaggio ho usato il fondoscala di 2<<m!. Gli altri dati, ossia il valore in 9att e il n.di giri al secondo, sono stati ricavati per calcolo. !ltre note@ nella misura/ione dellXamperaggio il rotore ha signi-icati3amente rallentato@ tale risultato f visibile soprattutto al crescere del numero dei giri. *noltre i valori erano fortemente altalenanti@ ho riportato pertanto il valore massimo. *ni/ialmente pensavo che la cosa fosse probabilmente dovuta ad un leggero disallineamento del rotore che facesse variare la distan/a fra magnete e elettromagnete e 1uindi la misura/ione, invece Ama 1uesto si vedrh pig avantiC f responsabile la 1uantith di filo impiegato per bobinare lXinduttiva, evidentemente maggiore in un verso che nellXaltro. *l voltaggio e amperaggio in uscita sono misurati in alternata. Sa fre1uen/a f stata misurata con una precisione di <(/. *l numero di giri f approssimato per difetto. *l test da 2Q f stato saltato per non compromettere il reed.

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Qolt 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.<

7np't m! ;<< ;<< ;<< ;<< ;<<

9att .;< 2.2; 3.<< 3.H; >.;<

Qolt .; 2.3 3.< >.2 >.H

m! <; 2H 3H N G;

;'tp't 9att 5re1.A(/C ?. di giri7sec. <. ;H; 2< 3 <.2G2 >< N <.> < N< < <.>FH2 H< <.>>N; F< 3

$ome gih detto, i dati che vi sottopongo mostrano molte noti/ie@ alcune buone, altre cattive. *ni/iamo dalle cattive. * pessimisti vedranno subito che il rapporto entrata7uscita, espresso in 9att, va dal G= A1uinta rigaC al 3= Ater/a rigaC. *l che significa che per andare ad un rendimento superiore al <<= dovrei mettere a N Qolts e costruire almeno F avvolgimenti di indu/ione E almeno che, con pig avvolgimenti, non insorgano ulteriori problemi. Prima di lanciarmi in 1uesta erculea impresa vorrei fare altre analisi e altri test. )a andiamo in una lettura pig attenta@ se prendiamo il risultato migliore, N Qolts, notiamo che vengono prodotti 3.< Qolts e 3H m!. ?otiamo pure che il numero di giri f soltanto pari a <. ?otiamo pure che con giri Aforse 2, per via dellXapprossima/ioneC rasentiamo il me//o 9att. Sa bella noti/ia fondamentalmente f 1uesta@ bastano una do//ina di giri al secondo per rasentare il me//o 9attb Se bobine, in indu/ione, fanno un gran bel lavoro, sotto tutti punti di vistab $osa farebbero con 2<,3< o ;< giri al secondo0 *l problema vero f la performance in ingresso. 6ssia, per parlarci chiaro, come produrre con 3.< Qolts, < giri al secondo o, a N.< Qolts, 2< giri al secondo. Puali sono le possibili solu/ioni0 C Portare lXalimenta/ione delle bobine da ;<< a N<<m!. *l 5est con la resistenLa 3ariabile aveva fatto notare come poca resisten/a in pig aveva 1uasi fermato il rotore. Qisto che, come gih specificato, lXassorbimento era di N<< m!, ci si pum al contrario aspettare un netto miglioramento. %e tale miglioramento supera il 2<= Adi tanto infatti aumenta lXamperaggioC e otteniamo, per esempio, il ;<= di giri in pig, allora f corrente spesa bene, e il numero di bobine necessario per ottenere overunity scende drasticamente. 2C #iminuire lXattrito. *n effetti il problema 2attrito4 f ben presente, nonostante abbia fatto di tutto per poterlo evitare Acuscinetti a sfera aperti e ben oliatiC in fase di montaggio. 3C #iminuire il peso. *l peso complessivo del rotore non f da sottovalutare@ ormai credo che il chilo lo abbia superato abbondantemente. >C Provare un 1uasi 2ciclo chiuso4. 6ssia, reimmettere la corrente in uscita, sommandola con 1uella in entrata Ae vedere lXeffetto che fa @C C ;C $ambiare bobina@ N<<m! di assorbimento sono davvero troppib NC Produrre bobine di indu/ione pig grandi in circonferen/a per aumentare, se non lXamperaggio, almeno il voltaggio. Puindi i prossimi test saranno orientati su 1uesti aspetti. 5est di mis+raLione n.( W :limentatore "*** m: 8iorno " %ospettando che, sottoalimentata, la bobina statore facesse scarsamente il suo dovere, sono passato ad un alimentatore da <<< m!, cosi da avere certe//a delle sue piene capacith Ache ricordiamo assorbe N<< m! E o almeno cosi f stata valutataC.

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Qolt 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.<

7np't m! <<< <<< <<< <<< <<<

;'tp't 9att QoltADepulsioneC QoltA!ttra/ioneC 3.< 3.< 3.> >.; 3.F >.< N.< >.> >.> H.; ;.2 ;.2 G.< ;.N ;.;

!vendo effettuato il test col multimetro personale, non 1uello avan/ato, il test si f purtroppo fermato 1ui. Potete notare che nella prima riga si ha, in termini di voltaggio un apporto uguale o superiore a 1uello erogato Achiaramente lXamperaggio f inferioreC. (o deciso di mantenere 1uesti dati perch_ serviranno da confrontare pig tardi. 8iorno( #opo aver richiesto il multimetro avan/ato, col 1uale stavolta ho compiuto tutte le misure, ho rifatto dXaccapo il test, sempre comun1ue con i medesimi valori dXingresso. "ale test, lXho svolto in due parti@ nella prima ho usato la modalith di repulsione, ossia lo statore fa girare la ruota respingendo i magneti al momento opportuno Ada notare che la foto si riferisce alla prima riga della tabella, il tester f impostato sul fre1uen/imetro e le cifre in piccolo sono i Qolt in alternataC, nella seconda lo statore attrae i magneti, ossia i poli sono stati invertiti per attrarre i magneti an/ich_ respingerli. * risultati sono riportati nelle tabelle 1ui di seguito. 'odalitX: >ep+lsione Qolt 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< 7np't m! <<< <<< <<< <<< <<< 9att 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< Qolt 3.3 >. >.H ;.; N.< m! 33 2H <N HG ;> ;'tp't 9att 5re1.A(/C ?. di giri7sec. <.>3 ;< F <.;2 N< < <.>G F< 3 <.>3 F< 3 <.32 G< ;

'odalitX: :ttraLione Qolt 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< 7np't m! <<< <<< <<< <<< <<< 9att 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< Qolt 3.H >.H ;.N N.N N.G m! 2G 3< F HG ;> ;'tp't 9att 5re1.A(/C ?. di giri7sec. <.>H N< < <.N H< <.NN F< 3 <.;2 << N <.3H << N

*l risultato mi ha lasciato entusiasta, anche se dovrm fare la verifica con N<< m! reintroducendo la resisten/a. ?ella prima riga della prima tabella, e nelle prime due della seconda abbiamo addirittura un voltaggio superiore a 1uello fornitob Dimane comun1ue un fatto@ in amperaggio, pig il numero dei giri aumenta A1uindi anche il voltaggio in

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ingressoC invece di aumentare, diminuisce. ! livello visivo, mentre misuro lXamperaggio, aumenta si la velocith, ma anche un terribile effetto frenante. *n una prova intermedia, cortocircuitando, sen/a alcun tester, la bobina in uscita ho ottenuto lo stesso effetto, forse anche peggiore. )i viene da pensare che il risultato cosi positivo ottenuto oggi, nel voltaggio, potesse essere dipeso dal maggiore assorbimento dellXattuale tester. Puesto porta a delle conseguen/e@ la consape3oleLLa cioY che la bobina di ind+Lione Y asimmetrica Aossia ha pig filo in un verso che nellXaltroC, con conseguen/e fin troppo visibili. 5est con le lampadine *n 1uesto test non ho preso misura/ioni. (o provato a inserire come carico varie lampadine A2.2, 3.N, >.F e N QoltsC. *l test ha confermato la tesi sopracitata@ si ricrea un effetto di ritorno e il motore, nel suo complesso, rallenta. $omun1ue il risultato migliore, paradossalmente, lo ha dato la lampadina da N Qolts. ?ella foto, infatti, potete vederla col voltaggio in entrata di N Qolts, tuttavia fun/iona anche con voltaggi pig bassi. )a la spiega/ione cXf, perch_ tra tutte le lampadine f 1uella che assorbe meno corrente@ ;< m!. %e vedete le tabelle di sopra, in effetti, lXeroga/ione di corrente alternata si avvicina pig a 1uesto valore. 5est di mis+raLione n.= W :limentatore "*** m: W +scita retti-icata *n 1uesto test mi sono proposto la rettifica/ione della corrente alternata attraverso il metodo classico@ aggiungendo ciof allXuscita un rettificatore e un condensatore in parallelo, come nella foto a fianco. *l condensatore f di << k5, che ho scelto per avere garan/ia di una corrente stabile. Per il test sono tornato al vecchio multimetro, in 1uanto non ho pig necessith di misurare lXamperaggio in alternata n_ tanto meno le fre1uen/e. Bna cosa ve la anticipo subito@ alla misura/ione dellXamperaggio il fastidioso effetto di frenata si f notevolmente ridotto. Puesto mi fa pensare che una costru/ione pig attenta della bobina di indu/ione, unita alla rettifica/ione potrebbe ridurre il problema fino a renderlo trascurabile. 7n attraLione Qolt 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< 7np't m! <<< <<< <<< <<< <<< 9att 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< ;'tp't DalternataE Qolt m! 9att 3.H 2G <.>H >.H 3< <.N ;.N F <.NN N.N HG <.;2 N.G ;> <.3H ;'tp't DrettificatoE Qolt m! 9att >.3H 3G <. H ;.2 ;; <.2F N.<G H< <.>2 H.2> G2 <.NN H.F; <> <.F

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7n rep+lsione Qolt 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< 7np't m! <<< <<< <<< <<< <<< 9att 3.< >.; N.< H.; G.< ;'tp't DalternataE Qolt m! 9att 3.3 33 <.>3 >. 2H <.;2 >.H <N <.>G ;.; HG <.>3 N.< ;> <.32 ;'tp't DrettificatoE Qolt m! 9att >.;; >< <. F N.<3 N< <.3N H.; F <.N< G.<H < <.GG G.3; 2; . N

Potete notare come in repulsione 1uesto test abbia portato a risultati interessanti@ il voltaggio sempre maggiore di 1uello indicato e, a G Qolts, ho finalmente superato la produ/ione di 9att. So svantaggio f lXamperaggio minore che tuttavia in alternata decresceva e ora aumenta regolarmente. Sa prova con le lampadine salta, con valori di amperaggio del genere non fun/ionerebbe comun1ue. Atti!itP i contorno (o fatto girare un filmato del dispositivo in fun/ione. *l test ripreso f il n.2 in attra/ione. *l file, se non lo trovate sul #Q# di !ltra %cien/a, f comun1ue scaricabile su http@77asse.altervista.org7valeryItestIdiv+.avi. )i sono oltrettuto divertito a creare unXipotetica pagina web e ho ini/iato Ama giusto ini/iatoC a produrre unXanima/ione con .lender in cui mostro il montaggio virtuale dellXapparecchio. Per ora non ho fretta, anche perch_ come avete visto, rispetto la sperimenta/ione, non f la priorith. Pig avanti, forse... (o postato, oltre alla consueta mailing-list, anche sul nuovo forum di "wilight %cience generando una buona discussione. *l link si trova in fondo allXarticolo.

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&ingraAiamenti Dingra/io Giovanni 6dorifero per il prestito del multimetro digitale avan/ato e per aver girato il video. %ergio %. per aver fornito il suo parere 2da profano4 su 1uesto progetto. 5ranco )ontefuscoli, 3ugenio )artucci e tutti i fre1uentatori della mailing list, i partecipanti del forum "wilight %cience Ain particolare )olotov ".)..., $onan 3ndogawa, PhobosY#eimosC per i consigli. "ontatti )ailing list@ http@77groups.yahoo.com7group7valery7 Posta 3lettronica@ betaversionJinwind.it #iscussione sul forum "wilight %cience@ http@77twilightscience.forumfree.net70tKH;NH3N YstK<

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Der Traum es schottischen PfarrersQ 3in fas/inierendes %tnck "echnik, dieser voll funktionsfohige, handgefertigte %tirling-)otor@ ein feinmechanischer Pro/isionsmotor in )iniaturausgabe. (ergestellt in #eutschland - aus edlen Dohstoffen, 2> 8arat, vergoldet, robust und von langer Sebensdauer. 3r wird nber einen %piritusbrenner betrieben. ?ach dem %ieges/ug der #ampfmaschine befassten sich am !nfang des G. Jh. viele 3rfinder mit 9ormekraftmaschinen@ 3in schottischer Pfarrer namens Dobert %tirling troumte von einer weniger gefohrlichen und energiesparenden p.ewegungs-)aschine2. *m Jahr F N, %tirling war gerade 2N Jahre alt, war seine *dee des pSuftmotors2 patentreif. 5ast 2<< Jahre spoter hat seine 3rfindung nichts von ihrer 5as/ination eingebnqt. %tirling )otor. (andgefertigtes 5unktionsmodell, 0= )arat, !ergol et, mit Glaskolben und (ol/sockel. !bmessungen >F + << + N< mm. Sehen Sie en Stirling*9otor in Aktion: Qideo - #%S und S!? A9indows-)ediaC Qideo - )odem und *%#? A9indows-)ediaC Qideo - #%S und S!? ADeal-QideoC Qideo - )odem und *%#? ADeal-QideoC

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Copyright 2006 bild der wissenschaft shop bild der wissenschaft shop - Ernst-Mey-Str ! - "0""# $einfelden-Echterdingen 0"##%"#&2'-(!0 if)*0"##%"#&2'-'''*+,**- doc./ent write)01nbsp2-1nbsp23i/g src,*assets%i/ages%icfa4 gif* width,*#6* height,*#6* alt,*Fa4en Sie .ns+* border,*0* align,*abs/iddle* hspace,*0* vspace,*0* class,*/ain*51nbsp20"##%"#&2''''3br50-2 - 6ei technischen Fragen 7. .nsere/ 8nline-Angebot wenden Sie sich bitte an fitt9a.:/edienservice-9onradin de ;/press./

Description of selecte

esign:

9e chose a displacer design which incorporates the use of a regenerator. "he displacer design uses one cylinder to e+pose the contained gas to either a hot or cold source and a second cylinder to convert the hot gas e+pansion to power. "he cylinders are connected by a conduit to allow the gas to be transferred. %ome of the components will be constructed from transparent materials to facilitate the demonstration of thermal principles acting on the mechanical components. Defer to 5igure for a conceptual view of our selected design.

5igure @ *sometric %tirling 3ngine with %olar $ollector


T%o piston esign: po%er piston an

isplacer piston

#isplacer piston is insulated and loosely-fitted Gas is allowed to move past the piston $ontrols whether gas will be heated or cooled by displacing gas to either the hot or cool side of the cylinder *nsulated to prevent heat transfer from hot to cold sides Power cylinder accepts e+panded gas causing piston to move Ease of Demonstration "ransparent high temperature glass section in the displacer cylinder

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&egenerator #uring displacement of gas, regenerator increases heat loss during hot to cold transfer and heat gain during cold to hot transfer *mproves efficiency Solar "ollector Parabolic collecting mirror $onducting rod to bring heat to engine

Dustification for Design Selection Bses a regenerator .est design for demonstration 3ase of construction $losed system E able to use gases other than air, i.e. helium #urable Parabolic solar collector easily positioned and ine+pensive to construct

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S". Engine cuta/ay ie/ B#lic7 on Picture for %arger !ie/A

S". Po/er4nits offer an effecti e alternati e to internal combustion engines) /hich are approaching theoretical limits in terms of efficiency an$ re$uce$ emissions. "he main $ifferentiating features of the e3ternal combustion S". engine are as follo/s8

S". Po/er4nits ha e been $esigne$ to achie e 3;= net electrical efficiency an$ C;= total system efficiency in a combine$ heat an$ po/er B#HPA mo$e. S". Po/er4nits are capable of continuous operation /ith simple maintenance at :;);;; hour inter als. S". Stirling cycle technology is scalable to larger applications. S". Po/er4nits /ill meet the D;;3 #alifornia Air Resources (oar$ B#AR(A regulations for 1O3 emissions. "he pro$ucts of combustion ne er come into contact /ith any mo ing parts) impro ing reliability an$ re$ucing maintenance. S". Po/er4nits ha e less than half the number of parts of a typical internal combustion engine. !ery lo/ noise an$ ibration 4nprece$ente$ fuel fle3ibility #an operate using an e3ternal heat source instea$ of fuel 'o/nloa$ S". #lean Energy (rochure "op

The Right Engine


*n contrast to tra$itional gas an$ $iesel internal combustion engines that ta7e in fuel an$ air insi$e the cylin$er) the S". engine /or7s $ifferently. *nstea$) the S". engine contains a seale$&in amount of /or7ing gas that is use$ o er an$ o er. Rather than burning fuel insi$e the cylin$er) the S". engine uses e3ternal heat to e3pan$ the gas containe$ insi$e the cylin$er an$

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push against its pistons. "he S". engine then recycles the same capti e /or7ing gas by cooling an$ compressing it) then reheating it again to e3pan$ an$ $ri e the pistons) /hich in turn $ri es a generator. As a result) the S". engine pro i$es benefits that are a$ antageous to many po/er applications. "hese benefits inclu$e smooth) clean) 9uiet engine performance /ithout the nee$ for a compressor) muffler or emissions e9uipment. *n a$$ition) the S". engine is highly efficient an$ $urable.

"op

Stirling-cycle technology - How it works


"he S". engine is a four&cylin$er) $ouble&acting Stirling engine /ith a s/ash plate $ri e. At the heart of the engine are four in$epen$ent gas enclosures each comprise$ of the olume un$er a piston Bcompression olumeA) the olume abo e the a$Eacent piston Be3pansion olumeA) a series of three heat e3changers connecting these t/o olumes) a cooler a$Eacent to the compression olume) a heater a$Eacent to the e3pansion olume an$ a regenerator bet/een the heater an$ the cooler.

#lic7 picture to ie/ a mo ie $emonstration

"he four pistons are arrange$ symmetrically aroun$ a s/ash plate that forces the reciprocating

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motion of any t/o neighboring pistons to be F;G out of phase. "he gas enclosures are charge$ /ith high&pressure hy$rogen that ser es as a /or7ing flui$. "he reciprocating motion of the pistons causes the olume of hy$rogen to increase an$ $ecrease alternately. "he e3pansion spaces are maintaine$ at a high temperature by continuous combustion of fuel or some other source of heat B/aste heatA outsi$e the tubes of the heaters. "he compression spaces are maintaine$ at a lo/ temperature by li9ui$ cooling of the coolers. "herefore) the temperature an$ the pressure of the hy$rogen $uring e3pansion is higher than $uring compression. "he hy$rogen absorbs heat from the combustion process) con erts a portion of it to mechanical po/er) /hich it $eli ers to the pistons) an$ reEects the balance to the li9ui$ coolant. "he mechanical po/er $eli ere$ by the hy$rogen to the pistons is aggregate$ an$ con erte$ to rotating shaft po/er by means of the s/ash plate $ri e. "he regenerator) /hich is the thir$ heat e3changer) $oes not e3change heat /ith the outsi$e. *t alternately absorbs heat from an$ releases heat bac7 to the hy$rogen in or$er to impro e the engine efficiency. "he engineHs output shaft is connecte$ to a generator to ma7e three&phase electrical po/er. "op

2N

.a3/ell-s Pressure 'emon an$ the Secon$ %a/ of "hermo$ynamics (y John .arshall 'u$ley Summary "heory pre$icts that it shoul$ be possible to iolate the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynaics. An e3periment /as constructe$ to e aluate the theory) an$ it /as foun$ to pro$uce po/er in the form of electricity from the 7inetic energy of molecules of air at room temperature. "he e3perimental po/er pro$uce$ by the $e ice o er a temperature range of D; & 22 # /as /ithin 2= of that /hich the theory pre$icte$ across the entire range. Other sources of the po/er) such as electrochemical /ere e aluate$ an$ eliminate$ as possibilites. The Second Law "he secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics is consi$ere$ by most physicists to be in$isputable. "he saying goes that if a theory iolates this la/) then the theory must be /rong. "his is $espite the fact that the la/ /ith respect to entropy can be pro en mathematically false B:A) an$ the temperature gra$ient of the any planet-s atmosphere pro es it physically false BDA as /ell. "he real 9uestion is if it can be e3perimentally pro en false in a laboratory at the macro le el on a time scale that humans are comfortable /ith) something more than microsecon$s) an$ less than the age of the uni erse. *f e3periments are $one an$ they $ispute the theory at macroscopic le els /ith times of secon$s) minutes an$ hours) then the secon$ la/ must be $eclare$ false) both from a mathematical stan$point as /ell as a physical reality. "here is in$ee$ e i$ence that for submicroscopic particles this la/ can be iolate$. See (ea$s of $oubt B3A for information on this. E en mesoscopic systems can routinely iolate the secon$ la/ as /ell BIA. "he reality that it can be iolate$ consistently an$ continuously at the macroscopic le el shoul$ sho/ that the concept of the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics is fla/e$ an$ false. J"he secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics says that a close$ system-s entropy can only stay the same or increase) it can ne er $ecrease B2A. "his is of course false for an ergo$ic function such as entropy as pro en by the abo e reference. "he la/ can also be e3presse$ as J*t is impossible to construct a heat engine that) operating in a cycle) pro$uces no effect other than the ahsorption of thermal energy from a reser oir an$ the performance of an e9ual amount of /or7.J BKA Jit is impossible to construct a cyclical machine that pro$uces no other effect than to transfer heat continuously from one bo$y to another bo$y at a higher temperature.J BKA "hat those last t/o reference restrict the secon$ la/ to a machine that is operating in a cycle is curious) generally there is no such restriction on /hat machines to /hich the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics applies. "he iolation of the secon$ la/ of therm$ynamics outline$ in this paper is $one though /ith a $e ice /hich is 1O" cyclic) but rather continuous. Maxwell's Demon .a3/ell-s 'emon is a thought e3periment /hich has a $oor that is opene$ an$ shut /hen a molecule of gas approaches. *t is opene$ if the molecule has greater than the a erage spee$) an$ close$ if it has less. "hus only the JhotterJ molecules pass though the $oor) so the gas on the other si$e of the $oor /ill be /armer than those left behin$. "his /oul$ iolate the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics) an$ the theory is that the amount of energy re9uire$ to ma7e the $ecision on /hether to open the $oor or not e9uals or e3cee$s the energy gaine$ by $oing so. Another $emon that is closely relate$ is the pressure $emon) also 7no/n as .a3/ell-s pressure $emon. *n this thought e3periment the /all acts li7e a $io$e) letting molecules of a gas tra el in one $irection) but bloc7s them from going the other $irection. "hus one si$e gets pressuri5e$ an$ hot) an$ the other si$e loses pressure an$ gets cooler. (ut as the abo e references in$icate) for molecular si5e$ particles an$ smaller) the secon$ la/

2H

can be iolate$. So) $oes .a3/ell-s BPressureA $emon pro i$e a /ay to $o this at the macro le el6 *t certainly appears that it might. E3ploring .a3/ell-s $emon) the i$ea /as that one $oes not /ant to e3tract any energy as heat. 0irst this is a lo/ gra$e energy) an$ secon$) it is har$ to measure minute temperature $ifferences. *t /oul$ be much better if /e coul$ e3tract electricity $irectly. "his is easy to measure an$ 9uantify. So) if /e can construct the $oor to not let through a molecule) but rather let through an electron from the molecule-s shell instea$) /e /oul$ ha e a metho$ of generating electric current. Collision nduced Tunneling As it turns out) this is not $ifficult to $o. "he metho$ to accomplish this is calle$ tunneling Bsee *ntro to Luantum .echanics BMAA) a concept that is /ell un$erstoo$ an$ 9uantifie$ in 9uantum mechanics. (asically an electron has a finite probability of being any/here /ithin an area aroun$ an atom accor$ing to SchrN$ingerHs /a e e9uations. *f the molecule is mo ing) this area increases in si5e. "he a erage elocity of an o3ygen atom at 3;; K is Eust un$er 2;; mOs. So if a molecule of gas hits a fe/ atom thin non&con$uctor /ith a con$uctor behin$ it) there is a small probability that one of the atom-s electrons /ill tunnel through the insulating layer) an$ en$ up trappe$ on the con$uctor si$e. "his process is also enhance$ by /hat is terme$ Jcollision in$uce$ tunnelingJ) /hich generates a force on the orbital electrons e9ui alent to a fiel$ gra$ient of o er 2 million olts per inch /hen it is $ecelerate$ from the a erage elocity of a gas particle o er the $istance of a typical atom. "his force is far in e3cess of /hat is nee$e$ to cause hea y asymmetric tunneling through the insulating layer. "his thus becomes the e9ui alent of .a3/ell-s pressure $emon /ith the electron. "hus if /e ta7e a sheet of metal) an$ put a ery thin insulating layer on the surface of this) an$ place another piece of metal ne3t to it /ith a small air gap bet/een them) /e /oul$ e3pect a potential $ifference to $e elop bet/een the t/o sheets. Since electrons /oul$ be trappe$ in the one that has the insulating layer) it shoul$ become more negati e than the one /ithout the insulating layer) /hich /oul$ continually blee$ off any charge by contact /ith molecules of the air Bespecially any of /hich ha$ recently lost an electronA. Putting a thin layer of insulator on a sheet of metal only a couple of atoms thic7 is usually not easy) e3cept /ith aluminum. Aluminum /ill ac9uire an atom or t/o thic7 layer of Aluminum O3i$e BAlDO3A on it-s surface /ithin secon$s of being e3pose$ to any o3ygen. So or$inary aluminum /ill ha e /hat is terme$ a passi ate$ layer on it. "his meets the re9uirements for the .a3/ell pressure $emon 9uite /ell) pro i$ing a ery thin layer that electrons can tunnel through) yet en$ up trappe$ on the aluminum si$e. So all that is nee$e$ to try this e3periment is a sheet of aluminum /ith a thin sheet of another metal) such as copper or brass) separate$ by a ery small gap. "hen a multimeter can be use$ to measure the potential $ifference bet/een the t/o sheets of metal. 1ote ho/e er that ery thin aluminum foil shoul$ not /or7 9uite as /ell as a thic7er sheet. *f the foil is too thin) then the electron can tunnel right through the foil B http8OO///.physlin7.comOE$ucationOAs7E3pertsOaeK:F.cfm BCAA an$ en$ up on the other si$e of the foil) instea$ of $epositing a charge on the foil as $esire$. "he aluminum shoul$ be at least as thic7 as hea y $uty Reynol$s /rap) or the oltage an$ current $e elope$ /ill be lo/er than it /oul$ other/ise. ,ith t/o $ifferent metals ho/e er) one might surmise that the effect is some type of battery effect. Although there is no 7no/n mechanism for this to occur /ith only air or an insulator bet/een the sheets) the fact that if the aluminum is thin foil the effect shoul$ be re$uce$ can be use$ to $ispro e this theory. *n a$$ition) one coul$ use t/o $ifferent thic7nesses of aluminum) an$ the thinner one shoul$ al/ays be positi e to the thic7er one if electron tunneling is causing the potential $ifference. *ncreasing temperature shoul$ cause absorbe$ /ater to e aporate) an$ the surface con$ucti ity of the insulator to $ecrease) thus re$ucing the po/er generate$ by the

2F

$e ice) but tunneling /ill increase an$ shoul$ cause a $ramatic increase of po/er) appro3imately $oubling for e ery :I $egrees #elsius. Although humi$ity shoul$ increase the po/er if from chemical reactions) it is li7ely to increase as /ell if $ue to tunneling. 0rom the tests sho/n belo/) that the energy is being generate$ from tunneling of electrons from the capture$ gas are supporte$ by e3perimental e i$ence an$ is not a chemical reaction e3cept at high humi$ity le els or /i$e gaps. Of course if /e are iolating the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics /ithout iolating the la/ of conser ation of energy) there must also be a cooling effect on the gas. *f /e e3amine a molecule that has colli$e$ /ith the insulating layer an$ lost an electron) it /ill bounce off the layer elastically) an$ mo e to/ar$ the other sheet of metal. Ho/e er since it has lost an electron) it /ill be positi ely charge$ an$ slo/e$ by the electric fiel$ bet/een the t/o sheets) so that /hen it reaches the other sheet an$ gets neutrali5e$) it has lost the same amount of energy as /as $eposite$ electrically on the insulate$ sheet. "hus this is in$ee$ an implementation of .a3/ell-s $emon. "his also puts an upper limit on the oltage that can be $e elope$ bet/een the plates. (asically the ma3imum oltage that can be $e elope$ in a rarefie$ gas /ill be the 7inetic e! times the number of $egrees of free$om of the molecule of gas at that temperature. BAt 3;;K or room temperature that /or7s out to be about ::K me!) assuming 3 $egrees of free$om. "he 'iatomic gases nitrogen an$ o3ygen ha e 2 $egrees) but D of them are for rotation so shoul$ ha e no effect /ith an electric fiel$A. *f the gas is not rarifie$) then collisions /ith other molecules can continue to a$$ energy as it loses it by mo ing to/ar$ the other plate so that a oltage can be reache$ that is significantly higher than the 7inetic e! of the gas. "he mean free path of an o3ygen molecule in air is about KM nm. "hus for a molecule that has lost an electron to ma7e it bac7 to the copper plate it /ill encounter $OKM nm collisions on the a erage /ith other molecules. 0or a typical fiberglass screen B$ P .;:JA this /or7s out to be about DI;);;;nmOKMcollisionsOnm P 3K;; collisions. Since collisions /ill cause the a erage elocity of a molecule to approach ;) they /ill ten$ to cause the molecule to ten$ to $rift bac7 to/ar$ the aluminum plate $ue to the electric fiel$. "he result is that the e3pecte$ energy pro$uce$ shoul$ $ecrease $ramatically as the $istance bet/een the plates is increase$) an$ e en /ith this narro/ gap) the e3pecte$ efficiency shoul$ be ery lo/. *f the energy source is electrochemical then the pro$uce$ po/er shoul$ not be affecte$ significantly by the $istance bet/een the plates. Once again) e3perimental e i$ence supports that the energy is from the 7inetic energy of the gas molecules an$ not electrochemical since slight ariations in the $istance bet/een the plates pro$uce large changes in the oltage. Tem!erature De!endence o" Tunneling At any rate the hotter the air bet/een the plates) the higher the oltage that can be $e elope$ $ue to the increase$ energy of the molecules an$ increase$ mean free path. "he increase$ collision rate shoul$ also increase the ma3imum current the $e ice can $eli er as /ell. "he other limiting factor is that the gas molecule must ha e sufficient energy to cause the electron to tunnel through the barrier plus the oltage on the aluminum plate. An air molecule at 3;; K /ill ha e an a erage 7inetic energy normal to a plate of 3C.M me! at 3;; K. A one o3ygen thic7 aluminum o3i$e potential barrier is reporte$ to ha e a brea7$o/n oltage of appro3imately :.2 olts. "hus the ma3imum oltage that can be e3pecte$ to be maintaine$ on the aluminum plate at any temperature cannot e3cee$ this) since at oltages greater than this) a re erse current can $e elop an$ $ischarge the plate. Ho/e er electrons can penetrate this barrier from gas if it is one or t/o molecules thic7 by tunneling. *t is e3pecte$ that the oltage an$ current /ill increase e3ponentially /ith temperature. "his is characteristic of tunneling) /here only the highest energy electrons are capable of tunneling through the barrier. Also it is e3pecte$ that the effect /ill be ery strongly $epen$ent on humi$ity. ,ater has a molecular /eight of :C an$ can $isassociate into a HQ an$ a OH&. "he OH& not only has an e3tra electron ma7ing it negati ely charge$) but it has a molecular /eight of :M) about half of a typical molecule of nitrogen or o3ygen in air. "hus a /ater molecule or hy$ro3yl ra$ical /ill be tra eling at a elocity appro3imately I;= faster than that of a typical

2G

molecule) appro3imating a molecule of air at about t/ice the absolute temperature BK;; K or about 33; #A. *t is e3pecte$ that at normal humi$ity le els) the /ater molecule an$ hy$ro3yl ra$icals /ill be the primary source of electrons to cross the barrier at temperatures aroun$ 3;;K $ue to it-s higher elocity an$ negati e charge in the case of they hy$ro3yl ra$ical. "he e9uation for tunneling through a thin insulating layer is8 *B"A P *B"oA R S"O"oTUD R E3pS & EOD7 R B:O" & :O"oA T BV:A ,ith a "aylor e3pansion in the limit of small temperature changes) one can sho/ that the temperature $epen$ence is8 *B"A P *B"oA R E3pSa R B" & "oAT BVDA /hich sho/s that the e3pecte$ cur e o er a limite$ temperature range is an e3ponential as /e assume$ earlier. See %ea7age #urrent Subtraction an$ Signal #alibration BFA an$ "he 'io$e B:;A E is the ban$ gap of the material. "he ban$ gap of thic7 layers of aluminum o3i$e is appro3im ately F e!. "hin layers) such as one or t/o atoms thic7 get into the area of a Jsi5e $epen$ent ban$ gapJ) /hich /ill be appro3imately half of the bul7 ban$ gap for ery thin films. "hus in the math belo/ * /ill use a ban$ gap energy of I.2 e!. A slight error in this number changes the result significantly) so if /e get close to the correct ans/er it shoul$ be supporti e of the theory. *f /e assume /e are /or7ing /ith a soli$ instea$ of a gas for the electron source) an$ using D; $egrees # BDF3 KA as "o) then substituting in the abo e e9uation V: /e get8 *B"A P *B"oA R S"ODF3TUD R E3pS & I.2OBDRC.KR:;U&2A R B:O" & :ODF3A T 1o/) if /e assume that /e are getting tunneling from the collision in$uce$ tunneling on one si$e of the aluminum o3i$e layer only) then /e ha e either 2 or K $egrees of free$om for a $iatomic an$ triatomic molecules. 0or a $iatomic molecule this is from 3 translational $egrees of free$om) D rotational $egrees of free$om) an$ one ibrational $egree of free$om. 1ote that although the ibrational $egree of free$om normally a$$s D $egrees of free$om) the 7inetic an$ the potential) only the 7inetic affects the collision in$uce$ tunneling. Some $iatomic molucles $o not ha e a ibrational mo$e) B::A $ue to their tight bin$ing) such as o3ygen an$ nitrogen. 0or triatomic molecules there are 3 $egrees of translational free$om) an$ three $egrees of rotational free$om) but $ue to the strong bin$ing for molecules such as carbon $io3i$e an$ o5one) there is no ibrational mo$e. Since there are molecules /ith both 2 an$ K $egrees of free$om) $ue to the e3ponential nature of the e9uation) those /ith K $egrees /ill ha e much more effect than those /ith 2 $egrees of free$om. "hus /e use use K $egrees of free$om in our computations $espite that only a small portion of normal air /ill be compose$ of molecules /ith this many $egrees of free$om.. "he result is8 *B"A P *B"oA R S"ODF3TUD R E3pS & I.2OBDRKRC.KR:;U&2A R B:O" & :ODF3A T 1o/) that /oul$ be for contant olume) but /e use$ constant pressure) so using (oyles la/ /e compute that the gas $ensity is proportional to DF3O" for each measurement8 *B"A P *B"oA R DF3O" R S"ODF3TUD R E3pS & I.2OBDRKRC.KR:;U&2A R B:O" & :ODF3A T *B"A P *B"oA R "ODF3 R E3pS & I.2OBDRKRC.KR:;U&2A R B:O" & :ODF3A T *B"A P *B"oA R "ODF3 R E3pS & I3K;.2 R B:O" & :ODF3A T Ex!erimental #eri"ication A unit /as built by putting a sheet of copper bet/een t/o fiberglass screens then that /as san$/iche$ bet/een t/o 2W2 inch :OI inch thic7 aluminum plates. "his /as bolte$ together /ith bolts on opposite corners of the assembly. "he oltage /as measure$ using a #SiOSpeco '.R& D3DDA /ith : .egohm input impe$ance on the D;; m! scale BSpec says it is D .eg. but is

3<

/rongA. An Omitron E2#S thermocouple temperature monitor an$ controller /as use$ to measure temperature. A .aytag 7itchen o en /ith mechanical thermostat /as use$ for the heating.

"he /hite alligator clip is on the thermocouple probe that is inserte$ into the assembly for recor$ing the temperature. *t /as foun$ that the oltage generate$ /as ery $epen$ent on the pressure applie$ to the plates. *t /as foun$ that as you increase$ pressure the oltage /oul$ pea7) then begin $ropping off again. Apparently /hat happens is that the plates are brought closer together so that the air gap $ecreases until e erything is totally flat. After that the screen begins compressing) re$ucing the cell openings) so the space /ith air in it $ecreases. *f the oltage /ere strictly electrochemical) then it /oul$ be e3pecte$ that the oltage /oul$ continue increasing) e en as the screen got presse$ $o/n. "he first test run /as to $etermine if the oltage generate$ coul$ be electrochemical. *nitially the unit /as teste$ at about 3;= humi$ity. "he unit /as not tightene$ $o/n at all) Eust assemble$) so that it /oul$ be easy to $iffuse humi$ air into the gap. "he oltage recor$e$ /as 3 m! an$ the resistance /as measure$ to be D;; .eg ohm. 4sing a '!. /ith a : .eg input impe$ance) the initial locomoti e force nee$e$ if this /as electrochemical /oul$ be 3W:;& 3RD;;W:;UKO:W:;UK or about .K olts. "his is an in$ication that the oltage source coul$ be electrochemical) since the oltage generate$ electrochemically bet/een the copper an$ the aluminum teste$ in /ater is appro3imately .KK olts. "hen the unit /as place$ into a seale$ container /ith a /et paper to/el an$ left to sit. ,ithin a fe/ hours the humi$ity approache$ :;;=. "he oltage an$ resistance /as ta7en again. "he oltage ha$ increase$ to .D:2 olts an$ the resistance ha$ $roppe$ to Eust un$er D megohm. 4sing these measurements /ith the '!. impe$ance gi es that the initial electromoti e force if from an electrochemical cell of appro3imately .K olts again) /hich is /hat /oul$ be e3pecte$ if this /ere being generate$

electrochemically. "hese initial tests in$icate that at room temperature an$ /hen not tightene$ $o/n the source may be electrochemical. All a$$itional tests ha e been run at humi$ity le els un$er 3;= to try an$ alle iate this possible source of error as much as possible. "he hope is that the lo/ humi$ity rea$ing is apparently from the electrochemical contribution because of the /i$e gap from not tightening it $o/n since it is 7no/n that /hen tightene$ $o/n the oltage /ill appro3imately $ouble) but the electrochemical oltage shoul$ not change. Since ele ate$ humi$ity creates an electrochemical cell) testing /ith arying humi$ities to confirm if /ater apor is or is not a maEor contributor to the tunneling /hen using copper sheet an$ aluminum plates are use$ is not possible. Tem!erature Testing "he bolts on the assembly /ere tightene$ from the abo e measurements until a pea7 oltage /as foun$) an$ then left there for the temperature tests. "he follo/ing $ata /as recor$e$ "emperature $elsius 2< 2; 3< 3; >< >; ;< ;; mQ potential ;.H H.> G.3 2 ; G. 2>.N 32 3+pected mQ potential ;.H H.>> G.N3 2.3H ;.H 3H G.G3 2;.<3 3 .23

This gra!h de!icts a Maxwell Demon unit which measures $%$ inches and is a sandwich o" co!!er "oil in the center& with "i'erglass screen on each side o" the "oil& and ()* inch aluminum !late on each side+ This is 'olted together and !ressure ad,usted "or maximum out!ut -oltage at ./ C and low humidity "he re$ line is the e3perimental $ata) an$ the green line is a graph of the compute$ $ata from

32

the abo e e9uations for tunneling from gas molecules. As can be seen the $e iation from the e3pecte$ by the e3perimental results is ne er more than 2=. *f the energy /ere being generate$ electrochemically from moisture absorbe$ on the screen creating a battery effect) the oltage an$ current shoul$ $rop off /ith ele ate$ temperatures /hich /oul$ $ri e off the absorbe$ layer of /ater thus $iscounting that mechanism. A$$itional testing using a thic7 aluminum plate co ere$ /ith thin aluminum foil an$ /ith thin aluminum foil in place of the copper foil has generate$ up to .2 m! potential $epen$ing on temperature) /ith the thic7 aluminum plate negati e as e3pecte$. Since only electrons that not only tunnel through the aluminum o3i$e barrier but also the entire foil /ill register in this test) the ery lo/ rea$ings are e3pecte$ an$ confirm our hypothesis. *n this case all electrochemical sources of the potential ha e been totally eliminate$) the same foil is use$ on both si$es of the screen) only the t/o outsi$e foils are bac7e$ by the aluminum plates so that any electrons that tunnel through the foil /ill still be capture$. "ests /ith ele ate$ temperatures sho/ an e3ponential increase in oltage an$ current) /hich is consistent /ith the pre ious measurements. 1ote that the '!. use$ ha$ a resolution of .: m!) so any rea$ings that are half the resolution /ere bouncing bet/een the t/o rea$ings. Ho/e er e en /ith this cru$e resolution) it is easy to see that the increase in oltage an$ current is roughly an e3ponential again as e3pecte$. 'ata for thin aluminum foil in place of the copper foil) an$ co ering the aluminum plates8 "emperature $elsius mQ potential 2< <.< 2; <.< 3< <.<; 3; <. >< <. >; <.2 ;< <.2; ;; <.3 N< <.> N; <.; "he e3periment /as e aluate$ for thermoelectric components. 0or the aluminum foil /ith aluminum e3periment) all thermoelectric components shoul$ cancel out) since the same metals at the same temperature are use$ on both the positi e an$ negati e lea$s. *n the case of copper foil in the mi$$le) there coul$ be some thermocouple oltages generate$) but these shoul$ cancel out as /ell since the lea$s /ere run out of the o en together) an$ the only thermal $rop is /here the lea$s e3it the o en) an$ both lea$s are i$entical an$ of the same material. All Eunctions are either at room temperature or test temperature) an$ since the lea$ material on both is the same) all Eunction offsets ha e to cancel out as /ell. Humidity Testing o" "oil and 0oil on 1late Since there is no electrochemical contribution to the aluminum foil s foil on plate) a humi$ity test /as run once again. "he metho$ /as the same as before) a /et paper to/el /as enclose$ /ith the unit an$ left for se eral hours. *nitially /ith the humi$ity un$er 3;=) the oltage measure$ /as ;.; m!) meaning it /as less than ;.: m!. After being e3pose$ to X F;= humi$ity for se eral hours it rea$ ;.3 m!) thus supporting the hypothesis that /ater molecules are much more efficient at supporting .a3/ell tunneling than the gas molecules in air. "he potential increase$ 3 or I to one) /hich is /hat /oul$ be e3pecte$ if there /as a linear relationship bet/een humi$ity an$ oltage $ue to /ater molecules pro i$ing the oltage. Hydroxyl Testing o" "oil and 0oil on 1late

33

"he $e ice /as allo/e$ to stabili5e again un$er 3;= humi$ity. "hen it /as place$ into an enclosure /hich /as infuse$ /ith o5one. O5one /ill react /ith the humi$ity present an$ /ill pro$uce hy$ro3yl ra$icals. "his /as left for about an hour so it coul$ $iffuse into the $e ice an$ the oltage /as measure$ again. *t /as foun$ that the oltage increase$ from Y;.;: m! to D.: m!. "his is a strong in$ication that either the hy$ro3yl ra$ical is e en more efficient at .a3/ell tunneling than a /ater molecule as e3pecte$) or that o5one contributes more tunneling than the normal mi3 of molecules in air that ha e K $egrees of free$om since o3ygen an$ nitrogen only ha e 2 $egrees. E""iciency "he number of molecules that /ill be stri7ing the surface of the metal at 3;; K can be figure$ from the e9uation .oleculesOsecOcmUD P D.KMW:;UD2Os9rtB."A /here . is the molecular /eight of the gas an$ " is the temperature in Kel in at atomspheric pressure. "his /or7s out to be D.F:W:;UD3 per cmUD for nitrogen. A 2 W 2 inch surface is :K:.DF cmUD) so /ith t/o si$es this is 3DD.K cmUD. "hus the number of molecules stri7ing both si$es of the center sheet is about F.IW:;UD2 per secon$. "he current is :.KW:;U:FR.;;2MO:);;;);;; P F.:DW:;U:; electrons per secon$. So the efficiency of this is e3tremely lo/) /ith only about one molecule in e ery :.;3W:;U:2 pro$ucing an electron in the aluminum plate. Ho/e er) if the hy$ro3yl ra$icals are the primary source of the current) then since they only compose about .;2 parts per trillion in the air) the efficiency for hy$ro3yl ra$icals is appro3imately :.F=. 1ote that since the number of molecules stri7ing the surface per secon$ $ecreases /ith the s9uare root of the temperature) an$ the po/er pro$uce$ increases e3ponentially) the efficiency increases ery rapi$ly /ith temperature. Summary Luantum mechanics pro i$es an easy /ay to implement a ersion of .a3/ell-s pressure $emon that pro$uces electricity $irectly. "his iolation of the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics means that there are possibly /ays to e3tract useful 9uantities of energy $irectly from the thermal energy of a gas at room temperature. "his may at some future $ate lea$ to $e ices that can operate on the temperature of the en ironment $irectly. Such $e ices shoul$ no longer be $ismisse$ out of han$ as impossible simply because they iolate the secon$ la/ of thermo$ynamics. Re"erences :A http8OOpaias.orgOScienceOEntropyOentropy:.htm DA http8OOpaias.orgOScienceOEntropyOentropyD.htm 3A http8OOne/s.bbc.co.u7O:OhiOsciOtechOD:32MMF.stm IA http8OO///.m$pi.orgOentropyOpapersOeK;:;;2;.p$f 2A http8OOmooni.fccE.orgOZethallOentropyOentropy.htm KA Ser/ay) Raymon$ A.) :FCK) Physics for Scientists an$ Engineers) Secon$ E$ition) Saun$ers Publishing) 1e/ +or7) Page IC;. MA http8OO///.hi.isOZhEOLuantum.echanicsO9uantum.html CA http8OO///.physlin7.comOE$ucationOAs7E3pertsOaeK:F.cfm FA http8OOhep.stanfor$.e$uObabarOcommissioningOlea7cal.html :;A http8OOen./i7iboo7s.orgO/i7iOElectron['e ice[.o$eling8"he['io$e ::A Ser/ay) p. IK3

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9agnetism
Delease &2.N' Preface 9hat is magnetism0 "he ?eutron and the %trong 5orce@ #ecoupling or splitting the 3lectron and Proton magnetic fields@ Bsing ?uclear spin to decouple the flows@ (ow does this effect gravity0 )aterials@ $omparing other devices@ (amel $ones@ 3+piermental #evice - !luminum %plitter #evice 2 - "he ?uclear )agnetic Desonant .attery ?otes and ?)D Deferences@ #efinitions@ Deference constants and formulas@

&*t may be helpful to scan the efinitions at the bottom of the article, as well as consider the references on ?)D for a mental picture'

Preface
)agnetism has been studied for centuries and almost from the beginning seemingly wild claims as to its importance have been stated. !s * too have now studied magnetism it becomes much more obvious that as the 2nd most powerful force we have discovered, these claims may not be so inaccurate. )y studies have led me all the way into 1uantum physics at the smallest measurable places where this force is detected. )y surprise is what Seedskin and many of the others have been pointing towards, that magnetism is actually two forces working in harmony. )ore specifically four forces. *t may very well be that in the splitting of these magnetic flows lies the &Source' of free energy. Engineering magnetism at the atomic level is the only piece we are missing at present. "he needed mathematical relationships must be converted to useful formulas to accomplish this for each device considered.

What is magnetismE
!t the roots of magnetism, within the atom, we discover > different sources which can result in a magnetic flow e+ternal to the atom itself. )agnetism is a force linked to > separate forms of spin at the atomic level. ; * Proton Particle Spin 0 * Proton (rbital Spin . * Electron Particle Spin &>2.;HF )h/ 7 "esla' ?)D &around 2 )h/ 7 "esla' ?)D &2F.<2; Gh/ 7 "esla' 3%D &Deversed component from Proton'

3N

= * Electron (rbital Spin

&around 2 Gh/ 7 "esla' 3%D

"he > types of spin are all very different and distinct. *n the normal magnetic field all these spins are setting in alignment and create basically one polari/ed magnetic field, in which the Proton is the dominant force in weight &mass is F3N times higher'. (owever the 3lectron has a magnetic moment around N;F.2 <NFF times the Proton. *n a coherent magnetic field with both a Proton and an 3lectron it should be noted that the electron is spinning the opposite direction of the Proton. *tXs particle momentum is reversed from its magnetic field. 9hen combined within a ?eutron this becomes important. *n the non magneti/ed atoms these spins are distributed such that none align consistently as they orbit the atom. *n the atoms of *ron $obalt and ?ickel these spins come into alignment enough to create a coherent flow. *n *ron the 3lectron shell is magnetic and the ?ucleus is not. *n $obalt both are magnetic. !s an atomic particle spins, its motion contains two different yet linked spin properties. Angular momentum &the spin of mass' 9agnetic moment &the magnetic field' "he method in which atomic particles interact is through the magnetic field , the charge of the particle, and the strong force. "he 3) field is a Proton 3lectron field. 5rom the nucleolus outwards 3) is <<< times stronger then any other force, it is the energy responsible for actions between atoms. !ngular momentum is linked to the mass or weight of a particle and determines the particles power to effect other matter. (owever it is only through the 3) or magnetic field that this energy can be transferred beyond the Proton layer. "he magnetic field is the agent by which the momentum is transferred. 3ach of the particles involved has a Lcharge,L as well as a Lmagnetic precession of spin.L The Proton has ;1.2 times the mass of the electron, but e:actly the same siAe charge, only positive rather than negative. Proton charge e K .N<2 + < c - G coulombs 3lectron charge -e K - .N<2 + < c - G coulombs "he motion of &particle' spin is how the charge becomes two of the magnetic fields. Protons magnetic dipoles precess around >2.;HF )h/ 7 "esla 3lectrons magnetic dipoles precess around 2F.<2; Gh/ 7 "esla "he motion of &6rbital' spin is the other method. )agnetic dipole precessional fre1uency ranges were mentioned previously for the other two fields.

As a particle spins it couples energy in three metho s:


*ts &electrical charge' is seen to reach out as an inverse distance s1uared force. "his force is divergent in all directions. *ts &magnetic fiel ' is seen to reach out as an inverse distance cubed force. "his is a raw force of dipole magnetism independent of fre1uency of precession. *t is caused by the electron traversing a circle at .GGGGGG... the speed of light, and spinning a reverse direction, as it does. "he Proton doing similar yet with a like direction of spin as orbit. *ts &&F fiel ' is seen to absorb and radiate photons at its ?)D or 3%D fre1uency as a little point source of D5 or microwave energy. "his is a link between magnetisms dipole &precession fre1uency' and the photons fre1uency. "his interaction has the capacity to flip the dipole completely over increasing its energy by placing the magnetic moment in opposition, and the angular momentum in an aiding state with all opposite particles in the field. "he only way that both magnetic polari/ed states could be stable is if there are a combination of > forces, is always in opposition to the other 3. "he forces at work here are magnetic polarity of the Proton in its orbital, magnetic polarity of the 3lectron in its orbital, Proton angular momentum, and 3lectron angular momentum.

3H

.ecause the D5 fre1uency is a function of the surrounding magnetic field strength, the particles may interact across a wide band of D5 3) spectrum. "hat of electrons, reaching far in e+cess of there natural microwave range as well as far below, if they are removed from the atom as with an electric arc.

The important ifferences:


"he Proton is seen as a magnetic dipole spinning )h/ to ><< )h/. Protons are seen as heavy or massive particles compared with 3lectrons. "he Protons orbital motions are seen spewing out )h/ fre1uencies depending on the atoms they are inside which lay j <<< times lower in fre1uency then the 3lectrons. "he Protons g-5actor is seen at ;.;, meaning when Protons orbital and particle motion are combined the resulting magnetic moment is ;.; times stronger then either alone. "his brings the Protons magnetic moment up by a factor of five to around &H.FHF r <-2N J7"'. "he Protons particle and 6rbital motions fall in the same direction. "he 2 magnetic fields generated from these two motions are coupled at the atomic level, and normally no e+ternal fields ever enter the atom strong enough to realign or break the coupling apart. "hey are seen as one comple+ motion magnetically in alignment, the result of two different spin fre1uencies, both in the )h/ region. Thus if %e tilt the orbital fiel %e also tilt the particle fiel ' "he 3lectron is seen spinning in the 2F Gh/ region. "hats about <<< times faster then the Proton. *ts mass or weight is seen as very small compared to Protons &mp / me K F3N. ;2H< ' , yet the net electric charge is identical only reversed in value. "he 3lectrons g-5actor is about 2, meaning that when its orbital and particle spins are coupled they add up to twice the magnetic moment & - F;N.G r <-2N J7"'. "hese two spins are magnetically coupled as well and would both tilt together if suspended in a gas form. (owever in solid or li1uid forms, electron orbits are fairly stationary forming bonds with other atoms.

These t%o relationships are %hat may gi!e us the ability to split the fiel s:
9agnetic 9oment * Electron / Proton * &atio: 8e / 8p @ 2H1'0;-211; 9ass * Proton / Electron * &atio: ;1.2';H0 "he 3lectrons particle spin is seen in reverse of its orbital spin however, and this presents a very special case for a particle creating a magnetic field. "he two magnetic fields are seen one winding around inside the other in reverse direction such that the particles momentum ends up reversed of its magnetic moment. "his creates the particle of opposite effects when coupling to the Protons magnetic field. 3lectron particle spin is reversed of Proton particle spin if both are in the same magnetic field. *n a magnet these > spins all fall into alignment because over all they effect one another and loosely couple to one another orbitally yet tightly couple within particle orbital paths of each one. "here are two kinds of magnetic alignment between these particles, and within ?)D studies we see the differences. !n orbital spin that receives e+cess energy through photon absorption, takes a spiral path and flips its motion completely over, reversing its ? 7 % polarity. ?ormally when orbital spin flips, particle spin does also as the two are coupled together. "o cause these two spins to decouple takes a very strong magnetic field far in e+cess of anything we could hope to accomplish in our garage. "he energy is lowest when the magnetic moment is aligned with the e+ternal magnetic field.

The E9 fiel of atoms:


%o here we see a picture where the ?ucleus is hanging suspended inside the 3lectron shell. ! large mass with a small magnetic coupling, free to be flipped around by e+ternal magnetic fields which effect the momentum of the atom the greatest if the magnetic bond between 3lectron orbital and Proton can be overcome. !s the electron orbitals are normally locked in place by chemical bonding or crystal structure, after magneti/ation they are pretty solid. (eld in place by a much stronger magnetic force and far less actual mass.

3F

!s particles communicate through 3%D and ?)D they do so between LlikeL particles. 3lectrons may send photons that will not interact with Protons and also the reverse is true, yet each will e+change photon energy with their neighbors. 3lectron and Proton magnetic fields will tend to precess around the same vector, only flipping there alignment between two stable states. *n both alignments force of the > is always acting in opposition. !n atom with a high nuclear spin will function very well at spreading ?)D between atoms, as will a paramagnetic atom will with 3%D.

"oherent 9atter:
9ithin matter at the core of all atoms, the nucleus, is setting the ma,or mass of the atom. *t is spinning, it also may have a magnetic field. *n most normal matter the directions of spin is not aligned and will tend to cancel. $oherent matter is seen where the spinning mass of all atoms are moving in sync or in the same spin plane. "heir is another synchroni/ation possible with a magnetic nucleus as well, where all dipoles are spinning in sync. "his would result in a synchronous spinning magnetic field. *n an ob,ect at rest, this coherent spin of mass may not be perceptible. *t is only when we set this ob,ect in motion that we would observe anything unusual. *f we can couple to this spinning weight and manipulate it, possibly we can cause device rotation, as well as bring ?uclear energies outwards.$oherent matter is where one or more of these atomic 1ualities are coupled across a great many atoms and they all begin to act as one with respect to at least one force. )agnetic, vibrational, electric, or mass rotation planar angle of spin.

+uclear 9ass rotation:


*t should also be noted that it is possible to rotate almost the entire weight of a material like copper by magnetically spinning its ?ucleus. *f a great many of the ?ucleusXs of atoms can be set into a coherent spin plane of momentum, then tilting this momentum spin plane is the e1uivalent of tilting a fast spinning fan. *f you hold an electric fan straight outwards, blowing away from you, then 1uickly tilt it downwards, you will reali/e the importance of this principle. *t generates a rotational tor1ue that tries to spin you around on your feet. "his mechanism of tilting a spinning mass by rotating the spin plane applied at the ?ucleus of atoms would impart about G;= of the mass of the material into a tor1ue. "his is very possibly why an induction motor is seen to turn in a rotating magnetic field. $opper setting in a rotating magnetic field will align its nuclear spin to the field, rotating the field will rotate the angular momentum of the mass of the copper atoms much like the fan in the above illustration. "he spin momentum will sit at G< degrees to the poles of the field. *n the Doshin and Godin disc we see the hori/ontal magnets pulling the nucleus very 1uickly to one side, then releasing them to slowly return to vertical. #uring the fast tilt at 2 or more points along the cylinder this is causing an induction motor effect for a 1uarter of a rotation. *f the spin momentum is strong enough the nucleus may continue to spin on around due to its own momentum. *f the iron in the %earl disc is imprinted with a sine wave at the ?)D fre1uency of copper, times the number of rollers, then here we might see one reason the device would both spin the momentum of nucleus into motion as well as reach a level of coherent matter. !s we slide along the side of the %earl disc cylinder, we would see a spinning magnetic field imprinted over the vertical static field. *f we spin the copper nucleus magnetically, we get a physical tor1ue. *f we increase the fre1uency of magnetic spin so it hits the ?)D fre1uency or a lower harmonic, which is the natural mass vibration rate, we may see a point where the nucleus begins to add energy to the momentum from its normal spiraling flipping motion. $oupling photon absorbed energy into physical spin.

The +eutron an the Strong Force:


!s we put the nucleus together, its %eight oes not eRual the sum of its parts' "he force e+isting as the L%trong 5orceL holding the nucleus together is removed from the atomic weight as a subtracted mass. !dd

3G

up the weight of all the Protons and ?eutrons, then subtract the gluon force converted to mass by 3K)$c2. "he weight is always less. "he mass that is lost in the resultant atomic weight of the nucleus is the strong force or energy. "he strong force is a sucking inwards of all particles inside the ?ucleus. *t draws them inwards. (ere we see a direct conversion of mass into binding energy. 9hen the %trong force operates on the nucleus particles it reduces their mass by a finite amount. "his seems to be the first le!el %here gra!ity is naturally altere within the atom. "his may be where it can be controlled. $lassicaly three kinds of energy were identified that can come out of the nucleus, !lpha, .eta, and Gamma radiation. 3ither from parts e+iting the nucleus as (elium and being e+pelled, or from orbital ,umps to a lower energy level inside the nucleus. "his is called nuclear energy and is far stronger then electron generated energy. !lso the gluon energy is stronger then magnetism but only operates at a very short distance from the particle vorte+es. This may gi!e a clue as to ho% the particle !orte:es %ork. !ny atoms with more then F3 Protons are too big to remain stable and slowly fall apart over time. "heir nucleus decays. .ismuth is the largest stable atom. (ow is it we can get two particles close enough together for the gluon force to grab them0 9hy does this process cause a weight loss0 Getting 2 Protons and an 3lectron together in a stable link to form a +ucleon, where the oppositely spinning vorte+es overlap one another in the ?eutron is ama/ing indeed. *t re1uires reducing the force that holds them apart. .oth are charged oppositely and so attract Ret the magnetic fields are opposite of spin momentum in each one.

(rbital structure of an atom:


3lectron and Proton naturally attract from voltage &5ig '. 9hen they sit in a magnetic field they both spin opposite directions. (owever as they come closer the spin of momentum coupling overcomes the magnetic field attraction. !s we see in copper induction e+pierments, momentum is coupled through the magnetic field without being effected by the polarity of the magnetic field. 3lectron and Proton flip into a magnetic opposition &5ig 2', aligning their momentum !ectors and a balance point is reached where !oltage is pulling an magnetism is pushing' "his can be achieved either vertically as pictured or laying broadside as in the %earl disc. 9e now have the electron cloud forming at some distance from the Proton shell. *ndeed we see these two particle magnetic fields as very different, and this may be why matter does not simply disappear as we combine Proton and 3lectron. "his pattern would seem to be of a scalar opposing nature magnetically at the orbital level. "his may e+plain why the electron does not crash into the ?ucleus but why does it circle in an orbit0 "his answer may lie within the 1uantum physics model. !s the 3lectron is only apearing at 1uantum intervals, and also spining, the effect of this spinning pulsating force would be seen as wheel gears, turning against the ones the Proton is emitting. "alk about L%earl discL similiarity. "hese two spinning opposite directions with all the weight in the Proton, the 3lectron is hurled around the ?ucleus at near lightspeeds. ?o more sensless talk about momentum type orbital paths in a frictionless space, this is all electromagnetic and powered from the spin of the Particle vorte+es winking on and off as they cross this density.

><

The +eutron:
*f Rua rature alignment is reached &5ig 3' then 3lectron and Proton can merge &5ig >' to become a ?eutron &5ig ;'. "he two forces of spin and magnetism setting at G< degrees, the electric force pulls the particles together and overlapping. ! beta energy particle is e+changed, and one 1uark flips. !t this point their momentum swings back into perfect alignment, canceling !oltage an almost all the magnetic forces from radiating &5ig ;'. &"he ?eutron still has a magnetic dipole moment of - .G 3 Bn. and there is a technology called ?eutron scattering using its Sarmor fre1uency as well, around Gig'. 9hen they are still setting at G< degrees only the voltage vector is interacting &fig >', the spin and magnetic vectors have not yet recoupled. *t is between these two last steps where we may find the method of tapping the energy of %ource. !s a ?eutron they have become a scalar canceling device, falling into a momentum locked position with spins aligned. *ntresting to note that only in this configuration do they now apear to have an attracting magnetic field, an attracting Qoltage, and spin alignment. "his uni1ue alignment with one inside the other. "his could be likened to a short circuit at the source generation point for the 3) field. "hey are as close as they can get to all attractive forces. .oth alter their si/e, the resultant ?eutron si/e lies between 3lectron and Proton. ! new force emerges in holding these together, and becomes the Strong Force comming now out of the ?eutron ,ust a little, sucking all the ?ucleus together and altering the weight of the particles setting inside it. 9e now see a particle with a high mass and a weak magnetic field. "he two tornadoes of %ource LmergingL as the strong force. 9hen the ?eutron is removed from the ?ucleus it will find itself setting in a more negatively charged field, if not entirely surrounded by the 3lectron shells of other atoms. "o stay together it is noted that one

>

Proton must be close enough to maintain a dominant Positive voltage with a dominant Proton spin. "his forms the ?ucleon. *f the ?eutron is removed from the atom it will decay within <.3 minutes back into a Proton and an 3lectron plus a .eta energy packet and a 1uark flip. Here %e see a %eight gain as %ell as an e:tra energy gain as they come apart' "his is a surprise because we were taught that Lenergy inL must e1ual Lenergy out.L ! ?eutron will dismantle itself outside the atom, giving off energy as it becomes heavier. (ow can a ?eutron falling apart, both gain weight, and emit energy0 %o here we see a greater output then the sum of the parts with respect to ?eutrons e+iting the atom and e+iting the %trong 5orce area. "he ?eutron only produces the %trong 5orce when setting ne+t to another Proton in a ?ucleon. !s a combined particle, the ?eutron is only slightly larger then the Proton, and about half as large as an 3lectron. +eutrons are not stable an can be manipulate , as the surrounding Protons keep them stable by providing spin coupling through the strong force as well as positive voltage potential and a weak magnetic force. "his would tend to push the ?eutrons inner 3lectron and Proton inwards closer to center of spin. "he 3lectrons orbiting also effect them because their magnetic field is far greater then the Protons and it is opposing so also pushes inwards. "his causes the ?eutron to become smaller then the 3lectron alone and pushes it towards a higher ensity. "his may actually be what alters gravity and the ?eutron may be the particle that is the link to other densities. (ere at the +ucleus all the known forces would seem to come together. 9omentum of spin * Electric * 9agnetic * Scalar * Strong Force * Gra!ity "he ?eutron can be viewed as a very close configuration of the same 3lectron and Proton particles we have dealt with in their 6rbital positions. "he close bond is one that is barely in balance within the atom, and comes apart if removed from the atom. 7t is !ery likely that %e can effect this close relationship to e:tract energy from Source by e!eloping a process of partially splitting the t%o %hile still insi e the +ucleus' 7f %e can toggle bet%een Fig = an Fig H %ithout estroying the +uetron' +otes: &!n electron shell may form around $opper or !luminum with its Proton magnetic field synchroni/ed through all the atoms to become strong enough to repel the electrons magnetic field if induction is operating. ! strong Proton generated magnetic field should act like the nucleus of an atom, if charged positively. "he charge can be induced into the coppers electron shell but the magnetic field must come from the nucleus. Protons may orbit a negatively charged magnet as well.' &(ere we see that to produce the strongest possible Proton magnetic field, would re1uire a material like $opper or !luminum be charged positive. "hen Protons aligned through ?)D resonance into the same plane of spin. (itting the system at G< degrees with a strong electron generated magnetic field, we see the fields separating in the +eutrons, an tapping the strong force. "his is the force that is shown to alter gravity right on the perio ic table. "his is also a force that is based on the two constants of spin found in the 3lectron and Proton which can never be depleted.'

Atomic force break o%n:


Strong force * 6verlaps all the ?ucleus and particles inside it - &?eutron [ Proton K ?ucleon' &3ffects mass or gravity lowering weight' E9 * 9orks mainly from the Protons outwards and overlaps Protons and 3lectrons, however within the ?eutron there may be scalar canceling 3) of the highest magnitude possible, where both forces are seen to create torsion or time at their closest distance. Gra!ity * %een as a constant force across all the particles, however at the nucleus within the strong force

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it is lower then the sum of all the parts outside the ?ucleus. &"he Proton is seen as the Particle that seems to sit within both forces, interacting with comple+ity in both fields.' &9hen a ?eutron comes apart, breaking back into a Proton and 3lectron, it emits energy, as it leaves the ?ucleus it gains weight'

Decoupling or splitting the Electron an Proton magnetic fiel s:


&"he G< degree tilt, reaching a new stable state between Proton and 3lectron fields, Cua rature magnetiAation.' *f we succeed at creating two magnetic fields setting at G< degrees to one another where Protons align to precess around one, and 3lectrons align around the other, we could e+pect magnets to saturate along these two G< degree angles as more atoms take on this alignment forming longer chains. 9e could also e+pect that the transmition of 3%D and ?)D energies would become polari/ed along such a G< degree relationship as photons ,ump between atoms. 5urther the hint from the %earl disk that high voltages may accompany each field of the polarity following the particle generating the field. When the forces of E9 no longer cancel %ithin atoms an begin to apear at the e ges of the material, %e can e:pect a lot of energy to become present'

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T%o natural states of alignment bet%een Electron an Proton magnetism:


State one: &"he low energy state' "he magnetic moments are aligned - "he angular momentum is opposing State T%o: &"he high energy state' "he magnetic moment is opposing - "he angular momentum is aligned 3ither state sets at least one force in opposition to the other three. 6nce the electron shell is bonded into a solid, the Proton field normally takes on one of these two states, precessing around it, unless a higher magnetic field becomes present at another angle moving through it.

Splitting the fiel s


9e see the magnetic field strongest off the ends of a dipole magnet and weakest off its sides. *f we can place the blotch %all of each of the fields e+actly over the strongest field of the other, we will get the greatest decoupling between the two fields spin planes. *n this state the two fields will become the least interactive and should split. *f a magnet becomes linked in a long chain of magnets, its interaction to

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others fields decreases. "he magnetic interaction is strongest off the ends of a long run of magnets and near the center of the string it is very weak. Rou can show this with 2 very long chains of magnets, which if held together at the center, do not show any sign of effecting one another. Ret through each one is travelling a very strong flow and upon reaching the end of the magnet it ,umps out to interact. ! string of ?eo disc magnets stacked to a foot and a half long, can be placed between two tables and will e+hibit great strength at staying together. Bpon placing it centered over another stack crossing at G< degree angles, the two centers can be touched and moved apart and will neither attract nor repell. *t is only where the magnet strings en s come together %here %e get strong interactions. 6nce 1uadrature magneti/ation is established over a certain distance we might e+pect it to be self sustaining.

*n splitting we need to offer the string en s a good termination point. 9e want an 3lectron based magnetic field crossing a Proton based field at G< degrees. "hen we want to force the Protons and 3lectrons in our material to shift, chaining into the field that is operating at its like spin properties. !ll we have to seperate them is the difference of weight, magnetic moment, and magnetic dipole precession fre1uency. *f we have achieved 1uadrature alignment at the 3) layer then its force should be felt at the strong force layer as well hopfully effecting the ?eutron.

>;

8sing a magnetic material to split the fiel s:


6ne possible method &cobalt magnets'@ %ince the 3lectrons 2 magnetic fields are usually fairly locked in during magneti/ation in a permanent magnet, if we position part of it hori/ontally and part vertically, then as we add momentum to the disc our Protons in the hori/ontal plane will want to align vertically. *f we then coa+ them using another slightly weaker magnet at G< degrees &vertical', they should tilt vertical and begin to precess around it, at some DP) where the momentum of the Proton begins to e+ceed its weaker magnetic holding force. "his static state where both particles are at G< degree magneti/ation is the one that may begin to cause relativistic alterations. "his could be as simple as two magnets carefully aligned on both sides of a cylinder wall. !t some critical velocity the field would split in the hori/ontally polari/ed magnet. !nother method of causing momentum in a magnetic disc@ *f we simply place many stronger magnets at G< degrees with moving intersecting fields such that we cause the Protons to all spin one direction along many points around the cylinder, we are effectively creating small rotating gyros. !s we spin them through a G< degree spin to the cylinders outer surface they will all impart a momentum to turn the disc. "his is possible because nearly all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus, and it is the nucleus that will be spinning. Rou can show this principle by holding a fast turning bicycle wheel on its a+is, while setting on a swivel chair. !s you roll the wheel one direction in front of you, perpendicular to spin, one hand moves up as the other moves down, your chair will start to turn. 9hile this method should be able to start a disc into motion it will not split the fields totally, yet it will create a small time interval where blotch walls pass at G< degrees which may cause a smaller effect, but certainly not a complete saturation. "his would appear however to be a rotating magnetic fiel at the nuclear le!el.

8sing a non magnetic material to split the fiel s:


*n a non magnetic solid material the electron orbitals are locked by chemical bonding and crystalline structures, however they are not magnetic. ! material like !luminum or $opper will need to be magneti/ed along its electron orbitals by passing a steady current through them one direction if we are to couple them to the ?eutrons inner 3lectron vorte+. "his will create a grouping of electrons along the correct spin planes simulating a magnetic atom. .oth of these materials have a high nuclear spin so the Protons will be effected by both magnetic field and momentum. "he key to this method will be to create the proper magneti/ation in the $opper hori/ontally, which will turn the electron orbitals into little magnets creating the G< degree field. ! second vertical magnetic field must be present slightly lower to capture the Protons as the higher momentum of the disc begins to tilt them vertical. "his method could be used by sheeting a vertically polari/ed magnet with $opper or !luminum or even wrapping it with a coil as a torrid. *t could also be done with only copper coils. 3ither way it will still have to be spun up to reach the threshold where Protons tilt vertical and 3lectrons stay hori/ontal. !s this process is happening within the copper atoms, all can be started with #$ currents. *f it is desired to do this without spinning the disc, using only copper coils then some method of entraining the Protons with an ?)D fre1uency may prove effective. "he energy in the ?)D would have to e+ceed the threshold of the difference of the two coils field strength. "his would add a third coil pulsing the ?)D fre1uency in the correct plane to tilt Protons towards the weaker field. "he %earl disc may be using many of these methods at different DP)s.

The Ja!alancheK effect &bringing the micro effect to the macro world'
!s we start this interaction in one small area of the device, it may be hard to envision how it can spread

>N

to envelope the entire disc, as well as effect surrounding matter. "his is e+plained in the coupling between atoms setting ne+t to one another as the two magnetic fields begin to increase in strength from the decoupling and from greater numbers of protons lining up in the new field. 6ne of the methods of energy transfer between ad,acent atoms is ?)D, however this method is in fact fre1uency dependent. "his means that as some of the Protons begin to tip to G< degrees and accelerate, their field in this direction becomes stronger. "hey will also radiate photons of the correct energy to effect nearby Protons tending to tilt them into alignment. These photons %ill be ignore by the Electrons %hich ha!e a freRuency about ;--- times higher. !s new Protons get hit with ?)D photons they will begin to flip into a spiral path towards reversing to F< degrees. !s they cross the new G< degree magnetic field some will be trapped by it and begin to precess around it instead of continuing there flip. "he Protons will all begin to seek the new alignment as time progresses, particularly if their ?)D energy level is high overall. "he 3lectrons will have a similar process tending to strengthen the hori/ontal magnetic field and holding them even tighter with the reinforced 3%D energy oscillating between atoms in the plane at G< degrees to the Proton energy. !lso as the unpaired ?eutron within $opper begins to split its magnetic field, the strong force will release energy, and the 3lectrons magnetic field will pop out aiding the polari/ation. !s the process continues it may at some point become self sustaining, and spread beyond the G< degree magnets of the device all through the entire system if configured correctly to allow this. "wo magnetic fields aligned at G< degrees and building towards light speed unity. Particle velocity should speed up but never actually hit light speed, because the magnetic field is not perfectly dipole in nature. "here is always some magnetic field off the sides of a dipole, however as fre1uency raises the tilt angles of ?)D and 3%D narrow, as the precession fre1uency raises, and far less energy will appear off the sides of the dipoles. "his may push electrons into a high enough fre1uency to begin to radiate light. "hus the glow. "his describes a runaway condition we see in the devices studied. "he better we succeed at splitting the . fields of Proton and 3lectron the faster the device may runaway. 9e can either attempt to slow the acceleration effect using very thin cylinders, or we can counter it with a method of reuniting the fields. 3ither way it must be accomplished within the device at the atomic layer before the device crosses the density threshold of 3rd density and vanishes.

8sing +uclear spin to ecouple the magnetic flo%s:


*n studying ?)D technology it becomes apparent there is another method of decoupling 3lectron and Proton fields, at least temporarily. 9hen one hits the atom at G< degrees with a 7> wave ?)D pulse, the Proton field tilts to G< degrees then slowly recovers, sometimes taking several seconds to stabili/e back into alignment as it spins back up through a spiral path. 9ith this splitting method the Proton field can be kept in a state of eRuator spin around the standing magnetic field. *f a constant supply of pulses are fed to the material keeping Protons spinning then this alignment may be enough to alter the ?eutrons. ! standing magnetic field must flow through the material in the vertical plane, then pulses are added at G< degrees in an attempt to keep Protons spinning on e1uatorial paths. *f the pulses are hitting at properly timed intervals this method may be useful for thin materials such as cylinders or spinning cylinders. ?o #$ holding field is possible for Proton alignment as it must be free to spin, so pulses must be kept constant, strong, and very short in duration, preferably four times the ?)D fre1uency, or 7> wave pulses spaced e+actly several wavelengths apart. ?o stable 1uadrature magneti/ation could be e+pected to support itself in this method however it may be much easier to achieve if one uses good electronics designs. ! formula for device cylinder spin, and pulse fre1uency could be set up to cover almost the entire surface of a disc with pulses before Protons can complete their realignment. "his would establish a large enough area on the cylinder to generate high voltages between its outer and upper surfaces. !n !$ holding field may be possible by setting up a rotating magnetic field at the ?)D fre1uency around a thin material like a sphere or cylinder, with two iron core electromagnets above and below it. !n iron core could even be placed through the center of the cylinder to transmit the #$ magnetic field constantly along the !luminum or $opper surface on the inner side. !re we starting to look like a %earl

>H

disk yet0 "he beauty of this design is that if we remove the pulses the effect should cease. *f we decrease the intensity, then less atoms would tilt and a governor may be designed to regulate voltage output. 9hether or not we achieve a total ?uclear resonance through the device would be hard to say, and e+periment is in order. *f the atoms stacked vertically on one another, do effect one another by magnetism and ?)D energy this field may spread up and down the vertical sections of the material causing all to spin in sync at some point.

Ho% oes this effect gra!ityE


*mportant to note here that it is a physics constant we may be effecting, that of 3lectron and Proton particle spin and relating to Planks constant. "he 3lectron and Proton at their smallest points of spin in the ?eutron may be the link to time and gravity, not so much the orbital motions. "his is where we hit the wall of relativity as well as 1uantum physics. (owever since we gain control of their magnetically coupled orbital motions we have gained the ability to tilt them as well. "his may be the link between the forces of 3) and Gravity we have been looking for. !s the 3lectrons momentum is less then 7 <<< the Protons this unlinking may seem of no conse1uence, however remember in a particle traveling at .GGGGGG... light speed this slight difference is magnified by a relativistic amount. #ecoupling 3lectron and Proton %pin momentum may be the strongest effect we could hope for in this sense. #ecoupling them inside the ?eutron may effect time itself. "he 3lectron may seem to effect the Proton very little but the difference is very near c &light speed' and this interaction may seem to be pushing a constant of physics ,ust a bit off its natural state. (owever at the ?eutron level we may also be effecting the strong force by tilting the fields away from one another. !s the Protons motions are freed from the 3lectrons motions from the decoupling of the magnetic fields now setting at G< degrees to one another, both particles would increase in fre1uency due to at least one countering force being decoupled. Previously when they both sat in an attracting field, their magnetic moment is alike but the angular momentum of each one is opposite in direction. *n the ?eutron they sit with momentum aligned and magnetic fields in a powerful opposition. !s the momentum is transferred across the magnetic field this would tend to lower angular momentum of both particles. !s they decouple spin increases. *f time is truly the increment of spin as 9ilbert %mith has suggested then the overall time frame of the atom in this split configuration will speed up, approaching or e+ceeding the time flow rate of free space. "ime flow rate across an area of space is linked to the vector sum of all spin rates for all particle motions &9ilbert %mith'. !nd this is why the entire device as well as all surrounding mater within the corona become altered as device 1uadrature magnetic saturation is reached. "he %earl disc shows us this phenomenon manifesting in a spherical area surrounding the device. 3ven dislodging the dirt in the ground if it is formed within it. !t the corona appears a wall where time flow changes rather 1uickly, and this barrier may causes a torsion force that will rip matter apart. 9hen the time frame reaches an e1ual rate as free space we could e+pect the effected atoms to become weightless. "his is a very small change in time flow rate and observed in the blue shift seen in the GP% satellite system. *f there is enough energy in the interaction to push further then we could e+pect the ob,ect to become gravity repulsive and a push towards the ne+t higher density. *f the density threshold is crossed and the system then shut down, we may e+pect it to achieve the ne+t higher stable state of matter, naturally landing it in the >th density as the atoms fall back into normal alignment at the ne+t higher fre1uency band. !t this state it becomes totally invisible to 3rd density beings. Deversing the process may become as important as achieving it at this point, much as designing brakes before we build a ><< (p engine and place it in a car.

>F

Ho% much force must be applie to the Proton %ith its %eaker magnetic fiel an higher mass to tilt it E
"he re1uirement is only that we have enough momentum of spin to tilt the Protons magnetic alignment from the stronger field into the weaker field. "hese two fields must cross at G< degrees inside the atoms. *f using a non magnetic substance for splitting, the G< degree field will effect the electrons motions as well, so it must be kept as much weaker as possible, otherwise the electrons may begin to realign around it as well. *t is very important to find the threshold point and no more where the Protons tilt. !s the chemical bonding of these materials do not hold the magnetic field within their structure. !s the 3) field moves into Rua rature magnetism it will effect the ?eutrons and begin to split them as well, effecting time and gravity. 9ith the cobalt magnets however, both fields could even be the same. !s the orbitals are magnetic within the structure of the materials there is little chance they will demagneti/e one another at the same "esla rating. (owever with both fields the same it may become impossible to return them to their original state. "hey may tend to toggle randomly causing a chaotic condition. "he best interaction will be if the momentum is used to cause the threshold switching, as then the ma+imum possible numbers of Protons will be under device control.

Forces that pull the Proton !ertical:


#evice spin, centrifugal force, mass, &aligned angular momentum' Qertical magnetic weaker field. ?)D in the correct plane of motion.

Force Win o%:


"he device spin &particle momentum *' must be calculated as to our &disc radius D' and our DP) &rotational velocity Q' as an &energy value J'. *t must be calculated to cross the threshold of &magnetic field coupling .h ' in the hori/ontal plane and the added &energy J' must be enough to couple to the &magnetic field .v ' in the vertical plane without crossing it. "he parameters of &#isc Dadius', &#isc !ngular Qelocity', and our two &magnetic fields .v .h' must be determined before we can e+pect a successful result. "hese are the basic relationships that must be considered to arrive at a mathematical solution for initial startup.

"ritical threshol :
*t should be understood that this effect of new atomic alignment will manifest as a total Ruantity of the sum of all atoms attaining the new alignments, yet at some point these fields alone become strong enough to self radiate through the material of the device. Thus a ifferent metho of control must be accesse to re!erse the process or control it. !s well the startup device must reach this critical threshol . "he critical threshol will be the point where the Protons new magnetic field becomes strong enough to maintain its new alignment without the aid of our e+ternal magnets, and it begins to spread outside the domain of the magnets starting the process. "here will be a minimum number of atoms involved in maintaining the G< degree field outside the magnets inducing the effect. "hese atoms will be linked by the G< degree magnetic field the sum of all atoms with electrons in alignment and the ?)D energy moving between the atoms. *t becomes apparent that each material we consider using must be calculated differently. "his is because the nuclear spin of all atoms is different. %ome atoms do not have a nuclear magnetic field we can even couple to e+ternally. 6thers have a very strong one. (owever it is interesting to note that even the ones

>G

that do not radiate far may look like opposing magnets setting in one alignment. "he magnetic moment of the Proton field is readily available on the ?)D charts as Lmagnetic momentL for most all the elements. *t represents a Joules7"esla or J7" value. ?uclear magnetic moment of only about 2= of *ron is . ;NGN , $opper is 2.FH;>G, ?ickel .GNF2H "hese numbers represent the magnetic field strength of the Protons magnetic force, they are different for each element and why ?)D can be used to detect elements. "he electron 3%D is not so easy as finding it on a chart however. "hey must each be calculated based on the Proton field they sit within and the e+ternal magnetic field from outside the atom.

"ontrol
"he ne+t most important issue after discovering the start up Lcritical thresholdL is the control mechanism. 9ith two magnetic fields manifest through our device, and two planes of 3%D 7 ?)D e+changing energy between atoms, the only solution is to reattach the magnetic fields one atom at a time and try to control the Ruantity of atoms in each alignment. 6ne method identified by %earl is to hit the device with a 2F to 2G )h/ D5 fields. "his should tend to send Protons into an ?)D flipping motion of a higher energy state where as they rotate or flip they cross the electron G< degree field becoming trapped in it once again for a time. "he time this can last can be over one second as ?)D has a time lag. 9hile tilted back they will no longer add to device spin. "his fre1uency will have to be device dependent based on the material in effect and the standing magnetic field present. *t could be something as simple as two resonant coils setting vertically and hori/ontally with a switch to electrically couple them. *t would absorb ?)D from one spin plane and then transmit it into the other, causing the Proton field to tilt as ?)D interactive photons are radiated in the wrong plane dispersing Proton alignments. "his would only work if ?)D resonance is consistent across the device strong enough to couple to one of the coils. *f it is not then an e+ternal transmitter must be used only hitting the band close enough to effect ?)D flips. "his transmitter must be located within the system such that it does not loose the time frame of the device. %o control may become a balance of controlling the ?)D energy between the two polari/ed planes within the device. +ote this system is separate from the startup system, %hich can not be e:pecte to control the process once starte '

9aterials:
*n the selection of materials it is noteworthy to identify a few very basic 1ualities of the atoms we are working with and attempt to correlate the parameters to accomplish a method of engineering devices, down to magnetic force splitting into the ?eutrons.

7ron: "he magnetic field in iron is mostly in its 3lectron layer. 6f course the weight of iron is mostly
setting in its ?uclear center which has a neutral magnetic field. 9hen coupling a magnetic field through *ron almost none of the atoms weight or mass is effected in the least, &2= natural abundance'. !s iron is magneti/ed, its chemical bonding connections are seen to roll with the e+ternal magnetic field setting up a new angle with other magnetic domains around it. "he resistance to this force is linked only to the electron mass which is some F<< times lower then its ?uclear mass, and its resistance to chemical bonding roll, and the temperature. A magnetic fiel generate from flo%ing current through 7ron %ire %oul be seen to ha!e only an Electron generate fiel '

"opper: "he magnetic field in copper is setting only in its ?ucleus, attached to its weight or mass
tightly, and able to roll if acted on by an outside magnetic field. $oppers electron shell is magnetically neutral and is only effected by a magnetic field as a reflection, or an induction, of its nucleus inducing a reverse field to that applied e+ternally, from the inside. "his is why copper is seen as an inductive element. ! magnetic field moving through copper is seen to couple to its LmassL and the Proton generated

;<

magnetic field will have to tilt the atoms weight as it changes angles. "here will be a delay because of momentum during the tilting process as the weight will resist altering its spin angle. "he 3lectron shell will react also generating an opposing magnetic field to the incident field. "hus the second force is a repulsive magnetic field. A magnetic fiel generate from flo%ing current through "opper %ire %oul be seen to ha!e both an Electron an a Proton generate fiel '

Aluminum: *n !luminum the 3lectron shell is also neutral, however itXs ?uclear magnetic moment is
higher then $opper. !lthough the mass of !luminum is lower then copper the magnetic coupling is higher.

Sil!er: * added %ilver here because it has almost as low a ?uclear spin as *ron. 9ith Sil!er %ire one
can generate almost completely 3lectron generated fields. #ue to the fact that %ilver is a better conductor then copper, these 1ualities make it perfect for the ideal splitting device if one needs magnetic coils creating magnetic fields with almost no mass interactions.

"obalt: *n $obalt we see that both electron layer and ?ucleus have a magnetic field inherent within
them. !n e+ternal magnetic field moving through cobalt will effect both. "he electron shell is tightly bonded, so if tilting the ?ucleus with a stronger magnetic field, it should decouple from the electron shell.

Effects: 3ffects that can be used to alter the free floating ?uclear )ass motions of materials are not
limited to magnetism, or electric potential. 3ven though if you shake a block of copper atoms, it is the electromagnetic forces that keep the ?ucleus centered and spining, this force allows a fle+ibility to appear between the Proton and 3lectron shell. "he 3lectron shell is e+tremely light by comparison to the ?ucleus of an atom, but in solids the 3lectron shell is anchored into the structure bonds and its mass is far greater then one ?eucleus. "he ?uclear mass can be vibrated using many forms of energy. Soun Physical !ibration 9o!ing magnetic fiel A ?ibrating !oltage &$apacitance coupling' Gra!ity *t should be noted that where the 3lectron )ass of a material comes into natural harmonic ratios with the ?uclear mass, a coupling of vibrational energy may be possible, if the material is suspended in a magnetic field and free to vibrate. &%ee section on (amel $ones' Cua rature magnetiAation: *f we wanted to produce a Rua rature magnetiAation with the least amount of effort, it would seem the best material would be one known to have both a magneti/ed 3lectron shell, as well as a high nuclear spin to begin with. 6f the three basic magnetic metals, *ron, ?ickel, and $obalt, "obalt Bumps out as the perfect can i ate. 9e would e+pect that $obalt would be the easiest material to create the effect in, as it naturally has both Proton and 3lectron magneti/ation. "his is providing we can achieve a controlled separation of the two and align it to effect the ?eutrons. )oving towards metals that are non magnetic at the electron layer, we are now faced with causing them to become magneti/ed or placing them beside 3lectron magneti/ed materials like iron. "he metals $opper and !luminum ,ump out here as they are electric conductors and can be magneti/ed simply by passing current through them. *f the current is passed vertically then a natural spin would manifest in the correct plane to align properly with our vertical magnetic field. "he current would tend to tilt the electron fields e+actly where we want them. 9e would still need the correct device spin to hold the Proton orbitals vertical, however now we have a device that may not need its G< degree magnets at all. %imply wrap a magnetic cylinder with copper as a toroidal coil. $ylinder is magneti/ed ?7% vertical, the same direction we flow current through the wires. "he Proton tilts should manifest within the copper wire. "his e+plains a great many devices at this point, combining magnets and copper wire in such a

method. ?ow we may find some ability to define the correct parameters. &5or reference here are a few elements'

7ron *
Specific gra!ity H.FH &mass7volume' 7sotope ;H Symbol 5e +ame *ron Spin 72 +atural Abun ' 2. G<< 9agnetic 9oment <. ;NGN Gamma #: ;-S3ra /Ts$ <.FNF<N Cua rup'9omentC/fmS0 --FreRuency .3HG )h/ &eference 5eA$6C; *ron is a natural material to use to place a magnetic field ne+t to another material, however it %ill not be !ery useful as to splitting the magnetic fiel s . 9e see its natural abundance at 2=, this means we will get erratic results if any, as only 2= of its nuclear magnetic fields can be coupled to consistently with D5. "here will be a very low amount of ?)D ,umping between atoms. *rons ?ucleus would be impossible to align to a weaker field crossing at G< degrees to its 3lectron field. 7ron %oul be best thought of as a magnetic con uctor able to istribute the magnetic fiel in a constant manner along a better substance for oing the splitting'

"opper *
Specific gra!ity F.G; 7sotope N3 Symbol $u +ame $opper Spin 372 +atural Abun ' NG. H<<< T &ecepti!ity #rel' to ;."$ <.<N;<< 9agnetic 9oment 2.FH;>G Gamma#: ;-S3ra /Ts$ H. FreRuency .2G< HG Cua rup'9omentC/fmS0 -22.<<<<< &eference &$uA$(3$?C>'&$l6>' (ere we see copper is a better choice for splitting the fields. *tXs natural abundance falls into two different levels on the ?)D chart. "he most commonly found *sotope of copper is at NG= abundance &listed above'. *tXs ne+t is found at 3<= where we see a slightly higher ?)D fre1uency. "his means if we have a

;2

cylinder of copper built it may have one or probably both *sotopes found in varying degrees with two ?)D fre1uencies present. !lthough copper is a good choice it is still a gamble and t%o sets of numbers %ill ha!e to be follo%e assuming we will fall somewhere between them both. $opper is an e+cellent choice for coupling torsion from a magnetic field but may not be the best choice for splitting the magnetic fields consistently. Ret with a magnetic moment half that of !luminum and a greater mass it may be far easier to accomplish with a wider force %in o%. !s copper is non magnetic at the electron layer, unless current is flowing through it, some form of current induction will be necessary to generate the hori/ontal field .h. $urrent may have to constantly flow vertically through the material to magneti/e it. &"he %earl disk is an e+ample of the two *ron and $opper touching in a cylindrical method so as to make use of both'

Aluminum *
Specific gra!ity 2.H 7sotope 2H Symbol !l +ame !luminum Spin ;72 +atural Abun ' T <<.<<<<< &ecepti!ity#rel' to ;."$ <.2<H<< 9agnetic 9oment >.3<FNG Gamma#: ;-S3ra /Ts$ N.GHN2H Cua rup'9omentC/fmS0 >.NN<<< FreRuency .<G; )h/ &eference !lA?63C3 !luminum has a natural abun ance of << =. "his means that we will get very consistent results across all the atoms of !luminum as found in nature. *ts nuclear magnetic moment is very high >.3 making it easy to couple to the Protons magnetic field yet a little harder to tilt it. *n a one "esla field we can e+pect ?)D to be operating around )h/ consistently across all the atoms. #ue to the high magnetic moment of !luminum, we may run into a problem with DP) and the force %in o% will be narrower. 9e will have to spin the disc around 2 times faster then a copper disc to break free of the hori/ontal field .h. !nother interesting note is that $opper and !luminum lay very close to the same ?)D fre1uency. !luminum is not magnetic so it will be necessary to flow current through it to create field .h. *t may also be necessary to support this field with G< degree magnets because !luminum is a poor conductor and creating a strong enough field to align Protons may be impossible without some e+ternal help.

"obalt*
Specific gra!ity: F.G 7sotope ;G Symbol $o +ame $obalt Spin H72

;3

+atural Abun ' T <<.<<<<< &ecepti!ity#rel' to ;."$ <.2HF<< 9agnetic9oment ;.2>H<< Gamma#: ;-S3ra /Ts$ N.332<< Cua rup'9omentC/fmS0 >2.<<<<< FreRuency ;-';-. &eference 83&$oA$?CN' !ma/ingly cobalt seems to offer all the nee e parameters . <<= abundance, high weight, high magnetic moment, plus it is paramagnetic, magneti/ed along the electron shell as well as at the nucleus. 9ith this material we could be certain that both magnetic fields are present and can be coupled to for splitting the fields. $obalt magnets run between <.F " to . " and should work for ?)D Proton tilting easily. ! cylinder rich in cobalt would need nothing more then to be magneti/ed hori/ontally .h, and have opposing magnets at the correct "esla rating .v. "here would be no need to have electric flow induced prior to tilting the Proton field. "he entire disc could reach total saturation in both planes of 1uadrature magneti/ation. "wo magnets of slightly different strength one as .h and one as .v a little weaker could be glued together or on opposite sides of a thin cylinder and spinning may be all that is needed to split the fields. Dows of these could be arranged around a cylinder of sphere, truly the simplest method * have found as of yet.

Disc siAe:
!s to how disc si/e will effect the process lets consider a simple formula for angular momentum S K )QD Particle !ngular momentum K &)ass' times &Qelocity' times &Dadius' "his may represent the momentum imparted to a Proton or 3lectron setting within our disc. 9e see that as we increase &)ass' &Qelocity' or &Dadius' we get a multiplying effect of the other two on the angular momentum . *ncreasing the disc radius can increase the effects of momentum on the outer layer of the disc by several magnitudes. 9e have no control over the mass of a Proton & .NH2N23 r <-2H kg'. 9e can however effect both the &Qelocity' or DP) and the &Dadius' of our disc. "he suggestion in this formula is not to build our spinning disc too small, rather as large as practical. !s the angular momentum of our disc will be coupled into the Protons angular momentum when they are sitting in alignment within a magnetic field, the higher we go the better. "his is a coupling of angular momentum, and is not a coupling of magnetic spin fre1uency per say. 9hatever momentum we are able to add will tend to spread our force %in o% wider as Protons will be effected F3N times more then 3lectrons. "he difference must e+ceed the magnetic bond between Proton and 3lectron magnetic fields as well as the 3lectrons momentum alone. Def http@77hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu7hbase7hframe.html &!ngular momentum of a particle' 5urther if we consider the moment of inertia and apply it to a rigid spinning ob,ect &this is for reference and probably will not apply to ,ust our particle' * K mr c2 )oment of inertia &*' K mass times the radius s1uared SK*+w !ngular momentum &rigid ob,ect' K )oment of *nertia times !ngular Qelocity 5rom these two formulas we see a similar multiplying effect of &Qelocity' &Dadius s1uared'

;>

Def

http@77hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu7hbase7hframe.html &!ngular momentum' &)oment of *nertia'

7t is note%orthy that oubling the ra ius of our isc shoul increase the angular momentum by a factor of aroun =, re ucing the &P9 necessary by the same factor' The larger the isc an the higher the &P9 the %i er the Lforce %in o%L to reach critical threshol ' 5urther to decrease the disc radius will re1uire our G< degree magnets to more precisely find the e+act window where 3lectrons tilt and Protons do not tilt.

"omparing other e!ices:


*t should now become obvious that what (utchisen may have found was a method of entraining both Proton and 3lectron fre1uencies, and tilting them towards G< degree positions, using the correct fre1uencies crossing such that sums and differences matched ?)D and 3%D rates in different 1uadrature planes. (e did send ob,ects into another ensity, which completely vanished, as well as levitate ob,ects. "he other possibility is to push both into higher rates of angular momentum by applying aiding spin forces to both simultaneously, this would seem all but impossible without first decoupling the two magnetic forces to some e+tent. "he %weet Q"! takes on a new outlook as well. !ligning the Protons in a weak magnetic field. *t would take only a small force at the correct fre1uency to tilt the Protons into two canceling positions while entraining the electrons to flip the full F< degrees. 9e end up e+tracting the electrons accelerating energy, while neutrali/ing the Protons energy. "he reverse momentum of electron would be seen as the cold electric energy, in this model. !s with normal electric flows, electrons are always flowing within the atomic orbits of atoms where greater opposing momentum constantly counters them. !lso noteworthy that the actual splitting may be happening within the copper wire rather then within the magnet. "he coils do not make any sense whatsoever as to turns to voltage ratios. "he correct > coils set up with proper alignment may be all that is necessary, magnet conditioning may be merely setting up the ?)D or 3%D fre1uencies to split the field in the copper atoms of the coils. "he 1uadrature polari/ation may be working its way even down the wires to the load. "his would re1uire the electron current to be moving parallel with the magnetic field rather then at G< degrees to it. "his energy would be delivering two magnetic fields rather then one. *n the plasmas we seem to see an energy gain, where electrons are completely freed from atomic orbits for a time in the ioni/ed path through the air.

Hamel "ones:
(amels concept of Lmass into energyL would seem to apply to the ?ucleus of atoms, where we see the %trong 5orce causing a similiar effect of mass into energy. (ere we see the atomic %eight of the ?ucleus is reduced by a mass and becomes the Strong Force related to one another by 3 K )$c2.

Ho% is spin in uce in Hamel conesE


"he cones do not spin as we think of spin in a %earl disc, rather they vibrate, precess, or tilt, in little circles top and bottom. "he vibration in the center cone moves in the same pattern found at the ?ucleus of the atom in a magnetic precession, operating at several )h/ in the atom. "his is called the ?)D &?uclear )agnetic Desonance' fre1uency. .ecause the cones are interlocked, the top cones lower ape+ is moving in a small circle. "he lower cones upper region is moving in a small circle with the same direction of spin but F< degrees out of phase or tilt. "he cone in the center is moving both top and bottom and couples to the !toms ?ucleus electrostaticly. "he ?ucleus of the atom is the heaviest part, and this coupling is a vibrational mass coupling of energy transmitted through the 3) field between Protons and 3lectron shells. "his is only possible because the cone is able to pass the ?uclear vibrations through its 3lectron mass structure, because it is also floating in a magnetic field and free to vibrate in this same motion. !s the vibrations pass between atoms they cause a coherent ?)D to link throughout a

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section of the !luminum. 6nce the device spin or vibration becomes coherent, the heavier ?ucleus of all !luminum atoms will want to align with it in the same spin plane, ,ust as with a spinning disc. "he Protons and ?eutrons will be pressed to flip vertical and there precession will be the same as the center cone. !long the magnets at the rim of the cone the Protons will be held in hori/ontal spin by the magnetic field and unable to flip upwards. !t some point away from the magnets, as the magnetic field drops away, the Protons and ?eutrons will be found tilting upwards, overpowering the magnetic field. "his is the point or ring of vibrational threshold for step one. "he ?)D fre1uency will determine where this latitude is located along the cones mass and the physical vibration will be found to be a subharmonic of the ?)D fre1uency along this one latitude. This process is i entifie as step one, an is the source of the cones motion or spin' *t is the device motor. 7n my current mo el, the t%o step process for tunning a Hamel cone %oul be these: ; - !chieve the highest possible cone vibration resonance fre1uency through good design choices. &get the cones to vibrate' 0 - %plit the magnetic fields by finding the resonant subharmonics that land the ?)D fre1uency closer to the hori/ontal magnets.

Ho% oes the Hamel cone split the fiel sE


"he ?)D fre1uency of !luminum changes with the strength of the magnetic field it is setting within. "herefore as we move away from the hori/ontal magnet ring along the cones larger circular edge towards its tip, the ?)D fre1uency drops with the magnetic field strength. *n step one we cause one ring or latitude of the cone to enter a coupling with the ?ucleus of the atoms and the cone starts to vibrate at some subharmonic fre1uency of the ?)D fre1uency. "here should be found that by increasing the compression of the field the cones are setting in, more then one rate of precession may be achieved, and the fre1uency of vibration should increase, moving the latitude of ?)D closer into the magnetic field. *f we can get the ?)D ring to move into the correct area of the magnetic field, then across some small region it should cause the Protons to tip up where the hori/ontal 3lectron generated magnetic field is at the correct intensity to cause the 3lectron and Proton fields to split inside the !luminum atoms all the way down to the ?eutrons. This is step t%o, Rua rature magnetiAation. !t the place along the cone where the hori/ontal magnetic field ratio is correct, if the Protons have attained a strong vibrational coupling along this same latitude, the field should split tilting the Protons magnetic field vertical, breaking away from the 3lectrons hori/ontal field. 9orking its way into the ?eutrons, as the field splits within the strong force area, energy flow begins outwards, now through a vibrationally coupled system, all the way to the Proton and 3lectron layer and the split begins to propagate throughout the cones. ?egative electric force charges the sides of the cones surface and somewhere around the center point we could e+pect a positive charge to manifest. $ontrol is with a vertically polari/ed magnetic field, said to gate the flow. (owever this magnet would tend to upset the sensitive balance between vertical and hori/ontal magnetic fields, in such a thin cone material, and re,oin the fields by overpowering them both in the thin !luminum. "he force %in o% can be seen as getting the first ?)D resonance to manifest on a cone latitude as close to the correct magnetic field area as near the magnets as possible. "he vertical tilting force on the Protons, and the ?)D coupling fre1uency latitude of cone mass to ?)D fre1uency, must cross at the correct hori/ontal magnet strength to form a splitting area. *f the two never come close enough then a cone that simply vibrates may never cross the threshold of splitting the fields and releasing ?eutron energy. Getting the cones to vibrate is only the first step, this creates the !ertical momentum force for Proton alignment. "hey must resonate an ?)D subharmonic, with a mass physical vibration, crossing the magnetic field at the proper intensity to create the split of Proton and 3lectron magnetic fields along one latitu e, before it can spread. *t would seem that strength and placement of the base and upper magnets may help support the vertical field, and more attention should be directed here as well. .eing able to regulate the gating magnets strength may allow a sliding of the ?)D ring latitude slightly up or

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down the cone to coincide with the proper distance from the hori/ontal magnets to begin the splitting process.

*f the electron mass of the free floating cone can be vibrationally coupled to the vibrational rate of the nucleus at a subharmonic then nuclear Desonance should envelope the cones upper and lower areas where circles are widest. *f we could build a cone such that its electron mass was e1ual to the mass of one nucleus this would vibrate up rather 1uickly. "his small cone would have only around 3,F 3 atoms total and its total electron mass would be e1ual to the mass of one ?ucleus. (aving identical weight it would easily vibrate at the e+act rate of the ?ucleus and begin to couple the ?ucleus vibrations between atoms. Growing larger re1uires a sub harmonically coupled vibrational rate. Sowering the magnetic field will help because it will lower the nucleus precession rate. "his will not effect the coupling mass but it will allow for vibrating a heavier ob,ect more 1uickly at a lower harmonic.

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"hese parameters are within our means to measure and to easily alter as well as to control. "he (amel cone is tunned through a laborious process of ad,usting the opposing magnets floating distance, altering the stress holding the mass of the cone, thus its vibrational rate. (owever if the cone has not been, by chance, engineered to fall within a certain range, then no vibrations will surface. *t would seem the cone in the center is the one that will emulate the atom most closely, as it circles both top and bottom.

A possible tunning metho for "ones:


"he ?)D fre1uency can be determined mathematically for !luminum for the magnets used and the distance they are at from the !luminum, dropping off at an inverse distance cubed rate. "wo devices can be fabricated to measure both vibrational mass rate, and ?)D rate. 9ass !ibration sensor: ! section of the cone is polished to shiny. ! laser light pen is connected to the frame and hits the cone reflecting off onto a calibrated piece of white paper, with a grid pattern and a photo sensor behind it with a small hole. $one vibration is seen as a dot si/e increase, or a line width. *f the paper is moved further away this will be amplified. ! simple circuit can connect to a fre1uency counter that should read the fre1uency of vibration. +9& sensor: ! coil is wound around the frame, outside the cone of about 3< meters of wire hori/ontally level. "he length of this wire could be near the calculated ?)D fre1uency wavelength. "his could be wound on a separate form that may be removed. ! second coil is placed inside the cone with vertical polari/ation as an ?)D receiver. *t must be near the center of the cone and have a shield around only its outer edge, not its side edges. *t can be fitted with a tunning capacitor and set to resonate at the ?)D fre1uency as well. ! strong signal generator can now be used to scan the cones resonance. 9hen the ?)D fre1uency is stumbled on a simple D5 field strength meter should show the cross coupling between the two coils as a sharp resonant peak, or a group of them appearing along the cone. "his can be achieved with a diode and a voltmeter much like (utchisens hand held unit. "he positioning of this coil must be very accurately vertical and the connecting wires must be very short and shielded running to the meter that must have a shielded bo+. 6r a radio receiver could be tuned using a $9 receiver, and following the signal generators fre1uency. !s the cone is fre1uency scanned in this manner the vibrational rates of both Ldevice resonanceL and Lnuclear resonanceL should show on one of our sensors. 5inding the rates and then altering parameters to tune them to cross at one fre1uency harmonic is the method for tuning in step one. ! fully tuned magnetically floating cone may physically vibrate when the correct ?)D fre1uency hits it, indicating that the cones electron mass has linked to the ?)D vibrational rate. *t should be determined how many fre1uencies this can be made to happen at, and how high we can run this fre1uency up.

)agnet selection for (amel cones@


!ll magnets are a combination of Proton and 3lectron magnetic fields, which have opposite spin momentum in the same field. "he hori/ontal magnets running around the cones should favor 3lectron spin and avoid Proton spin. Proton magnetic spin carries with it a high mass momentum, 3lectron magnetic spin does not. "he best magnets to use for the hori/ontal field would be magnets with little or no ?uclear spin. )agnets with a high ?uclear spin like $obalt will tend to resist the Proton tilt in the !luminum slowing the splitting process. "eramic ferrous JferriteK magnets %oul probably be the best choice. *deally the Protons in the !luminum will be held by the 3lectrons magnetic field in the magnets we select and easily tilt away from it when the spin force becomes strong enough. Gating magnets aligned along the top and bottom of the device may be $obalt or even ?eo. (owever this may ,ust as well inhibit shutdown and control. !n alternate method is suggested for building the cone magnets using *ron or $eramic ferrite rings. !n

;F

iron or ferrite ring can be very precisly magneti/ed by spinning it past very strong magnets at high DP). ! very uniform magnetic field will result. %pining the cones ring past a neo magnet %outh pointing inwards will produce a uniform field in the iron with ?orth pointing outwards. "he reverse can be done with the stator ring. "he setup for this would re1uire a spining test ,ig able to spin the rings up either before they are atached to the cones, or spining the cones afterwards. "he normal method of coil pulse magneti/ation produces the wrong shaped field for a (amel cone, resulting in a ?orth %outh vertical alignment like the %earl disc uses. "esting can be checked by slowly turning the ring and watching field strength from a stationary point. *t should be very constant along the entire ring. 6nce they are magneti/ed, stronger magnets must be kept away from them because iron can be effected 1uickly by ?eo magnets touching them. !lternates would be to do this with a machined magnetic material or a molded ceramic and magneti/ed after assembly. "his would ensure a uniform field. Piecing seperate magnets along the ring will produce a random intensity magnetic field and ?)D may not find a complete circle around the cones. *f seperate magnets are used then each one should be tested with a compass against the earths field to ensure a same distance reach is present where the compass is seen to move half way between the magnets force and the earths force.

!d,ustments@
!d,ustment of the magnetic compression screw should cross the two vibrations at several points, and the higher the better. Just because a cone vibrates, does not mean it will not vibrate at a higher, almost undetectable rate, if compressed further. "he vibration sensor would be a valuable item to detect these higher rates and to peak them. Pushing the physical vibration rate higher up towards the N 8h/ limit of physical vibration may help. ?uclear vibrational coupling will be increased the closer the fre1uencies come to one another. "he !luminum ?)D fre1uency may be setting at around to ; )h/ some inches off the hori/ontal magnets. ! chart can be created to predict where the ?)D rings would form and mapped onto the cones as a fre1uency. "he cone must vibrate at a sub harmonic of the ?)D fre1uency landing as close to the magnets as possible for splitting the fields.

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An e:piermental e!ice for LsplittingL in Aluminum:

"oncept of operation:
= coils are pro!i e for in i!i ual control of Proton an Electron motions' De!ice is esigne to fin the correct parameters by allo%ing a large number of !ariables to be applie ' The D" coils are outsi e the +9& coils so they %ill not interfere %ith the high freRuencies hitting the sphere' +o iron is to be use in the e!ice, because the in i!i ual magnetic fiel s %ill be ske%e or bent as they pass through iron' All the magnetic fiel s must con!erge in tact insi e the Aluminum sphere' The outer D" coils fiel s %ill pass through the +9& coils because they are not Alternating fiel s, an %ill recei!e no in uctance as they pass through them' Ho%e!er the D" coils %ill attenuate some &F from the +9& coils' 7t is note that sil!er %ire %oul be better then copper %ire because it has a much lo%er +uclear

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spin an thus coils o!erlaying one another %oul offer much less in uction interference to one another' The Electron bias coil is pro!i e to keep a strong 9agnetic fiel in the horiAontal plane reaching all the %ay to the +eutrons' The Proton trap bias coil is a slightly %eaker fiel esigne to catch the Protons as they are tilte !ertical elaying them from returning for splitting' The +9& coils are set up to offer t%o planes of motion in uction for the +ucleus, one %ill split the fiel s an the other %ill Boin them' The ifference is achie!e by re!ersing one coil polarity, rotating it ;1- egrees in phase' Also other phases can be e:perimente %ith for !arious tilting angles if phase ri!ing circuits are inclu e ' 9easurements are a!ailable %ith a compass, an a !oltmeter' The core sphere shoul e!elop a !oltage as %ith the Searl isc %hen the fiel s split, U at the center an * on the outer ring' ?oltage taps are pro!i e for ra%ing currents an large copper con uctors shoul be use ' The compass may be kept near the top of the !ertical +orth pole, an slightly to one si e' As +9& resonance is hit, this pole may be seen to sprea tilting the compass slightly o%n%ar s no longer pointing to the e:act center' This is because the lines of flu: ha!e foun ne% paths through the Aligne Protons coherently through the material' 7f Aluminum %ire is use to tap the !oltage %e may e:pect the fiel splitting to migrate up it an actually pro!i e the col electric effects' 7t is thought that by using copper the issimilarity shoul stop the splitting from lea!ing the e!ice' The ultimate e!ice %oul a the ability to spin the sphere, in the case that this may be the only %ay to get the +eutrons to seperate, since the inner Protons magnetic fiel seems to be totally hi en un er the Electrons' The +eutrons magnetic moment is J * K' 7t is my assumption that since the S%eet ?TA oes not nee a spining e!ice, this e:pierment may be enough' 7 am e:pecting that since the orbital Protons are operating %ithin the strong force area, tilting them %ill be enough to split the +uetron forces' 7f Rua rature magnetiAation can be accomplishe in Aluminum, 7 %oul e:pect a constant !oltage electric force apearing, the sum of many electron !olts aligne at atomic le!els, an probably a function of the magnetic chain length or the iameter of the Aluminums soli parts' Thus sphere siAe may become important to !oltage output, an thickness may be important to current capability'

De!ice 0 * &olling the Proton fiel at an +9& freRuency


There is one other metho to split the magnetic fiel s that may pro!e intresting, reRuiring slightly more energy input' That of rolling the Protons fiel through a circle positione <- egrees to the stea y Electron magnetic fiel ' 7f it can be rolle at an +9& freRuency then Protons an +ucleus of atoms %ill be spining in one fiel an the other fiel %ill cross it at <- egrees' 7n this configuration the entire +uclear mass of the splitting material is spining although the e!ice is stationary at the electron layer an oes not apear to mo!e' With this metho iron can be use in the electro magnets in the stationary fiel , so can be much closer an stronger' The +9& coils %ill be situate at <egrees to one another an fe <- egrees out of phase setting up a rotating magnetic fiel at the +9& freRuency or a sub harmonic, or e!en a short pulse %a!eform, also setting Bust insi e the stationary magnetic fiel ' Proton dipoles will be held in a constant state of circular spin, in a spin plane perpendicular to the 3lectron field. !n !luminum disc or cylinder could be used for this e+pierment. "he +uclear 9agnetic &esonant 6attery is a similar device concept.

*n the +uclear 9agnetic &esonant 6attery or +9& 6attery pulses are fed through a $opper tube or cylinder vertically. "his creates a magnetic field pulsing around the inside of the tube at G< degrees and causes the Protons to move into a magnetic spin, still precessing around the vertical magnetic field, but at G< degrees to it. .ecause the $opper tube completely wraps the !luminum tube all the Protons are effected at once and the device does not have to physically spin. 9hen the !luminum reaches ?uclear resonance at the full G< degrees the fields split into the ?eutrons. ?oncancelling 3) begins to appear along the surfaces of the !luminum top and bottom &one voltage polarity' and sides &other voltage polarity'. "he device is totally controlled electronically by the pulse amplitude and pulse length. *f the pulses stop then the Protons slowly spiral back up into alignment with the vertical magnetic field and it should shut down.

Da!i 4o%rance Public Domain Paper -.*;H*-2

+otes an +9& &eferences:


+ote ;

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*n !G work it is common to use values relevant to a "esla magnetic field, as many ?eo magnets land between and .; "esla. *t is noteworthy to mention however that the precession rates &?)D and 3%D fre1uencies' given in this paper are relative to "esla and these rates will be altered as the field is lowered or raised. +ote 0 *t is also well know now that the particles Proton and 3lectron are not really particles, but energy in a wave looping function. (owever as they still possess the same measurable effects of magnetic moment and angular momentum, * have chosen to use the word particle to describe them. +ote . ! mental image presented of the Doshin and Godin Dussian %earl disc duplication may be an aid to understanding references in this paper, as well as a basic understanding of how ?)D and 3%D function. http@77www.cis.rit.edu7htbooks7mri7inside.htm http@77www.re+research.com7roschin7roschin.htm (ther &eferences: http@77hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu7hbase7hframe.html http@77hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu7hbase7magnetic7magpot.htmlOc http@77hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu7hbase7magnetic7magmom.htmlOc2 http@77hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu7hbase7nuclear7nmr.htmlOc

Definitions:
Spin Plane - !s an electron is seen in an orbit around the nucleus, any one complete circle lies within a single plane, or plane of motion. !s the magnetic vector lies at G< degrees to this it is important to have some way to reference the angle. "his is similar to an electric coil, whose winding all lie appro+imately within one plane, and the magnetic field generated lies at G< degrees to this plane. 9hile the 3lectron eventually winds its way around the entire electron shell, its spin plane shifts, however if the atom is magnetic more of these spin planes align to form a greater field e+ternal to the atom along one spin plane. "he electric spin plane is seen G< degrees to the magnetic field and tends to contain more electron motion of one direction of spin. E9 - 3lectro magnetic force is 7 3H as strong as the strong force' 3) is the force operating at the 3lectron layer, and between Protons and 3lectrons' Strong Force * "he force found at the nucleus of atoms where vorte+es or particles are very close to one another. "he ?eutron is seen as an 3lectron vorte+ overlapping a Proton vorte+ such that spin is coupled and 3) is canceled. *n this tight configuration the strong force is dominant. *t drops off ,ust outside the nucleus and does not effect the 3lectron cloud. %trong force can only hold F3 Protons in a stable configuration. .ismuth is the largest stable atom.9ithin the strong force is a %eight re uction where the total mass is lighter then the sum of its parts. +uclear * 9ith reference to the unit at the center of an atom consisting of Protons and ?eutrons which are tightly bound by the strong force. "he ma,or weight of the atom e+ists within this nucleus. "he 3lectron shell is seen to e+ist outside the influence of the strong force, and operates only by electro magnetic force.

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Proton * "he Proton is seen generating the ma,or magnetic force found in the nucleus of the atom, thus it is the coupling link between the atoms ma,or mass and magnetism for atoms that do have a nuclear magnetic moment. "ilting the e+ternal magnetic field that is coupled to a Proton tilts its spinning mass rotation offering a resistance of momentum. "he Proton is seen to spin the same direction of its orbital motion and as such offers a higher energy output then 3lectrons when magnetism and momentum are combined. Particle that spins $$9 in a magnetic field, bound in the strong force at the nucleus of atoms. +ucleon * ! paired Proton and ?eutrroon found in the ?ucleus of an atom +eutron * "he combined 3lectron Proton vorte+es that cancel their 3lectro )agnetic fields, and are bound in the nucleus by the strong force. Electron - 9hile described as a particle, the electron is really a 1uantum wave energy moving between densities. *t is only in our density at very specific intervals of time or 1uantums where its force is felt like the spokes on a wheel as it spins. "he importance is that we have identified its main measurable manifestations. "hat of magnetism, electricity, and radiation fre1uency as related to Langular momentumL and Lmagnetic moment.L "he electron spins opposite its magnetic moment. 3lectrons create a magnetic field some N<< times stronger then Protons with a mass over F<< times lower.Particle that spins $9 in a magnetic field, freely roaming the electron cloud and is not bound by the strong force. Cua rature - 5orces that are linked together in a G< degree relationship such that energy between angles of forces are linked. "he electron set into motion creates a 1uadrature magnetic field. "he 3lectrons spin on the 1uantum level partially creates the time flow rate &9ilbert %mith'. Cua rature magnetiAation * "he theoretical state within an atom where Protons precess around one magnetic field, and 3lectrons precess around another magnetic field, such that both magnetic fields sit at G< degrees to one another. .oth fields sit in the blotch %all of the other. "his may be a necessary transitional configuration to the creation of ?eutrons, where both are seen to end up overlapping. Density - ! stable state of matter, one set of parameters where the atom is stable to interact with other matter at the same state.6ur physical world is one such possible state, where atomic particles have found an e1uilibrium. "he sages through the ages have envisioned many more such worlds and named them. "hey indicate we are now on the 3rd leveled density of mater. $laimed !lien contact as well has suggested this model is accurate and moving into higher densities changes the laws of momentum, gravity, and time flow rate. Source * "he sought after place where free energy is moving into this density and powering the atoms and all manifestations of energy found here. "he regenerative source, or the root location of tapping that source of energy. * believe that %ource will be located within matter, and is found at the crossing point of atomic particles entering and leaving this density. Dipole * "he 1uality of magnetic fields as they are created from electron motion to manifest two directions of force along its . vector. 6ne labeled ?orth and one labeled %outh. "he earth has a magnetic %outh pole setting at its ?orth Geomagnetic pole. "he ?orth pole of a compass, will attract to a %outh magnetic pole of a free magnet. 6lotch %all * "he center point between the dipole ends of a magnet where almost no magnetic field e+ists with enough magnetic polarity to effect anything. (olding one magnet inside the blotch wall of another allows for the least interaction between them. 9ithin atomic orbits that are more perfectly aligned spherically, this effect may lead to another stable state of atoms, once supporting magnetic fields are established. "ompass * "he simplest most convenient way to detect a magnetic field, although often overlooked today as a tool of science. $aution is in order because if held too close to a ?eo magnet may be completely reverse polari/ed if forced into a reverse field alignment. *f using a compass it should be periodically checked against the earths field and realigned as needed using a neo magnet.

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&eference constants an formulas:


"onstants:
Planck constant: h N.N2N<H;;r <-3> Jrs
<

Proton mass energy e1uivalent@ .;<3 2HH >3 + < 3lectron mass energy e1uivalent@ F. FH + < Proton mass@ .NH2N2 + < -2H kg 3lectron )ass@ G. <G 3F + < c -3 kg )ass ratio 3lectron 7 Proton@ ;.>>N H< + < c -> )ass ratio Proton 7 3lectron@ F3N. ;2 Proton g-5actor@ ;.;F; Proton magnetic moment@ .> <N<N + <c-2N J "cProton gyromagnetic ratio@ 2.NH; + < cF sc- "c>

G3F.2H2 <2G )eQ <.; <GGF )eQ &)e $c2' ;.>F; + < c-> u

over 2pi K >2.;HH>F 3 )h/7 "c;.N<G + <c3; eQ K A 8gC$c2

3lectron magnetic moment@ -G2F.>HN + < c -2N J "c3lectron volt-,oule relationship .N<2 + < c- G J Joule-electron volt relationship@ N.2> + < c F eQ K J Proton 3lectron ratio@ Be 7 Bp K N;F.2 <NFF 3lectron magnetic moment@ -G.2F>HH< r <-2> J7" Proton magnetic moment@ .> <N<HN r <-2NJ7"

+9& Formulas:
Energy of a photon 3 K h Q Gyromagnetic ratio Q K R . &R K gyromagnetic ratio' &h K N.N2N+ <c-3> J &Planks constant'' &Q K fre1uency' &R K Q 7 .' &Q K fre1uency &(/'' &. K magnetic field strength &"esla''

Transition energy 3 K h R . &h K N.N2N + < c-3>' &R K gyromagnetic ratio' &. K magnetic field strength' &Q is between ; and F<< )h/ typically in medical apparatus' *oni/ation potential for an organic molecule is N + < c - G J *n ?)D the energy in a photon is a function of its fre1uency times planks constant. 5or the photon to flip a nucleus magnetic field over this must e1ual the Transition energy. "here is only one . field strength that can match any particular photon. !toms setting all in the same magnetic field will easily e+change photons. (ome

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Prodotti 3lettrici s %cheda tecnica prodotto

Prodotto G3?3D!"6D - "orcia #inamo "D*-S3# !/ienda@ "ecnid %pa $ategoria merceologica - Sampade #escri/ione Sa lampada Generator di "ecnid f alimentata a me//o rota/ione della manovella, garantendo luce in 1ualsiasi situa/ione, anche dopo lungo inutili//o. Bna ricarica completa occupa circa minuto, e gra/ie a tre luminosi S3# a basso consumo energetico permette unXautonomia di luce di 2<72; minuti. Sa lampada, in !.% resistente, pesa solo G2 grammi.

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Artificial Gra ity Generator 1o/ Possible6 !n artificial gravity generator is probably the science-fictional pseudo-science device most disliked by physicists. Bsed as a plot device as early as G3< by 6laf %tapleton, artificially-produced gravity fields make space flight a lot easier and more bearable for everyone. .ut itXs impossible, right0

A5rom 5acility during testingC Decent work done by researchers supported by the 3uropean %pace !gency have measured the gravitational e1uivalent of a magnetic field for the first time in a laboratory. )artin "a,mar A!D$ %eibersdorf Desearch Gmb(, !ustriaC, $lovis de )atos A3%!-(P, ParisC and colleagues have successfully produced and measured a very weak gravitomagnetic field. "hey summari/e their results as follows@

!n acceleration field was found to be induced by applying angular accelerations to a superconductor. "he field produced is directly proportional to the applied acceleration with a correlation factor higher than <.GN. !ll mean values are 3.3 times above the facility noise level. "he gravitational field is emitted from the superconductor and follows the laws of field propagation and induction similar to those of electromagnetism as formulated in lineari/ed general relativity. Gravitational peaks were observed when the superconductor passed its critical temperature while it was rotating. "heir sign changed with the orientation of the angular velocity. 5or the first time, non-?ewtonian gravitational and gravitomagnetic fields of measurable magnitude were observed in a laboratory environment. "he e+istence of the gravitational 5araday law was shown.

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A5rom 3+perimental #etection of the Gravitomagnetic Sondon )omentC "he results were presented at a one-day conference at 3%!Xs 3uropean %pace and "echnology Desearch $entre A3%"3$C, in the ?etherlands, 2 )arch 2<<N.

A5rom 3+perimental %etupC L9e ran more than 2;< e+periments, improved the facility over 3 years and discussed the validity of the results for F months before making this announcement. ?ow we are confident about the measurement,L says "a,mar, who performed the e+periments and hopes that other physicists will conduct their own versions of the e+periment in order to verify the findings and rule out a facility induced effect. A5rom "owards a new test of general relativityC "his is a very intriguing development, if it can be duplicated by other researchers. !rtificial gravity fields were almost immediately decried as fantasy, not science fiction. "he other method of creating Lartificial gravityL was first used in science fiction ,ust a year after %tapletonM Jack 9illiamson wrote about the $ity of %pace in G3 @ L"he $ity of %pace is in a cylinder,L $aptain %mith said. LDoughly five thousand feet in diameter... "he cylinder whirls constantly, with such speed that the centrifugal force against the sides e1uals the force of gravity on the earth. "he city is built around the inside of the cylinder... ADead more about the cylindrical space stationC Deaders might also want to e+plore a more recently suggested method of obtaining weak artificial gravity for space stationsM see this article on non-conductive tethers. Dead more about the 3%! e+perimentsM nice paper ApdfC also online. "hanks to an alert reader for the tip on this story. A%tory submitted 372>72<<NC

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Take a leap into hyperspace


<; January 2<<N 5rom ?ew %cientist Print 3dition (aiko Siet/

3Q3DR year, the !merican *nstitute of !eronautics and !stronautics awards pri/es for the best papers presented at its annual conference. Sast yearXs winner in the nuclear and future flight category went to a paper calling for e+perimental tests of an astonishing new type of engine. !ccording to the paper, this hyperdrive motor would propel a craft through another dimension at enormous speeds. *t could leave 3arth at lunchtime and get to the moon in time for dinner. "hereXs ,ust one catch@ the idea relies on an obscure and largely unrecognised kind of physics. $an they possibly be serious0 "he !*!! is certainly not embarrassed. 9hatXs more, the B% military has begun to cast its eyes over the hyperdrive concept, and a space propulsion researcher at the B% #epartment of 3nergyXs %andia ?ational Saboratories has said he would be interested in putting the idea to the test. !nd despite the bafflement of most physicists at the theory that supposedly underpins it, Pavlos )ikellides, an aerospace engineer at the !ri/ona %tate Bniversity in "empe who reviewed the winning paper, stands by the committeeXs choice. L3ven though such features have been e+plored before, this particular approach is 1uite uni1ue,L he says. Bni1ue it certainly is. *f the e+periment gets the go-ahead and works, it could reveal new interactions between the fundamental forces of nature that would change the future of space travel. 5orget spending si+ months or more holed up in a rocket on the way to )ars, a round trip on the hyperdrive could take as little as ; hours. !ll our worries about astronautsX muscles wasting away or their #?! being irreparably damaged by cosmic radiation would disappear overnight. 9hatXs more the device would put travel to the stars within reach for the first time. .ut can the hyperdrive really get off the ground0 "he answer to that 1uestion hinges on the work of a little-known German physicist. .urkhard (eim began to e+plore the hyperdrive propulsion concept in the G;<s as a spin-off from his attempts to heal the biggest divide in physics@ the rift between 1uantum mechanics and 3insteinXs general theory of relativity. Puantum theory describes the realm of the very small - atoms, electrons and elementary particles - while general relativity deals with gravity. "he two theories are immensely successful in their separate spheres. "he clash arises when it comes to describing the basic structure of space. *n general relativity, space-time is an active, malleable fabric. *t has four dimensions - three of space and one of time - that deform when masses are placed in them. *n 3insteinXs formulation, the force of gravity is a result of the deformation of these dimensions. Puantum theory, on the other hand, demands that space is a fi+ed and passive stage, something simply there for particles to e+ist on. *t also suggests that space itself must somehow be made up of discrete, 1uantum elements. *n the early G;<s, (eim began to rewrite the e1uations of general relativity in a 1uantum framework. (e drew on 3insteinXs idea that the gravitational force emerges from the dimensions of space and time, but suggested that all fundamental forces, including electromagnetism, might emerge from a new, different set of dimensions. 6riginally he had four e+tra dimensions, but he discarded two of them believing that they did not produce any forces, and settled for adding a new two-dimensional Lsub-spaceL onto 3insteinXs four-dimensional space-time. *n (eimXs si+-dimensional world, the forces of gravity and electromagnetism are coupled together. 3ven in our familiar four-dimensional world, we can see a link between the two forces through the behaviour of fundamental particles such as the electron. !n electron has both mass and charge. 9hen an electron

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falls under the pull of gravity its moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. !nd if you use an electromagnetic field to accelerate an electron you move the gravitational field associated with its mass. .ut in the four dimensions we know, you cannot change the strength of gravity simply by cranking up the electromagnetic field. *n (eimXs view of space and time, this limitation disappears. (e claimed it is possible to convert electromagnetic energy into gravitational and back again, and speculated that a rotating magnetic field could reduce the influence of gravity on a spacecraft enough for it to take off. 9hen he presented his idea in public in G;H, he became an instant celebrity. 9ernher von .raun, the German engineer who at the time was leading the %aturn rocket programme that later launched astronauts to the moon, approached (eim about his work and asked whether the e+pensive %aturn rockets were worthwhile. !nd in a letter in GN>, the German relativity theorist Pascual Jordan, who had worked with the distinguished physicists )a+ .orn and 9erner (eisenberg and was a member of the ?obel committee, told (eim that his plan was so important Lthat its successful e+perimental treatment would without doubt make the researcher a candidate for the ?obel pri/eL. .ut all this attention only led (eim to retreat from the public eye. "his was partly because of his severe multiple disabilities, caused by a lab accident when he was still in his teens. .ut (eim was also reluctant to disclose his theory without an e+periment to prove it. (e never learned 3nglish because he did not want his work to leave the country. !s a result, very few people knew about his work and no one came up with the necessary research funding. *n G;F the aerospace company .ulkow did offer some money, but not enough to do the proposed e+periment. 9hile (eim waited for more money to come in, the companyXs director, Sudwig .ulkow, encouraged him to develop his theory further. (eim took his advice, and one of the results was a theorem that led to a series of formulae for calculating the masses of the fundamental particles - something conventional theories have conspicuously failed to achieve. (e outlined this work in GHH in the )a+ Planck *nstituteXs ,ournal Zeitschri-t -[r 2at+r-orsch+ng, his only peer-reviewed paper. *n an abstruse way that few physicists even claim to understand, the formulae work out a particleXs mass starting from physical characteristics, such as its charge and angular momentum. Ret the theorem has proved surprisingly powerful. "he standard model of physics, which is generally accepted as the best available theory of elementary particles, is incapable of predicting a particleXs mass. 3ven the accepted means of estimating mass theoretically, known as lattice 1uantum chromodynamics, only gets to between and < per cent of the e+perimental values.
Gra!ity re uction

.ut in GF2, when researchers at the German 3lectron %ynchrotron A#3%RC in (amburg implemented (eimXs mass theorem in a computer program, it predicted masses of fundamental particles that matched the measured values to within the accuracy of e+perimental error. *f they are let down by anything, it is the precision to which we know the values of the fundamental constants. "wo years after (eimXs death in 2<< , his long-term collaborator *llobrand von Sudwiger calculated the mass formula using a more accurate gravitational constant. L"he masses came out even more precise,L he says. !fter publishing the mass formulae, (eim never really looked at hyperspace propulsion again. *nstead, in response to re1uests for more information about the theory behind the mass predictions, he spent all his time detailing his ideas in three books published in German. *t was only in GF<, when the first of his books came to the attention of a retired !ustrian patent officer called 9alter #ruscher, that the hyperspace propulsion idea came back to life. #ruscher looked again at (eimXs ideas and produced an Le+tendedL version, resurrecting the dimensions that (eim originally discarded. "he result is L(eim#ruscher spaceL, a mathematical description of an eight-dimensional universe. 5rom this, #ruscher claims, you can derive the four forces known in physics@ the gravitational and electromagnetic forces, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. .ut thereXs more to it than that. L*f (eimXs picture is to make sense,L #ruscher says, Lwe are forced to postulate two more fundamental forces.L

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"hese are, #ruscher claims, related to the familiar gravitational force@ one is a repulsive anti-gravity similar to the dark energy that appears to be causing the universeXs e+pansion to accelerate. !nd the other might be used to accelerate a spacecraft without any rocket fuel. "his force is a result of the interaction of (eimXs fifth and si+th dimensions and the e+tra dimensions that #ruscher introduced. *t produces pairs of LgravitophotonsL, particles that mediate the interconversion of electromagnetic and gravitational energy. #ruscher teamed up with Jochem (ouser, a physicist and professor of computer science at the Bniversity of !pplied %ciences in %al/gitter, Germany, to turn the theoretical framework into a proposal for an e+perimental test. "he paper they produced, LGuidelines for a space propulsion device based on (eimXs 1uantum theoryL, is what won the !*!!Xs award last year. $laims of the possibility of Lgravity reductionL or Lanti-gravityL induced by magnetic fields have been investigated by ?!%! before A2ew /cientist, 2 January 2<<2, p 2>C. .ut this one, #ruscher insists, is different. L6ur theory is not about anti-gravity. *tXs about completely new fields with new properties,L he says. !nd he and (ouser have suggested an e+periment to prove it. "his will re1uire a huge rotating ring placed above a superconducting coil to create an intense magnetic field. 9ith a large enough current in the coil, and a large enough magnetic field, #ruscher claims the electromagnetic force can reduce the gravitational pull on the ring to the point where it floats free. #ruscher and (ouser say that to completely counter 3arthXs pull on a ;<-tonne spacecraft a magnetic field of around 2; tesla would be needed. 9hile thatXs ;<<,<<< times the strength of 3arthXs magnetic field, pulsed magnets briefly reach field strengths up to F< tesla. !nd #ruscher and (ouser go further. 9ith a faster-spinning ring and an even stronger magnetic field, gravitophotons would interact with conventional gravity to produce a repulsive anti-gravity force, they suggest. #ruscher is ha/y about the details, but he suggests that a spacecraft fitted with a coil and ring could be propelled into a multidimensional hyperspace. (ere the constants of nature could be different, and even the speed of light could be several times faster than we e+perience. *f this happens, it would be possible to reach )ars in less than 3 hours and a star light years away in only F< days, #ruscher and (ouser say. %o is this all fanciful nonsense, or a revolution in the making0 "he ma,ority of physicists have never heard of (eim theory, and most of those contacted by 2ew /cientist said they couldnXt make sense of #ruscher and (ouserXs description of the theory behind their proposed e+periment. 5ollowing (eim theory is hard work even without #ruscherXs e+tension, says )arkus Pussel, a theoretical physicist at the )a+ Planck *nstitute for Gravitational Physics in Potsdam, Germany. %everal years ago, while an undergraduate at the Bniversity of (amburg, he took a careful look at (eim theory. (e says he finds it Llargely incomprehensibleL, and difficult to tie in with todayXs physics. L9hat is needed is a step-by-step introduction, beginning at modern physical concepts,L he says. "he general consensus seems to be that #ruscher and (ouserXs theory is incomplete at best, and certainly e+tremely difficult to follow. !nd it has not passed any normal form of peer review, a fact that surprised the !*!! pri/e reviewers when they made their decision. L*t seemed to be 1uite developed and ready for such publication,L )ikellides told 2ew /cientist. !t the moment, the main reason for taking the proposal seriously must be (eim theoryXs uncannily successful prediction of particle masses. )aybe, ,ust maybe, (eim theory really does have something to contribute to modern physics. L!s far as * understand it, (eim theory is ingenious,L says (ans "heodor !uerbach, a theoretical physicist at the %wiss 5ederal *nstitute of "echnology in eurich who worked with (eim. L* think that physics will take this direction in the future.L *t may be a long while before we find out if heXs right. *n its present design, #ruscher and (ouserXs e+periment re1uires a magnetic coil several metres in diameter capable of sustaining an enormous current density. )ost engineers say that this is not feasible with e+isting materials and technology, but Doger Senard, a space propulsion researcher at %andia ?ational Saboratories in ?ew )e+ico thinks it might ,ust be possible. %andia runs an Z-ray generator known as the e machine which Lcould probably generate the necessary field intensities and gradientsL.

5or now, though, Senard considers the theory too shaky to ,ustify the use of the e machine. L* would be very interested in getting %andia interested if we could get a more perspicacious introduction to the mathematics behind the proposed e+periment,L he says. L3ven if the results are negative, that, in my mind, is a successful e+periment.L
Who %as 6urkhar HeimE

.urkhard (eim had a remarkable life. .orn in G2; in Potsdam, Germany, he decided at the age of N that he wanted to become a rocket scientist. (e disguised his designs in code so that no one could discover his secret. !nd in the cellar of his parentsX house, he e+perimented with high e+plosives. .ut this was to lead to disaster. "owards the end of the second world war, he worked as an e+plosives developer, and an accident in G>> in which a device e+ploded in his hands left him permanently disabled. (e lost both his forearms, along with G< per cent of his hearing and eyesight. !fter the war, he attended university in Guttingen to study physics. "he idea of propelling a spacecraft using 1uantum mechanics rather than rocket fuel led him to study general relativity and 1uantum mechanics. *t took an enormous effort. 5rom G>F, his father and wife replaced his senses, spending hours reading papers and transcribing his calculations onto paper. !nd he developed a photographic memory. %upporters of (eim theory claim that it is a panacea for the troubles in modern physics. "hey say it unites 1uantum mechanics and general relativity, can predict the masses of the building blocks of matter from first principles, and can even e+plain the state of the universe 3.H billion years ago. Deturn to article Printed on 5ri )ar 2> H@;H@2G G)" 2<<N

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Q6GS*6 *?*e*!D3 $6? B?! "D!""!e*6?3 #* B? $3D"6 J6%3P( )*%*6S38...PD3)3""6 $(3 %"6X $3D$!?#6 #* $6?"!""!DS6 P3D #3* $(*!D*)3?"* 3 P3D $6?6%$3DS6 )3GS*6, (6 !QB"6 PB3%"6 )!"3D*!S3 !""D!Q3D%6 !S"D3 56?"*, *S %B6 %*"6 A1uello che suppongo sia il suo sitobC 3X %$D*""6 *? B?! S*?GB! $(3 ?6? $6?6%$6...$3$6 PD3%BPP6?G6, *S %*"6 3X P*3?6 #* "36D*3 3 #3?6"! B?! $3D"! $6?6%$3?e! #3SS! )!"3D*!. ?6? %6 %3 SB* 3X B?6 %$*3?e*!"6 6 $6%!...P3D6X *? )6S"* !S"D* #6$B)3?"* Adi altri ricercatoriC (6 Q*%"6 #3* PB?"* 56?#!)3?"!S* *? $6)B?3 3 *?6S"D3 S! %B! "D!""!e*6?3 )* %3).D! $63D3?"3 $6? !S"D3 "36D*3 5!)6%3 $6)3 PB3SS! #3SSX*P3D%P!e*6. #BD!?"3 S! "D!""!e*6?3 ?6"3D3"3 #3SS3 ?6"3 *? D6%%6...PB3SS* %6?6 * )*3* $6))3?"*, #B..*, $6?53D)3...%P3D6 $(3 PB!S$B?6 #* Q6* P6%%! $6?"D*.B*D3 ?3SS! D*$3D$!b *?*e*!)6 %B.*"6 $6?@ S! )!?*P6S!e*6?3 #3SS6 %P!e*6-"3)P6. di Joseph )isiolek *ni/iamo con alcuni principi base sulla realth fisica che sono importanti per capire come manipolare lo spa/io-tempo. * scien/iati ortodossi non sono capaci di arrivare a certe metodologie perch_ la loro educa/ione f una versione limitata di una pig estesa teoria dove 1uesti fenomeni sono possibili. Puesto f il motivo per cui potreste non riconoscere alcuni di 1uesti principi sulla base della fisica scolastica. )a se leggete attentamente noterete che la tratta/ione f coerente e riuscirete a capirla...userm un linguaggio semplice, sen/a e1ua/ioni matematiche o termini troppo tecnici in modo che tutti possano usufruirne. *l concetto che Ltutto f vibra/ioneL f scientificamente valido, la materia f fatta di onde elettromagnetiche che non sono altro che un tipo di vibra/ione che trasmette energia. Pueste onde esistono in una matrice a cin1ue dimensioni di etere che f il LmediaL attraverso cui si propagano...1uesta matrice f costituita da sei dimensioni parallele che insieme danno origine a 1uella che noi definiamo LrealthL con tutti i suoi fenomeni ed effetti. Sa chiave per ottenere cose come lXinvisibilith della materia, il teltrasporto, lXantigravith, o modificare lo scorrere del tempo, sta nel provocare Lvibra/ioniL in una di 1ueste dimensioni. ?ello spa/io 3# Ail nostro spa/io a tre dimensioniC si pum muovere la materia avanti e indietro, destra e sinistra, sopra e sotto con alcuni interessanti risultati, ma la realth f composta da pig di tre dimensioni, e creando un campo elettrico o magnetico che avvolge la materia e la fa vibrare in altre dimensioni ci permette di alterare le caratteristiche stesse della materia. !ltera/ioni che dipendono da 1uale dimensione si vh a utili//are. Gli scien/iati ortodossi lavorano con un sistema a tre dimensioni e sono capaci di produrre la tecnologia limitata che vediamo tutti i giorni intorno a noi. Sa crea/ione di 1uesti campi iperdimensionali f possibile gra/ie a bobine dalla speciale geometria. Puesta f una tabella che riassume le tecniche che stiamo per discutere in 1uesta tratta/ione@

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#ire/ione della fre1uen/a applicata ter/a dimensione

)etodo campi magnetici ed elettrici incrociati producono un campo gravita/ionale rotante accoppiato alla luce bobine in configura/ione +-y-/ creano un campo 1uadridimensionale accoppiato allXoggetto campo gravita/ionale solitono modulato da flusso magnetico devia il flusso di etere attorno allXoggetto bobina caduceus produce un campo scalare

3ffetto ottenuto

invisibilith

1uarta dimensione

teletrasporto

1uinta dimensione

antigravith viaggio nel tempo e distorsione temporale

sesta dimensione

*?Q*%*.*S*"!X !ffinchf un oggetto diventi invisibile, la luce deve passargli attraverso o piegarsi attorno ad esso. ?oi anali//eremo un metodo per piegare la luce attorno ad un oggetto...la luce potrebbe passare attraverso un oggetto se 1uesto viene portato via da 1uesta dimensione ma 1uesto non f il caso che tratteremo 1ui. Sa luce non si piega o devia a causa di un campo elettrico o magnetico perch_ i fotoni non hanno una carica elettrica. $omun1ue f ben noto che la gravith piega o devia la luce. !ffinchf la gravith riesca a piegare significativamente la luce serve un campo gravita/ionale molto intenso come 1uello creato dalla massa di una stella o meglio ancora di un buco nero. 6vviamente ricreare un campo gravita/ionale cosi intenso in laboratorio f impossibile e sarebbe anche disastroso. Sa luce non si piega significativamente in un campo gravita/ionale debole perch_ tale campo non f fortemente accoppiato allXoggetto stesso che genera il campo. Per spiegare 1uesto f necessario un esempio@ pensate ad un cantante lirico e ad un calice di cristallo...finch_ il cantante non emette la giusta fre1uen/a non ci sarh un adeguato trasferimento di energia tra le onde sonore e il calice affinch_ si rompa. ?on f 1uestione di poten/a bruta ma di indovinare la giusta fre1uen/a di risonan/a. !llo stesso modo, la gravith di un pianeta f statica se paragonata alla luce. !ffinch_ lXuna influen/i lXaltra deve essere raggiunta la condi/ione di risonan/a. %e si modula o si fa vibrare la gravith alla giusta fre1uen/a, la luce si piega seguendo le linee di for/a del campo...pig ci si avvicina alla fre1uen/a di risonan/a e minore sarh la poten/a richiesta. 6ra la domanda f@ come si pum modulare la gravith0 Puando un campo elettrico e uno magnetico si incrociano o intersecano con la giusta angola/ione viene prodotta la gravith in un dire/ione perpendicolare ad entrambi. Puesto f

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illustrato nella figura

con uno schema vettoriale.

*n accordo con 1uanto detto, modulando il campo elettrico o 1uello magnetico, si otterrh un campo gravita/ionale vibrante alla stessa fre1uen/a. 5are 1uesto f semplice se si usa una corrente alternata per elettrificare un oggetto o energi//are una bobina. !d ogni modo, un dispositivo che piega la luce attorno ad un oggetto necessita di un campo gravita/ionale rotante, in modo che la luce che arriva verso di esso incontra 1uesto campo, si piega su di esso e lo segue per poi proseguire il suo cammino. 3saminiamo un esempio cal/ante con il nostro caso@ Prendiamo il caso di un oggetto sferico carico AelettricamenteC immerso in un campo magnetico come 1uello illustrato nella figura 2.

%e si traccia il vettore gravith, sapendo che esso f perpendicolare al campo magnetico ed elettrico, si troverh che esso ruota attorno allXoggetto come un vortice. Per modulare 1uesto campo, f meglio alternare la componente elettrica usando un tesla coil, gra/ie al fatto che la sua alta tensione e alta fre1uen/a garantiscono una certa intensith di campo attorno

allXoggetto. SXalta fre1uen/a tende inoltre a far rimanere il campo sulla superficie dellXoggetto gra/ie allXeffetto LpelleL. *l campo magnetico pum essere prodotto da una (elmholt/ coil, o anche una singola spira o meglio ancora una serie di spire. Bna raffigura/ione molto schematica f 1uella della figura 3->...per la helmholt/ coil cliccate 1ui.

Prendiamo ad esaminare cosa accade 1uando un fotone entra in un campo gravita/ionale modulato in 1uesto modo. *l fotone entra nel campo e viene immediatamente trasportato via lateralmente dal vettore gravith rotante, spedendolo attorno allXoggetto. ! causa della conserva/ione del momento, 1uesto fotone dovrh seguire il campo finch_ non ritorna allo stesso medesimo tragitto di 1uando era stato deviato...il fotone uscirh dal campo con una traiettoria perfettamente in asse con 1uella di entrata. #al punto di vista di un osservatore esterno il fotone non ha mai cambiato traiettoria e 1uindi nessun oggetto ha bloccato la sua traiettoria...lXoggetto f invisibile. Puesto meccanismo f illustrato in figura ;.

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!?"*GD!Q*"!X. Per capire lXantigravith bisogna capire la gravith. Sa gravith f una for/a di spinta non una tra/ione. 3ssa non f altro che lXeffetto di trascinamento dellXetere risucchiato dalla massa di un oggetto. A(o spiegato 1uesto nella se/ione sul campo del punto /ero e lXenergia del punto /ero.C *l trucco sta nel canali//are 1uesto flusso di etere A1uesto etere non f altro che il campo del punto /eroC attorno allXoggetto in modo che lXoggetto stesso non ne risente della sua a/ione di trascinamento. Per fare 1uesto serve un vortice solitono. Bn solitono ha lXabilith unica di viaggiare efficientemente attraverso un fluido perch_ canali//a il flusso attorno ad esso. !vete presente le ciambelline di fumo che si divertono a fare i fumatori0 %e ci fate caso 1ueste LciambellineL riescono a viaggiare nellXaria per un periodo relativamente lungo considerando la debolissima spinta che viene loro impressa dal fumatore. Pueste ciambelline canali//ano lXaria attorno a loro stesse perch_ si comportano come se fossero un insieme di ruote messe in un cilindro che viene poi piegato fino a formare una ciambella. *n poche parole sono come tante rotelle messe secondo uno schema toroidale. 3sse rotolano attraverso lXaria Ao 1ualsiasi altro fluidoC con una resisten/a molto bassa proprio come una ruota rotola sul terreno. Pueste LciambellineL di fumo sono un solitono. ! ben vedere (omer %impson ha ragione a nominare sempre 1ueste ciambelleb Per produrre un solitono capace di canali//are lXetere attorno ad esso Avedi fig NC, bisogna ini/iare con un dipolo magnetico. Bn dipolo magnetico f un campo a forma di mela dove il flusso magnetico esce verso lXalto per poi ridiscendere.

F3

Puesto tipo di campo pum essere visto nelle immagini raffiguranti barre magnetiche vicine a limatura di ferro per eviden/iare le linee di for/a del campo magnetico. !ltro esempio f 1uello del campo geomagnetico del nostro pianeta che genera le cosiddette fasce di Qan !llen. !nche una semplice spira di filo elettrico alimentata da una sorgente pum generare un dipolo magnetico. Puesto dipolo f gih un solitono costituito da un flusso magnetico.

Per accoppiare il dipolo con il flusso terrestre di etere, 1uesto campo magnetico deve essere modulato nella stessa dire/ione da un campo gravita/ionale oscillante. Puesto tipo di campo gravita/ionale oscillante f gih stato discusso nel precedente caso dellXinvisibilith, f solo 1uestione di riprendere tale caso e alterarlo per produrre un solitono invece di un semplice vortice come 1uello visto in figura 3. %e il vortice viene stirato e piegato in un circolo formerh un toroide...un solitono. 3X solo un piccolo eserci/io mentale di topologiab Per replicare 1uesto in termini di campi elettrici e magnetici, si parte con un anello conduttore, tipo una spira di filo come 1uella usata per lXesempio del dipolo magnetico. 6vviamente un vero e proprio avvolgimento toroidale f migliore perch_ produce un campo magnetico pig intenso. !ttorno alla lunghe//a di 1uesto anello Ao toroide se si f optato per un toroideC bisogna avvolgere unXaltra bobina coassialmente. 3ntrambi gli avvolgimenti Atoroide e bobina esternaC vanno alimentati con corrente alternata AnellXimmagine viene indicata corrente continua il che necessita di una modula/ione esternaC per generare il campo megnetico, poi entrambe le bobine vengono collegate agli elettrodi opposti di un generatore ad alta tensione

F>

per creare il campo elettrico. "utto 1uesto f illustrato nella figura H.

Puesto sistema scherma ogni oggetto posto dentro lXanello dal campo gravita/ionale terrestre se il flusso di etere f sufficientemente deviato. %e il campo del dipolo f molto intenso, il flusso di etere verrh deviato con pig for/a e lXintero anello sarh spinto in alto. Puesto anello pum semplicemente schermare la gravith, ma anche generare propulsione. Pui ho fornito soltanto lo schema concettuale...per un progetto pig specifico andare nella se/ione Lsperimentare lXantigravithL.

*S "3S3"D!%P6D"6. *l teletrasporto f la rimo/ione di un oggetto dallo spa/io tridimensionale, attraverso una scorciatoia nella 1uarta dimensione, per poi reinserire lXoggetto nello spa/io tridimensionale ma in una differente posi/ione. ?ella 1uarta dimensione lo spa/io pum essere piegato con facilith in modo da portare il punto di destina/ione vicino allXoggetto o viceversa il punto in cui si trova lXoggetto viene distorto fino ad arrivare al punto di destina/ione. Piegare lo spa/io nelle tre dimensioni richiede 1uantitativi di energia e campi gravita/ionali enormi, ma nella 1uarta dimensione f uno scher/ob Per ora ci interesseremo solamente di come agganciare un oggetto e portarlo nella 1uarta dimensione. ?ella fisica ordinaria esiste un operatore matematico chiamato Loperatore trasversaleL Anon so se ho tradotto bene il termine, 1uello originale f cross product...f una specie di calcolo tensoriale, simile per certi versi alla regola del parallelogrammoC. Puando due vettori Ala freccia indica il verso e lXintensith del campoC sono incrociati uno con lXaltro, un ter/o vettore appare che ha un certo angolo rispetto agli altri due. $ome gih

F;

detto un vettore gravith f propor/ionale al prodotto trasversale di un vettore magnetico e uno elettrico. $omun1ue 1uando si incrociano tre vettori, alle giuste angola/ioni, viene prodotto un 1uarto vettore perpendicolare a tutti gli altri tre...dove punterh tale vettore0 ?ella 1uarta dimensione. Puesto f un concetto che appartiene molto alla teoria dellXiperspa/io...leggete il libro *perspa/io di )ikio 8aku per capire meglio 1uesti concetti. $omun1ue intendo fare una bella tratta/ione sulla teoria dellXiperspa/io nella se/ione Lastronomia e cosmologiaL. Bna configura/ione Z-R-e di tre bobine toroidali svolge bene 1uesto lavoro, tale configura/ione f illustrata nella figura F.

6gnuna delle tre bobine produce un dipolo magnetico il cui campo al centro f perpendicolare agli altri due campi delle altre due bobine. ! 1uesto punto cXf un flusso magnetico a 1uattro dimensioni, o iperflusso, che f concentrato maggiormente al centro...ora f solo 1uestione di accoppiare tale iperflusso con lXoggetto posto al centro dei tre toroidi per mandarlo nella 1uarta dimensione. *l solo iperflusso non f perm sufficiente a far 1uesto. ?oi siamo agganciati allo spa/io tridimensionale da una for/a elastica che pum essere sconfitta solo in due modi@ o pompando un 1uantitativo enorme di energia nelle bobine o facendo pulsare le bobine alla fre1uen/a di risonan/a della 1uarta dimensione. Pensate allo spa/io come a un foglio di gomma, per deviare un punto del foglio sopra o sotto Aciof sul piano verticale /C potreste spingere sul foglio e mantenerlo stirato con una certa spesa di energia, oppure potreste far vibrare il foglio in modo che i punti su di esso si muovano sopra e sotto. %e si indovina il mi+ giusto di fre1uen/e si pum creare una onda sta/ionaria sul foglio, che corrisponde allXenergia minima usata per ottenere la massima deforma/ione del foglio stesso. %i ritorna sempre al concetto di risonan/a. Sa fre1uen/a di risonan/a dello spa/io f situata pig o meno nella fre1uen/a superiore delle onde radio fino alle microonde. Puando 1ueste fre1uen/e sono pompate nelle tre bobine, 1uesto genera non solo campi

FN

magnetici vibranti ma anche campi elettrici. Puesto f dovuto a un principio fisico delle leggi di )a+well, che asserisce che campi magnetici in movimento producono campi elettrici. *l vantaggio 1ui sta nel fatto che 1uesto campo elettrico f indotto insieme allXoggetto ad essere teletrasportato, accoppiando automaticamente lXoggetto allXiperflusso vibrante. Ditornando allXesempio del foglio di gomma, se lXonda sta/ionaria nel foglio ha unXampie//a sufficiente, 1uesta onda strapperh un pe//o del foglio e diventerh un pallone di gomma a se stante rispetto al foglio. %e si mappa il campo magnetico di tre bobine a schema Z-R-e, esso sembra una ipersfera spiegata. %e la fre1uen/a di risonan/a f raggiunta 1uesto campo collassa in una ipersfera magnetica, portando tutti gli oggetti in prossimith fuori nellXiperspa/io. SXoggetto teletrasportato f incapsulato in una bolla di spa/io fluttuante nella 1uarta dimensione, e sarh completamente disconnessa dalla realth tridimensionale. Pum essere difficile raggiungere 1uesta fre1uen/a di risonan/a, cosi pum essere meglio ini/iare con un semplice arrangiamento di bobine Z-R-e per produrre un campo magnetico rotante che verrh poi modulato dal rumore bianco. Puesta rota/ione pum essere ottenuta facendo pulsare ogni bobina ma con uno sfasamento fra le tre. *n 1uesto modo il prodotto trasversale di ogni vettore magnetico non punta sempre nella stessa dire/ione. So scopo principale di 1uesta rota/ione f di indurre campi elettrici nellXoggetto sen/a preoccuparsi della modula/ione alla fre1uen/a di risonan/a dello spa/io. Puesta modula/ione f compito di una 1uarta bobina. *n 1uesto modo si ottiene anche una certa invisibilith dellXoggetto e i raggi di luce vengono piegati via. Puesto campo rotante viene poi modulato da una 1uarta bobina alimentata con rumore bianco. *l rumore bianco consiste di tutte le possibili fre1uen/e di uno spettro con un certo range, se 1uesto rumore bianco ha un range fra le onde radio e le microonde allora la fre1uen/a di risonan/a pum essere garantita. Puesto f un metodo per aprirsi una strada nellXiperspa/io. )!?*P6S!D3 *S "3)P6. *l viaggio nel tempo f un processo molto simile a 1uello del teletrasporto. 3ntrambi includono il fatto di viaggiare attraverso lo spa/io-tempo sen/a seguire un percorso tridimensionale. SXunica differen/a sta nella dire/ione verso cui f applicata la fre1uen/a. ?el teletrasporto la dire/ione f perpendicolare alla ter/a dimensione spa/iale, 1ui invece la dire/ione di applica/ione f verso la sesta dimensione. Sa sesta dimensione f 1uella che separa gli universi paralleli, un pm come la prima dimensione Adestra e sinistraC separa due binari paralleli. !pplicando la fre1uen/a corretta nella dimensione corretta, si permette ad un oggetto di liberarsi dallo spa/io a cin1ue dimensioni Ache appartiene alla nostra linea temporaleC e agganciarsi ad unXaltra linea temporale. Sa produ/ione di un campo capace di risuonare nella sesta dimensione implica la comprensione di una teoria particolare dellXiperspa/io. #etto semplicemente...tutte le onde

FH

elettromagnetiche hanno delle componenti nelle dimensioni superiori Ala parte immaginaria dellXondaC a cui si pum accedere cancellando la componente tridimensionale che noi percepiamo. *n pratica f necessario mettere in Lconiuga/ione di faseL ogni campo elettrico, magnetico e 1uindi elettromagnetico dellXonda. $oniuga/ione di fase non f altro che un termine che indica il processo di aggiungere un campo o unXonda alla sua immagine speculare cosi che si cancellano a vicenda. So si comprende meglio se si spiega la natura delle onde. Se onde consistono in energia oscillante fra stati immaginari e reali. *n altre parole, in un momento lXenergia f reale e visibile come un movimento nel media in cui viaggia, e in un momento successivo lXenergia f immaginaria o energia poten/iale immaga//inata nello stress del media. Per esempio in una stringa vibrante la componente reale f visibile dalle vibra/ioni della stringa stessa, mentre la componente immaginaria f evidente nei picchi di ampie//a della stringa dove tutta lXenergia f immaga//inata nel tessuto della stringa stirata. *n 1uesto esempio, lo stiramento viaggia nella dire/ione della stringa AlongitudinaleC mentre la dire/ione della vibra/ione, il movimento fisico attuale di un punto della stringa, f perpendicolare ciof trasverso. ?el caso di un pendolo, lXenergia commuta tra 1uella cinetica al centro di esso 1uando il pendolo raggiunge la massima velocith, a 1uella poten/iale, 1uando lXenergia f immaga//inata nel campo gravita/ionale al punto pig alto del pendolo. Proprio come lXenergia poten/iale Aparte immaginariaC di una stringa f perpendicolare a 1uella cinetica Aparte realeC, cosi in 1uesto esempio f lXenergia poten/iale gravita/ionale perpendicolare a 1uella cinetica. Sa sola differen/a f che nel caso della stringa, lXenergia poten/iale f una dimensione inferiore di 1uella cinetica, e nel pendolo f una dimensione superiore. Per le onde elettromagnetiche, la componente immaginaria punta nella 1uinta dimensione Af vero lXho letto anche in *perspa/io, capitolo > Lil segreto della luce@ vibra/ioni nella 1uinta dimensioneC. ?ella coniuga/ione di fase viene cancellata la componente reale, lasciando lXenergia manifestarsi solo nella componente immaginaria. !d ogni modo 1uesta onda in coniuga/ione di fase deve oscillare in 1ualche modo. SXenergia non f distrutta...solamente trasformata o diretta in unXaltra dire/ione. %iccome non pum oscillare pig fra il reale Aspa/io tridimensionaleC e lXimmaginario A1uinta dimensioneC, perch_ il reale f stato eliminato essa deve oscillare fra lXimmaginario e 1ualcosa di superiore. %iccome la componente immaginaria vibra nella 1uinta dimensione, 1uesto 1ualcosa di superiore deve essere per for/a la sesta dimensione. #a un punto di vista tridimensionale, tutto 1uello che vedrh un osservatore esterno sarh un campo scalare dove il valore del campo f lo stesso ovun1ue ma rimbal/a su e gig di valore nel tempo. Puesto Lrimbal/amentoL nel tempo e non nello spa/io f lXeviden/a visibile che la modula/ione diretta nella sesta dimensione sta avendo luogo...e la sesta dimensione f il tempo. 3instein disse che la 1uarta dimensione f il tempo, ma ci sono almeno due dimensioni

FF

fisiche e+tra che servono a spiegare alcuni fenomeni fisici che non stiamo 1ui a spiegare. Bno scopo f gih stato in parte spiegato ed f lXesisten/a della parte immaginaria delle onde 3)...perm vi consiglio caldamente la lettura di *perspa/io di )ikio 8aku...rende tutto pig facile da capire. Sa configura/ione della bobina necessaria per produrre 1uesti campi scalari f la caduceus coil illustrata nella figura G. 3 trattata anche nella se/ione sperimentale di 1uesto sito, nonch_ oggetto di sperimenta/ione nel forum.

3X un pe//o di filo avvolto ad elica che crea una contro-rota/ione delle correnti e che 1uindi fa opporre i campi magnetici. Puando la si alimenta con un segnale alternato, lXincrocio fra gli avvolgimenti consente ai campi generati di cancellarsi in coniuga/ione di fase ed essere trasformati in campi scalari. Per accoppiare 1uesto campo scalare allXoggetto si dovrebbe caricarlo con un generatore ad alta tensione in continua come un Qan #e Graaf o un generatore !" in alternata come un tesla coil...se si ha il coraggio. Perch_ cosa dovrebbe succedere0

$6?$SB%*6?3. *n 1uesta tratta/ione non sono stati date specifiche di costru/ione, ma abbiamo enunciato i principi che devono essere compresi per poter passare alla sperimenta/ione. %emplicemente, pensate in termini di flusso di etere, accoppiamento in risonan/a, campi scalari, poi si passa ad utili//are lXappropriata configura/ione delle bobine per raggiungere 1uesti risultati. %e andate alla se/ione Lsperimentare lXantigravithL di 1uesto sito ho gih messo uno schema della caduceus e un progetto di anello antigravita/ionale sempre di )isiolek con tutte le specifiche. *n pig avete lXausilio del forum che vi permetterh di scambiarvi suggerimenti ed esperien/e con chi come voi tenta di reali//are tutto cim. %iete avvisati che 1ueste tecniche sconfinano nel regno dellXignoto Aapposta mi piaccionobC e che la coscien/a pum essere alterata dalla disloca/ione spa/io-temporale, proprio come successo ai marinai del Philadelphia 3+periment. Sa vita risiede non solo in 1ueste dimensioni ma si diffonde attraverso il tempo, le

FG

dimensioni e altri livelli di perce/ione...giocare con i campi scalari, specialmente nella forma di laser in coniuga/ione di fase modulati da segnali audio, ha il poten/iale di aprire portali, consentendo a for/e malevoli di entrare in 1uesta realth e danneggiare lo sperimentatore. 9owb )i ricorda #oomb Preparerm una bella doppietta a pallettoni...nel caso ce ne fosse bisogno. !nche 1ualche carica di %emte+ non guasta maib 3X un dato di fatto che lXinvisibilith, il viaggio nel tempo, teletrasporto e antigravith sono tecniche esistenti e reali//ate segretamente. $i sono testimoni, documenti governativi ed eviden/e fisiche che lo dimostrano...la 1uestione f semmai come riprodurre 1ueste tecniche. 6k il documento finisce 1ui...cosa state aspettando0 !ndate nella vostra cantina e ini/iate la sperimenta/ioneb *o ho ini/iato da poco...tante menti messe insieme possono accelerare la ricercab Qi aspetto nel forum per discutere di tutto 1uesto e sentire le vostre esperien/eb

G<

! cura della reda/ione di !ltra %cien/a /e cFY G+alc+no che ha contrib+ito da33ero a dare ad :ltra /cienLa conten+ti +nici e di spessore G+ello Y 1ranco 'onte-+scoli. .sperto di energia e di prop+lsione alternati3a) Y il nostro collaboratore pi\ proli-ico. A'S': +egli ultimi tempi si sta crean o molto interesse per le energie alternati!e' Cuali consi eri come migliori fonti energeticheE 5ranco )ontefuscoli@ Parlando di 1uelle normali, naturalmente la fotovoltaica che esiste ormai da decenni. Perm la mancan/a di sensibilith e consapevole//a politica e culturale di 1uesta realth non ha preso mai davvero piede in *talia. $ol rendimento delle ultime celle in commercio arriviamo al 2<=. Bn chilometro 1uadrato renderebbe 2<<-3<< )9. %e avessi il potere di farlo ordinerei subito di costruire centrali geotermiche a tutto spiano. Per fun/ionare hanno solo bisogno dellXac1ua. A'S': Per Ruan o riguar a la free energy !era e propria, Ruali ispositi!i ritieni piV atten ibiliE 5.).@ Puella elettrostatica, il dispositivo di $oler, ma soprattutto lXelettrete che f poco conosciuto ma che secondo me potrebbe far svoltare il mondo e rendere il petrolio semplicemente merda. !n/i peggio, il petrolio non fa crescere nemmeno le piante... A'S': Facci un esempio i sfruttamento ell5energia elettrostatica' 5.).@ Sa "estatika, ma purtroppo non mi f chiaro il fun/ionamento. Per tanto non voglio dare nulla per scontato. Per essere scontato deve essere fun/ionante e riproducibile da chiun1ue nel mondo. !ttualmente non conosco nemmeno una replica. A'S': 6ene, mi sapresti ire perchW il ispositi!o i "oler X piV cre ibile i altriE 5.).@ Prima di tutto f fun/ionante col principio della risonan/a visto che f in un campo magnetico rotante. "uttavia ritengo tale dispositivo difficilmente governabile. A'S': E ora passiamo all5elettrete' "ome l5hai scopertoE 5.).@ SXho fatto sfogliando lXenciclopedia Di//oli per vedere se nel tunnel del dimenticatoio era sfuggito 1ualcosa dXimportante. 3d ho trovato lXelettrete. A'S': "he sostanAialmente X un con ensatore permanentemente carico' E a!!ero cosYE 5.).@ %i. $ortocircuitandolo non perde mai la carica, a differen/a degli altri condensatori. A'S': E perchW allora non lo usano tuttiE 7nfon o sta nell5enciclope iaQ 5.).@ ! parte il fatto che cXf enciclopedia e enciclopedia, sono sempre meno 1uelli che le sfogliano e sempre pig 1uelli che perdono tempo con i reality.

A'S': PerZ X strano: tutti pensano a 9EG che ha il presunto ren imento el H--T e nessuno lo ha ripro otto efficacemente, mentre nessuno pensa a un con ensatore che giP c5X che ha un ren imento pressochW infinito''' 5.).@ 3X la poca conoscen/a di 1uesto dispositivo, lXelettrete, di cui si conosce in genere troppo poco. ! parte !ltra %cien/a nessuno ne ha mai parlato. )a Xndo vivo0 3ppure !lessandro Qolta, #a Qinci, )arconi, 5ermi sono nati 1ua... !h, se lo sapessero come sarebbero dispiaciuti di non vedere ancora una centrale con 1uesto principio... A'S': 9a per caricare e pro urre Ruesto elettrete c5X bisogno i accorgimenti particolariE 5.).@ $i vuole un dispositivo di alta tensione e, mi raccomando, a corrente continua, altrimenti non fun/iona. A'S': 9i fa pensare che il mo o per pro urlo sia semplice ma pericoloso' 5.).@ $onsiglio di farlo a chi ha gih conoscen/a di elettrotecnica ed elettrostatica, comun1ue lXho gih descritto su !ltra %cien/a 1ualche numero fa... A'S': 45hai ripro ottoE 5.).@ Pualcosa ho fatto... %ono ricerche che richiedono tempo e pa/ien/a, purtroppo non sono le ricerche pig mi stanno a cuore. 3 nel cuore ho le ricerche sulla propulsione elettrica. A'S': 6ene, parliamo ella propulsione alternati!a: Ruale ritieni il ispositi!o piV atten ibile, interessanteE 5.).@ ?aturalmente il treno a levita/ione magnetica. !ltro che ponte sullo stretto. A'S': Del tipo te esco o giapponeseE 5.).@ SXunico che fa servi/io regolare f 1uello cinese@ parte da Pechino, ma non ricordo bene che linea... A'S': 8ltimamente nei forum si parla molto i campi magnetici rotanti o i campi i torsione' "osa ne pensi a riguar oE 5.).@ !nche 1ui, come nel caso dellXelettrete, 1uello che si f avvicinato di pig di tutti f lo scien/iato brasiliano 5ran #e !1uino che schermando la gravith al H<= e 1uello che riuscito pig di tutti ad avvicinarsi alla propulsione elettromagnetica. Puesto concretamente, le altre cose sono pressoch_ teoria. $ome spesso succede, ci si interessa di pig delle cose fantascientifiche che di 1uelle concrete. 3X sulle cose concrete che bisogna agireb A'S': PerZ anche il lifter X concreto''' 5.).@ )a 1ualsiasi essere pensante nota che f concreto ma f poco utile, per via delle poten/e troppo piccole. 3X sicuramente interessante, ma non se ne vede un futuro. Praticamente un vicolo cieco. A'S': Cuin i gli ioni non sono una buona i ea' +emmeno lo 7onocraftE 5.).@ ?emmeno. SXunica strada da percorrere con lXelettrostatica f 1uella di costruire unXaereomobile creando una depressuri//a/ione sopra il veicolo, cosi salirebbe verso lXalto sen/a fare rumore, usura, in1uinamento, con la sola elettricith di !lessandro Qolta, colui che ha trasformato con la sua elettricith lXinferno del nostro pianeta in un posto pig vivibile. A'S': Torniamo al 9EG i Tom 6ear en' Secon o te non puZ funAionare' PerchWE 5.).@Perch_ 1ualsiasi flusso magnetico variabile riproduce sempre un flusso magnetico variabile in perdita col flusso primario. SXaggiunta dei magneti non porta a nessun rendimento maggiore per via della staticith dei flussi dei magneti che non possono oscillare col campo magnetico variabile primario anche se i picchi di apertura delle correnti oscillanti sono maggiori non cXf nessun guadagno per via della durata breve dellXimpulso che viene contrastata dal rilascio delle cariche magnetiche del ferro in un tempo maggiore, 1uindi, anche se sembra che con lXaggiunta dei magneti cXf un aumento di rendimento, 1uesto f

G2

dovuto a maggior assorbimento delle bobine primarie. Puesta teoria non f frutto di ragionamento fantasioso ma di una sperimenta/ione lunga e continua, e la sostengo a meno finch_ non venga confutato da 1ualcuno che ha fatto un esperimento analogo, concreto e reale. A'S': Secon o te il moto perpetuo X possibileE 5.).@ %icuramente si. A'S': "omeE 5.).@ Bn esempio di moto perpetuo sono gli elettroni che girano intorno al nucleo oppure i pianeti che girano intorno alle stelle. A'S': 7ghina' 5.).@ Passiamo oltre... A'S': Cuali sono gli attreAAi e i materiali che usi nel tuo laboratorio per i tuoi esperimentiE 5.).@ *nnan/itutto, la bobinatrice AautocostruitaC, poi 1uelli ordinari@ trapano, fresa, mola, saldatrice, seghetto e poco altro. A'S': Per progettare usi il "ADE Tutta Ruesta precisione lascia supporre che usi meAAi sofisticati' 5.).@ 5accio come "esla. 3 "esla non aveva !uto$!#. Bso la testa e le mani. Pualche volta la lente dXingrandimento per i lavori pig precisi. A'S': "he cosa faresti per scuotere un po5 5interesse per l5energia alternati!a, la propulsioni inno!ati!e, lo spaAioE 5.).@ *o instaurerei un appuntamento annuale dove le menti pig creative della na/ione potessero mostrare le loro inven/ioni e il loro ingegno soprattutto sullXenergia instaurando un premio decisamente ragguardevole@ parlo di almeno un milione di euro. 3d i partecipanti non siano limitati a titoli di studio o dallXeth poich_ f solo la passione per 1uesti argomenti che pum raggiungere obiettivi inimmaginabili. A'S': "ome costituiresti la commissione giu icatriceE 5.).@ ?on f facile... i romani dicevano 2chi giudica i giudici04 A'S': "he RualitP o!rebbero a!ere Ruesti giu ici, almenoE 5.).@ #evono essere dei fisici sperimentali, non solo teorici. %en/a pregiudi/i, aperti mentalmente e con grandi conoscen/e sugli argomenti. )a non ingenui@ devono essere anche capaci di scovare trucchi e raggiri, ma ovviamente devono avere le 1ualith sopracitate. A'S': Cualcuno el "7"APE 5.).@ %i, ma giusto 1ualche elemento... non lXintera commissione. A'S': Do!e tro!eresti i in i per il premioE 5.).@ "ogliendoli da uno dei tanti sprechi che la na/ione fa. Per la na/ione un milione di euro in 1uesto senso si recupera facile. A'S': E tu piuttosto o!e tro!i la moneta per le tue ricercheE 5.).@ ?on faccio viaggi, non corro dietro a cose futili o allXultimo modello di telefonino. 3 i soldi li trovo. A'S': "osa pensi el Progetto ?aleryE 5.).@ Penso che se esisteva 1uesto premio gih fun/ionava da un pe//o... %en/a, chissh 1uando sarh finito. A'S': Entran o nella tua casa non posso fare a meno i notare l5illuminaAione a le che hai realiAAato lungo il corri oio e in altre stanAe' 9e ne !uoi parlareE 5.).@ *nnan/itutto lXho reali//ato principalmente per non pensare pig alla sostitu/ione delle lampadine@

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una vera rottura di scatole, oltre ad essere costoso, sia per le lampadine sia per i consumi elettrici che ho notevolmente abbattuto. A'S': Cuanti le ha ogni lampa aE Cuanto consumano e Ruanto illuminanoE 5.).@ 6gni lampada ha circa N< led, consumano 39 e illuminano come 3<9. Puelle colorate consumano <, 9. A'S': Ho notato che anche spente illuminano lo stesso, me ne puoi parlareE "onsumano a!!ero nullaE 5.).@ %i certo, illuminano. )a in maniera molto ridotta, ma sempre utile come luce notturna. Puesta caratteristica dXilluminarsi gliela conferisce la conferisce il filo di ritorno che crea un condensatore di linea che raccoglie le cariche elettriche disperse lungo il conduttore che il led, essendo un diodo, ne raddri//a le semionde convertendole nella sua trasforma/ione in emissione fotonica. A'S': Cuin i al momento non si tro!ano in commercio' 5.).@ ?o, non si trovano, bisogna costruirsele da s_ per il momento. A'S': 9a non a!e!ano illuminaAioneE 5.).@ ?o, mai visti in giro. i eato i le grossi per

A'S': 9i hai presentato un articolo sui supercon ensatori' "i hai sperimentato un po5 suE Cuali possibilitP offronoE 5.).@ "anta capacith rispetto alle batterie, leggere//a e poco spa/io. Peccato per i costi@ << farad costano 2; euro. 3 i pre//i sono anche in aumento. A'S': Sei un FfanG el famoso illusionista Da!i "opperfiel ' 8no ei suoi trucchi piV famosi X Ruello ella le!itaAione e el !olo''' 5.).@ ...che nessun altro f riuscito mai a ripetere n_ prima n_ dopo. ?essuno sa come fa, nemmeno i suoi pig famosi colleghi. "utto 1uesto dovrebbe suscitare grande interesse e curiosith, ma come mai ci si limita a guardare e basta0 Bn uomo che vola non f mica tanto normale... Premetto che lui per preparare 1uesta magia ci ha messo sette anni, 1uesto sen/a cavi, n_ fili come da lui dichiarato alla "Q svi//era, e purtroppo a tuttXoggi non sono riuscito a sapere come fa. %e 1ualcuno ha 1ualche idea in merito avvisi 5ranco )algarini AfmalgariniJlibero.it, nd!%C, ma dubito che cim possa accadere. Perm ci spero. A'S': "ome !e i il mon o nel 0-H-E 5.).@ Peggio di adesso. !ndiamo sempre peggio, nonostante si sappia cosa fare per migliorare si lascia tutto cosi alla deriva. Per me siamo in troppi. *l pianeta non f fatto per tutta 1uesta moltitudine di persone perch_ la natura ha i suoi e1uilibri. 3 vanno rispettati, altrimenti il peggioramento sarh tale da superare il punto di non ritorno. *l problema pig grande dellXumanith f il sovraffollamento. %en/a una solu/ione per il 2<;< saranno dolori per tutti Asoprattutto per i nostri discendentiC. A'S': PerZ la popolaAione italiana X notoriamente in calo, insieme ai giapponesi' 5.).@ Sa "Q non te lo dice, ma forse in 1uesto contesto siamo &gli italiani, ndD' meno fessi degli altri. Probabilmente sentiamo di pig la responsabilith di mettere al mondo un essere umano in luoghi sempre peggiori.

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3d ecco a voi il moto perpetuob


%chema base
Sa ruota gira in senso orario

%piega/ioni *l magnete n\ tira il segno meno alla sua destra e spinge il segno pig alla sua sinistra mettendo in rota/ione la ruota dei magnetini. *l magnete n.2 con il segno pig rivolto verso la ruota attrae a s_ il segno meno che si trova alla sua destra e spinge il segno pig che si trova alla sua sinistra raddoppiando la for/a di spinta e di rota/ione.

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#*%$6 Q6S!?"3 ! PD6PBS%*6?3 3"3D*$!


A! PD3%! 3 D*S!%$*6 3"3D*$6C

$ome 5un/iona SXetere che si trova ovun1ue viene risucchiato dalla parte superiore del disco e rilasciato nella parte in basso permettendo cosi al disco di salire in alto.

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Da: "kosol ouch" <angelic_vortex1@yahoo.com> A: <malgariniaz@iol.it> Oggetto:here is me kosol i got a multi hyper ring portal drive share with you Data: luned ! marzo ""# 1 ."$

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here is me kosol ouch i got a multi hyper ring portal drive to share with you and everyone in europe and the worlds. the drive is made of neodymanium magnet rings , surrounded by barium tenate dielectric , and surrounding the barium tenate is bismuth rings , and surrounding the bismuth multi rings is two coil wrap around every rings connected in revers polirity to the power source , to control the magnetic field that is being generated from the two tesala coil and the magnet it self , coil act as a magnetic field rotator of counter rotation and clockwise rotations in respect add the same time or alternatively . this technology simple and short cut, no need for math nor thoery but purely practic at the builder desire and si/e that he or she wanted to build . as well is economical. any way take a look at the picture . thanks in advance kosol ouch .

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Da: "kosol ouch" <angelic_vortex1@yahoo.com> A: <malgariniaz@iol.it> Oggetto:is me kosol here is the time machine cra%t technology . Data: luned ! marzo ""# 1 .1& the time craft use the sphere device technology alots, it conscit of F tesala coil , four for each hemisphere , and a spiral cooper coil which chang the magnetism into electricit to feed that back to the power of the craft . the affect is to emulate the philidipiya e+periment technology the perfection of it . with out the safty ha/ard of the philidipiya e+periment pro,ect of G>2 . so the F tesala coil fire at the two himesphere to create and hardness magnetism fog , that will grow all around the craft , and the fre1uency of the electromagnetic fog color is determented by the rotation of the hemisphere and the fre1uency generator that control also the out of the tesala coil . the hemisphere contain mangnet, illumanium , and barium tenate . as you know the hemisphere is constructed ,ust like a capacitor , as well the core cup also that will be screwed into the hemisphere . basically it is a philidipya e+periement technology in the time craft . thanks in advance from kosol ouch

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Da: "kosol ouch" <angelic_vortex1@yahoo.com> A: <malgariniaz@iol.it> Oggetto:the detail o% the sphere device drive and pyramid cra%t Data: luned ! marzo ""# 1 . '

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the detail of the sphere device drive and pyramid craft . the craft is design as a pyramid to help accomidate the drive pretty much . i also attached the coil circuit as well . you already know about my sphere device this is the latest update from it , you also has the photo already which i donXt have to send a agian . i will send other detail as to incrementation ect . thanks in adavance . regard kosol ouch

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Electrical an$ .echanical Analisys for Kosol $e ice


1ote that this is not a $efiniti e conclusion) much more /ill follo/ as buil$ing among the groups $e elop. * ha e base$ this /or7 on %acosta-s configuration /ith 2 multilayere$ spheres an$ the electrical part $one by me B !ince A * 7no/ that you probably ha e alrea$y compute inertia momentum for the spheres an$ total mass ) but i ha e $eci$e$ to separate the circuit po/ering the motors) so i /ill $o this separation8 #ircuit : 8 Po/ering :)3)2 multilayere$ spheres #ircuit D 8 Po/ering D)I multilayere$ spheres "he reason /hy i ha e separate$ the circuit /ill become apparent further in this $ocument. Each sphere is ma$e of $ifferent materials 8 (i ) Al ) (i) 'ielectric ) (i) Al ) (i . /e ha e 2 of these spheres /ith $ecreasing ra$ius follo/ing platonic math. Also magnets follo/ the same configuration) a $ielectric beet/een D magnets *nertia momentum for each single sphere is JP DO2 B m RUD A since the sphere is ma$e of multi layers /e ha e to compute the total inertia momentum for the entire multilayere$ sphere R: P ra$ius for (i shell RD P ra$ius for Al shell R3 P ra$ius for (i shell RI P ra$ius for 'ielectric shell R2 P ra$ius for (i shell RK P ra$ius for Al shell RM P ra$ius for (i shell RC P ra$ius for $istance from the rotation center for the entire first multilayere$ sphere B %oo7 the $ra/ing ma$e by %acosta for referring A

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#omputation for each shell gi e M 9uantities J: P DO2 B m: Br:&rDAUD A JD P DO2 B mD BrD&r3AUD A J3 P DO2 B m3 Br3&rIAUD A JI P DO2 B mI BrI&r2AUD A J2 P DO2 B m2 Br2&rKAUD A JK P DO2 B mKBrK&rMAUD A JM P DO2 B mMBrM&rCAUD A "otal inerita momentum an$ mass for this sphere are8 Jt P J:QJDQJ3QJIQJ2REKQJM .tP .:Q.DQ.3Q.IQ.2Q.KQ.M "his computation nee$s to be $one for each of the 2 multilayere$ spheres so /e /ill ha e Jt:)JtD)Jt3)JtI)Jt2 )an$ .t:).tD).t3).tI).t2 so "otal mass an$ *nertia momentum are J"PJt:)JtD)Jt3)JtI)Jt2 ."P.t:).tD).t3).tI).t2 #ircuit for the 7osol $e ice

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1ote for %acosta 8 * ha e seen that total mass for your $e ice is D337g ) /ith that mass you nee$ in$ustrial gra$e motors ) you also ha e to choose accor$ing to your nee$s) if the motor /ill be Ac or 'c) since this $e ice is outsi$e current electrical assumptions) at the moment i $on-t 7no/ /hich result it might cause if you attach an Ac motor to the po/er gri$. * /ill ma7e the assumption that the motor are 'c ) in my $e ice the total mass ia less than D7g) an$ i ha e D 'c motors /hich unloa$e$ ha e a regime spee$ of D:;;; rpm. #oils are put at the e9uator fo rhte spehre since magnets ha e the ma3imum linear spee$ ) the in$uctance for the coils is %e9 an$ is e9ui alent /ith the series of single in$uctance coil %e9 P %:Q%DQ....... (uil$ing notes8 E ery 'c motor has D parameters K an$ b K is a scalar alue in$icating the electrical countertension $uring $uty cycle for the same motor) b is a parameter $epen$ing on the attache$ mass an$ friction at the connection points. +ou shoul$ 7no/ both this alues are gi en by hte constructor.

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E9uations for the first motor are8 E is oltage ) Om is angular spee$ ) a is angular accelleration E&iR&KOmP; Ki&bOmPJa since a P $ Om O $t /e ha e a $ifferential e9uation /hich nee$ to be sol e$ E&iR&KOmP; Ki&bOmPJ B $OmO$t A sol ing this D e9uation gi es 8 $ BOm O $tA Q Om B 7UD QbR AO RJ & 7 E O RE P; let-s use some constant for ease of computing #:P BKUD QbR AORJ #DPKORJ the $ifferential e9uation is $ BOm O$tA Qc: Om &cD E P; "o sol e this e9uation /e nee$ to 7no/ $ifferential math) i $i$ all the computatios for you ) an$ after computing the solution an$ relati e constant at initial at ; sec /e ha e8 OmBtA P BKEO B KUD QbR A A B : & e3p B&7ORE A t A "his e9uation is $i i$e$ in D parts ) a regime state an$ a transient the transient is the main reason /hy i ha e split the circuit into D parts. B electrical part A B mechanical part A

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"ransient state /ill gi e in$ication about ho/ slo/ or fast the system /ill reach its /or7ing stable con$ition. since D $ifferent motors are po/ering the circuit ) an$ each motor has a $ifferent mass to rotate ) /e /ill ha e D $ifferent transient an$ regime states.

Re$ cur e is transient for first motor an$ the blue one ) for the secon$ both ha e $ifferent time constant an$ regime state. "his means that one motor) $ue to $ifferent mass to rotate /ill reach $ifferent spee$ of rotation in a $ifferent time. ,e nee$ to sol e this problem . 0irst of all the D stable angular spee$ are 8 for the first motor 8 Om: P K E O B KUD Qb: R: A an$ for the secon$ motor

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OmD P K E O B KUD QbD RD A /e /ant that at regime state the angular spee$ to be the same so simply put /e nee$ to impose Om: P OmD sol ing an$ simplifying the e9uation gi es8 b: R: P bD RD this /ill gi e the alue for the resistor to use in the secon$ circuit RD P b:ObD R: since b: is $epen$ent on mass /e coul$ use the ratio in another form RDP m:OmD R: ,e ha e sol e$ one problem but another reamains. regime spee$s no/ are the same) but /e still ha e $ifferent transient states) this means that the regime spee$ /ill be reache$ in $ifferent times) although this time is ery little the D spehres might be phase$ out $uring rotation. 0ortunately because of magnetic interaction beet/een the spheres the phasing out /ill be more an$ more less as the rotation procee$. * f you still /ant the solution here it is8 time constant for the first motor is 8 t: P R:J: O 7 for the secon$ 8 tD P RDJD O 7 't P t:&tD

't P B R: J: O 7 & RD JD O7 A ;.K3 sec

B ;.K3 sec is a constant ) an$ normally is referre$ as the time that is nee$e$ for a system to reach stable state A

so ) if you /ant to nullify the $ifference in time beet/een the D circuits you nee$ to start the secon$ one /ith a time $elay of 't.

#harge measuring #harge in this $e ice buil$s up) /e still $on-t 7no/ ho/ much this charge /ill be ) if the $e ice follo/s the lifter tech or ((ro/n effect) /e at least must e3pect :M.32 7 to see noticeble antig effects ) to measure you can $o D things) buil$ a circuit of your o/n B able to measure femtofara$ to picofara$ A or buy an hihg impe$ence capacitance meter. Since you /ant to measure charge for the shells you nee$ to put the ano$e an cato$e to close the circuit on the outer an$ inner shell for each sphere ) the $e ice is rotating so you /ill nee$ mercury contacts or brush contacts B subEect to consumption A you nee$ to place firmly the contacts beet/een the spehres an$ ma7e all the /iring connection pass through the inner shaft /hich nee$s to be hollo/. *f you /ant the schematic for a capacitor meter here it is ) but i a$ ice you to use a professional one since it can be use$ /ith much higher precison an$ coul$ measure much higher oltages

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!cc is at &2 4: is a Scho7tty $io$e oltage triggere$ L: is a npn bEt normally the ha e a ery lo/ parasitic capacitance beet/een collector an$ base. ,or7ing for the $e ice8 po/er the main D circuit) 7eep the fee$bac7 coils off let the $e ice reach 22; rpm /ith a stable rotation turn fee$bac7 coils on ) after a certain amount of time the $e ice shoul$ sustain itself ) main po/ering circuits coul$ be turne$ off .

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Da: "kosol ouch" <angelic_vortex1@yahoo.com> A: <malgariniaz@iol.it> Oggetto:the detail o% the sphere drive and the pyramid cra%ts Data: luned ! marzo ""# 1#.$'

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the detail of the sphere drive and the pyramid crafts 2 of 2 . well i sended all that i know to you , good luck and have fun . thanks in advance from kosol ouch

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2nimaris 1erci!iere3 4alking Ro'otic Scul!ture Stores 4ind Energy


"he Animaris Percipiere is a free roaming clockwork mechanism sculpture created by artist "heo Jansen. "his sculpture, the most recent of his animari, will walk the main s1uare of Sin/, !ustria in %eptember as a part of the !rs 3lectronic 5estival.

A5rom !nimaris PercipiereC Jansen is slowly working toward machines that will be capable of long-term autonomous motion, slowly roaming the beaches of the ?etherlands. L!nimals are machines as well,L said Jansen. L* was making animals with ,ust the tubes because they were cheap but later on they turned out to be very helpful in making artificial life because they are very fle+ible and multifunctional as well. * see it now as a sort of protein -- in nature, everything is almost made of protein and you have various uses of proteinM you can make nails, hair, skin and bones. "hereXs a lot of variety in what you can do with ,ust one material and this is what * try to do as well.L ! seventh-generation Lanimal,L the Jansen !nimaris Percipiere contains lemonade bottles into which air is slowly pumped as the beast moves by wind powerM this enables it to walk for several minutes after the bree/e passes. L"hey have a food source in the wind so they can store energy and use it later on,L said Jansen. L"he downside is that they might have to wait for days, for the wind hopper to move on and on and then be able to move for maybe five minutes. "hey are ,ust like snakes. %nakes

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also lie in the sun for days digesting their food. A5rom 3volution of 9ind $reatures on .eachC !lthough these clockwork animals are obviously very gentle beasts indeed, "heo JansenXs work is very reminiscent Ain its whimsical styleC of Jack Qance, who created the mechanical walking fort for a GN> novel. %ee the article on the previous generation - the !nimaris Dhinoceros "ransportM if you like clockwork, see the very cool Dobot $rab@ $rustacean $lockword !utomata. * found the tip for this story in ne+t monthXs dead tree version of 9ired. A%tory submitted F72272<<;C

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re:research'com Home

A !ances 7n Desalination: The Aul EGD Process


&obert A' +elson

! simple method of desalting ocean water now e+ists which uses no e+ternal energy, and produces electrical power at the same timeb "his revolutionary process, called 3lectro-Gravitational #esalination A3G#C, makes it possible to recover as potable water more than F<= of the saline or brackish water treated with the process. *t also produces at least enough electrical power to operate pumps to keep the system flowing. !ccording to !lbert !ul Aemail inJanuary 2<<3C, the !ul 3G# process is currently LdormantL because@ A C L*t was discovered that the gap between anode and cathode had to be maintained at <.2; inches for the process to oeprate. "his created a design and maintenance problem that limited the cost effectiveness of any e1uipment built, regardless of si/e. A2C L )arine micro-organisms, such as gallionella, attacked copper voraciously@ numerous test units were literally detroyed by them Achlorine does not appear to kill such organisms. A3C L)ost importantly, the development activity ran out of funds. Given the above described difficulties, a prolonged and e+pensive effort to overcome them was not to the best interest of the funding sources, and the work was abandoned.L !ccordingly, the following information is presented with the suggestion that only the construction of a -gpd unit be attempted as a survival apparatus that can be cleaned manually, without concern for cost efficiency. !s human population increases, fresh water resources are being depleted rapidly due to waste, pollution, declining water tables, and subse1uent salting-up Aincreased concentrations of dissolved mineralsC of ground water, rivers, etc.. "his makes desalination increasingly necessary and cost-competitive with the transportation of fresh water over long distances. %ome G<< desalination plants with a total capacity of almost 3<< million gallons7day are located throughout the world today. %everal processes have been developed for desalination of water. #istillation is the oldest and most common desalination process in use. 6ther processes include@ solvent e+traction, electro-dialysis, reverse osmosis, propane e+traction, free/ing, and ion-e+change systems. !ll of these methods consume large amounts of energy that alters the economics of desalination. .ut the cost of transporting fresh water is increasing, so desalination remains cost-competitive.

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"he new method of 3lectro-Gravitational #esalination A3G#C is the discovery of !lbert (. !ul, who received 8'S Patent O .,=3=,-;=A$l. 2<;- ;<C and several foreign patents for his invention. 3lectronic coagulation of saline solutions has been developed since the early G><s, but such systems employ strong direct current. "he !ul 3G# system re1uires no e+ternally applied energyM rather, it generates its own electrical power. *t is in effect a salt-water battery in addition to its desalination applications. !ul e+plains 3G# as follows@ L"he principle upon which 3G# is based is galvanic to the e+tent that a XprimaryX Anot rechargeableC, low-power battery is galvanic. *n any 3G# system Aas in any batteryC, each cell contains two electrodes@ a copper anode and an aluminum cathode. "he electrolyte Adilute sulfuric acid in a storage battery, but only sea water in an 3G# unitC XconnectsX the electrodes at one end, but in order to complete an electric circuit it must be connected at the other end as well, and in order not to deplete the Xbattery very 1uickly Aas would be the case if the electrodes were connected only with a wire and no XresistanceX --- called a shortcircuitC, some resistance Aor XloadXC must be added, such as lights, or a motor or other devices, in the connection between the electrodes at the other end. L3lectricity is produced by chemical action, and in the case of an 3G# unit using copper anodes and aluminum cathodes, o+ygen and aluminum are the materials that react with each other, and hydrogen is the catalyst. *n plain terms, a catalyst is a substance that causes other substances to become unstable and recombine to become stable. !luminum and o+ygen, when in contact, without the presence of hydrogen, will remain independent and stable, but in the presence of hydrogen will combine, releasing electrons. 9ater is hydrogen and o+ygen. 9hen in 3G# the aluminum and o+ygen combine, the hydrogen goes off mostly as a gas. L*n the 3G# systems as described, no other electrode-metal reactions with materials in the water have been measured or observed. (owever, with the electrical field that e+ists, the particles of salts Achlorine, sodium, bromine, magnesium, and every other substance attached to the water moleculesC become attracted to the electrodes. "he field generated by the 3G# system is stronger than the field that holds these particles to the water moleculesM thus the copper anode electrode attracts the positively charged particles AanionsC, and the aluminum electrode attracts the negatively charged particles AcationsC, the particles or ions being molecules too, but composed of only atoms that each represents. %ea water, for e+ample does not contain sodium chloride Atable saltCM chlorine and sodium ions are individually attached to the water molecule. *n nature they only combine when the water molecule has been evaporated away, and there is no XoccupiedX water molecule to become attached to. *n 3G#, these ions become detached because of the electrical field. L*n 3G# the field strength is really unimportant, as long as a field e+ists. 9e make up for that lack of a field strength of a copper7aluminum 3G# device by flowing the water through a large number of cells. "he number of cells and the flow rate dictates the rate of desalting and the amount of saline material remaining in the water after it has gone through 3G# processing. "here are limitations on flow rate for each design, and there are minimum numbers of cells for each design. "he ma+imum number of cells is dictated by the builder of the 3G# devicesM there is a point in each design where the amount of matter removed

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in relation to the cost of the cells is so small that it becomes impractical to have the e+tra cells. L!s the materials Aions of various saltsC accumulate ad,acent to the electrode surfaces, and the waterXs laminar flow downward along the electrode surfaces carry the ions out of the field, much of the ion material becomes reattached to water molecules not in the field Athey redissolveC, forming a dense brine. "hat water from which the saline ions have migrated, now is unburdened and less dense than the saline water. "he desalinated AdesaltedC water occurs in the center of the gap between the electrodes and is LbouyedL up by the denser saline water below, so that the desalted 1uantity is to be found at the top, center-of-gap location of each cell. L6nly about 3<= of the 3G# process depends on chemical reactions. 5or this reason the initial urge of technical persons to analy/e the process using conventional electro-chemical thermal balance e1uations should be subdued. "he well-known phenomena of the behavior of matter ions in solution between a nonreactive cathode and non-reactive anode, more closely represents the facts, e+cept that the electrolyte is not an electroplating medium, and that the system is galvanically disposed by a minimum reaction of cathode AaluminumC and electrolyte-borne o+ygen7hydrogen, rather than with applied energy from an e+ternal source.L 6f the 3<= of the 3G# process that includes chemical reactions, many of the materials are released as gases such as hydrogen, chlorine, and others. (ydrogen and chlorine also recombine to form hydrogen chloride, which reacts with calcium carbonate to produce precipitant calcium chloride and free hydrogen. %ome of the liberated ions of sodium, calcium and magnesium recombine with the carbonate radicals disrupted from calcium carbonate and form respective carbonates and hydro+ides. #Figure ;$ .ecause most of the salts are removed by 3G# rather than by reducing the electrodes, the electrodes last a very long time and re1uire only periodic cleaning. "he cathode reduction rate is calculated at <.<< 3 o/. avoir. of aluminum hydro+ide for each << gallons of water desalinated. "he average value of current produced is <.<<<<22 amp7s1. in. of cathode surface in contact with saline water being processed. !lbert !ul describes a very simple model that can be constructed to demonstrate the principle of 3G#@ L"wo metal plates, one of aluminum and one of copper, appro+imately 2L + 3L + 7 NL thick, are drilled with two 7>L diameter holes in the top corners of both plates. *nsert wood dowels through the holes so as to support the plates about 72L apart in a wide-mouthed ,ar of about 3-pint capacity. $onnect the electrode plates with a short piece Aabout ;LC of insulated wire, to both ends of which are soldered alligator clips. 5ill the ,ar with ordinary tap water in which is dissolved about 72 gram of table salt. "hen add a few milligrams of thymol blue p( indicator. !d,ust the p( with a minute amount of very dilute acetic acid AvinegarC and sodium hydro+ide AlyeC until the water turns an orange color. !ny additional acetic acid will increase the p( and produce a bright red color. !dditional lye will change the color to clear yellow. "he apparatus now is complete.L

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"he two plates are electrically connected using the wire and clips, thereby establishing a galvanic cell of the type described by !lbert !ul. !fter several minutes a noticeable change becomes apparent@ the copper plate becomes blanketed with a thin layer of dark red color, and the aluminum plate is covered with a thin yellow layer. !s the copper anode attracts positive ions and decreases the p( in its area, the indicator turns bright red in that region. "he p( increases around the aluminum cathode and the indicator changes to a yellow color in that /one as the negative hydro+yl ions accumulate there. 9ithin ten minutes the colored layers become about 7 NL thick on each side of the metal plates. "hen streams of red and yellow fluid can be seen coming off the bottom of the metal plates and e+tending to the bottom of the ,ar. !s the operation continues, the colored /ones increase at the bottom of the ,ar. !fter several hours of operation, small flecks of aluminum hydro+ide form on the aluminum cathode. L"he indicator changes color because the positively charged Aelectron-deficientC hydrogen atoms are attracted to the copper anode, and the negatively charged hydro+yl ions are attracted to the aluminum cathode. *n the same manner, the dissociated salts yield positive ions of sodium, magnesium, and calcium that are attracted to the copper anodes while the anions of chlorine, carbonates, and hydro+ides are attracted to the aluminum cathode. !s the solution of ions increases near the plates they establish a gravitational convection flow in which the denser fluid layers containing higher concentrations of salt ions settle to the bottom of the ,ar, leaving the fluid /one between the electrode plates depleted of dissolved salts, i.e., desalinated.L "he construction of a practical 3G# system re1uires certain constraints. 5or instance, the gap between the aluminum and copper electrodes must be 7>L, with only a narrow margin for variation. *f the gap is too narrow, it short-circuits as chains of aluminum hydro+ide build up and bridge between the electrodes. *f the gap is too wide, the electrochemical potential is too low and insufficient to the electrochemical reaction threshold. !lso the water must enter the system within the electrode /one, not below it, as indicated in Figure 0. "he following is a description of a preferred embodiment of the !ul 3G# process@ L5our tubular copper anode containers were connected in such a manner as to permit saline water to be introduced a distance from the bottom of one tube, then permitted to flow out of the top of that tube into the ne+t tube, where the inlet was in the identical location of the first, and so on for all four tubes. "he distance from the bottom of the containers to the inlets was sufficient not to impede the deposition of the precipitants nor cause the incoming water to be mi+ed with the precipitants. L"ubular aluminum cathode elements were then suspended into the tubular anode containers. "he cathodes were connected together by... an insulated wire. "he anodes were connected together by an insulated wire, and then connected to one side of a meter calibrated to be read in milliamperes. "he cathodes were connected to an electrical resistance of < ohms. "he electrical resistance was connected to the other side of the ammeter. L"he a+es of the copper anode containers and the aluminum cathodes were coa+ial and oriented perpendicular with the earthXs surface. "he total capacity of the system was measured at 2.H gallons of water. !t the bottom of each container a stopcock was provided for the removal of precipitants.

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L%aline water was introduced and permitted to flow continually through the system at a rate of 2.H gal.7day. the water was tested. "he total dissolved and solid saline materials were 3N,<<< ppm of water before the introduction into the process, and only 3H< ppm after e,ection from the system, indicating about GG= desalination. "he precipitants were removed as a dense brine which measured <>,<<< ppm of suspended solids for each 2.H gallons processed.L !fter sea water containing about ;,<<< ppm of dissolved or suspended solids has passed through a series of about a do/en !ul 3G# cells, its saline content has been reduced to about 2;< ppm. "his is good drinking water. *f the water is used for agricultural purposes, a higher saline content is acceptable. *n GN;, Souis %haffer, chief of the Declamation .ureauXs #ivision of (ydrology at %an .ernardino, tested an !ul 3G# plant which processed water from the %alton %ea to yield desalted water about e1ual in 1uality to kitchen tap water in %an .ernardino. %haffer said@ L*tXs a revolutionary approach to the age-old problem of converting sea water to fresh water in the arid regions of the world.L "he !ul 3G# process has become a dormant technology since the death of the inventor. "his elegant technology now awaits further development, and a thirsty society awaits its implementation. 5ollowing herewith are !lbert !ulXs B% Patent O 3,>H>,< > and construction plans for 3G# units with gallon7day and << gpd capacity. !s stated at the beginning of this report, only the construction of a -gpd unit can be recommended as a survival apparatus... &eferences: . !ul, !lbert (.@ B.% Patent O 3,>H>,< > A$l. 2<>- ;<C, 2 6ctober GNGM L3lectro-Gravitational #esalination of %aline 9aterL 2. %tuart, 5red 3.@ L3lectronic $oagulationLM P+blic 0orks A!pril G>HC, pp. 2H3N. 3. )urphy, George 9., Y .at/er, #avid@ L!pparatus for %tudying 3lectroGravitational %eparationsLM E. .lectrochem /oc. A#ecember G;2C, pp. ;2<-;2N. >. Suce, $apt. J.#.@ U./. Koast 8+ard 5rip >eport A 2 January GNNC@LQisit to General )arine "echnology $orp.L ;. U./. N+rea+ o- >eclamation >eport A23 !pril GN;73 )ay GN;C@LB.%. %alinity Sab 9ater, Bntreated Y #esalinated %alton %ea 9ater, Y %ea 9ater $omparison with $ity of %an .ernardino 9ater.L N. /an 1rancisco KhronicleM ; July, GN; H. (oblscher, Prof. 3rwin $.@ L!nalysis of #esalination Process Proposed by )r. !lbert !ulLM /+pplementary >eport ( H January GNGC.

Foreign Patents 7ssue to Albert Aul for EGD: !ustralia O >3;,>FN AN2,23;7NGC, < )ay GH3. .elgium O H><,;<N A2< 6ctober GNGC. $anada OG<G,H N A 2 %eptember GH2C.

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5rance O 2,<N3,GH> ANG-3;NF>C, H 6ctober GNGC. Great .ritain O ,2H ,F2G A2< 6ctober GNGC. *srael O 33, >H A2F %eptember GH2C. *taly O ,<>;, <N A < )ay GF<C. Japan OHG2,2;F. %weden O 3>3,2F2 A ; June GH2C.

Figure ;: ElectroGra!itational Desalination N

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Figure 0: EGD "ell N

8'S' Patent O .,=3=,-;= Electrogra!itational Desalination of Water B.%. $l. 2<>- ;< A6ct. 2 , GNGC Albert H' Aul Abstract: 3lectrogravitational method of desalination of salt water using two dissimilar metal electrodes connected e+ternally which form a galvanic couple creating current flow through the system. Portions of salts that are attracted to the electrodes establish concentrated areas of higher density that settle to the bottom of container whereby the solution removed from the bottom is of a greater concentration than the water thereabove.

"his process removes the saline materials from saline water for the purpose of making the water potable and useful for agriculture without ill effect. "he novelty of this invention is that it re1uires no application of energy from any source e+ternal to the processM that it incorporates no critical or strategic materials and that it is completely self-contained.

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3+isting desalination processes re1uire the application of heat energy or electrical energy from an independent source to make the process operational, whether for direct separation of saline material from water by electrolytic means using applied electricity, distillation of steam or evaporated water, operation of pumps and other e1uipment necessary to such processes. "his invention produces its own electrical energy as well as making it possible to recover more than F<= of the volume of saline water in,ected into the process, as desalinated water. )inerals such as aluminum and alloys of aluminum and other minerals react with saline materials that are dissolved and suspended in saline water. "hese chemical reactions cause the saline materials to combine with the minerals placed in the water for that purpose. "he chemical reactions cause a change in the energy levels of various atoms in the reacting molecules. 9hen non-reacting minerals such as copper, alloys of copper or other minerals are placed at a distance from the reacting minerals with an unobstructed 1uantity of saline water between the reacting and non-reacting materials, an electrostatic field is caused to e+ist. "he mineral in contact wit the saline water and reacting with the saline water is called the cathode. "he mineral in contact with the saline water and considered non-reacting is termed the anode. 9hen the cathode and anode are placed at a distance from each other with an unobstructed 1uantity of saline water in contact with the surface of each, and when an electrically conductive material is placed so that it continually is in contact with both the cathode and anode, but not in contact with the saline water, an electric current is caused to e+ist. "he rate of chemical reaction, production of electrical energy and rate of separation of the saline materials and their removal from the saline water are proportional. %aline water tested by this process was obtained from the Pacific 6cean having a content of dissolved and suspended solids >>,<<< milligrams per liter of water of which N><< milligrams of the same solids were $a$63 Acalcium carbonateC. !fter processing per this process, wherein the reaction was controlled to accomplish a separation of saline materials of appro+imately H<= of the amount contained in the saline water, analysis of the processed water showed that the total of solid materials remaining dissolved and suspended in the water measured <,NN< milligrams solids per liter of water. 6f these solids ,;3< milligrams were calcium carbonate. "he control was subse1uently ad,usted to cause more separation and removal of saline materialsM the resulting analyses showing the processed water to contain N;< milligrams per liter of water of solid matter, of which 32< milligrams were calcium carbonate. "he reacted materials do not adhere to the cathode but disengage as their density increases and fall to the bottom of the vessel in which they are contained. ?onreacting materials suspended in the water being processed become charged in the electrical field between the cathode and anode. 3ach particle will then be attracted to the ne+t as their respective negative and positive poles come into opposition. Bltimately the accumulated density e+ceeds their former buoyancy as a result of the coalescence by attraction and these materials deposit at the bottom of the vessel in which they are contained.

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"he electric current produced as a by-product of the desalination process chemical reaction was measured to have an average value of <.<<<<22 ampere per s1uare inch of cathode surface in contact with the saline water being processed. 5or each combination of cathode and anode the electromotive force as measured to be <.; volt. "he rate of separation and removal of saline materials from the water, termed desalination, has been calculated. "he calculations are based on the amount of material separated and removed from the water, the observed change in measurement of electric current and the amount of water processed. "he rate of desalination of one cubic inch of saline water in contact with the surfaces of one cathode and one anode of one s1uare inch area, where the cathode and anode are in mutual contact with an electrically conductive material not in contact with the water, is two minutes for water having a content of N;< parts of solid material in suspension and solution per million parts of water after processing from an original state wherein >>,<<< parts of solid material in suspension and solution per million parts of water were measured before processing. .y analysis 3 ,NH; parts of cathode materials were reacted and removed from the cathode for each million parts of water processed, where the processed water contained N;< parts of solid material in suspension and solution for each million parts of water. "he material separated and removed from the water by the desalination process described herein, are removed from the bottom of the vessels in which they are deposited, and made available for processing into chemical, metals, chemical products, metal products, and all other uses to which they are applicable. )any of the materials released by the chemical reactions of the process are released as gases, such as hydrogen, o+ygen, chlorine and others. "hese gases partially combine in the water, small portions of chlorine gas dissolving. (ydrogen and chlorine combine to form hydrochloric acid that in turn reacts with calcium carbonate resulting in free hydrogen gas and precipitant calcium chloride. "he hydrogen gas e+pands out of the water to atmosphere. "he chlorine gas is released when the sodium chloride molecule is disrupted by the electrochemical reactions of this process. !s the chlorine atoms are recombined as described in the foregoing so does the sodium atom combine with the carbon atoms of the disrupted calcium carbonate molecule resulting in precipitant sodium carbonate and sodium hydro+ide. 5or a clearer understanding of the invention, specific e+amples of the invention, specific e+amples of the invention are given below. "hese e+amples are merely illustrative ad not to be understood as limiting the scope and underlying principles of the invention. E:ample 7: ! tubular container of copper was constructed into which a cylindrical rod of aluminum was suspended coa+ially. "he aluminum cathode was connected to the copper anode with an electrical conductor. "he entire assembly was oriented with the a+es of the cylindrical parts perpendicular to the earth-s surface. %aline water was introduced into the anode container. "he saline water had a content of dissolved and solid saline matter of

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3;,<< parts per million of water. "he distance by which the surfaces in the container and the cathode rod were separated was <.H; inch. "he water was permitted to remain in the container one hour. !fter one hour the water was removed and tested. "he remaining dissolved and suspended solid material was measured at 2F,G<< parts per million of water. E:ample 77: 5our tubular copper anode containers were connected in such a manner as to permit saline water to be introduced a distance from the bottom of one tube, then permitted to flow out of the top of that tube into the ne+t tube where the inlet was in the identical location of the first, and so on for all four tubes. "he distance from the bottom of the containers to the inlets was sufficient not to impede the deposition of the precipitant nor cause the incoming water to be mi+ed with the precipitants. "ubular aluminum cathode elements were then suspended into an anode container. "he cathodes were connected together by an electrically conductive material. "he anodes were connected together by an electrically conductive material. "he anodes were then connected to one side of a meter calibrated to be read in millamperes. "he cathodes were connected to an electrical resistance of < ohms. "he electrical resistance was connected to the other side of the ammeter. "he a+es of the anode containers and the cathodes were coa+ial and oriented to be perpendicular with the earth-s surface. "he total capacity of the system was measured at 2.H gallons of water. !t the bottom of each container a means was provided for the removal of precipitants. %aline water was introduced and permitted to flow continually through the system at a rate of 2.H gallons per day. "his produced <.<; amperes of electrical current at an electromotive force of <.; volts continually. "he water was tested. "he total dissolved and suspended solid saline materials were 3N,3<< parts of water before introduction into the process and 3H< parts per million parts of water after e,ection from the process. "he cathode reduction rate was calculated at <.<< 3 ounces avoirdupois of aluminum lost for each << gallons of water desalinated. "he precipitants were removed as a dense brine that measured <>,<<< parts per million parts of water of suspended solids for each 2.H gallons processed. "he present invention in its broader aspects is not limited to the specific minerals, mechani/ations and e+amples described, but also includes within the scope of the accompanying claims any departures made from such minerals, mechani/ations and e+amples which do not sacrifice their chief advantages. 9hat is claimed is@ . "he process of desalination of salt water which comprises flowing such water between spaced-apart, substantially vertically arranged dissimilar metal electrodes in a cell-like means, the electrodes being connected by an electrical conductor outwardly of the water, whereby an electric current flows between them, attracting, by such flow of current, portions of the salts to each electrode, whereby to cause an increase in density of water ad,acent to each electrode, permitting

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settlement downward from ad,acent the electrodes to the bottom of cell-like means, and removing from the bottom a brine of greater concentration than that of the water thereabove. 2. "he process as defined in claim together with the subse1uent steps of flowing the upper portions of such water between electrodes of further cell-like means, and repeating the remainder of the steps so set forth, whereby to effect progressive desalination &eferences: ;NN,32> AF7 FGNC 8endrick A$l. 2<>- ;<C 2,>; , <NH A <7 G>FC .utler A$l. 2<>-2>FC 3,3>2,H 2 AG7 GNHC 6-8eef A$l. 2<>- >FC

7+ST&8"T7(+S F(& "(+ST&8"T7+G A (+E H8+D&ED GA44(+ PE& DA[, (& A (+E GA44(+ PE& DA[ SEA WATE& DESA4T7+G 8+7T E9P4([7+G THE E4E"T&(G&A?7TAT7(+A4 DESA47+AT7(+ (F SA47+E WATE& P&("ESS, 8' S' PATE+T +o' .,=3=,-;= F(&EW(&D: 3lectrogravitational #esalination of %aline 9ater A3G#C, is a process designed for the desalting of sea water to produce potable and agricultural water as a supplement to e+isting water supplies, for application in sea coast communities. "he invention operates much the same as a storage battery e+cept that there are a great number of cells, and the electrolyte Asea waterC, continuously flows through the system. "he amount of residual salts left in the product water is controlled by the flow rateM the faster the water flows the more is left in it, conversely the slower the water flows the more is removed, however, for each design there is an optimum flow rate and a minimum flow rate. "he average minimum flow rate should never fall below one gallon per day for any system, but for larger systems this figure is even too low. "he rule of never permitting the system flow rate to be less than <= of the designed optimum flow rate in units over < gallons per day is best to follow. !lthough some ion e+change takes place in the system and is the source of the by-product electrical power that is generated, most of the saline matter is removed by the electrogravitational phenomenon. .etween the rods Athe cathodesC and the tubes Athe anodesC, an electrical field comes into e+istence when tube and rod are connected together electrically Aoutside of the electrolyteC, with some kind of resistance load Alight bulbs, or motors, etc.C between. "he electrolyte forms the other 2connection4 between the rod and tube. "he dissolved salts are, in fact, ions Aatomic si/ed particlesC with positive or negative charges, attached to the water molecules. "he electrical field in the 3G6 process causes these ions to be detached from the water molecules and migrate to either the anode or cathode, depending on the charge of the ion. "he ions accumulate at the surfaces of each Arod and tubeC, but only the 6+ygen and (ydrogen ions will react with the materials of which the rods and tubes are made, and in the case of the designs contained in these instructions, only the rods are consumed over a long

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period of time. "he rest of the ions Athe salt ionsC accumulate at the rod and tube surfaces, gradually being drawn downward by gravity until these reach the space below the rod Awhere there is no electrical fieldC, where these redissolve Athe ions become reattached to the water moleculesC, forming a dense brine. "o this brine is added the hydro+ides formed by the ion e+changes AreactionsC between rods and those ions we mentioned before. "hese hydro+ides are in the form of flakes and whitish in color. "hese flakes are only slightly more dense than the water, and though most will fall to the bottom, some will stay suspended in the water and usually filtered out before the product water is used. "hese hydro+ides are harmless, being in fact one of the two constituent materials used in treating digestive tract ailments in products bearing trade names of )aalo+, #i-Gel, etc. "he main ingredients of these products are aluminum and magnesium hydro+ides, of which ours is aluminum hydro+ide. 6ther beneficial side effects of 3G# operation include the release of chlorine ions, which e+pand out of the water as a gas Arising to and out of the waterXs upper surfaceC, some, of course, is carried down with the other materials. "he gaseous chlorine destroys harmful organisms. !ll but trace amounts of chlorine are usually removed from the product water by aerating before storage, as it comes from the output filter. DES7G+ 6A")G&(8+D: "hese instructions contain basic information for the construction of two different unitsM a unit that will produce << gallons per 2> hour day of water containing ><< parts per million total dissolved solids, from saline ocean water containing 3<,<<< parts per million total dissolved solids from which suspended matter has been removed by filtration to ten microns, and a one gallon per 2> hour day unit producing water of the same 1uality as that specified for the << gallon per day unit from the same source . "he designs have been developed to permit the builder to obtain materials that are commercially available from hardware stores, plumbing supply centers, lumber supply centers and retail metal products suppliers. %ignificant latitude has been allowed to facilitate substitutions as well as permitting the builder to fully decide on certain materials as well as si/e of materials and parts. 9here strict limitation was necessary in material selection, and dimensions they are clearly identified. "he designs have been developed from fully tested and demonstrated laboratory devices. $onstruction of tube assemblies for both types of units only differs in si/e. Dod assemblies for the two differ in construction due to the very small diameter of the one gpd unitXs rods. "he one gallon unit is intended to be an emergency device only, the design does not lend itself well to prolonged use as it is a hand filled unit, and when not in use must be disassembled completely, and all parts thoroughly dried Aafter removing all traces of saline water by rinsing in fresh waterC. "he following instructions give more on the sub,ect of storage . "(+ST&8"T7(+ 7+ST&8"T7(+S: ;-- gp : Figure 7 illustrates a vertical side view with partial cut-away to show cell Atube and rod, assembledC, position and identify certain components as well as construction fundamentals. "he solenoid shown is for lifting the perforated plate that pushes the valves open momentarily to dump the waste brine. "he dumping need only be done once each day, and for no more than a half second of time. ! hydraulic cylinder may be used instead, but this re1uires a motori/ed pump. "he cylinder may be preferable over the solenoid in order to get the force

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needed to raise the valves against nearly F<< lbs. of water weight, but this is a decision the builder must make based on e1uipment availability. "he schedule for 5igure * is on the page following. Figure 77 gives the recommended construction dimensions for the housing. *tems G and > on 5igure * need not be mounted to their support angles, but can be laid on them. "he lid should be locked into position only to prevent shifting and dislocation that would adversely affect rod7tube alignment and electrical connections. "he method of locking is optional. *nlet and outlet pipes are not shown or specified on the housing. "he builder has the option as to which way these should pro,ect from the unit Awhether out the ends or the sidesC, keeping in mind that the inlet of water to the tubes is at the bottom and the outlet at the top. Figure 77A shows the location of two sets of holes that correspond to the mounting positions of the rods, and the tabs for making the electrical connections to the tubes. "he .2< L diam. holes are for mounting of the rods to the lids as well as making the electrical connections to the rods. "he .2;<L diam. holes are for passing the wires from the tube electrical connection tabs out onto the lid top where the connections can be made. "he frame for the valve plate lift ropes and lifting mechanism support is also shown on 5igure **! . %tandard fiberglass sheets come in a ma+imum si/e of >X + FX. "hese can be cemented together with a wide strip of the same material to obtain the larger dimensions recommended in these instructions, using epo+y cement A2 part is recommendedC. Figure 777 and its associated schedule illustrate the assembly of the tubes for the system. "he recommended spacing center to center of each tube in both directions is 2- 72L Afrom centerline of a tube to the centerline of its neighbor tubesC. "he inlet and outlet direction is shown for illustration purposes only, and as stated are optional. Figure 7? and its associated schedule illustrate tube constructions. !ll the materials recommended are those in use for transfer of potable water Adrinking and cooking waterC. *t is recommended that the builder use only those materials, and not materials that might be contaminating. Figure ? illustrates rods for both << gpd and one gpd units. Details ?7 * \ should be carefully e+amined. Detail ?7 and Detail ?777 should be drilled in line with the .2< L diam. holes in Figure 77A, which in turn must align with the tube array. Detail ?777 supports the tube array and is drilled to permit the valve stems to hang down. Detail ?7 maintains tube alignment and separation at the top of the tubes, while allowing the tabs to clear. Detail 7\ calls out perforated plastic sheet, but e+panded metal sheet that has been completely coated with a well bonded coating without obstructing the perforations so that the waste water may pass through, may be preferred. "he plate must lift the valve stems against appro+imately F<< lbs. of water weight, without permanently deforming. Figure \7 illustrates the electrical connections recommendedM C connections are series connections that add the voltage of each cell so connected to the ne+t, and 2C connections are parallel connections that add the current values of the cells so connected. Per the recommended connections shown, an average total of GGH 9atts will be available. "his power is ample for operating a water pump motor 7> hp to 73 hpC, for filling the unit, at a constant rate. *f it is preferred by the builder that the power be first converted from the #$ produced to !$, it must be kept in mind that some power loss will result in such conversion. *t is recommended that the builder employ a power panel containing a wattmeter and

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switching so that power stability can be monitored. Power drop-off is directly related to reduction in desalting activity, and is usually due to the rods having become coated with hydro+ides. "his condition can be corrected without shutting the unit down, by employing a hand held ultrasonic generator, and touching each tube for a few minutes to Lshake-offL the hydro+ide materials. $are must be taken not to cause an electrical short or to be sub,ected to electrical shock during this process. *t is recommended that the ultrasonic device be fully electrically insulated. "he rods can be vibrated through their mounting screws. (ne gp : Figure \77 illustrates the recommended container for a one gallon emergency use device. 5igure Z** and its associated schedule are considered clear enough to permit construction of such a device, employing the other applicable parts of this instruction A5igures *Q, Q, Z* and their associated schedulesC, and the general recommendations given herein. Figure \77 - *tem < is the top plate of the base bo+. "his plate supports the rods and is where the electrical connections should be made. "he electrical leads can be connected to a L,ackL type socket on the side of the housing Abase bo+C, from which a number of items can be operated if fitted with mating plugs. %ome of the possible devices are@ an emergency transceiver radio, light, emergency radio transmitter beeper. "he device will produce an average <.GF 9atts, ample in a number of the devices mentioned. !s shown on 5igure Z**, the lid assembly is also the filling reservoir. !gain, as in the << gpd unit, the builder has the option of the outlet location, as well as the inlet to the first cell. "he outlet should have a valve so that the flow can be controlled, but when flow is controlled at the outlet, e+tra care must be taken to prevent overflow of the tubes from filling with more water than is being allowed to pass out. $orrosion and electrical shorts can result that would seriously effect the desalting capability of the device. GE+E&A4 7+F(&9AT7(+: *f a unit is stopped for any reason, it must be drained of all saline water, the electrical circuit opened Aswitched offC, the cell components thoroughly rinsed and dried Afresh water rinseC. *f the units are to be stored after having been used, stopped and dried, the rods should be removed from the cells and stored separately. %ome corrosion of the tubes may occur in storage, or a patina may form in them. Providing that such storage is not for an e+ceptionally long period that might seriously damage the tubes, the unit can usually be put back into operation very 1uickly by filling the tubes with any of the li1uid copper cleaners generally available to remove the corrosion products ."he cleaner must be thoroughly rinsed out of the system before using the system again. "he rods should be cleaned to remove all o+ides and e+pose bare metal. 3lectrical connection points should be carefully inspected and corroded parts cleaned or replaced . "he desalting unit should be filled with filtered sea water taken from far enough offshore to minimi/e the pollutant content. "he finer the filtration, the lower the risk of potential troubles. Petroleum contaminants for instance, can cause very frustrating contamination that will obviously stop the process from operating effectively. "hese units should be operated in as motion free an environment as possible. !gitation of the water in the tubes will cause mi+ing which totally defeats the process function. "oo high a flow rate will cause turbulence that results in the same problem. "he one gallon unit can be used in life boats as long as there is relative calm, or as long as internal LsloshingL can be prevented.

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"he waste brine tank in the bottom of both units must be fitted with a means for removing the brine periodically. "o monitor the level, a clear plastic window can be cemented into the housing wall, and a manually operated drain valve installed. "he brine can be evaporation dried and its salt content recovered . S"HED84E F(& F7G8&E 7 C 2C 3C >C ;C NC HC FC GC <C C 2C 3C >C ;C NC HC FC GC 2<C 2 C 22C 23C 2>C & O De1uired 7 gpd'

<FL + HFL fiberglass sheet A37 NL to vL thickC & 7 << ' 5igure *Q tube assembly & NN< 7 << ' 5igure *Q tube assembly & >F 7 ' 5igure Q rod & NN< 7 << ' 5igure Q rod & >F 7 ' OF-32 + L round hd. machine screws & NN< 7 << ' O;->< non-conductive, non-corrosive he+. nuts & G2 7 ' #etail *Z Acan use fully epo+y coated e+panded metalC & 7 << ' 7>LLstd. thd. eye bolts w7nuts & > 7 << ' 7>L marine 1uality nylon rope & appro+.N<< ft. 7 << ' LLLLL & ; ft. 7 ' #$ Aor optional !$C L stroke vert.mnt. solenoid. & 7 << ' Amust lift min. <<< lbs .C #etail Q* fiberglass sheet A37 NL to 37 NL min. thickC & 7 << ' 3L + NL + 7>L aluminum angle Apaint with epo+yC & >F ft. 7 << ' 2L + 2L + 7>L aluminum angle Apaint with epo+yC & >> ft. 7 << ' 3L + 3L + 7>L aluminum angle Apaint with epo+yC & 2F ft. 7 << ' <>L + F>L fiberglass sheet A37 NL min. "hickC & 2 7 << ' F>L + H>L L L L L L & 2 7 << ' #etail Q*** fiberglass sheet A37 NL to 72L thickC & 7 << ' #etail Q** 72L Pw7$ or !.% pipe, and elbows AcementableC & as re1. 7 << ' H2L + <2L fiberglass sheet Amin.37FL thick, double-up 37 NL cementing pieces together at edges to prevent leaksC & 7 << ' 3L + NL + 7>L, aluminum angle Apaint with epo+yC & 3 ft. 7 << ' 7>L - 2< + >L bolt with min. gX thread length & > 7 << ' 7>L - 2< he+. nut for above bolts, with lock washers & > 7 << ' 2L spacers Acut from tubing, or drill cut round -!lum.C & > 7 << ' 7>L aluminum plate NL + 32L & 7 << ' #etail ZM 7>L -2< + 3NL threaded round & 2 7 << ' #etail ZM 7>L -2< he+. nuts Y lockwashers & > 7 << ' #etail ZM 72L 6.#. Amin. 37FL *.#.C tubing, 3<- 72L lg. & 2 7 << '

S"HED84E F(& F7G8&E 777 For ;-- gp unit: ! j 3< rows of cells interconnected as shown . j 23 cells per row, with transition connections made per #etail Q** $ j %alt water inlet into bottom of first cell # j #esalted water outlet from top of last cell 3 j $ell inlet 5 j $ell outlet ?6"3@ $onnect first cell and ne+t cell outlets to ad,acent cell inlets for N;G cells Alast cellXs outlet is outlet #C.

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For ; gp 8nit: ! j F rows of cells interconnected as shown . j N cells per row, with transition connections per #etail Q** $C # C %ame as above A << gpd scheduleC 3C ?6"3@ connect first cell and ne+t cell outlets to ad,acent cell inlets for >F cells Alast cellXs outlet is outlet #C. S"HED84E F(& F7G8&E 7? C Plastic pipe L"L APQ$ or!.%C, cementable, modify for achieving dimension-!, if necessary@ for << gpd -- L + 72L 32< re1uired for gpd K 37>L + 7L GN re1. 2C Plastic pipe@ for << gpd K 72L dia. APQ$7!.%C for gpd K 7>Ldia. APQ$7!.%C 3N< ft. re1. >< ft. re1.

3C Plastic pipeX elX APQ$7!.%C, cementable, modify for achieving dimension -!, if necessary@ for << gpd K 72L 32< re1. for gpd K 7>L GN re1. >C $opper tubing@ for << gpd K L diam + <.<3 wall + N>L lg.A3;2< ft.C for gpd -- 37>L dia. + .<N wall + FL lg. AH2 ftC ;C Plastic pipe@ for << gpd -- L dia. APQ$7!.%C + 2L lg. A < ft.C for gpd K 37>L dia. APQ$7!.%C +2L lg. d ft.C NC Plastic APQ$7!.%C closure caps drill thu to fit H@ for << gpd -- L cementable for gpd --- 37>L cementable NN< re1. >F re1. NN< re1. >F re1. NN< re1. >F re1.

HC %tandard faucet washer@ for << gpd -NN< re1. for gpd ->F re1. ?ote@ )ust seat and seal hole in N without binding, but leak free HC 2L long bolt selected to fit hole in faucet washer@ for << gpd -for gpd --FC 2L long bolt selected to fit hole in washer@ << gpd -gpd -GC (e+ nuts to fit bolt F@ << gpd -gpd -NN< re1. >F re1. NN< re1. >F re1. 32< re1. >F re1.

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<C ON self-tapping screw, 37FL long@ << gpd -gpd --

NN< re1. >F re1.

C 37 NL wide + L lg. Z .<3 ma+ thick, screw mounting electrical wiring link@ << gpd -NN< re1. gpd ->F re1. #imension !@ for << gpd K 2- 72L M for gpd K 2L gpd K - 72L ma+.

#imension .@ for << gpd K - 72L ma+.M for #imension $@ for << gpd K 2LM for gpd K 2L

#imension #@ for << gpd K 37>LM for

gpd K 37>L gpd K 7>L dia.

#imension 3@ for << gpd K 72L dia.M for S"HED84E F(& F7G8&E \77:

C 3L + 3L aluminum angle + xL thick Aepo+y paintC, 22 ft. re1.M make frame so that fiberglass sheet attach inside 2C Sid@ top Y bottom of lid must be assembled and sealed to lid frame as a bo+, and so assembled that the fill pipe ,ust enters the gap between the rod and the tube without binding or causing spillage. Sid Lbo+L is salt water reservoir for and filling thru NL diam. hole. 3C .ottom support plate, 7FL min. fiberglass sheet, re1.

>C 5iberglass sheet for sides, bottom and lid@ appro+. 2; s1. fr., 7FL min. thickness ;C L + L + 7FL aluminum angle, 3< ft. re1uired@ when preparing assembly with items 3 Y G Y <, arrange so that disassembly can be achieved with ease Ascrew mount support ledges only. %hort pieces on which these plates can be laid then screwed in place.C. NC %eal this GL + ;L + 7FL thick min. fiberglass sheet to bo+ as reservoir for waste brine. ! drain pipe must be added, with a valve out of bo+ side, to permit waste brine removal. HC &)issing in plans' FC 3po+y coated e+panded metal sheet for valve lift, GC "ube holding plate, <C Dod holding plate, re1, 7FL fiberglass sheet. re1., 7FL fiberglass sheet. re1.

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Figure 7: Ele!ation, ;-- gp assembly N

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Figure 77: Ele!ations, ;-- gp unit housing N

Figure 77A: Top ?ie%, ;-- gp housing N

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Figure 777: Tube array plan M tube connection ata N

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Figure 7?: Tube assembly construction N

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Figure ?: &o assemblies construction N

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Details ?7: Figure \:

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Figure \7: Electrical "onnections N

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Figure \77: Housing for ; gp unit N

Top N Home re:research'com

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6ioarchitettura
#ossier de 2il giornale della natura4, a cura di Suisa )otta e Paolo Qaccaro $n questo dossier tro"erete%

%a casa e la salute
5ioarchitettura Analisi $el luogo .ateriali sani per lHe$ili5ia 0initure $elle superfici interne con pro$otti naturali 6n7a'ita8ione sana e !ersonale Stan5a per stan5a Luali regole

Gli ambienti
La cucina naturale Luali mobili6 * fornelli La camera da letto sana 5uon ri!oso9 Silen5io e Sobriet< Luale letto6 Reti e materassi E sopra tutto... l 5agno 1on solo per la arsi

Ambienti esterni
2m'ienti esterni& ma -itali9 Luattro suggerimenti per il balcone e il terra55o E 9uattro suggerimenti per il giar$ino Piante in terra55o e sul balcone l giardino al naturale 0are largo uso $i essen5e autoctone 'isporre le piante come in natura Potare e falciare il meno possibile8 #reare uno specchio $Hac9ua *nstallare ni$i artificiali e mangiatoie per gli uccelli 1on usare pro$otti chimici #onsigli utili

Ambienti $i la oro8
6n u""icio al naturale %a carta Penne) e i$en5iatori) correttori... Arre$amento *l computer

Architettura e colore
La :scom!arsa; del colore Gli antichi significati $ei colori

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* materiali
Ma do-e tro-o i mattoni ecologici< *n *talia la bioarchitettura > in ritar$o... ... eppure 9ualcosa si muo e =uesto > legno& di""idate dalle imita8ioni *l legno giusto *l massello * materiali per i mobili

Gli elettro$omestici
La-atrice #onsigli per lHuso 0rigori"ero #onsigli per lHuso 0ornelli e "orno #onsigli per lHuso $ella cucina elettrica 5oiler e ac?ua calda #onsigli per lHuso $el boiler elettrico 1iccoli elettrodomosetici Come si ris!armia energia in casa 'icianno e regole per il risparmio ecologico

Gli impianti
Stu"e @ termosi"onie 'ioedili8ia %Henergia solare * combustibili per lHimpianto $i riscal$amento #on$u5ione) con e5ione e irraggiamento *l clima $i un e$ificio 2ria& luce& gas3 la casa !ulita Gli effetti sulla salute Principi generali *l mercato e i costi 0ra ?uattro calde !areti %a casa a $imensione $Huomo %Himpianto termico bioecologico Riscal$amento bioecocompatibile #onsigli m!ianto elettrico 'ioecocom!ati'ile Premessa sulle scelte energetiche "en$en5a corrente *n$ica5ioni $i carattere generale sugli impianti elettrici $omestici

%Helettrosmog
Ali e""etti noci-i di geo!atie ed elettrosmog3!ossiamo di"enderci sen8a cam'iare casa %Hesperien5a $el $omoterapeuta

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%a casa e la salute

6ioarchitettura
Aa Nioarchitett+ra si p+] de-inire come +na disciplina che si prende c+ra di progettare tenendo conto di +n sottile eG+ilibrio esistente tra la nat+ra) lS+omo e lSambiente. * criteri delle bioarchitettura si ispirano alla necessith di costruire abita/ioni in cui l-uomo possa vivere sano, psicologicamente sereno in armonia con l-ambiente. Sa casa dovrebbe essere come un elemento organico, un guscio che ci protegge e ci ripara, vive e respira con noi. Sa struttura deve essere reali//ata con materiali biocompatibili, non in1uinanti, privi di sostan/e tossiche. !ria e ac1ua devono essere igienicamente sicure. Sa luce solare deve penetrare nell-ambiente domestico il pig possibile, onde evitare al massimo l-uso di 1uella artificiale. * colori impiegati nelle nostre case devono armoni//are con i nostri stati d-animo, essere ciof, rilassanti, avvincenti, luminosi, mai aggressivi. Sa nostra casa deve riflettere la nostra personalith, accogliere i nostri interessi, raccontare la storia della nostra vita, la nostra evolu/ione spirituale e soprattutto il luogo sicuro dove ritrovare e custodire i nostri affetti. "roppo spesso l-architettura moderna f frutto di 2tenden/e4 che trascurano le esigen/e psicologiche di ciascun individuo. Se cose progettate negli ultimi decenni sono spesso standardi//ate, progettate con forme troppo s1uadrate, sicuramente pig curate nei servi/i, ma concepite in modo poco organico, ciof lo spa/io, la distribu/ione dei locali f 1uasi sempre statica, definitiva, non lascia spa/io a eventuali cambiamenti per le esigen/e di chi vi abita. "roppo spesso si presentano abita/ioni asettiche, fun/ionali, ma terribilmente incolori. ?ello spa/io $asa %ana presenteremo una serie di prodotti con esempi di applica/ioni di materiali biocompatibili. Particolare atten/ione porremo su 1uesti tre argomenti@ C !nalisi del luogo - Dapporto tra il luogo dell-abita/ione Ainteso come sitoC e salute 2C )ateriali sani per la bioedili/ia 3C 5initura delle superfici interne con prodotti naturali Analisi el luogo Sa scien/a che si occupa dell-analisi del luogo destinato ad un-abita/ione si chiama geobiologia, ha origini antichissime e studia le influen/e delle radia/ioni terrestri sugli esseri viventi. y importante prima di edificare un-abita/ione, uno spa/io di lavoro per comunith e cosi via, reali//are un rilievo geobiologico onde verificare l-intensith del campo radioattivo naturale. y indispensabile valutare se nel sottosuolo sono presenti oltre a campi magnetici reticolari, correnti d-ac1ua, faglie, crepe geologiche, in 1uanto 1uesti fattori creano situa/ioni geobiologicamente perturbate che possono essere causa di disagi e malanni per l-uomo. "utto 1uesto fu opera di studio del #r. 3. (artmann a partire dal GHN, che eviden/im la rela/ione tra malattie e luogo e di ). $urr,. Puesti due ricercatori hanno elaborato una teoria secondo cui i flussi elettromagnetici del terreno scorrono come una griglia, o un reticolo sulla superficie terrestre, 1uando i punti si intersecano si hanno situa/ioni ad alto rischio per la salute. Per 1uesto motivo si consiglia, ad esempio, nelle camere da letto di spostare il letto se si trova in un punto di incroci della rete tellurica. * rilevamenti geobiologici nei tempi passati erano affidati al rabdomante che con la sua bacchetta testava il terreno e solo se il responso era positivo si procedeva alla costru/ione della casa. 6ggigiorno abbiamo a disposi/ione nuovi strumenti tra cui il geomagnatometro. Bn altro tipo di in1uinamento invisibile f dato dalle radia/ioni elettromagnetiche, occorre 1uindi porre l-atten/ione che l-abita/ione sia sufficientemente lontana da linee elettriche di alta tensione, ripetitori radar e cosi via. 9ateriali sani per l>e iliAia y un luogo comune pensare per chi vive in una citth che all-esterno delle proprie abita/ioni ci siano pericolose fonti di in1uinamento, ma troppo spesso si ignora che proprio nelle nostre case ci sono altrettante sostan/e dannose alla nostra salute. )olte abita/ioni costruite con avan/ati me//i tecnologici sono paragonabili a scatole chiuse sen/a

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contatto con l-esterno, 1uindi malsane per conseguenti ristagni di sostan/e tossiche derivanti da materiali plastici, pavimenti, vernici, isolamenti e collanti sintetici. *l tutto sigillato da serramenti ermetici che non permettono alcuno sfogo esterno e producono alti livelli di concentra/ione di esala/ioni dannose, responsabili di vari disturbi e malattie dell-uomo. * criteri di valuta/ione dei materiali di costru/ione dovrebbero essere in primo luogo attenti all-aspetto sanitario. Bn materiale da costru/ione vive a contatto con l-uomo e come il suo abbigliamento deve essere confortevole in tutte le stagioni. Per essere considerato un buon materiale deve essere composto sen/a sostan/e nocive, deve possedere buone capacith traspiranti, onde evitare fenomeni di surriscaldamento in estate e rapido raffreddamento in inverno. "ra le sostan/e pig pericolose per le nostre abita/ioni ricordiamo@ -ormaldeide@ pannelli di fibra, truciolare e compensatoM radon@ in alcuni materiali per l-edili/ia reali//ati con scarti da altofornoM materiali isolanti@ isolamenti di schiuma formaldeide ureicaM amianto@ intorno a tubi, caldaie, camere di combustione, tegole, piastrelle, pannelli antincendioM trattamento tossico del legno: legname dei tetti e pavimenti. Finiture elle superfici interne con pro otti naturali * prodotti per costru/ioni naturali, come i colori, le cere, gli oli, le sostan/e per il fissaggio dei legni e gli impregnanti creano una atmosfera gradevole e sana. y bene che nella scelta di un prodotto per la finitura delle superfici interne tenere presente che siano prodotte con materia prime naturali, sia che si tratti di una pittura murale, smalto o altro Pueste sostan/e sono familiari all-uomo da decine di migliaia di anni, le materia prime della chimica moderna non possono vantare tali esperien/e. y consigliabile in fase di ac1uisto verificare sulla confe/ione la dichiara/ione completa delle sostan/e utili//ate per il confe/ionamento del prodotto. 3siste in commercio un-intera gamma di prodotti in grado di fornire una risposta naturale a 1ualsiasi tipo di problema di finitura@ impregnanti, vernici, lacche trasparenti e coprenti, pittura per pareti, prodotti detergenti e per la manuten/ione della casa. 6ggigiorno ci sono sempre pig persone che considerano pig importante la natura e un clima abitativo sano e accogliente, un ambiente non in1uinato che non la facilita di manuten/ione, la sterilith e la resisten/a delle superfici ai graffi. )olte vernici e pitture contengono piombo che f nocivo alla salute, tradi/ionalmente usato come essiccante, anche se attualmente il suo impiego f stato sensibilmente ridotto non f stato del tutto bandito. * mordenti sintetici contengono ><7;<= di solventi mentre i tipi alla nitrocellulosa arrivano al H<=. !vere 1uindi molta cura nella scelta di pitture e vernici, sempre e in ogni caso ac1uistare prodotti che portano indicano tutti i componenti nel dettaglio. ?ello spa/io dedicato al tema $asa %ana saranno 1uindi principalmente sviluppati 1uesti tre argomenti, saranno esposti con dettagliata descri/ione i prodotti pig idonei alla costru/ione o ristruttura/ione di una casa ecologica. ! sostegno di tali argomenti saranno tenute tre conferen/e@ !nalisi del luogo Ain1uinamento geobiologico, in1uinamento elettromagnetico, indagini e rimediM #ott. Paolo ?ardelli, geologoC )ateriali sani per l-edili/ia AD. (ol/er7Soris 5antini consulenti bioediliC * fattori ambientali possono influen/are la vita dei nostri sensi in modo positivo0 A!le (asselink, terapeuta artisticoC *noltre sarh allestito un piccolo laboratorio che dimostrerh l-applica/ione e l-utili//o dei colori e degli intonaci naturali.
(7l 8iornale della 2at+ra n.@% settembre "@@%&

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8n>abitaAione sana e personale


Nioarchitett+ra Y G+alcosa di pi\ di +na semplice re3isione o di +na progettaLione sal+tistica della casa. ^ realiLLare ambienti gi+sti per il corpo e per lo spirito *l luogo dove si cerca rifugio, dove ci si ricarica, dove si sta insieme a chi si ama o dove si cerca un momento di solitudine. Puesto e molto altro ancora f la casa. Percim f necessario che sia in sintonia con chi la abita e con l-ambiente. $ome per l-alimenta/ione, non ci basta pig che un cibo, o la nostra casa, siano esenti da sostan/e nocive o da elementi in1uinantiM f importante che ci sia 1ualcosa in pig, l-elemento vitale, che nel cibo f la sua maggiore poten/ialith nutritiva e la sua ricche//a superiore, nella casa f l-espressione sottile e onnipresente della personalith di chi la abita. *n pratica, f il momento di riunire tecnica e arte. Deali//are un-abita/ione sana e in sintonia con noi stessi f pig semplice se la casa deve ancora essere costruita, ma si pum fare molto anche in un appartamento pig o meno vecchio. *n 1uest-ottica, il bioarchitetto f colui che indica le 2malattie4 della struttura e le 2cure4 pig adatte, e poi ascolta, studia e interpreta colui o coloro che abiteranno la casa per aiutarli a materiali//are nei vari ambienti il loro modo di essere. $iascuno di noi, 1uindi, deve risvegliare il proprio istinto, riaprire il proprio libro dei sogni, ritrovare il coraggio di guardarsi riflesso nei mobili, nei 1uadri, nelle piante, in tutto cim che si trova nella casa. S-architetto, invece, dovrh scoprire la capacith di ascoltare e di trasformarsi in un 2suggeritore4, rinunciando spesso alle solu/ioni d-effetto, che sono le sue immagini, per lasciare posto all-immagine del suo cliente. Sa casa deve risultare accogliente per ciascuno dei suoi abitantiM 1uindi bisogna ricordarsi dei bambini, che hanno esigen/e specifiche e che spesso non sanno esprimerle e, perch_ no, di animali e piante. StanAa per stanAa 6gni ambiente avrh le sue 1ualith e le sue esigen/e specifiche. Sa camera da letto deve essere il luogo del riposo, e 1uindi sarh libera da elementi, colori, attre//i che possano stimolare e 1uindi alterare 1uesta sua fun/ione. Se altre attivith che non siano il dormire avranno altri luoghi per essere reali//ate. *mportantissima la cura del letto, dai materiali alla posi/ione, fino ai suoi 2abiti4@ materassi, cuscini, len/uola e coperte. $osi, sarh nel soggiorno che ci incontreremo e che svolgeremo le attivith che pig ci interessano. Puesto deve essere un luogo studiato per essere adatto all-incontro, ma anche al rela+ e alla solitudine. Poi la cucina, il luogo del fuoco, dove si preparano i cibi che sono il sostentamento del nostro corpo. Pui, f ovvio, particolare atten/ione va data alla salubrith e alla praticith d-uso dell-ambiente, del suo arredo, dei vari impianti e di tutti 1uei piccoli attre//i che sono di uso talmente comune che spesso ci dimentichiamo di osservarne le caratteristiche. S-ac1ua f regina nel bagno, altro luogo di rela+, oltre che di puli/ia. 3 infine la terra, che dh la vita alle piante di casa, del balcone e, se ci sono, del giardino e dell-orto. !nche 1ui si pum progettare 1ualcosa di pig 2vivo4, di pig intimamente nostro, se prestiamo atten/ione e seguiamo un po- l-istinto. Cuali regole Pochi punti fermi ci devono guidare nella reali//a/ione o nella ristruttura/ione della casa@ l-elimina/ione Adove possibileC di cim che pum essere nocivo alla salute, nostra e dell-ambiente, l-uso di sostan/e naturali per pavimenti, mobili e pitture, l-abbandono dei criteri del consumismo e della moda a favore di 1uelli della sobrieth e del proprio gusto. ! 1uesto punto, non si pum dire come sarh il volto della biocasa@ se avrh solo linee rette o angoli smussati, se sarh ricca di colori vivaci o se avrh poche tinte tenui... ! ciascuno spetta la scelta, in sintonia col proprio gusto e con le proprie rea/ioni di fronte agli oggetti, alle forme, ai colori. *l risultato finale sarh una sorta di specchio che ci ritragga al meglio.

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Per guidare ciascuno di noi in 1uesto affascinante lavoro sulla propria casa, abbiamo preparato un dossier che intreccia spunti introspettivi e simbolici con indica/ioni pratiche e tecniche di lavori da reali//are. Bn dossier composto da una parte antologica, che raccoglie una parte del lavoro di tutti 1uesti anni del 8iornale della nat+ra e del suo interesse per la bioarchitettura, e da una parte originale, di aggiornamento e di completamento degli articoli gih usciti. $osi l-architetto Giancarlo !llen, che da sempre cura per noi 1uesti temi, insieme ai suoi colleghi, ha raccolto, rivisto e reali//ato una 2visita guidata4 alla biocasa, stan/a per stan/a, ambiente per ambiente.
(Paola ;i Pietro)7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n.(" dicembre "@@= &

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Gli ambienti

4a cucina naturale
Aa c+cina Y la -abbrica della casa) Y +n l+ogo di prod+Lione in c+i a33iene il processo di tras-ormaLione del cibo che ser3e a rinno3are le energie di chi 3i abita. 7n G+anto l+ogo di prod+Lione) la c+cina contemporanea Y di3entata il l+ogo a pi\ alta tecnologia) e insieme a pi\ alto inG+inamento) della casa. .lettrodomestici di ogni genere e per gli +si pi\ disparati) inseriti in mobili specialiLLatissimi e spesso molto costosi) che trasmettono +nSimmagine asettica) ordinata) igienistica) ma che celano insidie spesso insospettabili) legate ai materiali G+asi sempre sintetici con c+i sono prodotti. Sa peggiore 1ualith dell-aria di tutta la casa si concentra in cucina, per effetto delle esala/ioni di fornelli e caldaie e dei prodotti per la puli/ia. *l pig alto consumo di energia e ac1ua avviene in cucina. Sa pig alta produ/ione di rifiuti avviene ancora in cucina. !ll-interno della casa, la cucina dovrebbe essere invece il luogo pig colorato e profumato, pig vivace e stimolante, perch_ in esso possa avvenire ogni giorno il rito della trasforma/ione di ac1ua, farina, verdure, uova, aromi in cibo, in prodotti sani ma anche gustosi e stimolanti. *n una cucina non si deve respirare l-odore del detersivo o del disinfettante, ma il profumo del pane, l-aroma di salvia, origano, rosmarino, alloro. Se superfici non devono essere 1uelle lisce, ospedaliere e incolori dei laminati plastici alla formaldeide o di certi marmi tombali, ma devono comunicare vita ed energia. ?ella casa ecologica, 1uindi, bando a tutto cim che tende a trasformare la cucina in un laboratorio tecnicamente strutturato, basato sulla logica dell-artificiali//a/ione e della veloci//a/ione del processo di produ/ione del cibo. .ando ai precotti, ai surgelati, ai conservanti, bando agli elettrodomestici superflui, con particolare riguardo a surgelatori e forni a microonde. *n cucina devono entrare le materie prime che la natura ci mette a disposi/ione seguendo il ritmo delle stagioni, fresche o conservate per breve tempo in frigorifero. Pueste materie prime devono essere lavorate con il ritmo e l-energia delle mani e non sconz volte con le velocith vorticose e la violen/a degli elettrodomestici. Sa cucina f il cuore fisico della casa. 6ltre alla prepara/ione dei cibi, in cucina si riuniscono spesso molte altre attivith legate alla condu/ione della casa. Sa cucina, in 1uanto cuore, f un luogo essen/ialmente femminileM le sue mura devono favorire le abilith, l-inventiva, la creativith, lo spirito organi//ativo, il senso buono del risparmio peculiari delle donne. Pueste 1ualith, non necessariamente riservate alla donna, 2angelo del focolare4 secondo stereotipi superati, tornano a essere indispensabili all-interno di un modello di vita pig sano, consapevole e responsabile nei confronti della nostra salute e di 1uella dell-ambiente. Cuali mobiliE ?ella cucina naturale i mobili potranno essere in legno massiccio o in muratura, il trattamento delle superfici sarh a base di prodotti vegetali per verniciare, cerare, rivestire. * piani di lavoro dovranno essere ampi e differen/iati, in legno per tagliare, in marmo per impastare, in ceramica o acciaio per lavare. #ovrh essere previsto, nelle immediate vicinan/e, un luogo fresco e areato per immaga//inare i cibi. *n caso di spa/i ridotti, la dispensa potrh essere reali//ata in contenitori in legno non trattato, ben ventilati. %i dovrh tendere il pig possibile a 2chiudere il cerchio4 del ciclo produttivo del cibo. S-ideale sarebbe poter disporre di un piccolo angolo di giardino o di un terra//o per reali//are un orto che ci consenta di avere alimenti freschi nelle stagioni giuste, ma anche di poter riciclare, per la concima/ione, tutti i residui organici prodotti in cucina. ! 1uesto proposito sarebbe utile disporre di contenitori diversi per la separa/ione dei rifiuti. 7 fornelli 5ondamentale la presen/a del fuoco e dell-ac1ua, che non devono essere sacrificati in piccoli spa/i ma collocati in modo da consentire un lavoro comodo e agevole. Grandi fornelli Aideali 1uelli industrialiC che possano accogliere pig pentole nello stesso momento, sen/a costringerci a inutili e1uilibrismi. Grandi bacini per l-ac1ua, dove poter lavare e risciac1uare le verdure comodamente. *ndispensabile una buona cappa aspirante che espella all-esterno i prodotti della combustione dei fuochi e

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gli odori troppo forti. y sconsigliabile, invece, stivare in cucina i prodotti per la puli/ia, che peraltro dovrebbero essere ridotti al minimo ed essere il pig possibile naturali. !nche in spa/i ristretti si pum reali//are un piccolo forno a legna per la cottura del pane, e un piccolo braciere per la cottura alla piastra o alla griglia. Sa presen/a del fuoco vivo della legna e la possibilith, anche se solo una volta alla settimana, di ripetere il rito della prepara/ione del pane, ridanno alla nostra vita sensa/ioni e ritmi pig giusti e pig umani. Sa cucina naturale, sulla base di cim che si f detto fin 1ui, non pum essere relegata in ambienti di fortuna, ma le deve essere garantito tutto lo spa/io necessario. Sa cucina naturale deve riprendere le sue dimensioni tradi/ionali, tornare a essere perno della casa. Puando lo spa/io f limitato, come succede nella maggior parte delle abita/ioni, f meglio che ci sia un unico grande ambiente per cucina, pran/o e soggiorno che tante piccole stan/e separate. Puesto consentirh che le diverse attivith della casa si possano svolgere in comunith tra tutti i membri della famiglia@ giocare e cucinare, fare i compiti e ascoltare musica. #iaframmi mobili o elementi d-arredo possono, in caso di necessith, isolare parte dell-ambiente o mascherarlo alla vista. !d altri ambienti il compito di garantire la medita/ione, la riflessione, la cura del s f.
(8iancarlo :llen) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n.9 maggio "@@(&

4a camera a letto sana


Aa posiLione del letto) che cosa tenere nella stanLa) che cosa e3itare) i colori pi\ adatti. .cco i consigli del bioarchitetto per +n dolce sonno *l letto f elemento di arredo fondamentale in ogni casa, la cui 1ualith f indissolubilmente legata a 1uella del sonno. )entre dormiamo il nostro fisico e la nostra psiche si rigenerano, ricostruiscono le loro energie. "rascorriamo mediamente a letto, e 1uindi in camera da letto, un ter/o della nostra vita. Puesto tempo f pre/ioso per affrontare nel migliore dei modi 1uegli altri due ter/i fatti di attivith spesso intensa. ?on f 1uindi difficile intuire come a 1uesto luogo si debba prestare un-atten/ione particolare. )olto spesso malesseri persistenti e a volte vere e proprie patologie vengono attribuite a cause inesistenti, intervenendo anche a livello medico, 1uando invece la loro origine pum essere messa in rela/ione con la 1ualith del sonno. %e il luogo in cui si dorme, per le sue caratteristiche, f in grado di impedire un buon sonno, gli effetti sulla 1ualith della vita sono diretti e il nostro corpo diventa pig vulnerabile alle aggressioni della fatica, dello stress e delle malattie. * bambini, gli an/iani e i malati, trascorrendo la maggior parte della giornata a letto, sono sottoposti pig di altri ai rischi di un luogo inadeguato Agli ospedali insegnanoC. Qiste le premesse, la stan/a da letto va considerata come il luogo pig delicato della casa, 1uello da proteggere maggiormente per far si che trasmetta sensa/ioni di calma e distensione e faciliti il riposo e il rilassamento. Qalgono naturalmente, a 1uesto proposito, tutte le indica/ioni date finora per la casa nel suo complesso e per l-impiantistica. Se atten/ioni devono essere accentuate per la camera da letto, a partire dalla scelta della sua posi/ione all-interno dell-abita/ione, che dovrh essere 1uella pig protetta dai rumori interni ed esterni. S-esposi/ione migliore f 1uella a est, per consentire che il sole del mattino possa illuminare la stan/a al risveglio, e far si che il riposo pomeridiano, soprattutto dei bambini, sia protetto dal surriscaldamento provocato dal sole diretto sul lato ovest della casa. S-arredo della camera da letto dovrebbe essere semplice e sobrio, per non dire essen/iale, cosi come la parte impiantistica. $oncentrare in camera da letto fun/ioni diverse da 1uella del sonno f un-abitudine poco salutare. Seggere, ascoltare musica, guardare la televisione sono attivith da svolgere in ambienti diversi. 3sse richiedono infatti un impianto elettrico complesso e sono 1uindi causa di in1uinamento elettromagnetico in grado di disturbare il sonno. !nche per la conserva/ione degli indumenti f opportuno individuare un ambiente apposito, come una stan/a guardaroba o una cabina armadio, per evitare di portare nel luogo del sonno le polveri dell-esterno o il residuo dei prodotti chimici usati nei lavaggi a

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secco. Bn buon letto, materiali naturali, luci soffuse, tende per filtrare la luce naturale@ 1uesto f l-essen/iale. * colori da preferire per le superfici sono 1uelli freddi come il verde e il blu, rilassanti e riposanti. %e il luogo dove la casa sorge f rumoroso si dovrh dedicare molta atten/ione a una buona insonori//a/ione@ doppi vetri, tende pesanti e porte e finestre a tenuta risolvono i problemi meno preoccupanti. Per le situa/ioni pig difficili f necessario intervenire sulle murature con materiali naturali che non ne impediscano la traspira/ione, meglio se posti all-esterno Asughero, fibre di legno, intonaci isolanti a base di calce e cosi viaC. S-ultima verifica, ma non in ordine di importan/a, va fatta per 1uel che riguarda la posi/ione del letto nella camera. Sa tradi/ione suggerisce di preferire una posi/ione che ci consente di tenere la testa verso nord, in 1uesto modo il corpo si orienta nel senso dell-asse terrestre. ! volte perm con 1uesta semplice indica/ione interferiscono disturbi di ordine geologico presenti nel sottosuolo e in grado di s1uilibrare il campo elettromagnetico naturale, creando problemi di stress geopatico a volte anche preoccupanti. S-argomento richiederebbe approfondimenti seri. Bn atteggiamento non superficiale f 1uello di affidarsi al proprio istinto, allenarlo e ascoltarlo pig di 1uanto un ritmo di vita spesso disumano ci consenta di fare. 6gnuno di noi f in grado di valutare la 1ualith del proprio sonno e di riflettere sul suo rapporto con il luogo in cui dorme. %intomi spesso trascurati come difficolth ad addormentarsi, crampi notturni, senso di spossate//a al risveglio, possono indicare che il letto o il luogo in cui f posto sono inadeguati. *n 1uesti casi spesso il problema si risolve spostando il letto in un-altra parte della stan/a o addirittura in un-altra stan/a. *n casi pig complicati f meglio rivolgersi a tecnici 1ualificati.
(8iancarlo :llen 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n."9 maggio "@@=&

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6uon riposoQ
;ormire Y -ondamentale per la sal+te psico-isica) per G+esto Y importante c+rare lSarredamento della camera da letto e t+tti i s+oi accessori Passiamo un ter/o della nostra vita a dormire, e 1uando dormiamo stiamo normalmente fermi in un posto, in un luogo definito, non soggetto in genere a spostamenti nel tempo e nello spa/io. *l tempo dedicato al sonno f indispensabile al nostro vivere. )entre dormiamo il nostro fisico e la nostra psiche si rigenerano, ricostruiscono le loro energie, 1uelle energie indispensabili ad affrontare una giornata di attivith pig o meno intensa. )olto spesso malesseri persistenti e a volte vere e proprie patologie vengono attribuite a cause inesistenti intervenendo anche a livello medico, 1uando la loro origine pum essere invece messa in rela/ione semplicemente con la 1ualith del sonno. * bambini, gli an/iani e i malati, trascorrendo la maggior parte della giornata a letto, sono sottoposti pig di altri ai rischi di un luogo inadeguato Agli ospedali insegnanoC. Qiste le premesse, la stan/a da letto va considerata come il luogo pig delicato della casa, 1uello da proteggere maggiormente per far si che trasmetta sensa/ioni di calma e distensione e faciliti il riposo e il rilassamento. Se atten/ioni per la camera da letto devono essere accentuate, a partire dalla scelta della sua posi/ione all-interno della casa, che dovrh essere 1uella pig protetta dai rumori interni ed esterni. S-esposi/ione migliore f 1uella a est, per consentire che il sole del mattino possa illuminare la stan/a al risveglio, e far si che il riposo pomeridiano, soprattutto dei bambini, sia protetto dal surriscaldamento provocato dal sole diretto sul lato ovest della casa. SilenAio e SobrietP S-arredo della camera da letto dovrebbe essere semplice e sobrio, per non dire essen/iale, cosi come la parte impiantistica. $oncentrare in camera da letto fun/ioni diverse da 1uella del sonno f un-abitudine poco salutare. Per la conserva/ione degli indumenti f opportuno individuare un ambiente apposito, come una stan/a guardaroba o una cabina armadio, per evitare di portare nel luogo del sonno, le polveri dell-esterno o il residuo dei prodotti chimici usati nei lavaggi a secco. Bn buon letto, materiali naturali, luci soffuse, tende per filtrare la luce naturale@ 1uesto f l-essen/iale. * colori da preferire per le superfici sono 1uelli freddi come il verde e il blu, rilassanti e riposanti. %e il luogo dove la casa sorge f rumoroso si dovrh dedicare molta atten/ione a una buona insonori//a/ione@ doppi vetri, tende pesanti e porte e finestre a tenuta risolvono i problemi meno preoccupanti. Per le situa/ioni pig difficili f necessario intervenire sulle murature con materiali naturali che non ne impediscano la traspira/ione, meglio se posti all-esterno Asughero, fibre di legno, intonaci isolanti a base di calce{C. Cuale lettoE S-ultima verifica, ma non in ordine di importan/a, va fatta per 1uel che riguarda la posi/ione del letto nella camera. Sa tradi/ione suggerisce di preferire una posi/ione che ci consenta di tenere la testa verso nord, in 1uesto modo il corpo si orienta nel senso dell-asse terrestre. ! volte perm con 1uesta semplice indica/ione interferiscono disturbi di ordine geologico presenti nel sottosuolo e in grado di s1uilibrare il campo elettromagnetico naturale, creando problemi di stress geopatico a volte anche preoccupanti. Bn buon letto deve essere reali//ato con materiali naturali, meglio se in legno massiccio trattato con cere e vernici naturali. #a escludere ogni parte metallica nella struttura, ma soprattutto nella rete o nel materasso, per il possibile effetto-antenna che il metallo, specie in forma di spirale, come nelle molle dei materassi, pum svolgere nei confronti delle onde elettromagnetiche presenti sempre pig massicciamente nel nostro habitat. *l sommier, e ciof il letto rivestito di tessuto, dovrebbe evidentemente essere reali//ato con tessuti e imbottiture naturali. &eti e materassi 5ondamentale il sostegno che al nostro corpo danno il materasso e la base sottostante. *l mercato offre ormai diverse solu/ioni per reali//are un letto sano@ per 1uanto riguarda il materasso, si pum scegliere 1uella pig legata alle nostre tradi/ioni, ciof l-imbottitura in lana o in crine animale o vegetale dentro un rivestimento in cotone pesante. Puesta solu/ione richiede una manuten/ione periodica, per evitare il compattamento delle fibre nelle parti pig sottoposte a pressione, e per arieggiare le fibre stesse. So stesso vale per il 5uton, il materasso che ci viene dalla tradi/ione giapponese, e che ha una imbottitura

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di cotone an/ich_| di lana. 3sistono poi le solu/ioni pig innovative, che vengono dalla lavora/ione del lattice di gomma o dall-accoppiamento di pig materiali diversi attraverso stratifica/ioni opportunamente studiate, che tendono a permettere un uso differen/iato stagione per stagione del letto, sovrapponendo al lattice di gomma naturale il cotone o la lana in rela/ione all-uso estivo o invernale del materasso. Sa base che regge il materasso f l-altro elemento fondamentale del letto e deve assolvere innan/itutto al compito di garantire un sostegno ottimale alla colonna vertebrale, facendo si che essa mantenga la sua conforma/ione naturale spesso minata dalle posi/ioni scorrette a cui ci costringono gli arredi non studiati ergonomicamente che riempiono scuole, case e luoghi di lavoro. *n estrema sintesi, la colonna vertebrale dovrebbe mantenere durante il sonno una posi/ione diritta 1uando si dorme su un fianco, e a forma di % poco accentuata 1uando si dorme supini. Per ottenere 1uesto risultato f necessario poter contare su una base non troppo rigida Atavola di legnoC, non troppo elastica Amolle o altroC. Se migliori presta/ioni ergonomiche vengono offerte oggi dalle reti reali//ate con doghe in legno di faggio leggermente curvato, montate su un telaio, sempre in legno, attraverso supporti elastici in gomma naturale. !nche in 1uesto caso bisogna fare atten/ione alle parti metalliche, alle vernici e alle colle. E sopra tutto''' *nsieme al materasso e alla base sottostante, completano il letto il cuscino e le coperte. *l cuscino ha la fun/ione di garantire il giusto sostegno al collo, che con la sua struttura anatomica complessa e delicata f spesso fonte di dolori. Per le vertebre cervicali vale 1uindi all-incirca lo stesso discorso fatto per la colonna vertebrale@ esse dovranno essere allineate 1uando si dorme di fianco, e leggermente incurvate 1uando si sta supini. !nche per la coperta la scelta pum essere effettuata tra una solu/ione pig legata alle nostre tradi/ioni e una proveniente, in 1uesto caso, dai Paesi del ?ord 3uropa. Sa coperta di lana o la trapunta, sempre imbottita di lana, abbinata a len/uola di lino o cotone, sono i modi nostrani di vestire il letto. 3ssi consentono piacevoli abbinamenti di colore, danno senso di ordine ed elegan/a, ma richiedono lunghi tempi di prepara/ione. Se fibre utili//ate devono essere rigorosamente naturali e possibilmente non tinte a meno che i colori non siano vegetali. "ra i diversi tipi di lana, indubbiamente la pig adatta al letto f la lana merinos gre//a, calda, traspirante e leggera allo stesso tempo. Bna solu/ione tradi/ionale nei Paesi del ?ord 3uropa f invece 1uella del cosiddetto piumone, ormai largamente utili//ata anche da noi. Bn letto vestito con un piumone ha un-immagine pig informale e pum essere preparato molto pig in fretta. !nche in 1uesto caso, atten/ione alle materie prime@ il piumone deve essere reali//ato con una percentuale la pig alta possibile di piume d-oca o di anatra, e con una bassa percentuale di penne sempre degli stessi animali. *l rivestimento deve essere di cotone, per consentire alle piume di respirare e arieggiarsi. !tten/ione, nei nego/i vengono spesso definiti piumoni dei prodotti reali//ati con imbottiture di fibra sintetica.
(8iancarlo :llen)7l giornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n.(" dicembre "@@=&

7l 6agno
+on solo per la!arsi :deg+are o progettare i 3ari ambienti in modo bioecologico 3+ol dire anche scoprirne t+tti gli +si e i signi-icati *l bagno conven/ionale f un luogo di transito veloce, il pig delle volte angusto e impersonale, rivestito all-inverosimile di piastrelle per essere lavabile, asettico, igienico. ?egli ultimi tempi perm, anche il bagno f diventato oggetto di atten/ione di una logica dei consumi perversa. Qasche idromassaggio energivore e costosissime, piastrelle firmate dagli stilisti dell-alta moda come se fossero abiti da sera, rubinetteria e accessori coordinati. Sa sostan/a perm non cambia, l-edili/ia contemporanea continua a considerare il bagno poco pig che un ripostiglio, sacrificandone gli spa/i in modo esasperato. Puesto a volte f inevitabile in rela/ione alle dimensioni generali dell-alloggio, a volte invece f solo frutto di una consuetudine che sottovaluta il ruolo e le poten/ialith del bagno come ambiente della casa a tutti gli effetti.

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?ell-abita/ione naturale, il bagno f il luogo dell-ac1ua, elemento vitale per eccellen/a, che oltre a lavare rilassa, tonifica, rinvigorisce con un-indubbia a/ione terapeutica. )eglio sarebbe, dun1ue, separare il gabinetto dal bagno vero e proprio, dando a 1uest-ultimo le dimensioni di una stan/a come le altre, ben illuminata, aerata, in stretto rapporto con il verde esterno, giardino o terra//o che sia, tale da far si che il lavarsi torni a essere un piccolo rito domestico. !nche in bagno, 1uindi, essen/ialmente materiali naturali, piastrelle di ceramica o cotto antisdrucciolevole nelle parti pig soggette a essere bagnate, legno per il resto, intonaci traspiranti, colori rilassanti e piante verdi. y fondamentale curare la ventila/ione per controllare l-umidith in eccesso e il 2rischio radon4 Agas radioattivoC, che nei bagni cresce notevolmente. !nche il pavimento richiede un-atten/ione particolare, la temperatura deve essere pig alta, e in 1uesto caso sono ideali i pavimenti o le pareti radianti. Bn-atten/ione particolare va dedicata all-impianto elettrico, che deve essere reali//ato in modo attento, mettendo a terra tutte le parti metalliche e rispettando in modo scrupoloso le normative in vigore, e allontanando comun1ue il pig possibile le apparecchiature elettriche. S-ultima atten/ione va dedicata ai consumi di energia e di ac1ua, che in bagno sono purtroppo elevati. #a 1uesto punto di vista, una doccia consuma meno ac1ua di un bagno, e uno scambiatore pum recuperare il calore delle ac1ue di scarico a nuovo uso. S-ideale sarebbe poi riciclare veramente le ac1ue utili//ate o utili//are ac1ua piovana raccolta e depurata an/ich_ ac1ua potabile, ma in 1uesto caso il percorso tra normative rigide e burocra/ia ottusa diventerebbe arduo. *l riscaldamento dell-ac1ua con pannelli solari o utili//ando il calore prodotto da stufe o concimi f invece oggi relativamente facile e poco costoso, e il risparmio energetico che se ne ottiene f sensibile.
(8iancarlo :llen) 7l 8iornale della nat+ra 7ll+strato n.(" dicembre "@@=&

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Ambienti esterni

Ambienti esterni, ma !italiQ


;al giardino al 3aso s+l da3anLale) le piante e lo spaLio in c+i 3i3ono sono parte della casa
U7o non nacG+i) in3ece mi -ondarono: mi misero t+tti i nomi insieme) t+tti i cognomi: mi chiamai cesp+glio) poi s+sino) larice e poi -r+mento) per G+esto sono tanto e cos_ poco) cos_ moltit+dine e tanto abbandonato) perch` 3engo dal basso) dalla terraV Fa+lo Ger'da Ada 3l mar y las $ampanasC

5orse per compensa/ione o legge naturale, non so, all-aumento costante delle /one e+ naturali ci ritroviamo con un forte incremento del verde privatoM 1uasi insa/iabile fame che si traduce, fin troppe volte, in esperimenti innaturali, preten/iosi e ostentati. !llora, 1uello che non si deve fare, e prendo ottimo spunto dai consigli della )agrini AG. )agrini, 7dee per +n balcone -iorito, )ondadori,C, f@ } il 2bellissimo balcone4 da rivista d-arredamentoM } obbligare le piante a vivere in un ambiente o in un clima inadatto o costringerle in spa/i ristrettiM } dato che il balcone e il giardino nascono e si completano 1uasi su auto-suggerimento, volere invece a tutti i costi creare il cosiddetto effettoM } arredare e costruire il proprio eden per gli altriM 1uello che dovrebbe essere un eserci/io personale... molto intimo, non diventi vetrinab "roppi sognano un grande giardino, pochi lo possiedono, tutti vorrebbero un terra//o, parecchi si accontentano di un piccolo balcone e anche di un davan/ale, e poich_ il misterioso fenomeno biologico che ci spinge a cercar vita rinnovata s-appaga anche dXun pi//ico di semi in un vaso di terracotta, partite comun1ue Ae 1ui comincia lXavventura...C armandovi perm di molta calma, perch_ in un errore ini/iale pum esserci una felicissima conclusioneM chiedete consigli sen/a vergogna, entro certi limiti sbagliando da soli, ma scegliendo sempre una linea, un pensiero molto semplice. Cuattro suggerimenti per il balcone e il terraAAo %e il piccolo spa/io non f una limita/ione, se la produ/ione, la misura e lXe1uilibrio valgono nella fisica come su un terra//o, se la cifra da spendere, le difficolth e la fatica saranno una realth sopportabile, reali//ate 1uesto benedetto angolo verde, costi 1uello che costi, con chiare//a di idee. 1 ?oglio tante piante acRuatiche nella tinoAAaQ ?on f indispensabile disporre di un laghetto o di una vasca grande per poter godere della presen/a di piante ac1uatiche ornamentaliM una vecchia tino//a o una me//a botte davanti alla porta-finestra creeranno un angolo palustre con ?infee, )enta ac1uatica, %agittaria e cosi viaM tutte piante che sembrano fragili, delicate e inconsistenti, ma che sono calme, riposanti, decorative, affascinanti. 2 ?oglio un albero, uno solo, ma un po> i!erso, sul mio piccolo balconeQ Bn albero in vaso sembra 1uasi indispensabile per uno spa/io ridotto, per una golosith impossibile da riempire, per l-orgoglio e la gioia di poter servire in tavola 2frutta del mio balcone4. Per esempio un 5ico robustissimo e che sopporta il caldo, il freddo e la seteM un $otogno, che f pianta di piccole dimensioni ma con una bellissima fiorituraM un $aco dalle sette virtg@ la prima f la lunga vita, la seconda f la grande ombra, la ter/a che non vi sono nidi, la 1uarta che non vi sono tarli, la 1uinta f che puoi divertirti giocando con le sue foglie indurite dal ghiaccio, la sesta f il suo frutto eccellente, la settima che le sue foglie danno un bel fuoco. 6tto piantine di Dibes rosso o nero poi, basteranno a sfamare la famiglia pig

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golosa. 3 ?oglio l>allegria i tanti !asi appesiQ ! parte i vasi fatti da voi Ail bricolage f ormai diventato pig che una moda una necessithC, le vecchie pentole, i sottovasi di terracotta, i cestino di vimini Ae 1ui la fantasia e il buon gusto non hanno freniC, la tenta/ione d-appendere 1ualcosa vi ha toccato spontanea almeno una volta@ eleganti, decorative, spontanee, le piantine ricadenti vi lasceranno anche spa/io per un tavolino in pig o per una comoda sdraio. 1 ?oglio un orto e una farmacia sul mio balconeQ %e il fascino dei profumi, o la golosith d-un cuoco mancato, o la curiosith d-un botanico dilettante vi torturano, in fondo non ci vuol molto a reali//are un raccolto fatto in casa. %e il vostro appartamento dispone soltanto di finestre con un ampio davan/ale o al massimo di un balconcino, limitatevi a erbe aromatiche e insalatine da taglio@ le une e le altre richiedono cassette basse e relativamente poca terra. )a se avete un terra//o di almeno tre metri per 1uattro potrete fare molto di pig@ coltivare ogni tipo d-ortaggio, far crescere in capaci contenitori piante rampicanti, che tra l-altro sono anche sorprendentemente decorative, come /ucche, /ucchine, fagioli, pomodoriM e in scalette ordinate seminare aromi, carote e... primi/ie. E Ruattro suggerimenti per il giar ino ?ei canti lieti del papiro egi/io (arris sta scritto@ U/on per te come +n giardino do3e ho piantato i miei -iori) e ogni sorta di erbe odoroseV. !nticamente per ogni cosa si prendeva la natura come modello, ma c-f stato un lungo periodo in cui la nostra schi//inosa cultura si f distaccata dalla natura e 1uindi dalla sua coscien/a in maniera totale, o 1uasi, e 1uel periodo per alcuni dura ancora. Pi//etti lo chiama il momento della cartolina illustrata. )a se non f pig l-ora della facile comprensione dei moduli esoterici per il vostro piccolo giardino, o per riconoscere istintivamente l-albero capo e l-albero mistico in ogni frutteto, molto si pum ancora fare per capire il significato degli antichi messaggi della natura perch_, come diceva Seopardi@ 2S-uomo che si allontana dalla natura si allontana dalla felicith4. 1 Qoglio il giardino naturab ?el codice ;ella 3agheLLa del giardino sta scritto@ 2Sa natura fa giornalmente comparire dei cambiamenti e la novith dei cambiamenti ha una sua grande attra/ione. S-artista giardiniere cercherh 1uindi anche nelle piante una continua varia/ione... *l contrasto f l-anima del giardino... 6sservate la natura e vi accorgerete che 1uesta si abbandona a una specie di sentita negligen/aM si tormenta a metter ovun1ue ineguaglian/e4. 5ino a poco tempo fa il modo pig comune di trattare l-ambiente naturale domestico voleva l-impiego di coperture erbose intensive, ordinati spa/i di piante annuali e arbusti drasticamente potatiM un giardino naturale sceglie, invece, di essere ancora una specie 1uasi selvatica, spontanea, mentre 1uello che sarh durevole sono solo i materiali permanenti, per esempio i sentieri di sasso o tronco e le pavimenta/ioni morbide di ghiaia. *l giardino diventerh il prodotto di una stretta collabora/ione fra voi e la natura, inserendosi armoniosamente in una precisa situa/ione ambientale. * risultati saranno pig naturali e spontanei, e soprattutto pig... rilassanti. %i dice che 1uando una pianta muore non si deve guardare solo al terreno, alla mancan/a d-ac1ua o ad altri aspetti della vita del giardino ma, come diceva il famoso filosofo )asoero@ 2Guardate l-uomo perch_ f, forse, l-unico involontario responsabile della morte vegetale4. 2 ?oglio uno spaAio riser!ato ai piV piccoliQ * bambini, anche se sono gli abitanti ideali d-un giardino, con gli altri gnomi e le fatine, vengono sempre dimenticati nella progetta/ione di uno spa/io verde. *nvece sono coloro che lo utili//eranno di pigM ricordatevi che avrebbero bisogno di una superficie pavimentata libera da ostacoli per trascinare un giocattolo o la bicicletta, di uno spa/io movimentato per il gioco avventuroso, di un-altalena, di una vasca con la sabbia e di una con l-ac1ua e di una /ona per i pig grandicelli, dove con una piccola aiuola o pochi vasi possono imparare a coltivare e osservare. 3 ?oglio tanti profumi sotto la finestraQ $he cosa c-f di pig sognante che aprire la finestra, nelle calde serate estive, ed essere inondati dai profumi. Bna rosa rampicante coma la Pueen 3lisabeth, una Savanda profumatissima, un Sillh e tanti

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Garofanini vivaci//eranno l-aspetto esterno della vostra casa, e sistemati nella fascia perimetrale ai piedi del muro lasceranno pig spa/io ad altre solu/ioni nella scarsith di spa/io di un piccolo giardino. 1 ?oglio un giar ino sel!atico i graminacee ornamentaliQ #a 1ualche tempo le graminacee ornamentali stanno incontrando sempre maggiori favori presso i progettisti di giardini naturali per la loro facilith di coltiva/ione e l-affidabilith di fioritura. S-erba f la chioma della madre terra. * giardinieri l-hanno sempre considerata solo nella sua condi/ione di prato ben tosato, ma vi sono erbe dal colore del bron/o, verdi-a//urre, a//urrognole, blu acciaio, con bande dorate, con aculeiM erbe che fioriscono a fine inverno, in primavera o in estate o in autunno con una belle//a bi//arra e indimenticabile. Potete farne un giardino, magari leggendovi prima il libro .rbe e 1elci per il giardino A)u//io, PadovaC del pig grande esperto europeo, 8arl 5oerster. #ate comun1ue uno spa/io progettuale anche a loro, ricordandovi che gli antichi nei loro orti-giardino avevano sempre un-aiuola d-ortiche che veniva chiamata il letto degli angeli, e che il nostro maestro giardiniere )asoero diceva nel primo 6ttocento@ 2*l giardiniere ha la fun/ione del buon genitore. 3 tutte le piante sono sue figlie4.
(8io3anna 2o3a) 7l 8iornale della nat+ra 7ll+strato n.(" dicembre "@@=&

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.iante in terrazzo e sul &alcone


Anche sul balcone e sul terrazzo possibile operare in un modo pi vicino alla natura, cercando, dove possibile, di usare qualche specie autoctona, tenuto conto che nel contesto urbano possibile usare anche delle specie esotiche. Infatti qui non c un paesaggio naturale originario da rispettare. importante anche qui non usare prodotti chimici e disporre le piante, compatibilmente con la dimensione dei contenitori e con lo spazio a disposizione, secondo lo schema: arbusti alti, medi, bassi, tappezzanti e ricadenti. iamo un elenco delle specie pi interessanti e facili da coltivare. (A) Piante autoctone (S) Piante che preferiscono unesposizione molto soleggiata. (O) Piante che preferiscono unesposizione di ombra o mezzombra. !e piante senza indicazioni hanno esigenze intermedie. "# Arbusti alti (2/8 metri) $orniolo %Cornus mas# (A), &iancospino %Crataegus monogyna# (A), 'asso %Taxus baccata# (A) (O), Agrifoglio %Ilex aquifolium# (A) (O), Albero di (iuda %Cercis siliquastrum# (A) (S), )aggiociondolo %Laburnum anagyroides# (A), *iracanta %Pyracantha coccinea# (A) (S), +occiolo %Corylus avellana# (A), Laurus nobilis (A) (S) ,# Arbusti medi (1/2 metri) Forsythia, Chaenomeles, Weigela (S), Buddleja (S), -iordangelo %Philadel hus#, $appello del prete %!uonimus euro aeus# (A) (O), !entaggine %"iburnum tinus# (A), !antana %"iburnum lantana# (A), .osa canina %Cotoneaster salicifolia#, (A) (S) /# Arbusti bassi (0.80/1.00) &osso %Buxus sem ervirens# (A), !avanda %Lavandula s ica# (A) (S), *ungitopo %#uscus aculeatus# (A) (O), $ahonia aquifolium, % iraea bumalda, Cotoneaster hori&ontalis 0# Arbusti striscianti o ricadenti 1dera comune %'edera helix# (A) (O), Cotoneaster salicifolia re ena 2# Piante tappezzanti 'y ericum calicinum, Lamium galeobdolon (A) (O), -elce maschio %(ryo teris filix mas# (A) (O) 3# Erbacee perenni ricadenti )lyssum saxatile (S), Cerastium (S), Iberis (S), Thimus (S), *lumbago %Ceratostigma lumbaginoidea# 4# &ulbose e rizomatose permanenti $rocus, +arcisi, )uscari, 5cilla campanulata (O), Iris germanica (S), )ughetti %Convallaria majalis# (A) (O). Nota bene: le altezze delle piante sono indicative perch67, ovviamente, il loro sviluppo dipende dalle dimensioni del contenitore usato. molto importante, per avere buoni risultati, coprire bene tutta la terra e i bordi delle fioriere con piante basse, tappezzanti e ricadenti. "*C*

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7l giar ino al naturale


2ella propria abitaLione si p+] mettere +n tocco di 3erde. 'a Y importante scegliere e disporre bene le piante) per creare +n piccolo ecosistema. Bediamo come Sa superficie del nostro pianeta pum essere suddivisa, come dice l-ecologo statunitense .arry $ommoner, in "ecnosfera, dove prevalgono gli interventi umani, e ciof suolo urbani//ato e verde agricolo, ed 3cosfera, ciof tutti gli altri ambienti dove invece prevalgono i processi e gli e1uilibri naturali. *l dramma f che la tecnosfera si sta letteralmente mangiando l-ecosfera, che si frantuma, si riduce e si nasconde sempre di pig, inseguita dalle attivith dell-uomo. 6rmai nelle /one pig urbani//ate della terra la natura f ridotta a un arcipelago di 2isole4 sempre pig piccole, sempre pig lontane fra loro e sempre pig insidiate. !d esempio, nella pianura padana, ormai 1uasi totalmente occupata dalla tecnosfera sotto forma di edifici, strade, colture cerealicole e pioppeti, le ultime aree a verde naturale si possono riscontrare solo lungo alcuni fiumi e nelle superstiti e sempre pig rare siepi campestri spontanee. Disulta evidente che, soprattutto le aree pig piccole, a causa del loro isolamento, sono ben presto destinate a impoverire la loro varieth biologica fin 1uasi al punto di perderla completamente. $ome rallentare 1uesto processo0 $ome collegare fra loro 1ueste superstiti isole di ecosfera nel mare della tecnosfera che rischia di sommergerle0 Sa via pig sicura, e anche la pig ovvia, consiste nella ricostitu/ione di una fitta maglia di piccoli boschi e siepi campestri e nell-ampia diffusione dell-agricoltura biologica. Parallelamente f importante inventare un modo diverso di costruire il verde urbano, sia pubblico che privato, portandolo pig vicino alle regole della ecosfera, perch_ si comporti da ponte di collegamento fra le aree a verde naturale. "utti ben conoscono lo s1uallore di certi giardini pubblici, o anche privati, /eppi di essen/e esotiche, con molte piante potate o meglio mutilate, 1uasi privi di arbusti, sen/a il pig piccolo specchio d-ac1ua, e con prati spesso spelacchiati, dove oltre a essere rari gli uccelli, sono rare persino le specie di insetti. "utto cim costituisce un inammissibile spreco di ambiente, perch_, allo stato attuale delle cose, anche il minimo lembo di verde deve essere sistemato in modo da poter far rendere al massimo il proprio capitale poten/iale di 2natura4. Hediamo le indica)ioni fondamentali per arri$arci. Fare largo uso i essenAe autoctone che, al di fuori degli ambienti urbani//ati, vanno utili//ate al cento per cento, anche per rispetto del paesaggio originario circostante. *n ambiente urbano, invece, f possibile utili//arle mescolate con criterio alle essen/e esotiche. Se specie autoctone Ao spontaneeC, essendosi evolute in loco in centinaia di migliaia di anni assieme a determinate specie animali e vegetali, sono alla base di innumerevoli catene alimentari, e costituiscono percim una parte fondamentale dell-ecosistema in cui si trovano. .asti pensare alla 5arnia A?+erc+s rob+rC, pianta tipica della pianura padana@ da sola aiuta la vita di ben trecento specie diverse di animali e vegetali. Per l-individua/ione delle specie adatte al proprio ambiente, essendo il loro numero vastissimo, rimandiamo alla lettura di manuali botanici o alla consulta/ione di esperti di associa/ioni naturalistiche. $i limitiamo, a titolo di esempio, a indicare le principali essen/e autoctone adatte alla pianura padana@ %alice bianco, Pioppo bianco, 5arnia, $arpino bianco, 6ntano nero, $iliegio a grappolo APr+n+s pad+sC, !cero campestre, .iancospino, Dosa canina, Sigustro selvatico, %ambuco nero, 3dera.

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Disporre le piante come in natura )entre il giardino si presenta piuttosto 2vuoto4 Avedi fig. !C, il giardino naturale risulta molto pig pieno di vegeta/ione Avedi fig. .C perch_ vengono occupati con piante tutti gli spa/i di sottobosco che altrimenti resterebbero inutili//ati. %i tratta di copiare la natura@ nelle siepi e nei boschi non governati dall-uomo la vegeta/ione si dispone su diversi piani, alberi, arbusti medi e bassi, erbe e piante striscianti. Dipetendo 1uesto schema avremo molta flora e fauna in pig, in un giardino molto pig gradevole e ricco di vita.

Potare e falciare il meno possibile: lasciare tutti i rami bassi ad alberi e arbusti, che manterranno percim un aspetto molto pig naturale e ospiteranno pig facilmente gli uccelli. Dinunciare a volere tutto il prato come una mo1uette verde. Sasciandolo crescere liberamente almeno in alcuni punti meno fre1uentati si riempirh delle cosiddette 2erbacce4 Ail cui numero andrh controllato manualmenteC, ma anche di fiori selvatici che attireranno api, bombi e farfalle.

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"reare uno specchio >acRua S-ac1ua f un elemento fondamentale per ricreare certi ambienti sempre pig rari in natura e per dare un aspetto pig completo al giardino che si vuole sia naturale. y sicuramente un grosso piacere sentire gracidare 1ualche rana, vedere gli uccelli che si posano a bere in un-estate siccitosa, o scorgere un pesciolino che cattura una /an/ara che si f posata sull-ac1ua. y possibile inserire un piccolo stagno anche in un giardino piccolissimo@ nel mio giardino di N< m1 ho inserito una vasca di neanche 2 m1. Sa cosa pig importante f sistemarlo in un punto soleggiato e lontano dagli alberi Aevitare che le foglie, cadano in ac1ua dove marciscono e 2in1uinano organicamente4, creando eutrofi//a/ioneC. %i possono usare vasche prefabbricate in fibra di vetro oppure, per specchi d-ac1ua maggiori di 3 m1, teli impermeabili di Pvc. y fondamentale, per creare un ecosistema ac1uatico autonomo, introdurre le piante sommerse ossigenanti Aad esempio 3lodea, )illefoglieC, per depurare e ossigenare l-ac1ua mantenendola limpida. Per eliminare completamente le larve ac1uatiche di /an/ara f ecce/ionale il pesciolino del genere 8amb+sia. Sa manuten/ione di un piccolo stagno f molto pig facile di 1uel che si creda@ occorre aggiungere ogni tanto in estate dell-ac1ua per compensare l-evapora/ione, e allontanare in autunno-inverno le parti vegetali morte, per evitare che marciscano in ac1ua A2in1uinandola4 organicamenteC. Se piante pig facili da coltivare in ac1ua sono le ?infee, le "ife, le *ris d-ac1ua e il Giunco fiorito AN+tom+s +mbellat+sCM basta piantarle in vasi da immergere ad almeno 2< cm di profondith per le ?infee, e ad almeno < cm per le altre specie. 7nstallare ni i artificiali e mangiatoie per gli uccelli *l sistema migliore per attirare l-avifauna f offrire a essa vitto e alloggio. %e sono stati piantati arbusti con bacche e frutti selvatici in buona varieth, si vedranno sempre pig spesso uccelli vari intenti a nutrirsene Asoprattutto merliC ma, dato che 1ueste piccole aree a verde naturale hanno anche una fun/ione di supporto per l-avifauna che abita la tecnosfera circostante, c-f il rischio che le bacche si esauriscano gih in pieno inverno, 1uando gli uccelli necessitano maggiormente di cibo. *n tardo autunno f bene allora installare delle mangiatoie Ain vendita presso le associa/ioni prote/ionisticheC in un punto tran1uillo del giardino ben visibile da casaM basta mettere un po- di burro e di semi di girasole non sgusciati@ la prima a venire sarh la cinciallegra, che farh sentire ogni tanto il suo canto fino a primavera. Poi, se il posto f tran1uillo, potranno arrivare anche altre specie Acome il verdoneC. ?ei punti pig appartati del giardino f bene installare sugli alberi alcuni nidi artificiali@ anche 1ui la prima ad arrivare sarh la cinciallegra che, come tutti gli altri uccelli, trova in natura sempre meno luoghi adatti a nidificare. +on usare pro otti chimici *n un-area a verde che si vuol far diventare naturale occorre mettere al bando ogni tipo di sostan/a chimica, che sia concime, diserbante o antiparassitario. $ostruendo un ambiente sano si riformeranno vecchi e1uilibri naturali e torneranno anche i predatori a controllare gli insetti nocivi@ ad esempio, gli afidi saranno mangiati sia dalle ben note coccinelle che dalla cinciallegra, la 1uale caccerh anche certi bruchi molto dannosi agli alberi, come la 7phantrya americana A2gatta pelosa4C. Bn terreno sano e naturale, ricco di humus, di microflora e di microfauna aiuterh anche a nutrire meglio le piante e a renderle pig resistenti alle malattie e ai parassiti. %e poi ci si accorge che una pianta continua a rimanere sempre gracile e malaticcia f bene non insistereM vuol dire che 1uell-ambiente non f il suo e va sostituita con un-altra specie. Per rendere il terreno sempre pig sano e ricco di vita, f importante accumulare le foglie secche assieme ad altri resti vegetali sotto alla chioma di alberi e arbusti. *n un area privata f possibile aggiungere anche i resti vegetali della tavolaM in tal caso f meglio prima trasformarli dentro le apposite concimaie che si trovano in commercio.

2F2 5i'liogra"ia3 0enaroli) &li alberi d'$talia) E$. Giunti&.artello@ A.A.!.!.) Alberi e arbusti in $talia) Sele5ione $al Rea$erHs 'igest@ Reinhar$ ,itt) (es)u*li e arbusti sel"atici) .u55io e$.@ !iolet Ste enson) $l *iardino naturale) #entro (otanico& .ilano@ Alessan$ro #hiusoli) $l *iardino nella natura) E$agricole@ +o ta*no) "ouring #lub *taliano@ An$re/ (ooth& .oores) (ostruire ,ontane! la*-etti e s)ecc-i d'acqua) E$agricole@ ,/f *talia) +a sie)e@ ,/f S i55era) Pan$a Giugno \C;) &iardino naturale (BincenLo Kaminada) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n.= marLo "@@(&

"onsigli utili:
+ei giar ini in campagna !anno usate specie !egetali tipiche el luogo, che richiamano farfalle e uccelli insetti!ori #per esempio la farnia aiuta la !ita i trecento specie i animali e !egetali$ Sistemate il giar ino Fcopian oG la natura: alberi non potati, arbusti, erbe, !icini fra loro, ren ono il giar ino !ario e piace!ole Tagliate il meno possibile l>erba: arri!eranno anche fiori spontanei' 4e FerbacceG potrete toglierle manualmente, facen o anche ell>ottimo eserciAio fisico' "reate un piccolo specchio >acRua, con piane ossigenanti: la manutenAione X poca #togliere le foglie, che !i marcirebbero$, molta la so isfaAione nel !e erlo pieno i !ita'

Ambienti $i la oro8

8n ufficio al naturale
/i p+] 3i3ere UecologicamenteV anche in +--icio? Bediamo insieme alc+ni piccoli accorgimenti Parlare di 2ufficio ecologico4 pum sembrare piuttosto utopisticoM primo fra tutti il problema del mettersi d-accordo, all-interno dell-ufficio, per intraprendere misure che coinvolgano un po- tutti Acome ad esempio la raccolta della carta da destinare al riciclaggioC o che implicano un seppur minimo investimento in denaro Acome sostituire i 2bianchetti4 tradi/ionali con 1uelli atossiciC. $hissh perm che non si possa dare il 2buon esempio4 ini/iando ad adottare nel proprio piccolo 1ualche misura 2verde4, sperando 1uindi di coinvolgere colleghi e vicini di scrivania. 3ccovi alcune indica/ioni pratiche su come tutelare la propria salute e rispettare l-ambiente durante il lavoro in ufficio. 4a carta :egola n'mero 1: 'sate carta riciclata@ y la cosa pig importante, in 1uanto, per la legge della domanda e dell-offerta, la raccolta differen/iata pum avere successo solo se f bilanciata da una sufficiente richiesta sul mercato di carta riciclata. 3siste anche dell-ottima carta riciclata da fotocopieM accertatevi perm che la vostra fotocopiatrice sia adatta a usarla Atutti i modelli pig recenti dovrebbero esserloC. 6ttimi anche i mod'li contin'i da stampante in carta riciclata. 6imitate al massimo il cons'mo di carta facendo fotocopie e stampe fronte-retro. 7nformate$i presso l-a/ienda che si occupa della raccolta dei rifiuti nella vostra citth, e accordatevi con loro perch_ passino a raccogliere la carta periodicamente. ;rgani))ate$i con i colleghi per la raccolta differen)iata@ esistono dei comodi e simpatici bidoni di cartone Aprodotti dal 995C che, una volta riempiti, vengono raccolti cosi come sono, sen/a dover travasare la carta dai cestini in scatoloni o simili. !tten/ione@ al momento di ac1uistare la carta riciclata, accertatevi che sia del tipo ecologico, ovvero non sbiancata con cloro. ?el caso non sappiate dove ac1uistarla, telefonate alla pig vicina sede del 995, della Sega !mbiente o di

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altre associa/ioni ambientaliste@ dovrebbero essere in grado di indicarvi il nome di 1ualche rivenditore. Penne, e!i enAiatori, correttori''' >sate e$iden)iatori a matita@ sono fatti di legno non trattato, e la mina f composta di sostan/e assolutamente atossiche. %i temperano come una normale matita, e durano il doppio o il triplo dei comuni eviden/iatori in plastica pur costando meno. ! differen/a degli eviden/iatori tradi/ionali non contengono solventi o altre sostan/e tossiche. E$itate di 'sare le penne a sfera Ale cosiddette 2biro4C@ sostituitele 1uando possibile con comuni matite a mina morbida. Puando sia indispensabile scrivere a penna, 'sate stilografiche ricarica+ili, meglio se a stantuffo, che sono anche pig eleganti e piacevoli da usare delle antiestetiche biro. >sate colle li%'ide atossiche, tipo gomma arabica oppure colle 2autarchiche4 a base di ac1ua e /ucchero o di amido. 7 migliori correttori sono %'elli a foglietto@ 1ualora sia indispensabile un correttore li1uido, sceglietelo ecologico, ovvero privo di solventi e atossico. !sciuga pig lentamente, ma f importante ricordare che i comuni correttori li1uidi asciugano cosi in fretta proprio perch_ sono un concentrato di solventi altamente tossici. Arre amento 7 mo+ili in legno massello sono preferibili@ a differen/a di 1uelli in compensato o truciolato, non emettono vapori di formaldeide Atossica e cancerogenaC. 6a mo%'ette andre++e e$itata, in 1uanto raccoglie e trasmette troppa elettricith staticaM inoltre f il ricettacolo ideale per la polvere e per i minuscoli insetti che ci vivono Aacari della polvereC, che sono spesso causa di affe/ioni di tipo asmatico. Go al condi)ionatore@ crea vortici che sollevano la polvere, con grave danno per le vie respiratorie Airrita/ioni, asma...C@ inoltre lo sbal/o di temperatura interno-esterno favorisce raffreddori e influen/e. 7l computer Procuratevi prima di tutto degli occhiali con lenti riposanti antiri-lesso@ cercate di usare il computer per periodi non troppo lunghi Ame//-oraC intervallati da brevi periodi di riposo A;- < minutiC@ 1uesta non f una 2perdita di tempo4, an/i migliora l-atten/ione e consente di essere pig efficienti e 2produttivi4.
(1rancesca 'arotta) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n."( -ebbraio "@@=&

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Architettura e colore

4a FscomparsaG el colore
2el mondo att+ale si assiste a +n c+rioso -enomeno: lSappiattimento nellS+so del colore) che) sia nellSarchitett+ra che nella moda) ci ha regalato +na dimensione -redda dellSesistenLa. /e ci g+ardiamo intorno) ecco che ci circondano costr+Lioni grigie) biancastre o terree) e 3oli di -antasia nellSabbigliamento G+ali il nero) il grigio e il marrone) con lSabomine3ole tendenLa a nascondere la sporciLia (pol3ere) smog& con colori che sono sporchi loro stessi. ?ell-arredamento il bianco e nero dominano ancora, malgrado le ultime tenden/e della moda. Per contro, in contrasto con il desiderio di sobrieth, urla un mai assente rosso paona//o. $osa ne f successo di tutti gli altri colori0 $he cosa ci ha portato a dimenticare che esistono splendide sfumature, fantasmagorici abbinamenti, accostamenti delicati e, all-opposto, vibranti e intensi0 %e pensiamo che ben l-F<= delle nostre informa/ioni sensoriali sono di natura visiva, e che il colore agisce sulla parte meno critica della nostra psiche, capiremo che esso f un fattore di primaria importan/a che condi/iona il nostro umore pig di 1uanto non crediamo. #i 1uesta grande influen/a si sono perm ben accorti i pubblicitari, i 1uali da sempre usano i colori 2furbescamente4 e scientificamente per indurci ad ac1uistare i vari prodotti. !lla visione partecipa tutto il corpo, come ben sanno gli esperti di cromoterapia@ alla trasforma/ione che subiscono le cellule retiniche durante la visione, corrispondono processi simili nei vari organi, ad esempio nel fegato vengono prodotti alcuni en/imi e vitamina !, i 1uali permettono la ripeti/ione del processo visivo fornendo ai fotoricettori nuovo pigmento. S-occhio f collegato all-ipotalamo, 1uella parte del cervello che controlla l-ipofisi, una ghiandola che produce ormoniM inoltre 1uesta parte del cervello controlla varie fun/ioni vitali, come l-appetito, la veglia e il sonno, la paura, l-ira, le pulsioni sessuali. 6gni colore scatena in noi significati, ricordi, sensa/ioni, e fun/ioni diversi, strettamente legati alla nostra vita di tutti i giorni e al sano fun/ionamento della nostra psiche e, 1uindi, del nostro corpo. *l colore diviene, come la musica, il linguaggio che esprime i nostri sentimenti, al punto che si pum dire che 2i colori sono sentimenti visuali//ati4. )a oggi releghiamo il mondo dei colori al mondo artistico, a 1uei pochi eletti, che consideriamo anche un po- 2fuori di testa4, fuori dalla realth. !bbiamo una conce/ione della realth molto pratica, noi 2non abbiamo tempo per pensare a certe cose4, dobbiamo lavorare, guadagnare, consumare e gettar via, il tutto molto in fretta. $osa importa se la nostra casa f grigiastra, cosa importa se ci vestiamo solo di marrone, tanto in casa ci viviamo cosi poco, il vestito ci deve solo coprire e nascondere in me//o a una folla nella 1uale non vogliamo certo spiccare. Sa scelta di colori 2sobri4 come il grigio e il marrone, pare sia dettata da 1ueste ragioni 2pratiche4, ma se guardiamo pig nel profondo, non denota soltanto una mancan/a di fantasia, un desiderio di scrollarsi di dosso il peso di una 2scelta4 e di un ragionamento, e 1uindi pigri/ia mentale. !ltro colore molto usato, soprattutto negli interni, f il bianco che rappresenta la neutralith@ anche 1ui non vogliamo fare scelte, 2il bianco va bene su tutto4. )a il significato positivo del bianco, la luce, ha un suo opposto negativo@ vogliamo dimenticarci che abbiamo bisogno anche degli altri colori, pig emotivi, che ci accompagnano nel mondo delle sensa/ioni, dei sentimenti, dei simboli che toccano le corde pig profonde del nostro essere. *l nuovo idealismo, l-ecologia, ci ha riavvicinato alla natura, almeno teoricamente, ma non deve fermarsi a un saggio uso delle risorse, alle tecnologie di riciclo, allXimpiego di materiali naturali, non tossici@ lXecologia deve essere anche 2mentale4, 1uindi anche le forme e i colori che scegliamo, e che ci circondano ogni giorno devono essere di nuovo armoniosi, e1uilibrati, per ridarci 1uella gioia di vivere che lentamente le abitudini imposteci dalla vita moderna, dalle mode, e dallXarchitettura tecnologica e ra/ionale, ci hanno rubato. Gli antichi significati ei colori Proviamo ad addentrarci nei veri significati, i pig profondi, dei colori. ?ellXantichith il colore veniva usato molto, in 1uanto aveva un suo codice e un suo simbolismo stabilito e

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diverso a secondo del tipo di societh, indicava caste sociali, miti religiosi. Gli antichi templi 3gi/iani e Greci, )esopotamici solo per citare le societh a noi pig vicine, erano colorati in ogni loro parte, come testimoniano i ritrovamenti archeologici, e non incolori, come credevano i neoclassici, che esaltavano la diafana bianche//a dei marmi Greci, e a 1uesta illusione si ispiravano per le loro architetture. ?el periodo illuminista gli antichi significati dei colori vennero rifiutati, cancellati. ?el nome della scien/a anche i loro poteri 2magici4 venero negati. 6ggi i colori hanno per noi significati simbolici semplificati e impoveriti, certi ed evidenti, indotti dai me//i di comunica/ione. SXuomo primitivo se ne serviva per scopi rituali, le antiche pitture rupestri sono colorate, pare che i nostri antichissimi progenitori si dipingessero il corpo per impossessarsi dei poteri dei colori. Dicerche antropologiche svolte da .erlin e 8ay su ben GF lingue, hanno eviden/iato che nella terminologia pig antica ed elementare vi erano nomi solo per lXoscurith e la luce, 1uindi per il bianco e il nero. .ianco e nero intesi come giorno, momento dellXattivith, e notte, momento del riposo, dellXinattivith, in cui lXuomo preistorico cercava rifugio dai pericoli da cui non poteva difendersi, perch_ non poteva vedere. Sa vista f stato da sempre per lXuomo il senso pig importante, infatti lXolfatto e lXudito sono poco sviluppati, a differen/a degli animali. Per 1uesto la notte, il buio, e 1uindi il nero hanno avuto da sempre significati terrificanti, angoscianti, e alle dee notturne sono stati sempre attribuite poten/ialith ambigue, poteri benefici e malefici. *l ter/o colore che compare in 1ueste lingue f il rosso, accompagnato dal suo complementare, il verde. Puesti due colori rappresentano le due fonti principali di sostentamento@ il rosso rappresenta la caccia Ail coraggio del cacciatore, il sangue degli animali uccisiC, il verde la raccolta dei vegetali, a cui si sostitui la pratica agricola, che segue il fluire delle stagioni ed f 1uindi unXattivith pig 2contemplativa4, calma, ritmata, 2tran1uilla4 come il verde. Qennero poi coniati gradatamente gli altri termini. Per lXuomo preistorico, il giallo era la luce rassicurante del sole, che divenne poi in tutte le religioni il dio pig importante. *l giallo oro f il sole, f il re, f il padre. *l blu della notte, derivata dal buio nero, ma sen/a connota/ioni terrificanti, f il cielo, il regno dove abitano gli dei e le anime dei defunti, f lXinfinito, ma anche la dea-madre, che pum generare allXinfinito. Sa magia si rifh ancora oggi ai tre colori primevi, il nero, il bianco, il rosso, i colori pig potenti. SXaspetto pig puro del potere dei colori era rappresentato dalle pietre pre/iose, con esse venivano fabbricati talismani, si riteneva che le gemme fossero luce materiali//ata. a ogni pianeta era abbinato un colore, e lXastrologia era diffusa e considerata. *n 3gitto il colore aveva un significato assai profondo, infatti rappresentava lXessen/a delle cose, e non lXaspetto, tanto f vero che la parola usata significava anche 2essere4. #allXepoca minoica al tardo ellenismo, ogni suppellettile, abita/ione, abito, tempio nave erano coloratissimi, anche le sculture erano stuccate e colorate a imita/ione del corpo umano. #isegni floreali, uccelli, figure umane, stelle, animali vari, erano raffigurati sulle pareti delle abita/ioni in grande profusione. Ditrovamenti 5enici, 3truschi, Domani testimoniano della varieth e raffinate//a di 1ueste decora/ioni. )entre nel )editerraneo venivano usati colori assai vivi, nellX*nghilterra romani//ata si trovano colori pig sobri@ il clima ha sempre influen/ato il gusto delle popola/ioni. * colori rappresentavano le for/e della natura, e si ammantavano delle stesse virtg. 3rano considerati un anello di congiun/ione tra la terra e il cielo, tra gli #ei e gli uomini, e lXarcobaleno Ail messaggero degli dei K angelosC era il simbolo del patto di allean/a che gli #ei stringevano con lXumanith, dopo lXinfuriare degli elementi@ era la dea *ris Ail suo nome significa 2giuramento degli dei4C, nata dallXondina 3lettra Acolore - elettricithC. Puesto era il significato dellXarcobaleno per i Greci, mentre per i ?ormanni era il ponte che portava gli eroi caduti in guerra nel Qalhalla, e in Groenlandia era lXorlo del mantello di #io. 6ggi per noi lXarcobaleno f rappresentato dalla scomposi/ione della luce in sette colori reali//ata da ?ewton, ma 1uesta f unXaltra storia...
(7sabella >omanello) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra n.@% settembre "@@%&

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* materiali

9a o!e tro!o i mattoni ecologiciE


Uno dei maggiori problemi per chi 3+ole seg+ire i canoni della bioarchitett+ra: la reperibilitX dei materiali Per affrontare il problema dei materiali necessari alla reali//a/ione di edifici o interventi di ristruttura/ione o di manuten/ione ordinaria e straordinaria in chiave bioecologica, bisogna, nellXattuale situa/ione in *talia, decidere 1uanto si f disposti a pagare per la propria coeren/a ambientalista. * materiali scelti devono rispondere a certe esigen/e@ evitare nocivith durante il ciclo produttivo e la tossiz cith durante lXuso da parte dellXutente finaleM inoltre, devono essere biodegradabili nella fase di smaltimento dei rifiuti. ?on solo, ma i materiali devono essere reperibili il pig possibile in locoM deve essere possibile rinnovare le risorse da cui vengono prelevatiM le scorte disponibili non devono essere rareM infine, ma non meno importante, va fatta unXaccurata valuta/ione dei costi energetici necessari a effettuare il trasporto. Sa 1ualith, 1uindi, pum essere valutata da chiun1ue anche intuitivamente durante la scelta, pensando alla 1uantith di energia immessa nella fase di costru/ione o in 1uella di trasforma/ione di un edificioM 1uanto costa, 1uindi, in termini energetici, estrarli, lavorarli, trasportarli, produrli, utili//arli e smaltirli. ?on bisogna infatti mai dimenticare che la societh ecologica f una societh lenta, tenden/ialmente sempre pig lenta. y necessario 1uindi prestare atten/ione a non farsi ingannare dai d_pliant multicolori che forniscono indica/ioni sui materiali secondo logiche dettate solo dal profitto. 7n 7talia la bioarchitettura X in ritar o''' *n alcuni Paesi europei cXf richiesta di una nuova 1ualith dello sviluppo@ in 1uesti ultimi decenni anche i settori industriali hanno gih operato una riconversione produttiva e ri1ualificato le loro gamme merceologiche secondo i criteri della cosiddetta 2Pualith Globale4. *n *talia le cose stanno in ben altro modo. SXimprenditoria illuminata f assente, la richiesta di progetta/ione in chiave bioecologica o ambientalmente responsabile bassissima, lXuten/a disorgani//ata. Sa 1uestione dei materiali va 1uindi in1uadrata allXinterno di 1uesta situa/ione. !l di lh di alcuni piccoli gruppi, che cercano di autorgani//arsi, il mondo della produ/ione, in generale, sembra ignorare la Pualith Globale, il come e il che cosa produrre pig che il 1uanto produrre, la 1ualith ecologica, in altre parole, sia del processo produttivo che dei singoli prodotti necessari alle costru/ioni. Qengono inoltre ignorati i desideri del consumatore, che non f considerato come interlocutore principale delle strategie a/iendali, anche se bisogna ammettere che nel richiedere prodotti 2puliti4 lXutente si esprime spesso in forma disordinata. Se industrie che producono componenti per lXedili/ia e per lXarredamento tendono 1uindi a nascondere, come avviene per lXagricoltura biologica, i limiti e le mancan/e dei propri prodotti. $osi facendo si finisce per favorire le a/iende straniere, che infatti stanno gih predisponendo le strategie di penetra/ione sul nostro mercato. ?ellX*talia settentrionale si incontrano infatti sempre pig spesso autoveicoli carichi di mattoni che arrivano dai Paesi con i 1uali confiniamo a nord. !nche nei punti vendita delle grandi citth che si occupano di bricolage f sempre pig facile trovare prodotti per il 2fai da te4 ecologico, che sono importati. !ncora poco impegnato f il settore dellXedili/ia, anche se f 1uotidianamente accusato dalla stampa per gli alti livelli di in1uinamento indoor, dovuto ai prodotti molto spesso derivati dal settore petrolchimico Acirca il H< per centoC. Puesto in1uinamento incide per di pig moltissimo sui costi che tutti dobbiamo pagare per la salute pubblica. #iversamente accade in %vi//era, !ustria, Germania, dove lo stesso settore f gih da anni in grado di fornire prodotti di reale 1ualith ecologica. *l problema f molto grave anche perch_, secondo una ricerca promossa dallX6rgani//a/ione )ondiale della %anith, solo il cin1ue per cento dei prodotti usati in edili/ia risulta innocuo.

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*n 1uesto 1uadro lX!?!., lX!ssocia/ione ?a/ionale per lX!rchitettura .ioecologica, cerca di sviluppare programmi di ricerca e promo/ione sui materiali e lXapplica/ione esemplare di nuovi prodotti con a/iende che lo ritengano strategico per il proprio sviluppo. ''' eppure Rualcosa si muo!e )a tornando ai problemi del rapporto con lXuten/a, che necessita di informa/ioni sul come, sul che cosa, su dove comprare materiali idonei agli interventi in bioedili/ia, lX!?!. sta cercando di organi//are un servi/io di informa/ione per i soci secondo una distribu/ione geografica delle proprie rappresentan/e sul territorio na/ionale. Qa detto che f comun1ue molto difficile, da parte dellXassocia/ione, fornire informa/ioni di base, anche perch_ risulta impossibile garantire nel tempo la conformith degli stessi alla bioedili/ia, non avendo a disposi/ione da parte dei produttori la 2biografia4 completa dei prodotti. $i sono comun1ue, al di lh di alcuni importatori locali//ati in *talia settentrionale, alcuni soggetti su cui si pum fare affidamento, in linea di massima. %ono i produttori che lavorano con metodi artigianali, sopravvissuti al processo di industriali//a/ione for/ata avvenuta negli ultimi >< anni nellXedili/ia. $i sono poi alcune industrie che, al di lh dei propri orientamenti filosofici, annoverano, tra le loro gamme, prodotti semilavorati o finiti, commercialmente interessanti per gli scopi che ci prefissiamo. $Xf inoltre da un poX di tempo anche un altro settore che si sta organi//ando sul mercato@ 1uello del recupero di vecchi componenti dellXedili/ia Acoppi, mattoni, travi in legnoC, a cui ci si pum rivolgere, specialmente per i lavori di manuten/ione ordinaria e straordinaria. $omun1ue, f necessario, a chi vuole concretamente intervenire in chiave bioecologica, avere a disposi/ione oltre ai materiali anche gli artigiani che conoscano come applicarli o usarli opportunamente. $ome ugualmente credo sia necessario rivolgersi a dei tecnici responsabili che siano in grado di guidare lXutente attraverso 1uesto percorso non facile, a partire dallXorgani//a/ione del progetto e dalla gestione delle maestran/e nel cantiere, per giungere serenamente alla reali//a/ione del proprio desiderio ecologico@ abitare in maniera sana.
(/e3erpaolo 5agliasacchi) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n.# settembre "@@(&

Cuesto X legno, iffi ate alle imitaAioni


Per de-inire UecologiciV i mobili di casa essi de3ono a3ere alc+ni reG+isiti di base. Bediamo G+ali) dallFesperienLa di +n artigiano che opera +tiliLLando materiali ecocompatibili Sa prima esigen/a che spinge verso i mobili ecologici f la salute di chi li produce e di chi poi li mette in casa propria. *l contatto 1uotidiano con i materiali e le sostan/e tossiche usate mette a grave rischio la salute dei lavoratori del settore, soprattutto nel lungo periodo. 3ssi presentano sempre pig spesso fenomeni di sensibili//a/ione a varie sostan/e chimiche, soprattutto i solventiM sono sintomi della satura/ione dei sistemi immunitari delle persone. SXimpiego di materiali esenti da sostan/e tossiche e nocive rende meno pericolosi, 1uindi, gli ambienti di lavoro e 1uelli domestici, gih gravati da mille altri fattori di microin1uinamento. y importantissima anche la scelta del legno, che non deve essere trattato con antiparassitari, deve provenire da coltiva/ioni arboree na/ionali o europee A5rancia, e+-JugoslaviaC e in ogni caso non dalle foreste pluviali tropicali A!frica, %ud !merica, %ud 3st asiaticoC, per non incrementare il disboscamento 1uasi sempre indiscriminato. ?ormalmente invece viene usato il truciolare Avedi bo+C. Per comprendere meglio il rapporto 1ualith-pre//o, basti dire che il truciolare nobilitato, la solu/ione pig usata nella produ/ione industriale di arredamenti, costa per metro 1uadro dieci volte meno dellXe1uivalente in lamellare di faggio. 7l legno giusto Se essen/e adatte alla produ/ione di mobili sono diverse.

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Se resinose AconifereC comprendono abete, pino di %ve/ia e di $arelia, larice, pino cembro AcirmoloC. %ono legni teneri, molto profumati, usati soprattutto nel ?ord 3uropa e nelle valli alpine. %ono poco adatti per arredamenti di citth perch_ creano, se nodosi, uno stucchevole effetto 2baita di montagna4. %ono da preferire le lati-oglie Afaggio, acero, 1uercia, frassino, noceC perch_ i loro legni sono pig resistenti e durevoli. *l faggio e il noce sono i due estremi da prendere in considera/ione@ il faggio crudo di colore chiaro e 1uello evaporato di colore bruno-rosato hanno un legno decisamente robusto, di aspetto sempre piacevole e dal costo pig basso. *l noce na/ionale f da sempre il legno pig usato per mobili pregiati, data lXalta 1ualith e la belle//a delle sue venature. ! causa del costo pig elevato si pum usare per mobili di piccole dimensioni ma pregevoli. !nche gli alberi da -r+tto sono una categoria di essen/e utili per i mobili@ melo, ciliegio e pero. *l pig usato dei tre f il ciliegio, perch_ se ne ricava legname di maggiori dimensioni. *l legno di pero selvatico, di colore rosato, dalla tessitura finissima, f bellissimo ma difficile da trovare, e ha dimensioni ridotte. 7l massello *l legno da lavora/ione massiccio o massello, in tavole, accanto ai pregi ha notevoli problemi di lavora/ione@ lunga stagionatura ed essicca/ione, notevole scarto di materiale dovuto a fessura/ioni, imbarcamenti Aavvitamento della tavolaC, marciume e nodi non utili//abili. Per rendere pig sicuro lXassemblaggio dei mobili f necessario ridurre al minimo la larghe//a delle tavole incollate. "utto cim rende il legno massello molto costoso e poco affidabile per la costru/ione di mobili di grandi dimensioni come gli armadi. Qiene in aiuto per risolvere tutti 1uesti problemi il legno massello lamellare. Puesto nasce come recupero di scarti di lavora/ione, utili//ando listelli di piccole dimensioni che vengono poi assemblati con incastri a pettine e colle non tossiche. %e ne ricavano pannelli di grande formato, di notevole robuste//a e affidabilith, con i 1uali f possibile costruire mobili di ogni dimensione, dagli armadi alle librerie, dalle cucine agli arredamenti per nego/i. ?ella reali//a/ione di mobili sani ed ecocompatibili, a 1ueste indubbie 1ualith del legno va abbinato un 2disegno essen/iale4 che, mirando alla fun/ionalith dellXoggetto, esprima 1ualith estetiche non superficiali, fruibili nel tempo. 31uilibrio non facile da raggiungere, ma ugualmente da perseguire. *nsomma, i mobili in legno vero, con prodotti non tossici, vernici e cere biologiche, costano di pig anche perch_ non possono essere fatti che da artigiani. #-altro canto, la produ/ione ecologica, che f personali//ata e su misura, garantisce la salute, una migliore fun/ionalith e una messa a fuoco dei gusti e delle esigen/e del consumatore.
(1ranco Ne3ilacG+a) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n."9 maggio "@@=&

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2 #ateriali per i #o&ili


No
Formaldeide
un antifermentativo presente nelle colle termoindurenti ureiche. 8a funzione antimuffa e accelera l9indurimento della colla a caldo. .iduce quindi i costi di produzione ma non essenziale: contenuto nel compensato di pioppo o faggio, nel compensato listellare e nel truciolare %o truciolato#. !a formaldeide viene rilasciata nell9ambiente e la sua presenza rivelata dall9olfatto: ha un odore acre e pungente: in gran quantit; provoca lacrimazione. A lungo periodo cancerogeno. *er questo, a differenza che in Italia, all9estero queste colle devono contenere dei preparati che ne limitano l9emissione nel tempo.

Si
!olle viniliche
+on sono naturali, ma se rispettano certe formulazioni %assenza di formaldeide, di solventi e metalli pesanti# non sono tossiche, danno risultati buoni e durevoli. Il costo solo leggermente superiore.

Solventi usati nelle vernici poliuretaniche.


I solventi e le vernici poliuretaniche a due componenti sono prodotti di sintesi derivati dal petrolio e possono contenere <ilolo e toluolo %cancerogeni#. 8anno tempi di abbattimento molto lunghi.

"ernici biologiche prive di solventi


!e vernici biologiche usano solo prodotti naturali come olio di lino, olio di tung, colofonia, dammar, essenza e olio di pino e solventi estratti dagli agrumi.

#egno ruciolare
Il pannello truciolare %o truciolato# fatto con frammenti di legno %non sempre di qualit;#, impastati con un legante a base di resine sintetiche e pressati %a volte questo =nobilitato>, ovvero rivestito sulle due facce da uno strato plastico di carta melaminica che imita un legno pregiato#. $ontiene tanta pi formaldeide quanto pi spesso. ura di pi, pi resistente e affidabile, pi caldo e piacevole al tatto e permette effetti cromatici

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Gli elettro$omestici

4a!atrice
$on una poten/a che si aggira intorno ai 2;<< 9, la lavatrice f fra gli elettrodomestici che consumano di pigM un maggiore o minore consumo energetico dipende perm in larga parte dalle temperature di lavaggio e dai criteri di utili//o. 3cco perch_ f cosi importante saper usare correttamente la propria lavatrice. So stesso principio vale per la lavastoviglieM sceglietene comun1ue una energeticamente efficiente e con programmi di lavaggio 2economici4. %e avete lo scaldabagno a gas, installate lavatrice e lavastoviglie in modo che carichino lXac1ua gih riscaldata dallo scaldabagno, sen/a che debba essere riscaldata dalle serpentine. "onsigli per l5uso ~ scegliete una lavatrice con il sele/ionatore di temperatura separato dal sele/ionatore di programma ~ pretrattate le macchie ostinate inumidendole e strofinandole con sapone di )arsiglia o con percarbonato ~ fate il bucato solo a pieno carico ~ lavate a una temperatura massima di N< gradi@ a temperature troppo elevate i tessuti si rovinano pig rapidamente ~ tenete la serpentina disincrostata facendo periodicamente un lavaggio a vuoto con un litro di aceto bianco ~ pulite periodicamente il filtro Aogni 1uattro-cin1ue lavaggiC ~ non fate il prelavaggio, ma piuttosto fate 2lXammollo in lavatrice4 spegnendola per 1ualche ora a meth programma.

Frigorifero
y lXelettrodomestico pig diffusoM incide fortemente sulla nostra bolletta anche perch_ rimane costantemente acceso. *l maggiore o minore consumo dipende in larga parte dalle dimensioni e dai criteri di utili//o. "onsigli per l5uso: ~ ac1uistatene uno di piccole dimensioni, adeguato alle vostre reali necessith ~ installatelo lontano dalla cucina e dal termosifone, e dove non possa essere colpito dai raggi del sole ~ regolatelo al minimo o poco pig@ otterrete cosi la temperatura ideale per la maggior parte dei cibi ~ apritelo il meno possibile e sempre per tempi brevissimi ~ controllate periodicamente le guarni/ioni di gomma che garantiscono la chiusura ermetica del frigo, e sostituitele se necessario ~ lasciate raffreddare a temperatura ambiente i cibi molto caldi prima di metterli nel frigorifero ~ verificate fre1uentemente che sulle pareti interne non si formi del ghiaccioM eventualmente sbrinate.

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Fornelli e forno
Qalgono 1ui le stesse considera/ioni fatte per il riscaldamento dellXac1ua@ se avete una cucina o un forno elettrico, sostituiteli al pig presto con 1uelli a gas. !mmorti//erete la spesa in breve tempo, considerando, ad esempio, che in termini di bolletta il forno e le piastre elettriche fanno spendere pig del doppio di 1uelli a gas. *noltre il sistema a gas consente un controllo preciso e immediato delle temperature di cottura, non si perde tempo a preriscaldare forno e fornelli e non si rischia di ustionarsi mettendo la mano su una piastra che 2sembra4 fredda. "onsigli per l5uso ella cucina elettrica: ~ preriscaldate il forno solo 1uando f davvero indispensabile Aad esempio per dolci che debbano lievitareC ~ spegnete sempre forno e piastre un poX prima della fine della cottura@ i cibi continueranno a cuocere comun1ue ~ procuratevi un fornetto a cupola, di 1uelli che si mettono sui fornelli Acosta dalle 3< alle ><.<<< lireC e usatelo tutte le volte che dovete cuocere piccole 1uantith di cibo. Puesto consiglio vale anche per le cucine a gas. ~ non aprite lo sportello del forno mentre f acceso, ma controllate la cottura attraverso il vetro, che deve essere tenuto sempre ben pulito.

6oiler e acRua cal a


*l boiler elettrico ad accumulo f forse il peggior nemico del risparmio energetico@ durante la doppia trasforma/ione dellXenergia Ada calore a elettricith nelle centraliM da elettricith a calore in casaC si disperde pig del N; per cento dellXenergia ini/ialmente immessa nel sistema. $ercate di sostituirlo al pig presto con lo scaldabagno a gas, soprattutto se nella vostra /ona arriva il metano. ?e otterrete oltretutto un grande vantaggio economico e pratico@ lo scaldabagno a gas riscalda lXac1ua istantaneamente al momento del bisogno, e non si rischia di rimanere improvvisamente sen/a ac1ua calda. "onsigli per l5uso el boiler elettrico: ~ sostituitelo appena possibile con uno scaldabagno a gas ~ regolatelo in modo da ottenere ac1ua a una temperatura massima di ;<-N< gradi ~ tenetelo acceso solo di notteM ricordate di spegnerlo 1uando si va in vacan/a e nei fine settimana ~ fate eseguire una manuten/ione periodica ogni due-tre anni per mantenere la serpentina libera da incrosta/ioni ~ assicuratevi della perfetta tenuta dei rubinetti dellXac1ua calda.
(Klotilde 'asi) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n."< aprile"@@=&

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3onsigli per l4uso del &oiler elettrico


Il pi pratico? 5icuramente il robot, un elettrodomestico che spreme, centrifuga, trita e frulla. 8a un motore piuttosto potente ed progettato e prodotto in modo da garantire l9assoluta sicurezza. 1sistono anche elettrodomestici pi semplici: centrifughe e frullatori, che si differenziano tra di loro in quanto la centrifuga estrae molto pi succo dai frutti: spremiagrumi, i cui vantaggi di praticit; rispetto a quello manuale sono pressoch6 inesistenti: grattugie: sbattitori. 5ono tutti apparecchi che richiedono un9accurata manutenzione: il contenitore, le eventuali lamine e i filtri vanno lavati con il normale detersivo per i piatti. Il motore, invece, va pulito quando necessario con un telo pulito e asciutto. $9 chi sostiene che il calore elevato prodotto dall9elettrodomestico mentre tritura, spreme o centrifuga, rovina le propriet; nutritive dell9alimento. $erto che alcuni elettrodomestici, come la centrifuga, ci permettono di ottenere succhi di frutta o di verdura in tempi minimi. Inoltre, per quanto il calore possa rovinare il prodotto finale, si tratta pur sempre di un frutto o di una verdura freschi, quindi con delle sue caratteristiche che l9elettrodomestico non potr; rovinare totalmente. 5ono da evitare, invece, quei piccoli elettrodomestici che non presentano svantaggi e si limitano a consumare energia. &en diverso invece il discorso per la friggitrice. .iempita di olio, si procede alla filtratura e all9aggiunta di nuovo olio ogni volta che viene utilizzata. !9olio inoltre si cambia interamente ogni otto@dieci volte, a seconda degli alimenti che sono stati fritti. sicuramente pi salutare togliersi la soddisfazione di un piatto fritto friggendo l9alimento in padella, con dell9olio che verr; utilizzato una sola volta e poi gettato, senza i rischi in cui si puA incorrere con un olio =riciclato>. ../.

"ome si risparmia energia in casa


7l cons+mo dFenergia Y eccessi3o: cominciamo con rid+rre i cons+mi s+per-l+i in casa nostra. .cco i consigli per sal3are insieme lFambiente e il porta-oglio *l consumo di energia che avviene allXinterno delle nostre abita/ioni rappresenta il 23 per cento del consumo energetico totale in *talia A GFGC. Puesto dato gih ci fa capire come intervenire per ridurre 1uesta por/ione pum influire in misura non indifferente sullXintero bilancio energetico. )a se la ridu/ione del consumo domestico andasse al di lh degli interventi di carattere tecnico, coinvolgendo il comportamento dellXutente, il risultato sarebbe ben superiore. Bno stile di vita meno consumistico si riflette, infatti, sullXintero sistema socio-economico, ovvero sul ciclo produttivo di beni e servi/i, e, 1uindi, su tutti i flussi energetici che ne fanno parte. 6ccorrerebbe meno energia per lXestra/ione delle materie prime, per la produ/ione, il trasporto, la distribu/ione e lXuso dei prodotti e dellXenergia. %ono due i fattori determinanti sui 1uali agireM la 1uantith e la 1ualith, ovvero ridurre la 1uantith di energia e di materiali usati e impiegare energia e materiali pig 2efficienti4, che rendano lo stesso servi/io impiegando meno risorse e determinando meno rifiuti. Didurre la 1uantith significa 2usare meno4, ciof risparmiare, evitare gli sprechi ma, soprattutto, 2rinunciare4. 3 1ui pare crollino i miti del 2benessere4b *nvece, f proprio il significato di 1uestXultimo termine che dovrh essere rivisto. Dinunciare, nellXottica di uno 2sviluppo ambientalmente sostenibile4, non significa fare a meno di tutti i privilegi che lXuomo ha reali//ato, ma distinguere fra beni e servi/i che migliorano effettivamente la 1ualith della vita e beni che, invece, in definitiva la peggiorano, rendendo soddisfa/ioni perlopig apparenti e limitate. Puesti ultimi sono caratteri//ati da alto consumo specifico di energia e risorse. !llora il nostro stile di vita potrebbe orientarsi verso un modo che potremmo definire pig semplice ma pig gustoso, pig sano, espressione di culture e sagge//a da recuperare. ?on cXf infatti da inventare nulla di complicato o avveniristico, ma vanno semplicemente accolte e assimilate le abitudini della vita legata alla natura che lXuomo ha praticato durante 1uasi tutta la sua storia, fino a pochi decenni fa. ?on ritornare ai tempi passati, ma fare tesoro della cultura passata per vivere meglio il nostro tempo e preparare un futuro migliore. 6ggi le possibilith di uso e di gestione dellXenergia in casa sono enormemente pig numerose rispetto al passato. Gli usi di energia nella casa possono essere suddivisi in termini Acalore per il riscaldamento, produ/ione di ac1ua calda, cucinaC ed elettrici obbligati Aenergia elettrica per lXillumina/ione o il fun/ionamento di

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elettrodomesticiC. $on tecnologie innovative e accorgimenti tecnici f possibile risparmiare anche il >< per cento fin dal primo anno, a parith di comfort, ma ancora di pig si pum fare con la modifica dei nostri comportamenti.
('a+riLio Nacci) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n.# aprile "@@=&

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Dicianno!e regole per il risparmio ecologico ~ 5ate unXanalisi della situa/ione energetica nella vostra abita/ione@ fonti energetiche, tipi di apparecchiature e di impianti, modo dXuso, e verificate le relative spese di ac1ua, gas, elettricith ed elaborate un adeguato programma di intervento. ~ ?on producete calore pig del necessario@ meglio un maglione in pig che un grado di troppob ~ 3vitate lXuso di energia elettrica dove pum essere sostituita da altre fonti. ~ %e abitate sotto-tetto provvedete allXisolamento del tetto o sottotetto dal 1uale si disperde buona parte del calore. ~ *nstallate doppi vetri e guarni/ioni agli infissi. ~ %e possibile, installate un impianto solare che pum soddisfare il fabbisogno familiare di ac1ua sanitaria. ~ Provvedete allXadeguata manuten/ione delle apparecchiature per il riscaldamento e lXac1ua sanitaria. ~ Bsate lXac1ua con cura, nella giusta misura e temperatura, ad esempio@ una doccia di tre minuti impiega il N< per cento in meno di energia di un bagno. ~ *nstallate nei rubinetti i diffusori del getto che, miscelando lXac1ua allXaria, ne riducono lXuscita. ~ Per ogni apparecchio che ac1uistate, verificatene la bonth in termini di consumo di energia e altre risorse, di affidabilith, assisten/a e durata nel tempo Ache rappresenta anchXessa, oltre a un vantaggio economico, un minor impatto ambientale provocato dalla fabbrica/ione e dal rifiuto del prodotto deterioratoC. ~ *l congelatore e la lavastoviglie non sono elettrodomestici indispensabili@ valutate attentamente la sua utilith prima di ac1uistarli. ~ %consigliamo vivamente lXutili//o di forni e fornelli elettrici a favore del gas@ f almeno doppiamente conveniente sia dal lato energetico che economico. ~ Bn primo modo di risparmiare energia, anche in 1uesto caso, f 1uello di scegliere un prodotto pig 2economo4. "ra diversi modelli ci possono essere dei risparmi fino al 3< per cento. ~ Bsate lampade compatte a risparmio energetico nei locali AcucinaC ove avviene un uso prolungato, in 1uanto fre1uenti accensioni ne riducono la vita. ~ !dattate lXillumina/ione alle vostre attivith. %e f possibile, preferitela locali//ata piuttosto che diffusa su tutta la stan/a. ~ Possibilmente, fate a meno del condi/ionatore dXaria. ~ !c1uistate prodotti durevoli, facili da riparare e per i 1uali fabbrica/ione e trasporto hanno richiesto meno energia. ~ $ercate di prolungare il pig possibile la vita dei prodotti, dopodich_ provate a ripararli o usarli per altri scopi. ~ Diducete il consumo di carne@ occorre circa < volte pig energia per produrre in carne un e1uivalente di calorie di origine vegetale, per non parlare dei gravi danni alla salute umana determinati dallXeccessivo consumo di grassi.

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Gli impianti

Stufe M termosifonie bioe iliAia


^ possibile installare sistemi di riscaldamento sani e con +n basso cons+mo energetico) progettando anLit+tto gli edi-ici in modo raLionale e con +n corretto isolamento termico. "ermosifoni, termoconvettori, stufe in ghisa e in ceramica, caminetti, piastre radianti, riscaldamento a battiscopa, a pavimento, a parete... tutti sistemi da impiegare nelle nostre case per poterci riscaldare nei mesi freddi. ?on abbiamo che l-imbara//o della sceltab *n passato non era cosi. !lcune decine d-anni fa, ci si riscaldava con una stufa a legna o carbone e magari solamente nella cucina, mentre nelle altre stan/e non vi era riscaldamento. !ncora prima, esistevano unicamente camini aperti in alcune stan/e. Puesti sono solo ricordi e, ai nostri giorni, siamo nella situa/ione opposta@ le case sono spesso eccessivamente riscaldate. Sa bioedili/ia si f accorta di 1uesta situa/ione e ne segnala gli inconvenienti per la nostra salute, prendendo in considera/ione i diversi tipi di riscaldamento ambientale, i 1uali, non sempre, garantiscono un sano clima abitativo. Bn sano clima abitativo determinato da un buon progetto costruttivo della casa, dai materiali che ci circondano e, nella stagione fredda, dal sistema di riscaldamento adottato. S-atmosfera abitativa adatta, non si ottiene con i soli parametri di temperatura e umidithM vi sono altri fattori che interagiscono nel formare un ambiente sano e confortevole@ tipo di calore e sua provenien/a, temperatura e ioni//a/ione dell-aria, polveri, campi di disturbo magnetici ed elettromagnetici... Parlando di calore, dobbiamo ini/ialmente pensare ad un buon isolamento termico che consenta di ottenere un comfort abitativo adeguato, limitando le dispersioni, che diminuiscono il rendimento di un 1ualun1ue sistema di riscaldamento adottato. 4>energia solare *l riscaldamento degli edifici si pum effettuare impiegando l-energia solare usando prevalentemente due sistemi@ attivo e passivo. * sistemi attivi prevedono dei collettori da montare prevalentemente sui tetti degli edifici e un accumulatore termico separato Aserbatoio d-ac1ua, letto di sassiC. Pompata attraverso il collettore, l-ac1ua Ao l-ariaC assorbe il calore e lo trasporta nell-accumulatore e da 1ui viene portato ai locali da riscaldare mediante un impianto di distribu/ione meccanico. * sistemi passivi accumulano e trasportano il calore usando dinamiche naturali come l-irraggiamento, la condu/ione, la conve/ione. y la costru/ione stessa che deve essere progettata in fun/ione di 1uesto scopo tenendo conto delle particolari caratteristiche ambientali e climatiche. y sempre prevista un-ampia parete vetrata a sud per captare i raggi del sole Aeffetto serraC e una massa termica Amuro in mattoni cotti o crudi, pietra o ac1uaC per l-assorbimento, l-accumulo e la distribu/ione del calore. *n estate vengono previste apposite schermature per limitare l-assorbimento dei raggi solari. * sistemi di riscaldamento solare passivi offrono un buon risparmio energetico e dei costi di manuten/ione relativamente bassi perch_ non usano pompe, ventole, compressori, radiatori, tuba/ioni... soggetti ad un deterioramento inevitabile. *noltre promuovono un clima abitativo confortevole gra/ie al loro sistema di propaga/ione del calore per irraggiamento e per conve/ione naturale. Bno dei difetti principali di 1uesti sistemi f la difficolth di regola/ione dovuta alla gran capacith d-accumulo e 1uindi d-iner/ia termica del sistema che non riesce a rispondere rapidamente alle varia/ioni di temperatura. Qalutando poi che il riscaldamento solare fun/iona se il sole c-f, e considerando che, al nord, il freddo e cielo coperto sono pig fre1uenti che non con il sole, sarebbe opportuna un-integra/ione con un riscaldamento ausiliario. 7 combustibili per l>impianto i riscal amento $onsiderando, 1uindi, la necessith di disporre di un sistema di riscaldamento, si preveda o no l-intervento del sole, possiamo passare in rassegna 1uali dovrebbero essere le sue caratteristiche peculiari atte a rendere il clima abitativo sano e piacevole. %e non si preleva energia direttamente dal sole, ogni produ/ione di calore f sempre in1uinanteM la combustione, infatti, che sia gas, gasolio, cherosene, legna o carbone, dh inevitabilmente origine ad una certa emissione di sostan/e nocive come ossido d-a/oto e di carbonio oltre a vari composti chimico-

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organici. * combustibili per gli impianti di riscaldamento maggiormente diffusi attualmente sono il metano, il gas li1uido, il gasolio, la legna ed il carbone. #al punto di vista dell-in1uinamento, la combustione del gas metano f certamente la pig pulita, producendo solamente anidride carbonica ed ac1ua. *l benessere termico coinvolge totalmente l-organismo umano rendendolo pig attivo e resistente alle malattie. S-attuale tipo di vita che conduciamo, protetti da ogni sbal/o termico all-interno degli edifici e delle automobili, ci ha resi pig vulnerabili alle varia/ioni di temperatura. Gli sbal/i termici sono necessari per il nostro organismo al fine di poter mantenersi in saluteM un tempo, l-uomo era abituato agli sbal/i di temperaturaM oggi basta un soffio di vento e subito ci ritroviamo con tosse e mal di gola. S-abitudine di vivere in ambienti con temperature artificiali elevate non f consigliabile@ mal di testa, stanche//a, irritabilith, disturbi circolatori, sono i primi malesseri che compaiono. Savori intellettuali richiedono ambienti non troppo caldi per essere svolti nel modo migliore, percim conviene indossare un maglione in pig e respirare aria frescaM durante la notte, l-aria non dovrebbe essere troppo riscaldata. )antenere tutti gli ambienti alla medesima temperatura, come si usa attualmente, non f opportunoM piccole differen/e di 273 \$ tra i diversi locali sono un ottimo stimolo per l-organismo. Gli effetti del riscaldamento sul benessere fisico sono legati a diversi parametri relativi all-aria dell-ambiente riscaldato e ciof@ temperatura, umidith relativa, velocith, ioni//a/ione e presen/a d-in1uinanti e polvere. Sa convin/ione attuale ed errata di riscaldare l-aria per riscaldare l-ambiente ha portato a prediligere sistemi termici a conve/ione. Puesto comporta che negli ambienti l-aria sia troppo calda, secca, con molta polvere in sospensione e 1uindi poco salubre. "on uAione, con!eAione e irraggiamento *l calore, ci insegna la fisica, si pum propagare in tre modi diversi, che a volte possono coesistere@ condu/ione, conve/ione e irraggiamento. } la condu/ione avviene 1uando i corpi sono a contatto diretto e la velocith di trasmissione dipende dalla conducibilith termica del materiale stesso. _ il caso, ad esempio, del passaggio di calore attraverso un muro con le sue due facce a temperature diverseM } la conve/ione avviene con trasporto di materia, e ciof con movimento di molecoleM 1uesta trasmissione f 1uindi solamente possibile nei fluidi Ali1uidi o gasC. %e mettiamo su di una fiamma una pentola d-ac1ua a riscaldare, non sono le molecole che trasmettono il calore alle vicine, ma sono le stesse molecole calde che si muovono in modo ascensionale creando delle correnti chiamate convettive. Sa spiega/ione del fenomeno f immediata@ l-ac1ua sul fondo si riscalda, percim diventa meno densa e sale alla superficie per la spinta archimedea, lasciando il posto alla fredda pig densa che discende lateralmente. !nche nei gas, e 1uindi nell-aria, la propaga/ione del calore avviene per conve/ione@ basta osservare un oggetto posto di lh di un calorifero acceso per scorgere un tremolio dell-atmosfera che rivela l-esisten/a dei moti convettivi dell-aria caldaM } l-irraggiamento f la trasmissione di calore sotto forma di raggi, analoghi ai raggi luminosi, ma che vengono chiamati raggi calorifici o raggi infrarossi. *l calore solare non pum giungere alla "erra, n_ per conve/ione, n_ per condu/ione perch_ il nostro pianeta si trova isolato nel vuoto e mancano molecole che trasportino il calore del %ole. *l calore solare giunge alla "erra nello stesso modo della luce, sotto forma d-onde elettromagnetiche ciof per me//o di raggi che si propagano anche nel vuoto. Prerogativa di 1uesti raggi calorifici, f che attraversano l-aria sen/a effetti riscaldanti su di essa e solamente incontrando un corpo solido trasformano la loro energia in calore. Diprendendo le nostre considera/ioni, il comfort ambientale dipende dalla temperatura dell-aria del locale e dalle superfici che lo circondano. Pig sono calde le pareti perimetrali e pig l-aria pum essere mantenuta fresca a parith di comfort. *n effetti, il calore radiante delle pareti f pig importante, ai fini del benessere, della temperatura dell-aria nel locale a conferma dei benefici dell-irraggiamento come riscaldamento. *l comfort dipende anche dai movimenti dell-aria. Pig l-aria f in movimento e pig assorbe calore all-organismo, per cui, anche se l-aria f calda, si ha la sensa/ione che l-ambiente sia pig freddo di 1uello che f in realth. *l riscaldamento a conve/ione, a termoconvettori o a termosifoni lavora prevalentemente riscaldando l-aria. %iccome l-aria calda risulta pig leggera, sale verso l-alto, creando delle correnti convettive spiacevoli che sottraggono calore al corpo oltre che sprecare notevoli energie. S-aria, anche se calda, non riesce ad elevare la temperatura dei muri circostanti e, se 1uesta rimane fredda e inferiore di >7; \$ alla temperatura dell-aria, per non sentire freddo, dovremo innal/are ancora di 1ualche grado la temperatura con il risultato d-avere aria troppo

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calda, polverosa, deioni//ata e superfici perimetrali comun1ue fredde. Per 1uesti importanti motivi la bioedili/ia propone nei sistemi di riscaldamento per irraggiamento, piuttosto che nei sistemi convettivi, il modo migliore per ottenere un sano e piacevole benessere termico. Bn corpo che irradia calore crea inevitabilmente dei leggeri moti convettivi dovuti al riscaldamento dell-aria a contatto delle sue superfici calde. Puesto f comun1ue un bene perch_ f stato dimostrato che il benessere maggiore si ottiene con un minimo di moti convettivi, che non sollevano polvere e non asciugano l-aria, ma la riscaldano 1uel minimo indispensabile da renderla piacevole@ anche in natura il sole ci riscalda per irraggiamento, ma riscalda anche il suolo che a sua volta trasmette calore all-aria che lo lambisce e che si riscalda, creando a sua volta leggeri moti convettivi. 7l clima i un e ificio *l clima interno di un edificio non dovrebbe essere troppo umido. S-eccessiva umidith rende il caldo afoso, rallenta il metabolismo, provoca stanche//a e fa proliferare funghi e muffe. Purtroppo nelle case d-oggi, gra/ie ai materiali impiegati non adatti ed alle moderne tecniche costruttive, i muri non traspirano e succede che le stan/e siano a volte grondanti d-ac1ua per relativa condensa nelle /one pig fredde Apiastrelle, vetri, ponti termiciC, oppure troppo secche a causa di uno scorretto uso del riscaldamento. Sa scelta, 1uindi, di un sistema di riscaldamento deve orientarsi su 1uelli che si comportano il pig possibile come la radia/ione solare, che riscaldino ciof prevalentemente per irraggiamento, riscaldando il corpo e non l-aria, sen/a circola/ione di polveri n_ sgradevoli correnti d-aria. *l calore radiante penetra nel corpo in modo pig profondo che non 1uello trasmesso dall-aria e, studi nel campo naturopatico, lo hanno paragonato all-elioterapia in 1uanto ai benefici che se ne possono ricavare per la saluteM 1uesto f ancora pig valido se il calore radiante proviene da superfici in terra, pietra o ceramica. Puesti materiali naturali non si caricano elettrostaticamente ed hanno un effetto riduttivo sui moti convettivi dell-aria e, 1uando si riscaldano, le loro molecole vibrano con una fre1uen/a particolare che noi percepiamo diversa e pig piacevole. y anche importante che il sistema di riscaldamento adottato non emani, per 1uanto possibile, sostan/e in1uinanti, non provochi la deioni//a/ione dell-aria, non consumi troppo ossigeno e troppa energia. So stesso calore radiante non f tutto ugualeM il calore ottenuto con ac1ua calda f solo caldo, mentre il calore della fiamma diretta, o del sole, ci dona un benessere diverso, che non f spiegabile a livello fisico, ma che sappiamo ci f congeniale, f parte di 1uell-energia ancestrale che f in sintonia con il nostro essere.
('assimo /anino) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra n."=$ ottobre (***&

Le caratteristic(e peculiari c(e un &uon siste#a di riscalda#ento deve possedere


trasmissione del calore principalmente per irraggiamento$ superfici radianti in materiali naturali come pietra e ceramica$ il calore dovrebbe provenire da una fiamma direttamente e non con ac%ua riscaldata$ non avere ac%ua circolante in tubazioni& in modo particolare nei pavimenti$ non distorcere il campo magnetico naturale$ non generare campi elettromagnetici$ in%uinare il meno possibile$ avere un elevato rendimento termico allinterno dellabitato$ poca manutenzione e bassi costi di esercizio

Aria, luce, gas: la casa pulita

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8li impianti tecnologici in bioediliLia sono per-eLionati e adattati alle nostre necessitX -isiologiche SXuomo, nel rispetto istintivo dellXe1uilibrio naturale, ha edificato da sempre i suoi rifugi utili//ando tecnologie e materiali che non incidevano negativamente sulla sua salute e sullXambienteM solamente nella seconda meth di 1uesto secolo esso ha modificato, stravolgendoli, i canoni generali che permettono la vita sul pianeta. 6ggi cXf la tenden/a a soffocare i sintomi con rimedi di facciata, mentre lXarchitettura bioecologica, oltre a non fermarsi alla semplice denuncia o presa di coscien/a dei problemi, f tesa alla loro propositiva risolu/ione. y invalsa la tenden/a a usare in edili/ia impianti artificiali sempre pig computeri//ati e complessi, la cui bioecologicith f dubbiaM inoltre, in generale, sono prese in considera/ione principalmente le esigen/e estetico-fun/ionali e di mercato e non 1uelle rispondenti alle reali necessith psicofisiche dellXuomo. ?on tutto il progresso f negativoM infatti lXattuale mercato ci fornisce alcune tecnologie per impianti che si sono dimostrate sen/Xaltro positive. Gli effetti sulla salute Gli impianti influen/ano direttamente la perce/ione e la 1ualith del benessere abitativo. Puesto f in stretta rela/ione con i due parametri@ 1uello personale, riguardante il dispendio energetico e lXisolamento termico dellXabbigliamento, e 1uello ambientale che considera la temperatura, lXumidith, la carica elettrostatica e cosi via. *l comfort abitativo si reali//a 1uando cXf e1uilibrio tra tutte le componenti dei due parametri sopramen/ionati, come avviene da sempre in natura. ?egli attuali edifici 2tecnologici4 a volte troviamo un clima interno molto diverso da 1uello naturale. !d esempio, gli impianti di condi/ionamento centrali//ati generalmente si dimostrano inadeguati se non addirittura, in certi casi, nocivi alla salute. )olto spesso mancano di manuten/ione periodica, sono tarati sen/a considerare le reali esigen/e dellXabitante, influen/ano negativamente la 1ualith microbiologica dellXaria con altera/ioni dellXe1uilibrio ionico, movimenti convettivi dXaria, e cosi via. Sa 1ualith scadente dellXaria negli ambienti pum provocare problemi fisiologici, che spa/iano dalle patologie dellXapparato respiratorio allXinsorgere di febbri. "emperature troppo elevate possono provocare calo della concentra/ione, stanche//a precoce, nausea. Gli spostamenti dXaria degli impianti ad aria calda sono responsabili di dolori nevralgici, articolari e di patologie dellXapparato respiratorio. SXumidith eccessiva provoca stanche//a, asme, allergie e reumatismi. Per 1uanto concerne gli impianti elettrici, 1uelli non protetti possono produrre influen/e negative sul sistema nervoso e circolatorio. Sa legisla/ione italiana in 1uesto settore f carente. ! volte vengono indicate molte caratteristiche tecniche del prodotto, ma non si fa men/ione del grado di bioecocompatibilith con lXuomoM non si indica la 1uantith di energia utili//ata per la produ/ione e per il trasporto n_ il tipo di processo produttivoM inoltre si ignorano la 1ualith e la provenien/a delle materie prime usate. *nfine, non vengono prese in considera/ione la possibilith di un futuro riciclaggio n_ lXeventuale tossicith. Principi generali Bn edificio si pum definire 2sano4 non solo se le sue parti strutturali e di finitura lo sono, ma anche se gli impianti rispondono a re1uisiti di bioecologicith. Bna casa bioecologica deve essere concepita e progettata anche con criteri legati al contenimento del consumo energetico. %i adotteranno tutti 1uegli accorgimenti che consentono di utili//are la sana ed economica energia solareM inoltre un appropriato isolamento e un parco utili//o delle fonti energetiche da combustibili fossili, oltre a consentire un risparmio in termini economici, permettono di limitare drasticamente lXin1uinamento atmosferico. Se costru/ioni bioecologiche costruite con 1uesti principi hanno generalmente i muri con spessori generosi, ampie finestrature a sud, serre addossate e cosi via. Gli impianti termici distribuiscono calore per irraggiamento, come avviene ad esempio per i radiatori a battiscopaM in tal modo vengono ridotti i movimenti dXaria e il conseguente spostamento di polveri e

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batteri, cosa che avviene normalmente con i classici radiatori dei termosifoni. Gli impianti elettrici devono essere schermati e provvisti di apparecchiature per limitare lXeffetto dei campi elettromagnetici perturbatori. $i si doterh in generale di impianti a tecnologia 2semplice4 e affidabile. Puesta imposta/ione permette di produrre allXinterno degli ambienti microclimi sempre e1uilibrati e omogenei, si da ottenere il benessere psicofisico di chi vi abita. 7l mercato e i costi *n *talia possiamo trovare, anche se non diffusamente, materiali per assemblare impianti biologici di buonissima 1ualith. *l loro costo a volte f superiore, ma viene ripagato abbondantemente sia dallXottima resa sia dalla durata, ma soprattutto dalla tran1uillith che determina nel fruitore la perce/ione di essere immerso in un clima fisiologicamente salubre SXimporta/ione di alcuni prodotti, soprattutto dai Paesi dXoltralpe, offre a volte maggiori possibilith e garan/ie, ma le percorren/e su lunghe distan/e e i vari passaggi intermedi dal produttore allXutili//atore generalmente inducono, soprattutto per motivi etici ed ecologici, a rivolgere lXatten/ione verso il mercato locale. %e prendiamo in considera/ione le presta/ioni dellXedificio nel tempo, notiamo una notevole ridu/ione dellXimpegno finan/iario per i minori costi di condu/ione e manuten/ione. #a non dimenticare lXabbattimento dei costi sociali sanitari dovuto alla sensibile ridu/ione delle patologie determinata dalle migliori 1ualith del clima abitativo. Bn notevole risparmio, anche sui costi ini/iali, si pum ottenere installando impianti semplificati nella loro estensione e distribu/ione. *n conclusione, gli impianti degli edifici in genere, siano essi abita/ione, luogo di lavoro, ambiente di svago, devono generare un 2clima salubre4 ed essere progettati e costruiti sen/a essere condi/ionati dai dettami della moda. 3ssi infatti devono contribuire a rendere lXinvolucro abitativo permeabile, 1uasi un continuum dellXambiente esterno naturale in cui lXindividuo trova istintivamente piacevole soggiornare.
(.nrico 'icelli) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n."* no3embre "@@(&

Fra Ruattro cal e pareti


8li impianti di riscaldamento possono essere pi\ sani) giX in -ase di progettaLione. 7 migliori sono G+elli a irraggiamento Gli impianti bioecocompatibili concorrono a modificare il microclima degli 2ambienti confinati4, ovvero chiusi come 1uelli casalinghi migliorando le condi/ioni abitative. ?aturalmente, ci sono anche altri parametri che contribuiscono a crearle@ tra 1uelli personali si possono citare il dispendio energetico dovuto allXattivith svolta e il tipo di isolamento termico indotto dallXabbigliamentoM fra i parametri ambientali si fa riferimento a grande//e fisiche 1uali temperatura, velocith e composi/ione chimica dellXaria Agas, polveri e particelle in sospensioneC, umidith, temperatura superficiale, gradiente termico, asimmetria termica radiante, carica elettrostatica, contamina/ione dellXaria e dellXambiente antropico Abatteri e radia/ioniC, ioni//a/ione dellXaria. SXe1uilibrio di 1uesti fattori che in natura sono generalmente biocompatibili, consente il comfort abitativo, ciof il corretto rapporto tra elemento umano e il sistema che lo circonda. 4a casa a imensione 5uomo )a troppo spesso 1uesti fattori non vengono considerati, nellXedili/ia@ gli ambienti sono a volte progettati prendendo principalmente in considera/ione le esigen/e estetico-fun/ionali e di mercato e non 1uelle rispondenti alle reali necessith psicofisiche dellXuomoM inoltre si sta accentuando lXutili//o di impianti termici altamente sofisticati e artificiali in luogo di 1uelli naturali. !ttualmente, gli impianti di condi/ionamento si dimostrano inadeguati se non addirittura nocivi alla

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salute. * maggiori problemi provengono dai sistemi centrali//ati, anche perch_ molto spesso la manuten/ione non f appropriata e la regola/ione f impossibile su parametri standard Adovrebbe essere invece adeguata alle esigen/e dei singoli ambienti e dei loro fruitoriC. "utto cim determina un microclima e1uilibrato, notevole gradiente Avaria/ioneC di temperatura, grado di umidith casuale, altera/ione dellXe1uilibrio ionico, movimento convettivo dXaria con diffusione di polveri e batteri tra i 1uali si possono annoverare lX:spergill+s e la Aegionella Pne+mophila che sXannidano e proliferano nei circuiti di climati//a/ione. 45impianto termico bioecologico Gli edifici bioecologici devono essere progettati secondo i dettami della climati//a/ione solare passiva. *l calore viene distribuito per irraggiamento, cosi si riducono i movimenti dXaria e di conseguen/a gli spostamenti di polveri e batteri. Puesti impianti consentono lXaccumulo di calore negli elementi strutturali e di arredo, determinando un clima interno di benessere a temperatura limitata. !nche gli edifici bioecologici sono identificabili per la presen/a di note3ole massa str+tt+rale Amurature di generose dimensioniC e per lF+tiliLLo dellFe--etto serra Aovvero le finestre rivolte a sudC. Gli elementi strutturali e di arredo devono sostituire un adeguato volano termoigrometrico. %ono tutti sistemi che utili//ano integralmente e unitariamente lXedificio in modo da non separare tra loro le fun/ioni strutturali, di isolamento e di finitura. %i adottano caldaie a bassa temperat+ra pressuri//ate e possibilmente a condensa/ione, fun/ionanti con combustibili gassosi Ametano, biogas e cosi viaC. "ra i sistemi di riscaldamento in bioedili/ia si possono citare 1uelli a battiscopa, le stufe a grande iner/ia termica, gli impianti a pareti o corpo centrale caldi. Sa scelta di un impianto dev-essere condotta sulla base di principi che prendono in considera/ione non solo il momento dellXutili//o, ma anche 1uello relativo alla sua produ/ione e allXesaurimento delle sue fun/ioni, lXin1uinamento che pum essere provocato e 1uindi allo smaltimento. Puesto per limitare il pig possibileM f da considerare fin dallXini/io la necessith di riciclare i materiali degli impianti esausti. "utto cim risulta di difficile attua/ione in un paese come il nostro, privo com-f di normative, di leggi di tutela e di reali controlli. *noltre il reperimento dei materiali componenti pone non lievi difficolth, anche se negli ultimi anni si sta assistendo ad un impegno da parte di industriali lungimiranti e attenti ai problemi ecologici. $on un poX di buona volonth si f in grado di reperire 1uanto serve. *ndubbiamente, alcuni prodotti sono molto cari, ma f necessario considerare che successivamente diminuiscono le spese sanitarie e anche 1uelle di manuten/ione e condu/ione. &iscal amento bioecocompatibile %ono da privilegiarsi impianti molto semplificati ottimi//ati nei consumi-presta/ioni, che non formino anelli chiusiM devono essere schermati, opportunamente isolati in modo tale da non generare vibra/ioni meccaniche e campi elettromagnetici patogeni, soprattutto nelle /one di soggiorno e di riposo. AFimpianto a battiscopa f analogo strutturalmente a 1uello a radiatori@ lXunica differen/a sta nel fatto che i corpi scaldanti, posti in corrisponden/a del battiscopa, seguono lXandamento delle pareti perimetrali esterne, riscaldandole. Pueste a loro volta reimmettono calore esclusivamente per irraggiamento, determinando un clima abitativo confortevoleM inoltre le murature lambite contengono una minore percentuale di umidith e risultano 1uindi pig salubri e pig coibenti. Ae st+-e a grande inerLia termica non si possono considerare dei veri e propri impianti termici, pur se in alcuni casi esse vengono utili//ate anche per riscaldare lXac1ua. Possono essere costituite da semplice argilla, da pietre dotate di grande iner/ia termica, da materiale refrattario che pum essere rivestito da piastrelle in maiolica, e cosi via. *l calore irraggiato viene accumulato negli elementi strutturali e di arredo, il che evita asimmetrie radianti. *noltre, non avendo apparati di combustione e controllo pilotati da componenti elettrici o elettronici e non possedendo masse metalliche, 1uesto sistema non modifica il clima magnetico ed elettrico dei locali. AFimpianto a pareti calde ha fun/ionamento esclusivamente radiante. %i pum riscaldare lXinterno dei muri con lXac1ua che con lXaria circolanti in condotte. Sa simmetria radiante f possibile con una corretta

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progetta/ione. 2ellFimpianto a corpo centrale caldo, f un volume centrale a riscaldare lXedificio per irraggiamento. *n pratica si tratta di una stufa a irraggiamento che si sviluppa su pig piani e che permette di ottenere un clima termico molto buono. Sa fonte di calore vera e propria pum essere sia un normale focolare sia un locala sauna posto al piano pig basso dellXedificio. Gli ultimi due sistemi trovano in *talia scarsa applica/ione sia per la difficolth di reperire gli elementi costruttivi sia per mancan/a di personale preparato ed esperto. Puesti impianti sono comuni prevalentemente nei Paesi dX6ltralpe. Bna raccomanda/ione@ f consigliabile munire lXedificio di un numero sufficiente di canne fumarie per poter utili//are stufe a combustibili a basso impatto in caso di mancan/a prolungata dei rifornimenti o dellXeroga/ione delle usuali fonti energetiche 1uali gasolio, metano o gas-petroli-li1uefatti.
(.nrico 'icelli) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato n."" dicembre "@@(&

3onsigli utili
Anche chi non ha una casa costruita secondo i canoni della bioarchitettura puA ottimizzare il microclima dell9abitazione e l9uso del riscaldamento sia per risparmiare energia sia perch6 la casa sia sana. $urate l9isolamento termico %coibentazione# della casa, che consente di dimunuire l9uso di carburante %e, in estate, ripara dalla calura#. *er i condomini, l9ideale sarebbe che l9intero condominio lo facesse. $hiudete le tapparelle quando fa buio: come un secondo vetro. )ettete dei pannelli isolanti o della stagnola sulla parete dietro il calorifero: diffonder; meglio il calore nell9ambiente =riflettendolo>. Il metano meno inquinante %non contiene zolfo# e pi conveniente: basta sostituire il solo bruciatore e non l9intera caldaia. $ontrollate l9efficienza della caldaia almeno una volta l9anno. Isolate le tubature. Installate un termoregolatore su ogni termosifone, per mantenere una temperatura costante. +egli impianti autonomi ottimo il termostato con orologio incorporato, che consente di riscaldare gli ambienti solo quando e quanto necessario. 5ostituite l9impianto di riscaldamento elettrico con quello a metano. +ei climi temperati e nelle seconde case, va benissimo la tradizionale stufa di ghisa a legna: si riscalda e raffredda velocemente. +o alle stufe elettriche, nemiche dell9ambiente e del risparmio, se non in casi d9emergenza.

7mpianto elettrico bioecocompatibile


Premessa sulle scelte energetiche So stato di salute psicofisica dellXuomo f collegato agli effetti energetici dovuti alla natura in cui siamo immersi, ma anche a 1uelli indotti dalle energie artificiali prodotte dallXattuale tecnologia industriale. Gli impianti elettrici e tutte le apparecchiature connesse concorrono a modificare il microclima degli 2ambienti confinati4 in fun/ione al loro grado di ecocompatibilith.

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$onduttori, elettrodomestici, anche se non utili//ati ma collegati alla rete elettrica, possono influen/are la 1ualith del benessere abitativo e la sua perce/ione. SXe1uilibrio dei fattori ambientali, 1uali carica elettrostatica, ioni//a/ione dellXaria e cosi via, che in natura sono generalmente biocompatibili, consente un corretto rapporto tra elemento umano e sistema che lo circondaM si determina ciof il comfort abitativo. Per ottenere un microclima sicuramente favorevole f necessario utili//are impianti e apparecchi elettrici di provata innocuith, sperimentata nel tempo. y importante attenersi ai succitati principi in 1uanto lXuomo vive per gran parte del suo tempo negli ambienti confinati, che costituiscono una netta separa/ione con lXambiente naturaleM cim consente di evitare le patologie connesse. Pueste indica/ioni derivano da studi condotti da medici, studiosi, scien/iati e ricercatori, sia in laboratorio, sia considerando la coinciden/a della casistica clinica. Sa bibliografia su tali argomenti f vasta, basti solo pensare alle circostan/iate pubblica/ioni dellX6ms A6rgani//a/ione )ondiale della %anithC. * soggetti a rischio sono generalmente gli an/iani, i bambini e i malati. Gli impianti sono in stretta rela/ione con i parametri del clima nel 1uale siamo immersi. * campi elettrici ed elettromagnetici perturbatori insistono sia allXinterno Aimpianti elettrici sia domestici che industrialiC che allXesterno Aelettrodotti ad alta intensith, radar, emittenti e cosi viaC. !d esempio, gli elettrodotti sono in grado di influen/are negativamente le condi/ioni di vita nellXarea di loro influen/a Anote 6msC. )a vediamo ora che cosa succede con gli impianti domestici. Ten enAa corrente Se apparecchiature elettriche sono a volte progettate considerando unicamente le esigen/e di sicure//a, estetico-fun/ionali e di mercato e non 1uelle rispondenti alle reali necessith psicofisiche dellXuomoM inoltre si sta accentuando lXutili//o di impianti elettrici ed elettrodomestici altamente sofisticati. *nvece la scelta di un impianto devXessere fatta considerando lXin1uinamento che pum provocare. $im f di difficile attua/ione perch_ attualmente non vi sono normative a cui fare riferimento n_ leggi che ci tutelino prevedendo controlli efficaci. #i contro, il reperimento dei materiali componenti non pone difficolth, perch_ negli ultimi anni si sta assistendo a un impegno in tal senso da parte di industriali lungimiranti e attenti ai problemi ecologici. 7n icaAioni i carattere generale sugli impianti elettrici omestici SXimpianto elettrico, oltre a dover ottemperare alle normative vigenti, dovrh essere reali//ato sen/a che esso causi perturba/ioni elettromagnetiche. "ale presupposto si ottiene utili//ando vari accorgimenti@ sono da privilegiarsi impianti molto semplificati, ottimi//ati nel rapporto tra consumi e presta/ioniM la rete di distribu/ione deve reali//are circuiti aperti non costituenti anelli o dipoli per non perturbare gli ambienti con un comportamento assimilabile ad antenneM uno o pig disgiuntori bipolari automatici assicurano, in mancan/a di utili//o, assen/a di tensione nei circuiti da essi serviti. Puesti fun/ionano con corrente continua a bassa tensione A>-N voltC livellata, non pulsante, per evitare campi elettromagnetici indottiM i conduttori che alimentano gli utili//atori non disinseribili 1uali frigoriferi, congelatori, centrali termiche, luci dXemergen/a, sono schermati mediante guaina metallica collegata allXimpianto di messa a terraM analoghi conduttori devono servire le /one di sosta prolungata e riposoM lXimpianto di messa a terra deve reali//are valori di resisten/a molto bassi, non superiori ai ; ohm, e avere i dispersori posti in /one non perturbateM f preferibile che il contatore venga installato fuori dal perimetro dellXedificio o nella /ona pig a sud e lontano dalle aree di sosta prolungataM tutti gli elementi metallici devono essere collegati tra loro mediante conduttori messi a terra per assicurare e1uipoten/ialith Acome previsto anche dalle norme $eeCM lXinserimento di opportuni filtri assicura lXelimina/ione di disturbi prodotti sia dagli elettrodomestici sia da impianti esterni. Bna nota particolare meritano gli impianti a bassa tensione e a corrente continua. 3ssi sono i pig 2ecologici4 sia perch_ non generano campi disturbatori patogeni sia per la possibilith di venir alimentati

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con sorgenti alternative 1uali celle fotovoltaiche, microcentrali idrauliche ed eoliche, permettendo in tal modo allXutente di scegliere se usufruire della rete di distribu/ione pubblica o no. "onclusioni Sa meta cui tendiamo f la reali//a/ione di un microclima e1uilibrato affinch_ nella correla/ione uomo * costruito Ain 1uesto caso impianto e apparecchiature elettricheC - natura ci sia una concreta armonia. PuestXarmonia deve ricalcare le orme di 1uella esistente ormai da millenni sulla "erra.
(.nrico 'icelli) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra 7ll+strato 2."( -ebbraio "@@=&

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%Helettrosmog

Gli effetti noci!i i geopatie e elettrosmog:possiamo ifen erci senAa cambiare casa'
4>esperienAa el omoterapeuta %en/a energia elettrica la nostra civilth avrebbe i giorni contati per cui pontentissimi elettrodotti, veri e propri fiumi di corrente elettrica, irradiano la vitale energia elettrica in ogni dove del territorio, a 1ualsiasi latitudine e longitudine. *l risultato f che tutta la natura e l-uomo sono costantemente permeati da campi elettrici e magnetici agenti in ogni dire/ione e in continua, indiscriminata espansione@ cosi nella o sulla terra, cosi nel cielo e nello spa/io. *n tal modo l-intera struttura fisica, psicologica ed emotiva dell-uomo moderno f messa a dura prova da sempre pig gravi e minacciose realth. 6ggi si parla di in1uinamento invisibile da 2elettrosmog4. *n1uinamento invisibile perch_ non immediatamente percepibile come al contrario accade per la presen/a di un gas nell-aria, o di detersivi nell-ac1ua. *n rapporto all-essere umano e alla vita biologica, f possibile affermare che le apparecchiature tecnologiche emettono uno spettro energetico che comprende un valore energetico associato al campo elettrico A3eC, un valore energetico associato al campo magnetico A3mC e un valore energetico globale associato ai precedenti di natura s1uisitamente biologica A3bC. Puest-ultima componente f la pig importante in 1uanto f 1uella parte energetica che opera come fattore tutt-altro che trascurabile nel bilancio energetico finale di un essere vivente. y opportuno altresi tenere conto che la componente biologica f inoltre poten/iata dalle radian/e geobiologiche, i cosiddetti raggi tellurici, che sono una caratteristica naturale del pianeta terra e che sono presenti ovun1ue. Puando tali radian/e si sommano ai valori biologici dell-elettrosmog, la risultante finale che si ottiene f estremamente pericolosa per gli esseri viventi. $hiaramente f soprattutto nelle citth che l-in1uinamento da elettrosmog si assomma al poten/iale rischio di un in1uinamento da campi energetici geopatici. #a 1uanto sopra detto, risulta evidente che nei controlli dei siti abitativi e degli ambienti sia indoor che outdoor, dove cim sia reso necessario, per renderli energeticamente neutri con un-opportuna ed efficiente schermatura duratura nel tempo, interessa soprattutto la valuta/ione della componente energetica biologica. y 1uesta infatti la componente che f soprattutto necessario valutare correttamente per capire come un campo elettrico e magnetico agisce sulla vita. Per il rilevamento e la 1uantifica/ione di 1uest-ultima e la conseguente valuta/ione dei suoi effetti sull-essere vivente, f solo l-essere vivente stesso, ciof l-uomo, che fun/ionando da strumento pum valutarlo. y 1uanto dovrebbe essere un buon sensitivo, ciof un buon radiestesista e un buon rabdomante. Sa componente energetica biologica interferisce con l-energia vitale dell-essere vivente il 1uale subisce una diminu/ione del suo stato energetico ottimale che generalmente possiamo identificare come uno stato di stress che pum comportare mal di testa, spossate//a, irritabilith, depressione, a livello fisico, psichico e animico. %ono i primi segnali di uno stato anormale, perdurando il 1uale, i molteplici processi fisiologici che presiedono alla usuale vita di ogni sistema organico e cellulare entrano in crisi con conseguente manifesta/ione dello stato di malattia. y pertanto molto importante fare controllare l-abita/ione con particolare atten/ione alle /one pig a rischio, cio f 1uelle dove si dorme e dove si passa una buona parte di tempo, per avere un-esatta valuta/ione delle energie dinamicamente presenti e operanti, con le 1uali dobbiamo comun1ue convivere con il minor danno possibile. ?on f assolutamente vero che data una realth energeticamente compromessa, nulla possiamo fare per

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difenderci. $ome gih detto precedentemente con una opportuna ed efficace schermatura duratura nel tempo si annullano e si neutrali//ano 1ueste energie dannose, innal/ando il livello energetico globale dell-abita/ione ai ;G<<7N<<< e oltre .ovis. *n tal modo predisponiamo un ambiente energeticamente sano ed esente da interferen/e geobiologiche e di elettrosmog di 1ualsiasi natura. 6nestamente, in base alla mia esperien/a di radiestesista, posso serenamente affermare che f possibile schermare impiegando un-ampia gamma di correttori energetici che spa/ia dalle foglie della pianta della menta piperita ai cristalli di 1uar/o ialino alle ac1ue sante. )a con uguale serenith e sincerith, confortato dalle testimonian/e anche scritte di altri ricercatori e sperimentatori sia italiani che stranieri impegnati professionalmente nella terapia degli ambienti energeticamente compromessi, posso altresi affermare che gli unici sistemi di schermatura validi e costanti nel tempo sono 1uelli in cui vengono correttamente impiegati dei generatori energetici Anon delle batteriebC fun/ionanti sul principio dei circuiti oscillanti di Sakovsky e dei risultati della ricerca di 9. Deich sull-energia orgonica. 3 comun1ue non ha alcun senso e non f garan/ia di un sonno tran1uillo e sano il solo atto di ac1uistare un costoso letto reali//ato secondo i sacri dettami dell-arredamento ecologico se cim non f associato ad un-analisi di 1uali energie invisibili ma reali sono presenti sotto e intorno al letto medesimo e ad un eventuale successivo intervento di schermatura.
(:driano 8+antieri) 7l 8iornale della 2at+ra n."=@ -ebbraio (***&

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E*1S"E*1 ,AS ,RO1G "HE AE"HER EW*S"S


clic9 on the lin9s below for f.ll pdf doc./entation

9hat is the !3"(3D and why it is needed. %ome impossible things to believe. ! %*)PS*5*3# 3ZPS!?!"*6? 65 "(3 !"Q3 A!ether "heory of Qelocity 3ffectsC. *n G<; !lbert 3instein killed off the !ether by postulating that it did not e+ist. .ut his resultant theory, the %pecial "heory of Delativity A%"DC, creates far more problems than it solves. 5urther more it does not work."he !ether "heory of Qelocity 3ffects A!"Q3C re1uires no new postulates but predicts the observed effects of length contraction,time dilation and mass increase. "he !"Q3 gives a complete e+planation of the famous "wins Parado+, where all others have failed. 3insteinXs theory of gravity, the General "heory of Delativity AG"DC is based on a false principle, the %trong 31uivalence Principle and has other serious problems. "he !ether "heory of Gravity A!"GC shows that gravitational acceleration is due to refraction in the !ether. "he !"G correctly predicts non-3uclidean %pace, the bending of light and the perihelion shift of )ercury. "he .ig .ang "heory A..C Aby Gamow, 5riedmann and othersC of $osmic 3+pansion is entirely unbelievable for many reasons. 5or e+ample, the .. re1uires a rate of e+pansion of the universe up to 3+ <> times the speed of light. %ome velocity b "he true cause of $osmic 3+pansion A!"$3C is the creation of a new !ether at a constant rate over time and place. "he ?ature of "ime. "here is no seperate "ime dimension. 9hat we call "ime is merely the distance travelled by a light ray through the !ether. %pace has only three dimensions.

! have %ound that n 'eneral, the acade& c co&&un ty # ll not enterta n cr t c s& o% 7 nste n or the (oss b l ty o% an <ether and ne ther # ll =ournals (ubl sh (a(ers on the sub=ect, hence the reasons %or th s #ebs te, #h ch ! ho(e # ll n t ate &ore debate on the sub=ect$ ! #elco&e co&&ents and 4uest ons and # ll re(ly % t &e allo#s$ 7&a l :
rfn]btconnect'com

! also ' ve lectures on &y theor es % cond t ons are acce(table$

All three theories )A<=E Septe/ber 2000> A<? @.ne 200'> and A<CE Aece/ber #&&&- are the original wor9 of R F Borgan who edits and owns this web site

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8n piccolo robot !egetale che metterP ra ici su 9arte


di 8:7: 87UA7:27

7l robot plantoi e F7&E+^E * %arh il primo plantoide della storia. 3 se tutto andrh bene, metterh radici su )arte per esplorarlo come nessuno ha mai fatto prima, ovvero da fermo. #opo aver scoperto che le piante hanno se non unXanima, 1ualcosa di molto simile alle cellule neuronali umane, il professor %tefano )ancuso della facolth di agraria dellXuniversith di 5iren/e sta mettendo a punto un Lrobot plantoide, ciof una macchina che si ispira al mondo vegetale. 5inora sono stati costruiti robot umanoidi, insettoidi, animaloidi, ma mai nessuno che utili//asse i principi delle pianteL, spiega )ancuso. Bn peccato, perch_ a 1uanto pare potrebbero risultare utili anche per le esplora/ioni spa/iali. )a andiamo per gradi@ perch_ prendere esempio proprio dalla flora0 Perch_ due anni fa il professore ha messo a segno una scoperta che ha dellXincredibile. ?egli apici radicali delle piante - le punte delle radici - si trovano delle cellule capaci di fun/ionare come neurotrasmettitori, ciof in maniera analoga alle sinapsi del nostro cervello. Puesto gli permette non solo di allevare figli e provvedere al proprio sostentamento, ma anche di comunicare con sorelle della stessa specie, inscenando manifesta/ioni di intolleran/a verso 1uelle di altre ra//e, con la possibilith di trasmettere segnali di allarme se minacciate, e minacciare a loro volta. L! che serve studiare tutto 1uesto0 Prima di tutto a risolvere una 1uestione etica@ il Saboratorio interna/ionale di neurobiologia vegetale di 5iren/e con cui collaboro per 1uesto progetto f il primo che applica le ricerche sulle neuroscien/e alla botanica. %e la cosa si diffondesse, si potrebbero usare le piante al posto degli animaliL, chiosa il professore di agraria. L*n secondo luogo il mondo botanico f composto da organismi pionieri per eccellen/a@ dopo una colata lavica ad esempio, la prima forma vivente che si manifesta f 1uella vegetale. %tudiando i suoi me//i di sopravviven/a, e riproponendoli in un plantoide, reali//iamo una macchina che ha molte pig possibilith di attecchire e resistere in ambienti apparentemente ostiliL. *l che, traslato sul suolo mar/iano, vuol dire innan/i tutto un robot che ha un costo di 1ualche Ldecina di milioni di dollariL, contro le centinaia di %pirit e 6pportunity secondo i calcoli di )ancuso e della %cuola %uperiore di %antX!nna che lo coadiuva. Dobottini che peraltro si muovono con grande lente//a, impiegando giorni per spostarsi su )arte. *l plantoide invece non avrebbe alcun bisogno di muoversi. *l progetto infatti prevede che una navicella rilasci una serie di plantoidi nellXatmosfera mar/iana. Grandi poco pig di dieci centimetri, i robot si spargerebbero sul pianeta rosso aprendosi allXistante e innestando le loro radici - provviste di cellule simili a 1uelle delle piante - a terra. $on 1uelle esplorerebbero il sottosuolo, mentre una serie di simil-foglie si occuperebbero della superficie, alimentando allXinfinito il robot gra/ie alle cellule fotovoltaiche di cui sono ricoperte. Per esplorare il pianeta non ci sarebbe bisogno di muoversi, perch_ verrebbero spediti diverse centinaia di

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esemplari, tutti in grado di comunicare tra loro i dati rilevati che solo due, i pig costosi, si incaricherebbero di inviare sulla "erra. *l primo lancio0 L3X ancora presto@ abbiamo 1ualche finan/iamento dallX3sa AlXagen/ia spa/iale europeaC, ma non basta. Puando avremo reso noti tutti i possibili impieghi dei plantoidi, forse arriverannoL, conclude il professore. Pualche esempio lo fa gih, indicandoli per attacchi terroristici di tipo batteriologico, e /one sottoposte ad in1uinamenti radioattivi o chimici@ rileverebbero il livello di contamina/ione, tenendoci aggiornati sulla propaga/ione degli agenti patogeni. 3 sarebbero utili anche per fare una mappatura dei campi minati@ le piante hanno sensori sensibili allXossido dXa/oto, un gas sprigionato dalle mine. ?ellXuniversith si pensa gih al prossimo step, ovvero utili//are cellule vegetali per comandare i plantoidi, ma 1uesta f unXaltra storia. A@ aprile (**%C

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#isintegratore )agnetico Dotante


Puesto f il sistema di disintegra/ione molecolare a campi magnetici rotanti AvorticosiC che con soli ; 89 f in grado di frantumare e sminu//are ; tonnellate di rocciaM pig f dura e pig aumenta l-efficien/a con un solo passaggio. F 1uintali di bobine di rame per generare campi d-intensith incredibile a fre1uen/e predeterminate a seconda del materiale introdotto. !spettiamo che !ndrea Dampado trovi maggiori informa/ioni su 1uesto apparecchio.