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3 Pranab Jyoti Ghosh Ghosh Energy from Atmospheric Heat

5 Robert R. Green Green Steam Engine
8 Et3m Hortong Electron Orbit Energy Generator
11 Ken Rauen Rauen Environmental Heat Engine
16 REVETEC Holdings Limited Revetec Cam-Drive Engine
20 Barnabus Energy, Inc. SunCone
24 ICYTI Walter Torbay's Magnetic Transgenerator
28 Tim Harwood CD Motor
32 Jim Ross Ross Motor
35 Bill Williams Bill Williams' Joe Cell
44 vlad Advanced Resonant Fields
46 Joseph Newman Gyroscopic Magnetic Particle Motor
95 Eugenio Odorifero Progetto Valery - parte 5
104 James T.Yen Recent Developments of the Tornado-Type Wind Energy System
119 AA.VV. Motori Stirling
126 John Marshall Dudley Maxwell's Pressure Demon and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
134 Un Eliodomestico Solidale
135 Introduzione al magnetismo
165 Tecnid Spa Torcia Dinamo TRI-LED

166 Artificial Gravity Generator Now Possible?

168 Haiko Lietz Take a leap into hyperspace
172 Jeff Cook Designs for generating Jeff Cook effect
178 Joseph Misiolek La Manipolazione dello Spazio-Tempo

190 Franco Montefuscoli: intervista ed elaborati

196 Kosol Ouch Ricapitolazione delle sue ricerche

232 Animaris Percipiere: Walking Robotic Sculpture Stores Wind Energy
234 Spectra Watermachines Aquifer 150
238 Robert A. Nelson Advances In Desalination: The Aul EGD Process
263 Bioarchitettura a cura di Luisa Motta e Paolo Vaccaro
306 R.F.Norgan Einstein was Wrong - The Aether Exists
307 Gaia Giuliani Un piccolo robot vegetale che metter radici su Marte
309 Andrea Rampado Disintegratore Magnetico Rotante

La sede dell'A.S.S.E. e della redazione di Altra Scienza sono presso il seguente indirizzo:
Franco Malgarini
via di Boccea 302 00167 Roma
Sito Web:

La redazione non vuole impedire la distribuzione della rivista al di fuori dell'associazione. Tuttavia,
ci pu essere un potenziale danno per l'associazione stessa, a meno che non ci sia reale
necessit. Per il resto, vi preghiamo di usare il buon senso e di passarla solo a chi vi fidate.
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Directory:Ghosh Energy from Atmospheric Heat

From PESWiki

Pranab Jyoti Ghohs seeks assistance for building a working prototype of a technology that would produce electricity
from atmospheric heat, based on combining a number of well-proven concepts.
Table of contents
1 About
1.1 Technology
1.2 Advantages
1.3 Contact
2 See also
Technology Description
Originally posted ( March 26, 2006

My name is Pranab Jyoti Ghosh. I am an Indian physics graduate and I have developed a technology on producing
energy without any kind of fuel. This technology produces energy by extracting energy from atmospheric heat.
This technology is a combination of processes that are now in use in different industries and research projects
worldwide successfully. In short, the scientific and technical feasibility of this technology cant be challenged. This
isnt another perpetual motion machine type device. If anyone thinks so, I can answer him or her with scientific
But due to lack of technical and financial backing, I havent been able to make a working prototype yet. Can
anybody suggest any company or organization that can help me to materialize my project? I am giving below a short
summary of my project. Any positive suggestion is welcome.
This project is aimed at producing electricity by using the vast heat content of atmosphere. In this project, this is
done by using a mechanical arrangement similar to a heat pump. This system is used to squeeze energy from huge
volumes of air and to produce temperature difference by which energy can be produced.
It is to be noted that fresh water and salt are added bonus to this project, as salty brackish water can be used in this
project. This is done by vaporizing water inside an enclosed container named Evaporator with the help of a
vacuum pump. As the vacuum pump sucks air from the container, the water inside began to evaporate and in this
process collects its latent heat of vaporization from water. For that reason, the water inside becomes colder and heat
began to flow in from outside. Thus in effect, the latent heat of vaporization of water is collected from outside
In the open-cycle OTEC, vapor is produced in the same manner and on experiment it was found that to have vapor
flow rate of 1 kg/sec, power needed at the vacuum pump is 3 KW. Whereas, the latent heat embedded in 1 kg of
vapor is 2.31 MW. After the vapor is produced, it is heated further with adiabatically compressed, hot air.
After heating the vapor in the Boiler, the hot, compressed air is passed through the Evaporator to give up its residue
heat to the water inside. The process is the same as that of common heat pumps sold in the market.
And finally, the temperature difference between the Boiler and the Condenser is created by suddenly releasing the
compressed air at the Condenser. And thus a system of real efficiency of >50% is created.

I am giving below the merits that I think can be credited to my technology.
As no fuel is needed, the electricity produced by this technology will be cheaper than that produced by other
conventional technologies.
As no fuel is used, therefore no question of any kind of emission can arise and it is cleaner than most of the
existing technology.
It can be made with present state of technology. No engineering or scientific breakthrough is needed.
The cost making a plant of this technology is less than that of a thermal power plant of same magnitude. It is
by nature much automated, so less manpower will be needed to run and maintain it.
This technology uses the embedded heat that is stored in the lower part of the atmosphere. In effect it is a
part of solar energy falling on earth. Thats why basic source of energy is unlimited and there is no question
of depleting reserve like coal, oil, gas etc.
This technology doesnt have the limitations and weakness of other present non-conventional energy
technology. What is needed to construct a plant of this technology is just warm weather.
Salt and fresh water are added bonus to this technology, if seawater is used.
It can be source of low cost air conditioning for buildings of close proximity.

Name: Pranab Jyoti Ghosh (User:Pranabjyoti)
Address: 153/10/C, S.N.Roy Rd., Kol 38, West Bengal, India
Telephone: 91-33-24037734
m (
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Directory:Green Steam Engine

From PESWiki
A new piston steam engine design by Robert R. Green.

Designed for practical applications; is said to be extremely efficient, economical and easy to build. Provides an
efficient means of converting reciprocating movement into rotary movement, simplifying the piston engine.
Plans available.
Table of contents
1 About
1.1 Official Website
1.1.1 Plans
1.1.2 Applications
1.2 Patent
1.3 Key Features
1.4 Advantages
1.4.1 General Steam Engine
1.4.2 Green Steam Engine Advangates
1.6 Contact
2 See also
Official Website
Complete plans for constructing an engine. Includes:
drawings and dimensions of all the parts
Diagrams for assembly
Complete parts list
Help-line for questions and trouble shooting
A person familiar with the operation of a drill press, band saw and threading tools can make this engine. A small
metal lathe is optional. Most of the parts are modified, off the shelf, items.
"Many new ideas for products will emerge from the "Flexible Rod Transmission" . Inquiries for manufacturing
license agreements are welcome."
Air and Water Pumps - Multiple cylinders with overlapping phases supply a smooth flow of air with
reduced load.
Traffic Barrier Strip - Rotary output activated by a pull cable in same axis as output shaft.
POP Displays - Multiple activation of separate parts with individual timing and amplitude.
Bicycle Derailleur - Horizontal movement without rotation by a pull cable.
Water Propulsion Device - Rotary output from reciprocal activation at a distance.

Model Airplane, Boat or Train Engine -

(US patent # 6647813 (
bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=ptxt&s1=6647813&OS=6647813&RS=6647813)) 2003, Green
Key Features
Quoting from
The properties of the patented crank mechanism (called a "flexible rod transmission") invented by Robert
Green, provides this engine with the advantage of eliminating the typical crankshaft and cam that requires
lubrication and precision machining. It also provides the unique configuration whereby the cylinders are
aligned in the same direction as the main shaft. The result is a compact, lightweight and slim engine that is
extremely simple to construct and assemble.

The pistons and valves operate off a short piece of flexible shaft. Because the flexible shaft is fixed and
cannot rotate, the piston rods and valve push rod are held in position while being reciprocated. The cylinders
float, attached to a swivel ball fitting at their base. Much of the structure and weight of a typical steam engine
has been eliminated.
The unique feature of the "Flex Rod Transmission" is that it produces an intermittent movement whereby the
valve movement is stopped in its open and closed position during the power and exhaust strokes. This gives
prolonged, fully opened valve timing. In compliment, the pistons are held stationary while the valve moves
between phases. The output shaft continues rotation while the pistons stand still. The result is that the
efficiency is increased dramatically. The overall friction of the engine is reduced due to the small number of
light weight moving parts, and the use of ball bearings throughout. The flex rod is nearly frictionless as the
flexing is like a spring in which the energy required to flex it is returned in equal amounts.

General Steam Engine Advantages
Steam engines provide advantages such as: less pollution, quiet running, high torque at low speeds, no transmission
requirements, runs on a choice of fuels, long life with low maintenance.
Green Steam Engine Advangates
Quoting from
Adding to this list of special advantages, the "Green Steam Engine" offers these unique features:
Runs on very low steam pressure and low volume (freewheels at 2 psi),
Costs little to build,
Nearly zero lubrication requirements,
Can be assembled or disassembled in minutes,
Extremely lightweight,
Few moving parts,
Boiler requirements are minimal,
Can run in any position like an electric motor.

Very small profile for economy of space.

May be variably configured for desired power vs speed requirements.
Utilizes modern materials and methods previously not applied to steam power.
Highly versatile and elegantly simple.
Your comments here.
Robert Green
2337 B Avenida Sevilla
Laguna Woods, CA 92637
Email: (mailto:rgreen999@L
PH. 949 581 2529
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Directory:Hortong Electron Orbit Energy Generator

From PESWiki

HORTONG is an electronic circuit that when connected to an electrical system is said to increase its efficiency
considerably. Works for AC or DC.
HORTONG (E=mc2) is a new process of transformation of energy with no need to use radioactive material to
obtain the loosening of energy of the orbit of the electron.
Apparently based on the work of Myron L. Evans, who may be working with the company. It is an energy from
mass concept.

This is a new page. You are welcome and invited to help us expand its contents. Once the page has
become more mature and adequately populated, this notice can be removed.
Official Website - In Spanish
Spanish-to-English Translation of Site
Translation by AltaVista
page (
HORTONG, generator of the orbit of the
electron ( - Explanatory page.
Photos (
Power(R) ( - Basically a power factor correction technology.
Power ( - Quantum Power Fuel and Diesel engine is electronic systems of
magnetic orientation with the following qualities: It increases the engine power; The fuel mixture
improves the combustion when {ordering}; It increases the yield of the electrical system.
Medic ( - fortifies the field of surrounding energy to the human with but
recent body and the outpost power technology by means of electromagnetic frequency.
Energy ( - regular panel installation service.
Hortong ( - a device optimizer of direct current, used for demonstration of the
operation of the Hortong circuit, taking advantage of to the maximum the generated energy.
Light ( - is used to replace ballasts in lamps of public lighting system, with
sodium steam centers to high pressure, with powers from 150 to 400 Watts. Besides to diminish the
consumption of electrical energy considerably.

HORTONG, electron orbit energy generator
HORTONG, generator of the orbit of the
electron (
%2fserv01.htm) - translated by AltaVisa from; with editorial clean-up by Sterling
D. Allan

[This technology] presents an important alternative to the generation problems and transformation of electrical
energy that faces humanity at this time. HORTONG is an electronic circuit that when connected to an electrical
system is said to increase its efficiency considerably.
The design of this electronic circuit is special for each application and power, not mattering that are systems of
direct current (CD) or alternating current (CA).
Father of the contemporary Physics, the Dr Albert Einstein, in one of his theories says to us that it is possible to
obtain great amounts of energy being started off of small amounts of mass (E=mc2), but never said or assured that
the fission or nuclear fusion was the only means to obtain it. HORTONG (E??=mc2) is a new process of
transformation of energy with no need to use radioactive material to obtain the loosening of energy of the orbit of
the electron.
The atomic theory demonstrates that a kilogram of mass contains ninety thousand trillions of Joules, to 1 kg =
9.0x1015 J, and if we transformed that kilogram of mass into Watts-hour we have by each kilogram of mass
twenty-five billion KiloWatts-hour, 1 kg = 2.5x1010 KWH.
In our circuits of low power we used 10 mg of mass gallium-cuarzo silicio-germanium-arcenuruio; those 10 mg of
mass give to two hundred fifty million KiloWatts-Hora (250000,000 to us KWH) and if we used this circuit to feed
a motor on a KW of consumption, it will be in continuous operation during 28.530 years, (E=mc2), (E??=m c2).
This one investigation is well situated to count as an economically profitable, viable power alternative. There ist still
much to research and development remaning, but already we have seen some circuits that have had good results,
obtaining substantial savings of energy.
[amount not given]
<<end of excerpt>>

KeelyNet Comments
The following statements were posted at Jerry Decker's
Stefan Hartmann writes "Adolf Schneider (from Net-Journal Magazine) in Switzerland is holding a conference with
these guys from et3m soon. They want to be distributor for Switzerland (Europe) for this technology. Until the
conference they keep all other things quiet," he wrote. / Myron W. Evans work, focuses on atomic level physics,
including "development of energy ex vacuo, theory and patented devices, and the theory of general unified field
theory of sub atomic particles, with applications to nuclear waste stabilization." (Looking at the Free Energy Chip
image which shows 4 disconnected meters, then 4 connected meters attached to a 'black box' which is apparently
intended to operate the two AC fans. I doubt the 'black box' is extracting AC from the vacuum unless it is rectified
and stored as DC to be fed into an internal INVERTER circuit which would provide 60hz for the fan motors.
Unfortunately, the site provides no details as to power produced or components used. - JWD)

03/27/06 - Free Energy Chip
I received this information from Duncan at Nexus Magazine. {...}
The theoretical concepts behind the invention seem to be originating from research by a man named Myron Evans.
He is said to have finally come up with a unified field theory, basing his own research on Einstein and Elie Cartan.
Here's a website, that discusses him:
It seems that the invention has come a long way, definitely not out of nowhere.
There's a company, that is currently drumming up people worldwide to throw in venture capital into this, named
EAVCF/Euro-American Venture Capital Federation, based in Oregon, USA.
The colleagues from Net Journal (, a magazine around all things with free
energy, seem to be heavily involved in the European marketing. They could probably tell you more. They might
also be knowledgeable about where you could find a contact in the Southern Hemisphere.

Free Energy Chip - Refutation of Evans claims &
comments/notes (
Tecnolo'gica Company of the Third Mexico Millenium. (et3m)
Balearic Islands # 110-A, Col. Lindavista, C.P. 37300, LEON, Gto. MEXICO
International calls Telephone and Fax:+52(477)-773-78-05
Calls within the Mexican Republic: (477)-773-78-05
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Directory:Rauen Environmental Heat Engine

From PESWiki
A Top 100 Technology

Environmental Heat Engine

The Superclassical heat engine of Ken Rauen is designed to be able to tap the heat of the environment as its heat
source. It is based upon the experimental evidence of the Proell effect, a macroscopic Maxwells Demon.

Official Website
None yet. This present index page is the most thorough coverage available so far as we know.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics (2LT) has never been proven to be universal, that heat transformations
must always go "downhill" or create entropy. The presumed universality of the 2LT is based upon a statistical truth,
a description of particle collisions based upon the kinetic theory of heat (KTH).
Not all particle collisions need be random. When a series of particle collisions has a net motion in any direction,
it is called work, such as when a gas moves a piston. Piston motion need not be present for work to occur.
Heat is transferred from a low temperature via particle collisions to a higher temperature without energy input,
relying just upon elastic collisions according to the KTH, with work as the transfer medium, when a gas is displaced
through a regenerator under constant volume conditions; this is the Proell effect.
The patented engine cycles apply this phenomenon. In constant volume displacement cooling, part of the engine
is refrigerated without work input, and this internal heat sink is used to advantage. The waste heat flows of the
engine fall into this sink and are recycled to the high temperature of the engine in the next cycle. Depending on how
the displacement and regeneration are done, either partial or complete recycling is accomplished.
Carnot's Theorem, the mathematical equation of theoretical maximum engine efficiency determined by a ratio of
the highest and lowest absolute temperatures of an engine, and based upon the statistical mechanics of the 2LT, is
sidestepped, allowing higher engine efficiencies, and even the use of ambient heat as the heat input.
The patent shows practical application in definitive cycles with some mechanical embodiment, and the mathematical
proofs show the full thermodynamic analysis with state variables, enough to satisfy the most rigorous academic
-- Ken Rauen, June 28, 2004

NERL Prototype Engine

An engine was built in 2001 at New Energy Research Laboratory, in Bow, New Hampshire. It resembles a Stirling
engine. Funding was small, the engine was designed by Ken who is just a chemist, and mechanical problems
prevented its full operation. Promising data was obtained, as seen in the pressure plot of the engine. The cycle is a 3-
step cycle, and the pressure fluctuations

The Science Behind the Invention
The non-random thermal energy transfer of the Proell effect circumvents the thermal randomness basis of the
Second Law. The constant volume process with displacement and regeneration has heretofore unrecognized energy
flows. The Stirling engine doesnt have a net Proell effect because there are two constant volume steps that cancel
each other. The Superclassical has only one constant volume step. The cycle is constant volume cooling, adiabatic
compression, and constant pressure expansion. More heat is recycled in the constant cooling stroke than classical
thermo recognizes. Carnot is exceeded. Math proofs with state variables are available.
Carnot Excedence -- Patent and Mathematical
Proofs ( (by Kenneth Rauen) - Super-efficient
thermodynamic exchange possible.
15-page Primer by Ken
Rauen (
.doc) - Above and Beyond Carnot: How and why Carnot's Theorem can be circumvented. Low
temperature heat sources may be efficiently converted to work, and environmental heat can run heat
A Mathematical Proof of Carnot Excedence: Number
3 (
nt.doc) (doc) - "This proves Carnot can be exceeded."
A Mathematical Proof of Carnot Excedence: Number
5 (
nt.doc) (doc) - "This proves 100% efficiency is possible"

US Patent
Ken was awarded US patent number 6,698,200 B1: Efficiency thermodynamic
engine (
bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=ptxt&s1=6,698,200&OS=6,698,200&RS=6,698,200) for the
Superclassical engine (SCE). (Download


The present invention relates to thermodynamic heat engines, in particular to improve efficiency
thermodynamic heat engines of at least three cycle steps.
A novel thermodynamic engines including a piston operating on a compressible fluid in a thermally insulated
volume, which also includes a movable displacer which selectively divides the internal volume between a
warm and a cold side, and a regenerator through which the fluid from the selectively divided volume passes
and transfer its heat to or receives heat from, wherein the piston and displacer are each periodically moved in
various complex motions according to the present invention to provide efficiency higher than Carnot
efficiency. The resulting novel structures and methods, generally referred to as "Superclassical Cycle"
engines, incorporate constant volume cooling and aspects of the "Proell Effect" (relative to cooling) to
achieve improved efficiencies wherein the gas temperature on the cold side of a fluid displacer is below the
lowest regenerator temperature due to "self-refrigeration." Thus according to the apparatus and methods
according to the present invention, the traditional principals of the Second Law is further refined and higher
operating efficiencies achieved.

Proell Effect Infinite Energy Article
The best description of the Proell effect is found in the publication of the research in Infinite Energy magazines
Issue 52 (

Present Disposition
Ironically, September 11th, 2001 ended the funding for the SCE. Since then, all hands-on work has stopped. Ken
continues independent theoretical work and designs new mechanical configurations. Better mechanisms are ready
for prototyping, but funding and facilities are not currently available.
Commercialization is possible, despite the invention still being deep in R&D. The science is done and the basic
technologies have been identified and are low tech. Other patents can be filed for the technology. Good
mechanical engineering and business administration are the biggest needs.

Related Inventions by Rauen
Ken Rauen has other inventions that are Second Law-breakers, some of them experimentally verified. The details
are too lengthy to be enumerated here. One worth a short mention is another version of the SCE that does not run on
ambient heat, but instead can be used with a passive solar collector at an estimated 50% efficiency.
Related Inventions/Concepts by Others

Ghosh Energy from Atmospheric Heat - Pranab Jyoti Ghosh seeks assistance for building a working
prototype of a technology that would produce electricity from atmospheric heat, based on combining a
number of well-proven concepts.

Maxwell's Pressure Demon and the Second Law of

Thermodynamics ( - John Marshall Dudley
describes his solid-state experiments in extracting electricity from temperature differentials -- from the
molecular motion of molecules of air. "Maxwell's demon - An imaginary creature who is able to sort hot
molecules from cold molecules without expending energy..." (Infinite Energy; Mar/Apr, 2006)

US 7019412 -- Power generation methods and

systems ( - A closed loop system
for generating mechanical energy at high efficiencies. The system can have a heating source, a superheater,
an expander, a receiver, an absorber, a desorber, and regenerator with pumps and controls. The superheater
heats a working fluid (a refrigerant or steam). A positive liquid/vapor expander expands a low temperature
refrigerant, or steam vapor to the saturated state (having both liquid and vapor parts) utilizing a low-pressure
sub-atmospheric exhaust sink. An absorber, generates a low-pressure sub-atmospheric sink using
chemosorption which involves the exothermic reaction/absorption of ammonia refrigerant in water. The
desorber is used to reconstitute inlet vapor (for reuse) and the regenerator recovers heat generated by
chemosorption. The system can meet electrical power needs for residences, businesses or office buildings.
The system can supply electrical energy to power grids, and can be an alternative power generation plants.
(Issued Mar. 28, 2006)
Bio of Ken Rauen
Ken Rauen - bio page (
Ken Rauen can be reached at He will be attending the American Association for the
Advancement of Science Pacific Division annual meeting in San Diego in June, where there will be a symposium on
the Second Law of Thermodynamics. If opportunity arises from lecture cancellations, he will present a paper or two.
[link to]
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Directory:Revetec Cam-Drive Engine

From PESWiki
A Top 100 Technology

The Revetec cam-drive engine uses a pair of counter-rotating scissor cams instead of a crankshaft. The result is three
times more torque than a conventional engine, and an overall engine efficiency up to 50% more.
REVETEC Limited is a design engine company and developer of the "Controlled Combustion Engine" (CCE). The
CCE is an internal combustion engine that is lighter, cleaner and more powerful than equivalent conventional
engines, and cheaper to manufacture, due to fewer components.
Table of contents
1 About
1.1 Official Website
1.1.1 Images
1.1.2 Revetecs Worldwide
1.2 Engine Description
1.3 Advantages
1.4 Patents
1.5 Validations
1.6 Applications
1.7 Manufacturing
1.8 Licensing
1.9 In the News
1.11 Contact
2 See also
This is a new page. You are welcome and invited to help us expand its contents. Once the page has
become more mature and adequately populated, this notice can be removed.
Official Website
Description (
Revetec Engine Design (
History of Revetec (
Company Overview (
Investor Info (
News (
Contact (]
Gallery (
Videos (
3D rendering (
in crank case (
finished engine (
dropping engine into car (

Revetecs Worldwide clients/partners
Orbital (
Hudson (
Pushkaraj Enterprises (
Engine Description

The REVETEC Engine design consists of two counter-rotating trilobate (three lobed) cams geared together,
so both cams contribute to forward motion. Two bearings run along the profile of both cams (four bearings in
all) and stay in contact with the cams at all times. The bearings are mounted on the underside of the two inter-
connected pistons, which maintain the desired clearance throughout the stroke.
The two cams rotate and raise the piston with a scissor-like action to the bearings. Once at the top of the
stroke the air/fuel mixture is fired. The expanded gas then forces the bearings down the ramps of the cams
spreading them apart ending the stroke. The point of maximum mechanical advantage or transfer is around
10deg ATDC (the piston moving approximately 5% of its travel) making the most of the high cylinder
This compares to a conventional engine that reaches maximum mechanical advantage around 40deg ATDC.
(after the piston has moved through 40% of its travel, losing valuable cylinder pressure). The effective
cranking distance is determined by the length from the point of bearing contact to the centre of the output
shaft (NOT the stroke).
The dual bearings contact the two cams in the opposite side which cancels the side forces out. The piston
assembly does not experience any side force which will reduce wear and lubrication requirements at the
cylinder contact. This also reduces piston shock to a negligible amount making ceramic technology suitable.
One module which comprises of a minimum of five moving components, produces six power strokes per
revolution. Increasing the number of lobes on each cam to five produces ten power strokes without increasing
the number of components.
See also
Revetec Engine Design (
Theory (
Summaries of CCE advantages are as follows:
approximately one quarter the size and weight of a conventional engine (for similar applications) combined
with improved output substantially increases power/weight and torque/weight ratio.
fewer moving and total components. As a result of fewer components, more easily manufactured than
conventional engines.
identical cylinder head assembly (top end) to conventional engines. Most existing head technology can be
either adapted or utilised.
Flexible design - can be four-stroke, two-stroke, petrol, diesel or gas, natural of forced aspiration.
Eliminated irregularly reciprocating components such as connecting rods.
Output shaft can be run in either direction if multilobed cams with symmetrical lobes are employed.
All rotational forces are counteracted via the counter rotating cam eliminates the need for a heavy
Torque and power output can be varied using a fixed capacity and piston stroke.
The CCE can be designed to operate at greatly reduced operating speeds while delivering high torque
Substantial reduction in stroke reduces heat loss through cylinder wall.
Extended piston dwell is possible because engine design allows a lower than normal compression ratio to be
used reducing power loss from compression cycle.
Maximum mechanical advantage can be applied to output shaft at only 10 degrees ATDC utilising high
cylinder pressure early in the stroke, compared to around 60 degrees ATDC for conventional engines.
Lower emissions can be achieved due to increased control over combustion.

Extremely low idle speed due to increase in mechanical efficiency at the top of the stroke.
Little or no bore contact/piston side thrust, which reduces wear on cylinder bore.
Can have different port timing on compression stroke than power stroke allowing better control two-stroke).
Lower centre of gravity.
Due to controlled piston acceleration rates the CCE reduces engine vibration.
A hollow output shaft can be utilised for specialty applications, such as peristaltic pumps.
Revolution Engine Technologies Pty Limited (a wholly owned subsidiary of Revetec Limited) holds patents or has
made patent applications for the CCE design in 21 countries, including the United States of America, Europe,
Australia, China, the United Kingdom and Japan. The beneficial ownership of the patents and patent applications
was assigned to Revetec on 14 September 2005. (Ref. (
Engine Testing Progress Report Dec. 2005 (
"Leap had conducted an independent analysis which shows that the REVETC CCE engine can produce about three
times the torque compared to a conventional engine with crankshaft for a given piston pressure profile."
from revetec website
The advantages of Revetecs engine technology can be applied to most internal and external combustion engines for
use in motor vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, pumps and generators, light aircraft engines, diesel and marine
The CCE integrates well with existing power plants and can utilise almost all existing engine technology with
increased efficiency.
The CCE engine is extremely well suited for high torque applications such as generators, machinery and light
Revetec has completed its design on its prototype, which could now be adapted by our customers to meet their
specific requirements. (Ref (
"The Company now (2003) has a Joint Venture Agreement with Osman to produce engines in China in the near
future." (Ref (
"Revetecs business model is simple it proposes to licence its technologies to combustion engine producers
In the News
Big Shot ( - One of India's largest industrial conglomerates and car
manufacturers, the Mahindra Group, will test a new-generation, which may lead to its
commercialisation.(The Australian; Mar. 29, 2006)
Motorists to Benefit From Revetecs new Engine
Design ( (Australian Investor subscription
required) [copy on company site (]
Fuel-saving breakthrough ( - (Sydney Sunday Telegraph October, 2
Enter your comments here.
REVETEC Holdings Limited
ACN: 115 621 317
PO Box 8203

Gold Coast Mail Centre

Gold Coast QLD
Australia 9726
Phone International: +61 7 5531 6059
Fax International: +61 7 5531 6997
Email (
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From PESWiki

SunCone Solar Energy Thermal Concentration System

Made of an aluminized film (e.g. nylon or Mylar) with a transparent film over the end facing the sun, the SunCone,
by Barnabus Energy, maintains its shape through air pressure. The system is expected to be less expensive and
labor-intensive than standard parabolic dish or trough design and require less precise placement.
Table of contents
1 About
1.1 Official Website
1.2 Overview
1.3 Disadvantage
1.4 Patent
1.5 Advantages
1.6 Prototype
1.7 Product Details
1.7.1 Alternative
1.8 Cost
1.9 In the News
1.10 Contact
2 See also
Official Website
Focusing solar energy to high intensity can provide high temperatures at the target (focal point) in order to
drive high-efficiency heat engines. Parabolic trough reflectors have been used effectively in this role.
Parabolic dish mirrors can achieve even higher temperatures.
The problem with parabolic dish mirrors is that considerable precision is required in their construction and
maintenance. The mirror facets are fairly expensive to manufacture. Each facet (approximately one square meter)
must be mounted on a very rigid structure and must be precisely aligned to keep the sun's image on the target. About
once a week, each mirror must be re-aligned. For a 100 square meter dish (1 m 2 per facet), 100 mirrors must be
realigned. Realignment can be done by electronically-controlled actuators, but that requires two motors per mirror
facet in addition to sophisticated electronics, thus adding to the expense of the solar collector.
Another problem with parabolic dish reflectors is that they have been known to start fires in grass when
accidentally pointed in the wrong direction. They can also cause damage to human eyes if the mirror points in
a direction that causes sunlight reflection toward a person or if the person looks at the target (focal point).
A new system called Suncone provides an inexpensive method of producing high-temperature solar energy
collection using plastic films. Figure
1 ( shows an artist's
conception of the Suncone solar collector. Like the parabolic dish, it must be pointed toward the sun but

requires less precision than a parabolic dish or parabolic trough. Air pressure within the enclosure maintains
rigid configuration.
The problem with this design is that the entire cone is supported by its narrow end. Thus, wind could easily blow the
cone to the side. If guy wires are used, they tend to crumple the narrow part of the cone.
U.S. Patent 4,267,824 (
bool.html&r=5&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=ptxt&s1=4,267,824&OS=4,267,824&RS=4,267,824) describes an
inflatable solar concentrator that consists of a flexible material inflated to the shape of a cone with a transparent end
covering. Internal air pressure maintains the shape.
Less expensive than other solar concentrators.
Lighter weight.
Produces high temperatures, similar to parabolic dish collectors.
Does not require a boom to support a target at the focal point.
Requires less precision in sun orientation than solar dishes or troughs.
Less likely to be damaged by large hailstones.
Higher efficiency than parabolic trough collectors.
Inexpensive to replace plastic films if damaged.
Unlikely to start fires on the ground, in contrast to parabolic dish mirrors.
Brightly-lit target areas are shielded from human eyes.
Suncone, with regular cones and conical metal reflectors, can achieve about 2,000 C. But operating at 600
C, its solar collection efficiency is about 90%, depending on the geometry.
The cones in Suncone do not have to be precisely constructed. Minor flaws are insignificant. Computer
simulations were run with SUNCONE in which numerous perturbations of up to a half-centimeter were
applied to the cone surface randomly. The energy reaching the target rod was still above 90% of what a
perfect cone would provide. The mirror facets on a parabolic mirror must be precise.
The prototype is approximately 2 meters long with a 1.5-meter radius at the wide end.
Barnabus Energy Announces SunCone Achieves Critical
Milestone ( - Barnabus Energy,
Inc. is pleased to announce that its principal contractor on the Suncone project, HYTEC, Inc. of Los
Alamos, NM, has achieved a significant milestone in its first phase of work: The construction of the first
full-scale prototype, and commencement of engineering analysis. (MarketWire; Feb. 27, 2006)
Product Details
In Suncone, the cones consist of thin aluminized Mylar, Nylon or other film. Instead of having air pressure
inside the cone to maintain its shape, air pressure is applied inside a cylindrical enclosure. The conical shape
of the interior cones is maintained by tension on the film, since air pressure is pushing upward on the end of
the unit. The pressure inside and outside each cone is the same. Air pressure maintains the cylindrical shape
of the enclosure, which also consists of a strong plastic. The transparent films that cover the ends of the cones
are made of clear plastic, such as Tefzel, which has a transparency of 96%, a tensile strength of over 30,000
psi, is UV resistant, and can tolerate weather for decades. Since Tefzel is rather expensive, other suitable
films may be used.
Figure 2 ( shows a cross-
sectional schematic of one embodiment of Suncone. The insides of the cones are aluminized for high
reflectivity. The outsides of the cones are coated by flat black, which radiates heat well. Computer
simulations show that the cone material remains cool, since the inside reflective layer allows little solar
energy to enter the plastic, but the outside black layer radiates the heat away. The enclosure should be clear so
that it allows the radiant energy to pass through or should be black plastic or coated with flat black so that it

absorbs the radiant heat from the cones and radiates the heat away on the outside. Since the surface of the
enclosure is parallel to the sun's rays, it does not get hot from direct sunshine.
The sun's rays are concentrated on the target rod, which may have channels inside for the flow of water or
other working fluid. The target rod should have a cylindrical glass tube around it to reduce convective heat
loss, and the glass tube should be evacuated. Since the rod will get quite hot, it is surrounded by a metal
reflector. The plastic cone is attached to the metal reflector with an insulating connector. The metal reflector
and the target rod are attached to the base, which is shown as a solid circular cylinder, but it may be any
suitable assembly of metal beams. The structure does not have to be as robust at that of a parabolic dish, since
it does not have to be as rigid and since it does not have to support a long metal boom that holds a heavy
target at the end. In Suncone, the heat absorption is located adjacent to the base. (Some important details of
the construction are not shown in these figures).
Figure 3 ( shows a top-view
schematic of Suncone with seven cones. Note the spaces between the cones that appears to be wasted area for
solar energy collection. The cones could be extended so that the total area is used, but the upper end would
not be circular, which would not hurt the performance but would make construction more expensive.
The evacuated glass tubes that surround the target rod not only improve efficiency by reducing heat loss, but
they also prevent hot convective air currents from flowing from the target rods to the plastic films.
Figures 2 and 3 show schematics of assemblies that have only a few cones. If the cones are 2 meters (6.56
feet) long with a radius of 1.5 meters at the upper end, it would require 7 cones to provide a total of 50m2 of
solar collection. This would be similar to the arrangement of Figure 3 with a central cone surrounded by 6
other cones. Of course, more cones can be added.
For photovoltaic applications, the rods could be larger in diameter and coated with photovoltaic films. The
metal reflector might also be covered with photovoltaic films and would be conical in shape. The
concentration of light would provide higher energy collection per unit area of photovoltaic material.
It should be noted that the target rods are completely shielded from ground observers, so that eye damage to
passersby is impossible. If Suncone is accidentally pointed toward the ground, it will not be pointed toward
the sun, so that it cannot start a grass fire. A parabolic reflector, on the other hand, can intercept sunlight even
when it is not pointed directly toward the sun, and the reflected light can ignite fires on the ground. Suncone
units could be mounted in parking lots above cars to generate electricity for nearby buildings without concern
for the safety of people or property below them. They could also be mounted on tops of buildings. Engineers
would be reluctant to place parabolic reflectors in these locations.
For high wind conditions, cables or cords extending from the base to the top can be reeled in to draw the top
downward while the air pressure is reduced. The plastic film portion of the unit would be withdrawn into a
sturdy cylinder surrounding the lower part of the enclosure to shield against the wind. Even if the plastic
materials are destroyed, they are inexpensive to replace.
Alternative Designs
The design illustrated in Figure
5 ( would encase each cone
with a cylindrical plastic film enclosure. Air pressure would be supplied to each enclosure, which would
ensure that the cone is tight and circular. The enclosure would sustain the force produced by the air pressure
on the clear window, thus eliminating large stress on the narrow end of the cone.
Each of these units, incorporating the enclosure, cone, transparent window, and base sheet could be
manufactured in a factory and assembled onto the base in the field. After each unit is installed, it would be
attached to adjacent units by adhesive or Velcro. An additional enclosure film could be wrapped around the
entire assembly. External and internal tether cords or cables (guy wires) will maintain structural stability.
Figure 6 ( is an embodiment
of the Suncone in which the sunrays are reflected into a hohlraum cavity, in which the target rod is placed.
The interior walls of the hohlraum chamber are coated with a light-absorbing layer. It absorbs solar energy
and becomes hot. The cooling fluid that flows through the target rod can also flow through channels in the
hohlraum chamber wall to be heated. Alternatively, the fluid can flow through pipes (not shown) that are
welded to the outside of the hohlraum chamber. A hohlraum chamber tends to trap radiant heat. Some of the
radiation from the wall on one side is radiated to the opposite wall or to the target rod. Likewise, much
radiation from the target rod flows to the chamber walls. Insulation (not shown) on the outside of the chamber
prevents loss of heat.
The advantage of this embodiment is that it is quite insensitive to the accuracy of a tracking mechanism that
points the device toward the sun. In this design, the cone is divided into two reflective film cone frustums in

order to more closely match an exponential generatrix for the collector shape. A circumferential rigid ring
holds the reflective cone frustums in place. The top of the upper cone frustum is held in place by air pressure
on the transparent cover (not shown, but like that in Figure 2). The bottom of the lower cone frustum is
connected to the metal reflector, whose shape is defined by an exponential generatrix. Reflected sunlight
passes through a glass window, which has the purpose of reducing convective heat losses. The cavity can be
evacuated for further reduction in heat losses.
Hydro-Tech quoted the price for their aluminized Mylar, with a reflectivity of 0.95, at 20 cents per square
foot. The material cost for the cones in the above example of a 50-m2collector would be under $100.
Transparent windows would cost $500. The enclosure and other plastic materials would cost $800. Total cost
for plastic materials is $1,400.
The metal reflectors can be thin polished aluminum. In mass production, they can be pressed into shape, so
that the cost for seven of them would be $400. The table below provides an estimate to the cost of a
completed Suncone unit with 50 square meter solar collecting area.
Plastic materials $1,400
Stainless steel target rods and piping 700
Base structural materials 600
Metal reflectors 400
Hohlraum chambers 400
Pivot and foundation support 1,500
Miscellaneous hardware 800
Assembly (mass production) 1,100
Total $6,900

This would provide an efficient solar collecting system with a cost of $139 per square meter of collection
area. This does not include the cost of a sun-tracking system. Presently, trough collectors (which are not as
efficient as Suncone collectors) are running at about $250 per square meter, and dish collectors are about
$400 per square meter.
In the News
Inflatable SunCone boosts efficiency and lowers
price (;jsessionid=F6EF23ECE5BF2C562168
392B6538368A?id=44308) - Made of an aluminized film (e.g. nylon or Mylar) with a transparent film over
the end facing the sun, the SunCone, by Barnabus Energy, maintains its shape through air pressure.
(Renewable Energy Access; Mar. 9, 2006)
Barnabus Energy Announces SunCone Achieves Critical
Milestone ( - Barnabus Energy,
Inc. is pleased to announce that its principal contractor on the Suncone project, HYTEC, Inc. of Los
Alamos, NM, has achieved a significant milestone in its first phase of work: The construction of the first
full-scale prototype, and commencement of engineering analysis. (MarketWire; Feb. 27, 2006)
Barnabus Energy, Inc.
514 Via de la Valle, Suite 200
Solana Beach, California 92075
Investor Relations 1-800-250-2610
See also

- Other Directory listings

- PESWiki home page
Retrieved from ""

Directory:Walter Torbay's Magnetic Transgenerator

From PESWiki

Magnetic Transgenerator prototype shown powering a light.

Inventor from Argentina presents a free energy device via the repelling (ricochet) power of magnets, the deviation
of the lines of magnetic force, and a complex mechanical system for controlling the acceleration, speed and power.
"It generates energy stable, free, does not contaminate the [environment], does not need maintenance, lasts [a
long] time, the power source is not degraded and works as much in mainland, the air, under the air or in the
deep space". (Ref.)
The device is alleged to be quiet, with very low friction, hence low maintenance, so that it could run for 50 years
without inturruption.
Present disposition unknown, and not stated on company website.
Table of contents
1 About
1.1 Official Website
1.1.1 English
1.2 Applications
1.3 Patent
1.4 Mechanism
1.5 Prototypes
1.6 In the News
1.6.1 2006 =
1.6.2 Pre 2006
1.7 Inventor
1.8 Contact
2 See also
This is a new page. You are welcome and invited to help us expand its contents. Once the page has
become more mature and adequately populated, this notice can be removed.
Official Website (is in Spanish)
English Translation
Translation of web pages by Google
Home Page of ICYTI -- Independent Scientific Investigations and
Technologies (
Photos of
Prototypes (
Media coverage of the technology from 2004 -
2006 (

Intentions (
ERIADEFOTOS.htm&langpair=es%7Cen&hl=en&ie=UTF8) - Objective is to improve the quality of
human life by collaborating with local scientists, and to dissemanating the knowledge to any nation,
municipal organization, university, scientific organization, or non governmental organization.
motive power for automobiles, airplanes, boats, submarines
illuminate cities
Patented in Argentina in August of 2004 and with international patent "in proceeding". Called "magnetic
transgenerador" and works by ricochet "taking advantage of the magnetic property equal poles and the deviation of
lines of magnetic force", said the investigator.
(Ref. (
The system uses Neodymium magnets of 24,000 Gauss, and allegedly can generate 2,500 watts.
The generator uses a principle similar to the one of the magnetic trains, although in these the magnetism is generated
in electrical form, whereas the one of Torbay uses the force of attraction of the magnet in rest, which is why the cost
of energy generation is null.

The first prototype was constructed in aluminum and was taken in 2004 to the Commission of Scientific (CIC) of
the Buenosairean government, where studies began on the invention. Conrado Gonzlez, member of the directory,
confirmed that the invention is consideration of this organism. A new prototype, made with rudimentary materials
but that have been serving to show the operation principle, were constructed for three months by Torbay and remain
in their factory-laboratory of Sea of the Silver.
(Ref. (
In the News
Media coverage of the technology from 2004 -
2006 (
ADEFOTOS.htm&langpair=es%7Cen&hl=en&ie=UTF8) - ICYTI compilation. Many of the links are
2006 =
Pre 2006
They invent a magnetic system to generate energy with cost
zero (
&ie=UTF8) - A scientist of Sea of the Silver invented a magnetic system that produces energy without cost,
since it does not use fuel some. He would have a cost of 150 dollars and "he would allow that a house is
supplied of electricity indefinitely". (Elonce; date not given [not current date, as shown])
Free and nonpolluting
energy (
en&ie=UTF8) - A group of scientists and Argentine investigators developed and patented a discovery that
consists of a complex device that would manage to transform magnetic energy into stable mechanical

energy. (Rio Negro; September 20, 2004)

obscured) (
hl=en&ie=UTF8) - The generator with cost zero invented by Walter Torbay is being reviewed for possible
referral to a scientific committee to certify or to analyze porqu of the operation (Laraz...; date not shown)
A system that produces energy without
costs (
=UTF8)' - It uses a type of artificial magnet, that could generate a force electrical of 2,500 watts. It was
designed in a humble factory. (Diariohoy; date not given)
Walter Daro Torbay, studied in the Industrial School of Sea of the Silver and he perfected himself in Industrial
Chemistry in the Silver, works with four collaborators in a humble factory of the marplatense periphery.
(Ref (
International Tel.: +54 0223 155-051220
.com (mailto:ICYTICONTACTO@YAHOO.COM.AR?subject=Torbay_magnetico_transgenerator_featured_at_PE
Site says to expect responses to take some time, as the number of inquiries is great.
See also
Directory:Magnet Motors

- Other Directory listings

- PESWiki home page
Retrieved from "'s_Magnetic_Transgenerator"

OS:CD Motor
From PESWiki

You are here: PESWiki > Open Source > CD Motor

CD Motor

CD Motor Open Source Project

This page concerns an experiment that was developed
between Sept 2001-2004 under the direction of Tim Harwood
in an Egroup. Inspired by the claims of Robert Adams and his Project home
exotic pulsed motor technology, it was widely replicated. What to Expect
Adams, living, is careful not to let others speak on his behalf, FAQ
so it should be made clear that the CD motor was developed Construction
wholly independently of Mr. Adams. Layouts
The motor instructions posted herein are compiled by Tim
Harwood from that project. He says that when followed they
will result in a motor that has been demonstrated to manifest
List (
unexplained thermal properties (i.e. drops in temperature
below ambient) and back-emf surges in excess of 80% of
input. However, none have yet been able to advance to the - Directory:CD Motor
point of having a self-running system with power left over to - Category:CD Motor
use. It it hoped with improved circuitry, core materials, and a - Adams Motor
240v apparatus input, the 100%-plus level can be achieved.
The adequacy of these plans now posted at PESWiki to provide sufficient information to build a replica as
described has not yet been verified by a successful replication. A version of the plans presented
elsewhere, did result in successful replications.
Table of contents
1 About

1.1 Overview

1.1.1 What to expect

1.1.2 Caution
1.1.3 Disclaimer
1.1.4 FAQ

1.2 Assembly

1.2.1 Layout
1.2.2 Construction
1.2.3 Alternative layouts
1.2.4 Circuitry

1.3 Replications
1.4 Discussion

1.5 Contacts

2 See also


What is unique about the CD Motor is that it was based upon a highly specific theory of operation, based
upon the in-register geometry Directory:CD Motor. While previous claims about exotic performance had
either been vague, or talked about the battery, the CD motor has always been highly specific. Based upon
this tight theory, the goal was to design actual apparatus than conformed to it, while being as cheap and
low cost as possible.


What to expect
OS:CD Motor What to expect
What should you be looking for after you have built the device?


ANY experimentation undertaken is performed ENTIRELY AT YOUR OWN RISK.


The CD Motor was developed wholly independently of Mr. Robert Adams.



Answers to the most frequently asked questions



The motor could be said to be roughly based upon a rule-of-5. That is to say the stator head should be
about 20% of the cross sectional area of the rotor pm face, and the magnet duty should be kept to about
20%, through the physical spacing of the pms on the rotor.

OS:CD Motor Construction
Assembly can be done cheaply and simply largely with household items.

Alternative layouts

OS:CD Motor Layouts

Three layouts proved especially popular with old Egroup members.

OS:CD Motor Circuitry
Various strategies can be used to pulse the motor each with different advantages.

OS:CD Motor old egroup replications

List a link to your replication from this PESWiki project.


Discussion List ( - created for this project at
Talk page for this project at PESWiki

Tim Harwood posted these instructions and designed the original experiment and ran the original egroup.
Emailed questions will be replied to by additions to the FAQ.
email: <timharwood {at}>

See also PESWiki:Contact


See also
Directory:Robert Adams

- Other Open Source Projects

- PESWiki main index
- PES Network Inc. (
Retrieved from ""
Categories: CD Motor

OS:Ross Motor
From PESWiki

Theoretical overunity motor design presented by Jim Ross, based on theories put forth by Tom Bearden.
Energy Shuttling and dq/dt blocking are the primary methods used.

Table of contents

1 About

1.1 Official Website

1.1.1 Introduction and Description


1.2.1 Not Likely to be Feasible

1.2.2 Fascinating

1.3 Contact

2 See also

This is a new page. You are welcome and invited to help us expand its contents. Once the page has
become more mature and adequately populated, this notice can be removed.

Official Website
An Exercise in Overunity Thinking ( - Objective: To
design a practical working overunity system primarily based on the theories put forth by
Tom Bearden. The main methods of achieving overunity are dm/dt (mass displacement
current) blocking and energy shuttling. Means used to perform these methods result in
other effects that enhance the systems performance.
Component Detail ( - materials required
Additional Thoughts ( - This design is
scalable and many configurations are possible. Originally a two motor shaft design was
conceived. This may be a good place to start.
Figures (


Introduction and Description

Quoting from

First and foremost I must say that this system is only theoretical and the closest that it has come to
being built is the virtual model shown above. This design is a compilation of other people's ideas
placed in, what is hopefully, an original package. The purpose of this site is to present this design to
the public so that it inspires thought and constructive criticism. If feedback proves the concepts
wrong, then I will scrap it and start over.

This is an examination of the two shaft version of my virtual free energy device. It uses many
principles, but relies heavily on dm dt mass charge blocking and energy shuttling to achieve over

The system has two shafts, with two motors on each shaft. A third shaft has rotary air gap switches
that are used for timing. All of the shafts are coupled together by way of belts and pulleys. Two of
the belts, in conjunction with their respective pulleys, are charge separators and act as the systems
source dipole. A large voltage is developed by the charge separator with a small but constant
current. The third belt insures that the motor shafts are timed properly with the rotary gap switches.

This configuration has been described as an electrostatic motor and has been demonstrated to work
while requiring very little current.

There are two types of current.. mass and massless. Mass current flow destroys the source dipole
and massless does not. Therefore it is permissible to have massless current flow through the source
circuit and it is undesirable to have mass current flow. It is not meaningless to have massless
current flow as it is converted to mass current upon reaching the load. Mass charge blocking and
massless current bridging is necessary for this system to achieve over unity. In this system, the
capacitor plates and lower rotors block the mass current from destroying the source dipole. When
charged, the capacitor plates would like nothing more than to have their charges come together and
be neutralized. Therefore they seek a path to one another in order to destroy the charge separation.
Of course this is contrary to what we are trying to accomplish. We wish to keep our source dipole
so that we may continue using it. However we will take advantage of this situation and satisfy the
capacitors desire to neutralize their charges by momentarily shorting the plates together by placing
the coil between their plates. The coil then develops a magnetic field not because of mass current

flow but because of the large E field across it. There will be some loss of energy due to mass
current flow but the source dipole will be mostly intact. The key is to develop as large of a
magnetic field in the shortest amount of time so that the energy can be bridged or shuttled from the
capacitor plates to the upper motor with minimal loss to the source dipole. Because of conservation
of energy, the shuttling process converts the capacitor E field into a magnetic field, which performs
work on the lower rotor, and then the conserved magnetic field is converted back to an E field to
perform work on the upper motor.


Not Likely to be Feasible

I have examined the disclosure on the Ross Motor. In terms of the interplay between the magnetics
and the electromotive forces generated: The conversion of power to/from the rotational motion by
the electromagnetic interplay would tend to be reasonably efficient, but there is no evidence that
one would derive more electrical energy coming out than going in. Further, as in any piece of
rotating machinery, there are unavoidable frictional losses, wherein the mechanical energy is
converted to heat. This contributes as well to a loss of efficiency of the motor. Thus, I would not
expect that one would derive any benefit from this type design.

Rotating and switching designs are common, but there is no evidence of an actual reduction of
magnetic field strength in the permanent magnets which would provide additional usable output
energy and hence produce an over-unity device. (Robert Indech, PhD PE, New Energy Congress
member; April 7, 2006)



Fascinating! It is complex enough that I don't understand it yet and likely will take awhile to get
through it. (Ken Rauen; April 7, 2006)


Jim Ross
email: jimross {at}

See also

- Other Open Source Projects

- PESWiki main index
- PES Network Inc. (
Retrieved from ""

OS:Bill Williams' Joe Cell

From PESWiki

Replication Project
In the first part of April, 2006, Bill Williams told a discussion list that he successfully tested a device
known as the Joe Cell. It allegedly feeds off Orgone energy and uses electrically charged water as the
"gate" or medium through which the aetheral energy is drawn from the surroundings and transferred to
the automobile engine. He was in process of disclosing how he accomplished this when confronted on
April 11 by two unidentified individuals who told him to cease all of his alternative energy work or there
would be dire consequences. Williams complied, but others involved are doing all they can to make sure
the information is republished and replicated widely.
See story at ( (Apr. 13,
The following index page is to link to the various pertinent resources.
If you have information relevant to this project, please feel free to help build this index page so that it is
as streamlined as possible: simple, clear, complete. This is a publicly editable site.
Table of contents

1 Project

1.1 Materials
1.2 Blueprints
1.3 Instructions
1.4 Replications

1.4.1 Functional Bill Williams Peter Stephens
36 James Wildman Joe

1.4.2 Building

1.5 Images
1.6 Videos
1.7 FAQ

1.7.1 Q. What size of tubes do you use?

1.7.2 Q. What kind of water do you use?
1.7.3 Q. How long do you charge the water?
1.7.4 Q. Must there be bubbles in the water?
1.7.5 Q. How will you know if the cell is

1.8 Supression Response

1.9 Theory
1.10 Discussion Lists
1.11 Assistance

2 See also


Replication Instructions ( - Group of pages is for
the purpose of documenting my experiences in building the experimental orgone accumulator
known as the "Joe Cell".
Joe Cell Material Requirements (
Charging Joe Cell Material Requirements (
JoeCell Methods and Materials (
Joe Cell Conversions Information (
Experimenter's Guide to the Joe Cell ( - booklet for sale;
also available in German translation. (NuTech2000)
PCV not recommended; try using aluminum tubing
[1] (


Blueprints for Joe Cell; Revision

5 (
Cell_rev5_Apr14_2006.pdf) (pdf) - Current as of April 14, 2006.
Joe Cell blueprints; rev. 5 ( - alt copy (Apr

14, 2006)


In process of posting; not yet complete.
Silver Solder is okay. Would be better than running leads in the cell as they produce a feild and only
allow the top of the cell to produce Joe energy bubbles. Alternatively, put a hole in the centre bottom of
the container cell. Machine or weld a plate and bolt on to the centre cathode. Seal with sikaflex 291
Marine grade and seating washers (knife cutting board teflon type material). Connect the negative onto
the bolt and tighten to earth on the vehicle. Put the lid on and start.
[2] (
Download ( (link not functioning?) - Description:
Joe Cell design by Bill Williams, runs a car without any fossil fuel; Filename: BILL.pdf; Filesize:
62.44 KB

post here


Bill Williams
Had operational truck running on Joe Cell with tremendous power. Was visited by two men who told him
to stop all alt energy activities. He complied, destroying his lab notes, etc. See story at ( (Apr. 13, 2006).
Ford Test Drive ( - Bill describes how his
Ford performed with the Joe Cell. "It the throttle response was very crisp or touchy. With about a
1/8" of movement the next thing I new I was booking at close to 80 mph. If I lifted of ever so
slightly on the throttle and it felt like I was putting the brakes on and the speed would drop down
to 30 mph or so." (Apr 6, 2006)
"Yes" ( - Bill's answer to question: "have
you been threatened by men touting guns". (Apr 11, 2006)

Peter Stephens
John Carter said he took a ride the other day in a Ford Econovan that Peter Stephens converted to run on
a Joe Cell. He said the car "rocketed up the hill" it had so much power.
(Ref (
James Wildman
my joe cell ( - "the truck has twice its
normal power, ...but will not yet run on the cell alone" (Apr 12, 2006)
Re: my joe cell ( - "Posted pics of my test
cell in jim's cells folder" (Apr 12, 2006)
I suggest that we could use the phenomenom of the cell's overexpansion of water as a method of
measuring acclamation of the engine.. IE, if you advance too far the cell will overexpand the water and
empty itself.. A few degrees back toward normal and its fine.. As the engine acclimates this threshold
should migrate toward advance until you can run on cell energy alone...
Interesting day with Joe ( - Peter describes
some unusual phenomena that Joe showed them. "You could even put your finger close to the
point of entry yet not be booted." (Apr 13, 2006)
RE: Interesting day with Joe ( - Damien
Holyoak describes more from the visit. (Apr 13, 2006)


Nick ( - mostly built (Apr 5, 2006)
[3] (
[4] (
Bernie Heere ( (Apr 6, 2006)
Brendon ( - intends to build (Apr 5, 2006)
JB Bob ( - Awaiting tubes. (Apr 6, 2006)
Brad ( - considering buying tubes from
NuTech (Apr 6, 2006) [5] (
Rob ( - getting the parts (Apr 7, 2006)
[6] (
Pat ( - intention (Apr 14, 2006)

post here
Photo Album at JoesCells2
Yahoo!Group ( - need to
join ( the list to access this feature. Joining is
automatic, not approval required.

post here


Q. What size of tubes do you use?

I have found using the 7"Tube lengths of 2"Cathode 2.5, 3, 3.5 works well and 10 to 12"length x 4"
Vessell Container works. I find all Joe Cells are working but not enough energy seems to come away in
the smaller cells. -- Peter [7] (

Q. What kind of water do you use?

Just use any water that you find handy. I precharge mine but have used spring water dam ater [??] bore
water and find that ground water works just fine. -- Peter
[8] (

Q. How long do you charge the water?

You have to only charge for three to ten minutes then take the positive lead off and allow vacuumn to do
her thing. -- Peter [9] (

Q. Must there be bubbles in the water?

Joe says we don't need the Bubbles. -- Peter [10] (


Q. How will you know if the cell is charged?

Possibly you'll know the cell is charged when hairs on the back of your kneck tell you. Try as you put the
back of your hand near the Cell and see if the hair lifts.
Bill could you check that on your Cell and others just to confirm but a voltage readout shows anywhere
from at rest pulsing 132-300milli Volts dc-13.5 V DC with Power on but generally you'll be earthed out
to the motor and chassis as your working around the Cell and wont notice it as your grounded not quiet
the same as a TV screen discharge just energy from the cathode.
A meter will discharge the cell. -- Peter [11] (

Supression Response
Comments in reply to the threats (
issued to Bill Williams.
Momentum on side of positive change ( -
Hamish Robertson encourages the Joe Cell revolution. "The status quo will change very quickly
when [Mr.] Average realises that the guy down the road is paying nothing for gas while he's
getting sucker punched for $400 bucks every moth." (Apr 12, 2006)
Re: Spooks and Horse$h1t ( - Daniel
Moeck joins discussion list out of rebellion to the supression of Bill Williams. (Apr 13, 2006)
I don't get it ( - why would they do that?
(Apr 14, 2006)
Re: We all hang together... ( - Bill Lang
says "The Hydrogen Economy begins at Home" and encourages the revolution for energy
independence from the big boy bullies. (Apr 14, 2006)
i heard what happen to bill william this is
terrible ( - "i hope i am not on the mib hit
list as well. i just published the 3rd book (http://www.e-
PB&Affiliate=pesnetwork&Category_Code=MP) which contain ideal reality of the joe cell in
machnical form ." (Apr 14, 2006)
Probably just mob ( - Kel says "It seems if
it was a government group they would flash some badges and claim "national security" reasons,
but they wouldn't threaten personal harm, only thugs do that." (Apr 14, 2006)
More back-up ( - "just renewing my web
site for the new cad drawings posted from bill and photos so soon have more locations" (Apr 14,


Works on Implosion ( - conjecture by Kyle
Talajic (Apr 14, 2006)

Discussion Lists
E-gas, was the original list where Bill Williams was posting his information, which was
discontinued by Yahoo.
Joe Cell Free Energy Device
Yahoogroups (
Joe's Cell 2 Yahoogroups ( - was started by Bill after
E-gas was shut down.
View Messages ( - commenced
April 4, 2006.
Last message (21) before Bill turned list posting
off ( "You might have NASA
knocking on your door" (Apr 8, 2006)
Peter restores list ( - "I have been
able to restore the site to fully operational lets get this moving" (Apr 11, 2006)
This PESWiki project page is
announced ( (Apr 14, 2006)

Peter, who is runnig a Ford Econovan using the Joe Cell, is glad to answer questions about how to build
one, and has agreed to help post a very clear set of plans for any who wish to do so.
He may be reached at ingnventor {at}
His skype username is ingventor
Helping Hand ( Peter says, "would anybody
need any help getting their Cell working I'm happy to look and make recomendations to improve

See also
Directory:Joe Cell
- Other Directory listings
- PESWiki home page
Retrieved from "'_Joe_Cell"
Categories: Joe Cells

Advanced Resonant Fields

Posted on Saturday, March 25, 2006 @ 23:47:37 PST by vlad

I have added a link to your website. Thank you for your assistance.
In addition to the announcement below, I have attached a very interesting article containing some of
the easy proof of the Resonant Field Theory.
Dr. Hait

[see "Corrected Quantum Mechanics and Relativity" doc in our Downloads section - Vlad]

If you understood how everything in universe worked, what fields could you revolutionize?
The first Russian/American International Seminar on Advanced Resonant Fields.

Introduction to Resonant Field Theory with special application to Photonic Computing.

April 25-27, 2006. On beautiful and tropical Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands, USA. Three hours
South of Tokyo.
The Resonant Field Theory is the first truly unified and easy-to-understand theory of everything.
This detailed set of seminars will cover the most recent and advanced science, combining Relativity with corrected
Quantum Mechanics. It will explain the fundamental mechanism of physics, and will answer many long-pending questions
including quantum gravity, antigravity, and quantized photonic computing.
Because of its fundamental nature, it is expected that it will have a direct effect on your particular field, because it
provides substantially better methods for more accurate subatomic measurements, and understanding of molecular
Because of its fundamental nature, Resonant Fields will have a great and global impact on science. Every school, every
business, and every high-paying position has competition. It exists, and you will have to deal with it. It's the real world.
So consider:

Could you wind up obsolete, even before your graduate? It's worth thinking about. It's worth checking
it out.... just in case. You've got a lot on the line. Logically, you will want to be first in line.
More information is provided, including a preview of some Resonant Field Theory evidence.
Complete details of the seminar itself, including pre-registration are available at http://www.resonant/.
Thanks for reading
Dr. John N. Hait
RFI Chief Scientist and Professor of Resonant Fields, http://www.r/.

Resonant Fields Seminar, April 25-27, 2006

Exciting Science Beyond Einstein.
Einstein died trying to complete his Unified Field Theory, a comprehensive, intuitive explanation of the
way everything in the universe operates... a Theory of Everything. Feynman longed for a basic
mechanism that would enable us to know not just "How the Earth moves around the Sun, but what makes

it go."
Discovery of that basic mechanism, Resonant Fields, has finally united all of physics into a
comprehensive, intuitive explanation of the way everything works... just like Einstein and Feynman
dreamed of. Thus, the Resonant Field Theory is expected to have a significant and immediate impact on
science, technology, education, commerce, and even society.
This breakthrough-discovery has already laboratory-proven that the resonant fields, of which everything
in the universe is made, violate the very foundation of Quantum Mechanics, namely Heisenberg's
Uncertainty Principle, by overwhelmingly demonstrating an organized deep-field reality, rather than a
random one. Sub-field interactions are not random as previously thought, but have been demonstrated to
be pseudorandom. Thus, they may appear random to humans but upon closer examination they are not.
Deep reality exists! And, has been shown to be quite deterministic strictly cause-and-effect like the rest
of science. Its been found that energy-flow patterns deep within atoms, light, gravity, and everything
else, are similar to the pseudorandom algorithms used to encrypt secret messages, where the order of
their precision activity, while convoluted, is concealed within their complexity. Thus our measurements,
our knowledge, and our understanding need no longer be limited by uncertainty but can become
precisely certain expanding our understanding of the processes and machinery of resonant fields.
And since everything has been shown to be composed of resonant fields we now have an open window
on everything!
Pseudorandom deep-reality finally reconciles an updated Quantum Mechanics and Relativity. It
uncovers the big mysteries of the 20th century like: quantum gravity, black holes, antigravity, action-at-
a-distance, subatomic interactions, electricity, magnetism, light, duality, quarks, strings, movement,
radioactivity, the universal speed limit, and the 5th dimension.
Now we understand why they are never uncertain about what they do, or how they do it. Unlike the
random (and now obsolete) quantum-mechanical underworld, real atoms, light, and gravity always get it
right and never forget how to do it!
Finally, the Resonant Field Theory explains that fundamental mechanism of physics in easy-to-
understand, intuitive terms... just like Einstein and Feynman longed for.
It means that we can now begin decrypting those natural energy-flow patterns to reveal their hidden
secret messages. Consequently, many age-old secrets that have held up science for years, are now being
revealed with certainty for the first time, by means of the Resonant Field Theory.
Everything has finally been Made Simple.
What could be more exciting?
Logically, Resonant Fields, Inc. has scheduled its first in-depth three-day seminar, April 25-27, 2006 in
Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, USA. Details are on the web at,
click seminars.
The advanced text Resonant Fields, the fundamental mechanism of physics made easy to understand.
Click on products.
To facilitate international cooperation and understanding, RFI is also seeking volunteers to translate the
entire 3 days into Russian. Persons with a good command of both scientific languages will be
appreciated by all.
Please forward this to your colleagues so they will also have the opportunity to evaluate the

Joseph Newman
Gyroscopic Magnetic Particle Motor

Transcribed from KeeyNet ASCI Files:

Newman's Gyroscopic Theory

The theoretical basis of Joe Nemans' Revolutionary Energy Machine challenges
many accepted laws of physics.

The starting point for understanding Newman's ideas is his assertion that the
fundamental building block of all matter is the gyroscopic particle, an
infinitesimal unit of matter that spins like a gyroscope.

Newman claims that the mechanics of magnetism and electricity, which have
never been fully explained, can be described in terms of how gyroscopic particles
react and interact.

The idea that a single type of particle is responsible for the forces at work in the
universe is an old one, yet some of the latest research in physics involves the
investigation of particles.

New and smaller particles with previously unknown properties are being
discovered on a regular basis.

Newman's theories also depend heavily on the idea that all matter is concentrated
energy, which can be released if one has a mechanism for unlocking it.

That notion is at the heart of Einstein's work and the equation E = mc^2, then the
argument that he is trying to patent a perpetual motion machine has no merit.

Theoretically, Newman's machine could run indefinitely, but --- according to him
--- not because it is CREATING energy to run itself, but because it is converting
matter to energy.

In radically oversimplified terms, this is what happens when Joe Newman throws
the switch on the Revolutionary Energy Machine:

1) An electrical current is sent through a long (miles long) coil of copper wire,
magnetizing it and creating a strong magnetic field.

2) Newman describes the mechanics of the magnetic field as "shells of force"

composed of gyroscopic particles that move in a spiral pattern around the wire.
Originally IN the wire, the particles expand outward and thus create the magnetic


3) When the particles form a magnetic field, Newman says, they are traveling at
the speed of light in two directions --- in the spiral pattern around the wire, and in
their own normal gyroscopic spin.

This gives him the right side of the E = mc^2 equation; the particles (mass)
multiplied by the speed of light squared.

4) The machine operates in pulses; that is, the electrical current is continually
turned on and off. This causes the magnetic field --- in other words, the
gyroscopic particles --- to expand and collapse.

5) When the trillions of gyroscopic particles that have been released collapse back
into the wire, some of them collide with other gyroscopic particles.

Because of the nature of the gyroscopic spin, the collisions cause the loose
particles to bounce off at right angles; those particles emerge at one end of the
wire as electrical energy.

Atlanta Journal-Constitution (7-13-86)

Will Joseph Newman's Energy Machine Revolutionize the World?


Raad Cawthon
Staff Writer

LUCEDALE, Miss. - In the piney woods southwest of this southwest Mississippi

town, off the broken blacktop and two miles down a rutted sand and dirt road,
through three gates, past the "Keep Out" and "Beware of the Dogs" signs, smack
in the middle of nowhere, sits Joseph Westley Newman, a man who says he can
change the world.

In this land where heat devils beat from the ground in waves, Newman says he
can bring water to the desert places of the world, eliminate poverty, and improve
the quality of everyone's life. If only Newman's enemies will let him. Newman
does not look the part of a savior. He sports hair waved across his head in the style
of a Baptist deacon.

In the heat Newman is calm, cool and certain. He carries a gaze direct as a laser.
He says, "What I have done will revolutionize the world." What has Joe Newman

He has built the Revolutionary Energy Machine. His government, Newman's

proclaimed enemy, says his machines are frauds. Not so, says Newman. Instead
they are the bootstraps by which mankind can pull itself up. Across the tidy, tile-
floored workshop from Newman sits a copper-sheathed canister the height and
diameter of a fire hydrant.

At the far end of the workshop, swaddled in miles of copper wire, is another
machine, a 9,000-pound version the size of a five-person hot tub, its circular rim
topped with a circle of light bulbs.

These are two of Newman's Revolutionary Energy Machines, which he knows

will free the world from drudgery and make the First, Second, and Third World as

It is these machines and others like them, using Newman's same revolutionary
theory, that Newman claims produce more energy than they consume. That would
allow men to light cities for pennies, power cars without pollution or gasoline,
drive machines to make salt water fresh. But it is his own government,
represented by the National Bureau of Standards and the U.S. Patent Office, that
Newman says is his and mankind's foe.

It is his own government that Newman claims has waged a seven-year war to keep
his invention from improving the world. "All I am doing is opening doors,"
Newman says.

The government, through its unwillingness to grant him a patent, says Newman's
machine, which he has invested about $700,000 in developing and defending,
does not do what he claims.

"The NBS results show that the device behaves in a manner which is entirely
consistent with the well-established laws of physics," says the report, released
June 26.

The "well-established" laws of physics say a machine cannot put out more energy
than it consumes.

Government report `a mockery of justice' ---

Newman says he knew what the NBS report would show. As a matter of fact, so
certain was Newman that he issued a press release before the report became
public saying it was a "mockery of justice."

The inventor says he is certain his machine works, can demonstrate that it works,
and is willing to defend his machine in public debate against anyone from the
NBS or the U.S. Patent Office or any university or anyone who claims to know
what he is talking about.

Newman has taken his Revolutionary Energy Machine on the road, demonstrating
it in the Louisiana Superdome and in Atlanta.

In each place he challenged an expert on physics to debate his theories in public.

Nobody showed up. Newman, who was raised in Mobile, dropped out of high
school and left home at 15, went in the armed services, roughnecked in the oil
fields, got a degree in accounting and economics, and decided - in his early 20s,
after casting around through several jobs - that he wanted to be an inventor.

Over the course of the next two decades he registered patents for several
inventions --- a machine to pick oranges, plastic barbells, a new type of knife ---
and pursued his self-taught odyssey into electromagnetics.

Etched in the concrete of Newman's workshop walkway is "Question + Thinking

= Truth." Newman says that because he is not burdened by conventional
teachings, his mind is free to challenge questions without the constraints
conventional physicists place on themselves. Newman already has won over a
number of physicists, electrical
engineers and chemists who have seen his Revolutionary Energy Machine and
heard his explanation.

Dr. Roger Hastings, a physicist with Sperry-Univac Corp., has conducted

hundreds of tests on Newman's machine. His opinion? "The future of the human
race may be drastically uplifted by the large-scale commercial development of
this invention," he says.

And Nicholaos Tsoupas, a physicist who works at Brookhaven Laboratory in New

York and once taught at Yale University, said, "I know for a fact that many
scientists consider his invention unorthodox and unacceptable, possibly because
his theories do not fully comport with today's university teachings.

However, Mr. Newman has demonstrated that his invention works the way it
claims. The Patent Office should not have denied him a patent." But the Patent
Office did.

Newman applied for a patent for his machine March 22, 1979. In January 1982
the Patent Office denied him the patent, claiming his invention "smacked of
perpetual motion." Newman appealed the ruling and in 1983 filed suit against the
Patent Office.

Federal District Judge Thomas Jackson, who was hearing the case, appointed a
special master to evaluate Newman's machine. The special master, William
Schuyler Jr., a former commissioner of the U.S. Patent Office, concluded that the
machine did what Newman claimed and recommended that a patent be granted.

Jackson, in an action that many people familiar with similar patent cases claim
was almost unheard of, refused to accept the recommendation of Schuyler and
sent the issue back to the Patent Office for more study.

In October 1985, Jackson ordered Newman to turn his machine over to the NBS
for testing. Jackson's order also prevented Newman or any of his representatives
from attending the tests. But when the 30-day period passed and the machine had
not been tested, Newman's attorney, John Flannery, attempted to retrieve the
machine. Jackson ordered it impounded.

After finally testing it, the Patent Office on June 26 issued a report claiming that
the machine does not do what Newman says it will. "The Bureau of Standards is
coming into this tainted," Newman says, noting that he still has not recovered the
machine the NBS has had since 1985. "I have spent 21 years working on this
machine and seven trying to get it patented. I am devoted to this."

Why give away a billion-dollar theory?

So devoted is he that he has written a book outlining the secret of his machine.
The red-covered, hard-bound book is titled in gold: "Joseph Newman's
Revolutionary Energy Machine."

Inside, the pages are packed with diagrams, equations, theories and philosophies
on the power of electromagnetics. "Anyone with any knowledge of
electromagnetic energy can read this book and build a machine," Newman says.

They also can study Newman's theories about how the weather can be controlled
by directing electromagnetic energy and how Newman believes the present
educational system trains originality out of children.

Why would someone develop a theory that he claims will change the world, a
theory worth billions of dollars, and then give it away in a book? "Because the
technical process is 10,000 times more important than the machine itself,"
Newman says.

He points to his head. "If I keep the knowledge up here, what will happen to it if
something happens to me? If you understand the technical process, then you don't
just copy what I have done, you can apply it in many different ways."

Newman's machine, if it works, truly could change the face of the world. Energy
would be dirt cheap and non-centralized. Multinational oil cartels would be
restructured or collapse. Utility companies that have invested billions in nuclear
energy would see the plants as costly millstones, dragging them into bankruptcy.

Great stockpiles of coal, as well as the companies that mine it, would lie almost
useless. So it is little wonder that Newman, who says he has gotten mysterious,
anonymous threatening telephone calls lately, thinks there is a tremendous
conspiracy, worldwide in scope, to prevent his invention from coming into
widespread usage.

"My machine is a threat in terms of changing the financial structure and the power
structure of the world," he says calmly. "I believe this conspiracy goes all the way
to the president."

Newman has written every president since Lyndon Johnson stating that this new
energy technology was on the horizon. Most of his letters went unanswered,
presumably ignored.

However, in 1983 Newman sent Reagan a package of material about his machine.
In a letter he asked the administration's help "for the people of the world."

Included in the package was a videotape of the machine that had aired on a New
Orleans television news show. Newman got the package back with a form letter
indicating that it had not been opened.

But when he opened the package to file the material, Newman found something
he had not included. "There was a video review sheet from an office in the White
House," Newman says, showing the sheet. "It indicated that not only had the
package been looked at, but it had been looked at rather closely."

The review sheet states, among other things: "Some scientists believe this
invention could change the world."

"When I called to find out what the review sheet was all about, the fellow at the
White House was furious that I had seen it," Newman says. "They wanted to know

how I had gotten hold of a copy of that sheet."

A White House spokesman said hundreds of videos are received by the White
House annually and that many of them are reviewed by volunteers.

"What is on the review sheet is not the opinion of anyone on the White House
staff," the spokesman said. "It is merely a review of whatever is on the tape."

`People are trained not to accept change' ---

But Newman is sure that a conspiracy exists. He leans back in a chair in his
workshop and ruminates. "It's strange that they are capping all these oil wells
now," he says. "The reasons they are giving, the dropping prices and such, are the
same ones you've heard for three, four years. I don't see one factual piece of
evidence for this to be happening.

"I'll bet in the last two years, if you could find out who's buying the copper mines,
who's buying material for magnets. . . I'd bet you anything that when the wash is
out, the oil companies have bought them."

Newman says his machine is not a perpetual motion machine and that it does not
create energy, two claims that have hurt its image.

Instead, it is a new way of tapping the electromagnetic energy field that is already
there. Very simply put, the machine works like this:

Power is used to rotate two magnets wrapped in copper wire.

The rotating magnets and the atoms that align within the copper wire create an
electromagnetic field that can be tapped.

The revolutionary aspect of the machine is that the amount of energy needed to
align the atoms and rotate the magnets creating the energy field is less than the
energy created. So there is a net gain in power created.

Theoretically, with Newman's technology you could produce an unlimited, self-

perpetuating source of pollution-free energy.

"I expect to have one of these machines running a car within six months,"
Newman says matter-of-factly. The fight for a patent for the Revolutionary
Energy Machine has become more than a fight to get an invention patented.

Newman says the battle with the government has given him a new insight into the
way people are taught to think in this country.

The battle has defined for Newman a philosophy. "People have been trained, are
being trained, not to accept change," he says. "My powers of reason are greater
than many people's because my feet are not bound by traditional thought.

Newman sits back and looks out the window of his workshop, past his
Revolutionary Energy Machine, out into the pine trees. "To be a good scientist,
you have to be a humble person. You have to believe that you don't know
everything," he says.

[ Unknown Title / Publication ]


Warren E. Leary

AP Science Writer

WASHINGTON (AP) -- Government engineers say a backwoods inventor's

amazing energy machine has a number of unique features but lacks a critical one
-- it doesn't work.

The National Bureau of Standards said Thursday that more than two months of
court-ordered testing has failed to prove Joseph W. Newman's claims that his
controversial machine produces more energy than it consumes.

"At all conditions tested, the input power exceeded the output power," the
government's standards-setting agency said in a report. "That is, the device did not
deliver more energy than it used."

Newman, who terms himself a self-educated, backwoods inventor from Lucedale,

Miss., who used common sense to come up with his machine, immediately
rejected the test results as biased and meaningless.

The agency by its own admission used unconventional instruments and methods
to reach its conclusions, said Newman, whose quest for a government patent has
attracted national attention.

"I do not accept these results at all," Newman said in a telephone interview. "I
predicted this decision. It's just another example of the injustice I'm fighting

The bureau's report said that because of unusual electrical characteristics of the
machine, it had to design a test plan and combination of instruments specifically
for Newman's non-standard device. But it said it carefully checked the
instruments to assure the accuracy of the tests.

Newman said he would not accept results coming from unconventional testing
that could not be repeated by others.

"If I built my own test equipment and said that it proves my machine worked, no
one would give me much credit, no one would believe me," Newman said. "But
that's what the Bureau of Standards has done and they expect people to believe

The inventor has been trying for six years to get the U.S. Office of Patents and
Trademarks to issue a patent on an energy machine that defies accepted laws of

Patent examiners say the invention looks like yet another proposal for a perpetual
motion machine, one that would produce more energy than it uses so that,
theoretically, it could run forever.

This has been the goal of inventors for centuries, but conventional science says it
is impossible.

Newman contends his device is not a perpetual motion machine, but a

revolutionary energy source that uses the previously unknown magnetic properties
of copper coils to release more energy than it consumes.

U.S. District Judge Thomas P. Jackson, presiding over Newman's suit against the
patent office, ordered a new trial date after getting results of the tests he ordered
from the bureau.

John P. Flannery, Newman's lawyer, said Jackson set Dec. 8 as the date for a non-
jury trial to determine if the inventor will be awarded the patent.

Flannery said he asked the judge to permit Newman to examine the special
equipment used to test the energy machine, but that Jackson refused to order it. If
the Patent Office does not allow examination of the test devices, Flannery said, he
would seek another court order to do so.

The Bureau of Standards said that during the testing, it found that Newman's
device "behaves in a manner which is entirely consistent with well-established
laws of physics."

A device would be called 100 percent energy efficient if it simply transmitted all
the energy coming into it back to the outside, the report said, and it would have to
show an efficiency of greater than 100 percent to make more power than it

The bureau said the efficiency of Newman's machine ranged between 27 percent
and 67 percent, depending upon the test being run.

Never did the energy coming out of the machine exceed the battery power going
into the device to get it running, the report said.

A Description of the Newman Motor


Roger Hastings, Ph.D.

This document is intended to provide information regarding the energy device

invented by Mr. Joseph Newman of Lucedale, Mississippi. I have prepared the
material in response to numerous requests for information. The number of these
requests has increased dramatically since Newman's public demonstration of his
motor at Washington, D.C., in May, 1985. This paper provides a personal history

to date of my involvement with Newman, presents data which was taken at the
Washington demonstration, provides an analysis of the data, and presents my
current thoughts regarding a mathmatical description of Newman's motor.


I first met Mr. Newman in September, 1981. Newman is an inventor, and he had
travelled to Minnesota to present a toy invention to Tonka Toys Corp. My brother,
John, was at the time in charge of new products for Tonka, and he interviewed
Newman. John and Joe wound up discussing their respective theories of matter
and energy, and Joe's motor. At that time, Joe was looking for people to verify the
operation of his motor for the patent office. He invited John to Lucedale, but John
said that his brother (me) had a Ph.D. in physics, and therefore better credentials
to offer for the testing of a motor.

My first reaction to the news of Newman's energy producing motor was quite
negative. I had been a professor for four years, and had encountered several
people with "world saving" energy devices which they wanted evaluated by the
University. In all cases such devices had proven to be inoperative as net energy
producers. Newman offered to fly me to Lucedale to test his motor, and I
responded that he would be wasting his money and our time because I would
certainly prove him wrong. He insisted, and I complied.

The motor that I saw on that first visit was a monument to Rube Goldberg, and to
an incredible personal effort at building such a large device. It consisted of five
thousand pounds of #5 gauge wire wound as a solenoid. Within the solenoid, a
600 pound ceramic magnet rotated on questionable bearings. The bearings were
mounted in a wooden structure. On the shaft of the rotor was a mechanical
commutator consisting of three home made wheels, and brushes whose tension
was adjusted with rubber bands. The commutator received its power from a bank
of six volt lantern batteries. As the huge magnet rotated, the whole structure
creaked and groaned. At that time, Newman was taking energy output from a
secondary coil wrapped around the motor primary solenoid. I measured the
voltage and current input simultaneously on an oscilloscope. The output load was
a resistor, and I similarly measured the output voltage and current. Multiplying
voltage and current to find power, I determined that the motor was about 90%

Newman claimed that his motor was not performing up to par on that day, and
said that he would ask me back when he had the device tuned up properly.
Although I had proven that the motor at that time was not producing a net energy
gain, several aspects of Newman and his motor were fascinating. First, the motor
was not designed efficiently. Large mechanical losses were evident, and a 90%
efficiency seemed highly unusual. Second, the huge magnet was rotating at some
60 RPM with an input power of only a few watts. Finally, Newman himself, while
unconventional, seemed highly intelligent, definately a creative thinker, and
intensely dedicated to his scientific work. He informed me that he had evolved his
theory and filed for a patent before he had built a prototype motor. (I will discuss
his theory later.)

I travelled again to Lucedale and indeed Newman had tuned up his motor. From
that point foreward I consistantly measured efficiencies in excess of 100%. At this
point I began an effort to attract scientific interest in Newman's motor, and to aid

him in obtaining a patent. I wrote several affidavits and documents describing my

measurements and generally supporting Newman's efforts. I have spent countless
hours of my spare time over the past four years on this effort, withour
renumeration. It takes little immagination to understand the benefit to the human
race which would result from an economical device which generates energy with
no external input. In my opinion, Newman's motor has performed well enough
that the scientific community should be showing great interest.

Over the years, a number of generic questions have repeatedly been asked. Is
there a hidden energy source? The device can be viewed from all sides, and there
are no external connections. The motor has been transported across country, and
works equally well at all locations. The motor has been duplicated by at least one
other person, who claims that it works. Newman would not be acting in his own
self interest to simultaneously invite publicity and commit fraud. It is generally
known that Newman is sincere and honest.

Why isn't the motor running itself without the need for batteries? While in
concept the motor should be capable of running itself without batteries, the
technological problems have
not been solved which would allow such operation. In a sense, however, the
motor does run itself. The motor has shown the capacity to charge up the batteries
which provide voltage to the motor. Tests have been run in which up to 15 amp-
hours of output have been drawn from the motor, and in which the six volt lantern
batteries powering the motor have shown no evidence of an energy loss (the
battery condition was verified in the labs of Ray-O-Vac Battery Co.). Tests have
been run in which apparently dead batteries have been connected to the motor.
The motor has charged up these batteries to the point where they can power other
devices. The same batteries can be drained down (e.g. through a resistor), then be
re-connected to the Newman motor and be charged up while they run the motor.

Why isn't Newman's motor powering a home or auto? In my opinion such a

demonstration would convince all skeptics, and create a great demand for the
motor. Newman has proceeded in this direction. He has built at least four
prototype motors to study the effect of varying motor parameters. He has steadily
improved upon his large prototype, and has succeded in generating up to about
200 watts of power. By contrast, an average home requires one to three thousand
watts on the average, with peak demands of up to 20 thousand watts. In this
regard, it would be extremely helpful for establishments with high tech
capabilities to aid Joe in scaling up the motor output. His approach has been to
reduce the physical size of the motor to make it economical, and the output
power. His greatest technical problem has been high voltage switching.

Why does Newman keep his technical process a secret? This question was
answered at Washington in May, when Newman revealed the construction details
of his motor to the public. He has published a book ("The Energy Machine of
Joseph Newman", available from Newman Publishing, Rt. 1, Box 52, Lucedale
Mississippi 39452), in which he describes his theory and his motor. Joe had kept
the process secret to avoid patent infringement. Although his patent is still
pending in the U.S., it has issued in other countries. Presumably his patent rights
will be protected in the U.S., although it should be noted that his motor is being
copied by others, so that issuance of his patent in the U.S. is of immediate
importance. Garland Robinnett of CBS news in New Orleans has run a number of
reports on Newman's struggle with the U.S. Patent office.

I do not fully understand why the scientific community in this country has not
shown more interest in Newman's motor. He has had support from about 30
independent scientists and engineers, most of whom own their own engineering or
consulting firms. He has also received some financial support from investors, who
represent a range of interests, including oil and electrical power interests. I know
of no one who has observed Newman's motor and taken measurements who has
been able to show that his claims are invalid. On the contrary, most observers
come in as skeptics, and leave as believers. Over the years my colleagues have
consistantly provided me with arguments questioning the validity of my
measurements. I have responded to these questions by modifying the
measurement proceedures and creating new tests. In all cases the Newman device
has passed the tests to my satisfaction. In my opinion, Newman has at least
discovered some interesting and unusual new phenomena, and at most has
discovered a process which will end man's dependence upon limited and polluting
energy resources.

Newman's Theory


Roger Hastings, Ph.D.

Transcribed By George W. Dahlberg P.E.

I do not intend to recapitulate the theory presented in Newman's book, but rather
to briefly provide my interpretation of his ideas. Newman began studying
electricity and magnetism in the mid-1960's. He has a mechanical background,
and was looking for a mechanical description of electromagnetic fields. That is,
he assumed that there must be a mechanical interaction between, for example,
two magnets. He could not find such a description in any book, and decided that
he would have to provide his own explanation. He came to the conclusion that if
electromagnetic fields consisted of tiny spinning particles moving at the speed of
light along the field lines, then he could explain all standard electromagnetic
phenomena through the interaction of spinning particles. Since the spinning
particles interact in the same way as gyroscopes, he called the particles gyroscopic
particles. In my opinion, such spinning particles do provide a qualitative
description of electromagnetic phenomena, and his model is useful in
understanding complex electrical situations (note that without a pictoral model
one must rely solely upon mathematical equations which can become extremely

Given that electromagnetic fields consist of matter in motion, or kinetic energy,

Joe decided that it should be possible to tap this kinetic energy. He likes to say
"How long did man sit next to a stream before he invented the paddle wheel?".
Joe built a variety of unusual devices to tap the kinetic energy in electromagnetic
fields before he arrived at his present motor
design. He likes to point out that both Maxwell and Faraday, the pioneers of
electromagnitism, believed that the fields consisted of matter in motion. This is
stated in no uncertain terms in Maxwell's book "A Dynamical Theory of the

Electromagnetic Field". In fact, Maxwell used a dynamical model to derive his

famous equations. This fact has all but been lost in current books on
electromagnetic theory. The quantity which Maxwell called "electromagnetic
momentum" is now refered to as the "vector potential".

Going further, Joe realized that when a magnetic field is created, its gyroscopic
particles must come from the atoms of the materials which created the field. Thus
he decided that all
matter must consist of the same gyroscopic particles. For example, when a voltage
is applied to a wire, Newman pictures gyroscopic particles (which I will call
gyrotons for short) moving down the wire at the speed of light. These gyrotons
line up the electrons in the wire. The electrons themselves consist of a swirling
mass of gyrotrons, and their matter fields combine when lined up to form the
magnetic lines of force circulating around the wire. In this process, the wire has
literally lost some of its mass to the magnetic field, and this is accounted for by
Einstein's equation of energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light.
According to Einstein, every conversion of energy involves a corresponding
conversion of matter. According to Newman, this may be interpreted as an
exchange of gyrotrons. For example, if two atoms combine to give off light, the
atoms would weight slightly less after the reaction than before. According to
Newman, the atoms have combined and given off some of their gyrotrons in the
form of light. Thus Einstein's equation is interpreted as a matter of counting
gyrotrons. These particles cannot be created or destroyed in Newman's theory, and
they always move at the speed of light.

My interpretation of Newman's original idea for his motor is as follows. As a

thought experiment, suppose one made a coil consisting of 186,000 miles of wire.
An electrical field would require one second to travel the length of the wire, or in
Newman's language, it would take one second for gyrotons inserted at one end of
the wire to reach the other end. Now suppose that the polarity of the applied
voltage was switched before the one second has elapsed, and this polarity
switching was repeated with a period less than one second. Gyrotons would
become trapped in the wire, as their number increased, so would the alignment of
electrons and the number of gyrotons in the magnetic field increase. The
intensified magnetic field could be used to do work on an external magnet, while
the input current to the coil would be small or non-existant. Newman's motors
contain up to 55 miles of wire, and the voltage is rapidly switched as the magnet
rotates. He elaborates upon his theory in his book, and uses it to interpret a variety
of physical phenomena.


In May of 1985 Joe Newman demonstrated his most recent motor prototype in
Washington, D.C.. The motor consisted of a large coil wound as a solenoid, with
a large magnet rotating within the bore of the solenoid. Power was supplied by a
bank of six volt lantern batteries. The battery voltage was switched to the coil
through a commutator mounted on the shaft of the rotating magnet. The
commutator switched the polarity of the voltage across the coil each half cycle to
keep a positive torque on the rotating magnet. In addition, the commutator was
designed to break and remake the voltage contact about 30 times per cycle. Thus
the voltage to the coil was pulsed. The speed of the magnet rotation was adjusted
by covering up portions of the commutator so that pulsed voltage was applied for
a fraction of a cycle. Two speeds were demonstrated: 12 R.P.M. for which 12

pulses occured each revolution; and 120 rpm for which all commutator segments
were firing. The slower speed was used to provide clear oscilloscope pictures of
currents and voltages. The fast speed was used to demonstrate the potential power
of the motor. Energy outputs consisted of incandescent bulbs in series with the
batteries, flourescent tubes across the coil, and a fan powered by a belt attached to
the shaft of the rotor. Revelent motor parameters are given below:

Coil weight : 9000 lbs.

Coil length : 55 miles of copper wire
Coil Inductance: 1,100 Henries measured by observing the current rise time when
a D.C. voltage was applied.
Coil resistance: 770 Ohms
Coil Height : about 4 ft.
Coil Diameter : slightly over 4 ft. I.D.

Magnet weight : 700 lbs.

Magnet Radius : 2 feet
Magnet geometry: cylinder rotating about its perpendicular axis
Magnet Moment of Inertia: 40 kg-sq.m. (M.K.S.) computed as one third mass
times radius squared

Battery Voltage: 590 volts under load

Battery Type : Six volt Ray-O-Vac lantern batteries connected in series

A brief description of the measurements taken and distributed at the press

conference follows. When the motor was rotating at 12 rpm, the average D.C.
input current from the batteries was about 2 milli-amps, and the average battery
input was then 1.2 watts. The back current (flowing against the direction of
battery current) was about -55 milli-amps, for an average charging power of -32
watts. The forward and reverse current were clearly observable on the
oscilloscope. It was noted that when the reverse current flowed, the battery
voltage rose above its ambient value, varifying that the batteries were charging.
The magnitude of the charging current was verified by heating water with a
resistor connected in series with the batteries. A net charging power was the
primary evidence used to show that the motor was generating energy internally,
however output power was also observed. The 55 m-amp current flowing in the
770 ohm coil generates 2.3 watts of heat, which is in excess of the input power. In
addition, the lights were blinking brightly as the coil was switched.

The back current from the coil switched from zero to negative several amps in
about 1 milli-second, and then decayed to zero in about 0.1 second. Given the coil
inductance of 1100 henries, the switching voltages were several million volts.
Curiously, the back current did not switch on smoothly, but increased in a
staircase. Each step in the staircase corresponded to an extremely fast switching
of current, with each increase in the current larger than the previous increase. The
width of the stairs was about 100 micro-seconds, which for reference is about one
third of the travel time of light through the 55 mile coil.

Mechanical losses in the rotor were measured as follows: The rotor was spun up
by hand with the coil open circuited. An inductive pick-up loop was attached to a
chart recorder to measure the rate of decay of the rotor. The energy stored in the
rotor (one half the moment of inertia times the square of the angular velocity) was
plotted as a function of time. The slope of this curve was measured at various

times and gave the power loss in the rotor as a function of rotor speed. The result
of these measurements is given in the following table:

Rotor Speed Power Dissipation Power/(Speed Squared)

radian/sec --- watts --- watts/(rad/sec)^2
4.0 --- 6.3 --- 0.39
3.7 --- 5.8 --- 0.42
3.3 --- 5.0 --- 0.46
3.0 --- 3.5 --- 0.39
2.1 --- 2.0 --- 0.45
1.7 --- 1.2 --- 0.42
1.2 --- 0.7 --- 0.47

The data is consistant with power loss proportional to the square of the angular
speed, as would be expected at low speeds. When the rotor moves fast enough so
that air resistance is important, the losses would begin to increase as the cube of
the angular speed. Using power = 0.43 times the square of the angular speed will
give a lower bound on mechanical power dissipation at all speeds. When the rotor
is moving at 12 rpm, or 1.3 rad/sec, the mechanical loss is 0.7 watts.

When the rotor was sped up to 120 rpm by allowing the commutator to fire on all
segments, the results were quite dramatic. The lights were blinking rapidly and
brightly, and the fan was turning rapidly. The back current spikes were about ten
amps, and still increased in a staircase, with the width of the stairs still about 100
micro-seconds. Accurate measurements of the input current were not obtained at
that time, however I will report measurements communicated to me by Mr.
Newman. At a rotation rate of 200 rpm (corresponding to mechanical losses of at
least 190 watts), the input power was about 6 watts. The back current in this test
was about 0.5 amps, corresponding to heating in the coil of 190 watts. As a final
point of interest, note that the Q of his coil at 200 rpm is about 30. If his battery
plus commutator is considered as an A.C. power source, then the impedance of
the coil at 200 rpm is 23,000 henries, and the power factor is 0.03. In this light,
the predicted input power at 700 volts is less than one watt!


Since I am preparing this document on my home computer, it will be convenient

to use the Basic computer language to write down formulas. The notation is * for
multiply, / for divide, ^ for raising to a power, and I will use -dot to represent a
derivative. Newton's second law of motion applied to Newman's rotor yields the
following equation:

MI*TH-dot-dot + G*TH-dot = K*I*SIN(TH) (1)

where MI = rotor moment of inertia

TH = rotor angular position (radians)
G = rotor decay constant
K = torque coupling constant
I = coil current

In general the constant G may depend upon rotor speed, as when air resistance
becomes important. The term on the right hand side of the equation represents the
torque delivered to the rotor when current flows through the coil. A constant

friction term was found through measurement to be small compared to the TH-dot
term at reasonable speeds, but can be included in the "constant" G. The equation
for the current in the coil is given by:

L*I-dot + R*I = V(TH) - K*(TH-dot)*SIN(TH) (2)

where L = coil inductance

I = coil current
R = coil resistance
V(TH) = voltage applied to coil by the commutator which is a function of the
angle TH
K = rotor induction constant

In general, the resistance R is a function of voltage, particularly during

commutator switching when the air resistance breaks down creating a spark. Note
that the constant K is the same in equations (1) and (2). This is required by energy
conservation as discussed below. To examine energy considerations, multiply
Equation (1) by TH-dot, and Equation (2) by I. Note that the last term in each
equation is then identical if the K's are the same. Eliminating the last term
between the two equations yields the instantaneous conservation law:

I*V=R*I^2 + G*(T,-dot)^2 + .5*L*(I^2)-dot =.5*MI*((TH-dot)^2)-dot

If this equation is averaged over one cycle of the rotor, then the last two terms
vanish when steady state conditions are reached (i.e. when the current and speed
repeat their values at angular positions which are separated by 360 degrees).
Denoting averages by < >, the above equation becomes:

<IV> = <R*I^2> + <G*(TH-dot)^2> (3)

This result is entirely general, independent of any dependences of R and G on

other quantities. The term on the left represents the input power. The first term on
the right is the power dissipated in the coil, and the second term is the power
delivered to the rotor. The efficiency, defined as power delivered to the rotor
divided by input power is thus always less than one by Equation (3). This result
does require, however, that the constants K in equation (1) and equation (2) are
identical. If the constant K in equation (2) is smaller than the constant K
appearing in equation (1), then it may be varified that the efficiency can
mathmatecally be larger than unity.

What do the constants, K, mean? In the first equation, we have the torque
delivered to the magnet, while in the second equation we have the back
inductance or reaction of the magnet upon the coil. The equality of the constants
is an expression of Newton's third law. How could the constants be unequal?
Consider the sequence of events which occur during the firing of the commutator.
First the contact breaks, and the magnetic field in the coil collapses, creating a
huge forward spike of current through the coil and battery. This current spike
provides an impulsive torque to the rotor. The rotor accelerates, and the
acceleration produces a changing magnetic field which propagates through the
coil, creating the back emf. Suppose that the commutator contacts have separated
sufficiently when the last event occurs to prevent the back current from flowing to
the battery. Then the back reaction is effectively smaller than the forward
impulsive torque on the rotor. This suggestion invokes the finite propagation time

of the electromagnetic fields, which has not been included in Equations (1) and

A continued mathmatical modeling of the Newman motor should include the

effects of finite propagation time, particularly in his extraordinary long coil of
wire. I have solved Equations (1) and (2) numerically, and note that the solutions
require finer and finer step size as the inductance, moment of inertia, and magnet
strength are increased to large values. The solutions break down such that the
motor "takes off" in the computer, and this may indicate instabilities, which could
be mediated in practise by external pertubations. I am confident that Maxwell's
equations , with the proper electro-mechanical coupling, can provide an
explanation to the phenomena observed in the Newman device. The electro-
mechanical coupling may be embedded in the Maxwell equations if a unified
picture (such as Newman's picture of gyroscopic particles) is adopted.

Science (10 Feb. 1984), pp. 571-572

Newman's Impossible Motor

The patent office does not believe that Joseph Newman has built a generator that
is more than 100 percent efficient, but New Orleans does.


Eliot Marshall

At least one physicist in Louisiana swears that the CBS News anchorman Dan
Rather was smiling on 9 January when he reported that an inventor near New
Orleans has built a generator that defies the second law of thermodynamics.
Others did not see any smile. What they did see, to their surprise, was an earnest
but fantastic news story that has been running on New Orleans' biggest television
channel being repeated over the network news.

The story is about an inventor, a self-educated Missisippian named Joseph Wesley

Newman. He was pleased with the CBS broadcast because it make help him in a
fight with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, which has denied him a patent
on the grounds of his latest invention, "smacks of a perpetual motion machine",
meaning by definition it cannot do what it claimed. On 25 June, the U.S District
Court for the District of Columbia will hear a suit Newman has brought against
the patant office arguing that his device does not aim at perpetual motion but
converts mass to energy in a finite but very efficient manner. He simply wants a

Newman's invention is hard to describe, partly because its behavior seems to be at

odds with the laws of physics and partly because the details are being kept secret
while the ligation goes on. Newman says his own theory of magnetism is "10,000
times more important" than the invention itself, which be built to demonstrate the
concept. He claims to have discovered the mechanical principles of a gyroscopic
particle of matter that orbits in a magnetic field much as an electron orbits in an
atomic shell. Several readers of his theory say it is incomprehensible and would
not get attention were it not for the illustrative devices. The patent Newman seeks

is for an "Energy Generation System Having Larger Output than Input". Those
who have seen it say it is a crude direct current motor powered by a bank of
lantern batteries with a heavy, rotating magnet at its center.

Readings of the machine's performance, like those of Dan Rather's expression,

depend on the reader. As a result of the TV coverage, the people of New Orleans
may be convinced that Newman has invented a simple device that produces more
energy than it consumes and could end the world's energy sqabbles if only an
arrogant scientific community would pay attention. That is Newman's message. It
has been taken up and broadcasted in a sort of crusade by Garland Robinette, the
evening news anchorman at the CBS affiliate in New Orleans, WWL-TV.

Last autumn Robinette aired an eight-part series on Newman's device, charging

that jealous academics and frightened executives tried to stifle information about
it. Robinette concedes that his intense coverage of Newman's began on a slow
news day when he was looking for a cute show-closer. He claims he was skeptical
at first and saw Newman's invention as a curiosity. But the story soon grew into a
"monster that I couldn't let go" when New Orleans viewers, facing a 200 percent
increase in utility rates, demanded to know more. Furthermore, a Missisippi state
energy offical and a credible scientist had recently vouched for Newman's claims.
Robinette says that since he began reporting on the invention, no one has come
forward to rebut Newman. He challenges people to come to "get this story off my

Newman has benefited from the television coverage and from several weighty
endorsements. For example, the television engineers watched him. Last year,
Robinette dragged two reluctant engineers on WWL-TV staff to Newman's garage
in Lucedale, Missisippi., about 2 1/2 hours from New Orleans. They werde
sceptics at first, but, after looking at oscilloscope readings and watching the
machine recharge batteries, they agreed with their anchorman that the claims
seemed valid.

Engineer Ralph Hartwell described the tests he ran. When he arrived at Newman's
House, he connected some weak penlight batteries he had brought along to a
small conventional motor in Newman's back yard. It was allowed to run until the
batteries were drained of power, taking about 1 minute. He then moved the dead
batteries over to the smallest of Newman's demonstration motors, connected them
as a power source, and started this motor spinning. It ran until it was time for the
camera crew to leave, for something between 1 ans 2 hours. Finally, the batteries
were taken fram Newman's machine back to the conventional motor and
reconnected. This time the motor ran for about 3 minutes. Hartwell ran annother
experiment on a large device and concluded that it also appeared to generate more
power than it used. Other measurements were taken with oscilloscopes and
current meters, but these readings have been questioned. After signing a
confidential pledge, Hartwell was allowed to examine the machine's inner wiring.
He is certain that there is no hidden source of energy. Although he feels
uncomfortable about it, he says he could not disprove Newman's claim and would
like to see a universtity run a controlled test.

Newman's key endorsement comes from Roger Hastings, a solid-state physicist

for the Sperry Univac Company in Minneapolis. A colleague who knew him as a
postdoc fellow at the University of Virginia says Hastings was regarded as an
adventurous and excellent theorist. Hasting's brother, a screener for new ideas for

Tonka Toys, met Newman when he

submitted an invention to Tonka. Although sceptical, Hastings (the physician) was
persuaded to make a trip to Lucedale. "I used to teach physics at North Dakota
University", says Hastings, "and we would get three or four people a year who had
some kind of device that was going to save the world. I assumed it was the same."
Newman talked Hastings into fly down for a visit anyway. He returned five times,
testing and retesting the motors, until he was satisfied that he had made no
mistake. He eventually signed an affidatvit describing the invention in detail and
stating unequivocally that it runs at greater than 100 percent efficency, producing
more power than it consumes. "I'm sticking my neck out," he says, "because this is
an important issue that should be resolved."

Endorsements such as this are essential for the credibility of the patent
application. Although Newman has read the works of the great electrical thinkers
Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell, he is not proficent in math or physics.

Newman is collecting seval more endorsements. He claims to have won the

backing recently of, a Geman aerospace engineer and a liaison officer between the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European space
consortium. Gerald Miller, a mechanical engineer, student of advanced physics,
and electical industiy consultant in California, has inspected the devices and says,
"I saw things that I cannot explain in conventional terms." He found that the
device produced more energy than it used, adding, "I am absolutely certain that
there is no hidden energy source. Milton Everett, a mechanical Engineer and
director of the biomass program for the Missisippi Department of Energy and
Transportation, says, "I think Joe has discovered something that the world is going
to benefit from. It's nor a perpetual motion machine; it converts mass to energy."
Excluding inverstors, Newman claims to have about 27 such endorsers.

But there have been and continue to be prominent doubters. Oddly, TV

anchorman Robinette has given little attention or credence to the only thorough
analysis ever performed on Newman's device. It was aranged by Everett (before
he became a full convert to Newman's cause) and was paid for by the Missisippi
energy department. Two electrical engineers from Missisippi State University
(MSU), --- Karl Carlson and Donald Fitzgerald --- tested one of the Newman's
devices last March. The conditions were unfavourable, because the motor kept
breaking down every "couple of minutes," says Carlson, as a huge spark from the
induction coil shorted out a switch on the commutator. Thus, while it war fairly
easy to measure the power going in, it was not easy to tell what was coming out.
Newman has built a smaller, less quirky motor since then.

The pattern on the oscilloscope at the output end of a cycle was difficult to read
because as one observer says, the discharge spark appeared as "a bright flash" or
"a mess" on the face of the screen. Newman sweeps this point aside as a quibble,
saying it merely indicates his machine's tremendous power. The efficiency
claimed for this device is anywhere from
the impossible (slightly over 100 percent) to the fantastic (800 percent and up). A
normal electric motor may be 80 percent efficient, Carlson says, and transformers
are generally in the 90's. Carlson and Fitzgerald found that Newman's machine
was between 55 and 76 percent efficient, based on their reading of the most
favourable oscillograms.

They wrote that they found "an output which is definitely less than the input."

However, they hedged by saying it was impossible to measure the mechanical

energy lost in the machine, which could affect the rating. They declined to call
Newman's invention a breakthrough but reported that it was remakably efficient
given its "obvious crude configuration." In a standard tag line, they wrote that
"further investigation is in order." Newman reads this qualified rejection as a
qualified endorsement, explaining when it comes to praising new discoveries,
academisc are mean. He speaks of Carlson and Fitzgerald with harsher adjectives.

The physics faculties of Loyola and Tulane Universities, both in New Orleans,
have protested Robinette's reports. Daniel Purrington, Tulane's physics chairman,
says: "We all dispute it. A number of us have told him [Robinette] we think what
he's doing is irresponsible. I talked to him for about 2 hours about the principles
involved." Carl Brans, a theorist at Loyola, wrote Robinette a two-page letter of
protest. "It's just sensational journalism. In our opinion, it's not worth the cost," to
try to take the measurements that would end the discussion.

David Keiffer, an experimental physicist at Loyola, along with other faculty

member, offered to check Newman's device if he would bring it to the laboratory.
(Newman's patent attorney is a physics graduate of Loyola.) But in the preliminary
talks, Keiffer says, Newman insisted that he be present during the entire
procedure. Then he and Keiffer got into an argument. Newman packed up and
left, never to return. The Loyola physicist also sought to advise WWL-TV's
engineers on testing the device, but this proved to be a touchy proposition,
because WWL is owned by Loyola and was originally founded by Loyola's physics
department. No one wanted the advice to be interpreted as pressure.

"I have a fairly good reputation here," Robinette says of his science reporting,
"and this thing just has the potential to make me look like an absolute
ignoranmus. So I've tried desperately to disprove this and all I've done so far is get
more and more people who are convinced."

What about the negative conclusion reached by the MSU engineers? Robinette
maintains (like Newman and Everett) that while the engineers were testing the
machine, they agreed that it was producing more energy than it used. But "when
they went back, they wrote an ambigous response that didn't say it didn't work and
didn't say it did." Robinette mentions that the MSU engineers are retired, as
though to diminish their reliability. He finds it "very surprising that they never
called to challenge his report, which gave the Newman-Everett version of events.

Some who might otherwis voice scepticism seem to sypathize with Newman
because of the way the patent office rebuffed him. In court filings, the patent
office concedes that Newman is correct that it rejected his claims without fully
reading the documents he submitted; that his application was handled by an
examiner --- Donovan Duggan --- who seems to specialize in rejecting perpetual
machines; that Duggan said he would not allow a patent on Newman's device, no
matter how much supportive evidence was submited; that the office officials
never tested the Newman device for efficacy and refused to observe oscilloscope
readings of its input and output; and finally, that the office issued a patent 1979
to a man named Howard Johnson for a perpetual motion machine that Johnson
since then agreed is inoperable.

If there were an association of militant patent rejectees, Newman's battle with the
patent office could be its rallying cause. But there is no such association.

However, Newman has done reasonably well attracting attention by himself,

especially in New Orleans. In a few months, he will get his day in court.

Science (16 Nov. 1984), p. 817

An Endless Siege of Implausible Inventions


R. Jeffrey Smith

In the modern world of commerce, the U.S. patent and trademark office is a
street-corner cop with the power to arrest the development of any product that
promises the impossible. Its book of statutes contains the basic laws of physics,
the axioms of mathematics, the fundamental principles of mechanical
engineering. With particular enthusiasm, its employees serve as guardians of the
public in a never-ending battle against mechanical devices allegedly capable of
perpetual motion.

This, at least, is how they see themselves. Inventors such as Joseph Newman are
more apt to view them as "a bunch of narrow-minded people who have conducted
themselves outside the federal law and the human race". For more than 5 years,
Newman, 48, has been frustrated in his efforts to obtain a patent for an "Energy
System Having Higher Output Than Input". In 1982, the patent office told him
that because such a device is simply infeasible, his application was denied after
something less than a comprehensive, time-consuming review (Science, 10
February 1984, p. 571).

Recently, however, with the help of some unexpected scientific endorsements,

Newman persuaded the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., to order that his
application be granted a full review by an examiner --- in short, a second chance.
Newman believes that the decision is a slap in the face for the patant office and a
partial vindication of his claims. Actually, the dispute reveals how easy it can be
for inventors to jerk the patent office around. The ruling, made by Judge Thomas
Jackson on 31 October, places the office in the difficult position of determining
whether Newman's "energy generation system" -- a powerful electric motor -- is
adequately described in his application, and whether it is similar or identical to
motors with existing patants. Neither topic was given serious consideration on the
first go-around, for reasons the patent office believes obvious.

The decision resulted from an unusual hearing in which a phalanx of attorneys in

Newman's employ repeatedly cited patent case law, while Jere Sears, deputy
solicitor in the patent office, repeatedly invoked the second law of
thermodynamics. In its essence, that law states that the energy produced by a
mechanical device such as Newman's will always be less than the energy needed
to operate it. In addition to basing the case on "all of recorded science", as Sears
put it, he relied heavily on an affidavit from Jacod Rainbow, a former chief
research engineer at the National Bureau of Standards and well-known debunker
of perpetual motion machines. Rainbow has several objections to the patent

application, but his primary claim is that the motor's output of energy has been
measured incorrectly. Although he has not seen the device or tested himself, he is
willing to bet "any money" that it operates at well under 100 percent efiicency.

As strong as the gouverment's argument was, it was sharply undercut by two

affidavits. One was written by Mort Zimmerman, the president of Commercial
Technology, Inc., in Dallas. Zimmerman said his 400-person firm "has
independently ... constructed, operated, and tested several crude prototype devices
based on the Newman invention, and has confirmed for itself that these prototype
devices which embody the Newman invention operate and produce power as
claimed by Newman" at more than 111 percent efficiency. Zimmerman was
enthusiastic enough to purchase an option for the right to manufacture and sell
Newman's motor in north Texas. (Recently, he told Science that the motor "needs
further development for practical utilization, and we're not completely convinced
that we can get there.")

The second affidavit was prepared from Lawrence E. Wharton, a physicist in the
Laboratory For Atmospheric Sciences at the Goddart Flight Space Center in
Maryland. Initially, Wharton, who volunteered his services to the patent office as
a sceptic of Newman's claims, vigorously attacked Zimmerman's statement.
Shortly before the court hearing, however, he recanted some of his arguments, and
declared that the motor's efficiency "is in substantial excess of 100 percent" and
perhaps as high as 600 percent, if Newman's measurements are correct. The
change of heart came, he said, after Newman argued with him in a long telephone

Both of these statements apparently made a strong impression on William

Schuyler, an attorney and one-time commissioner of U.S. patents who was
appointed by the judge as a "special master" to help resolve some of the technical
disputes. In his report, Schuyler agreed that the operation of Newman's motor
"seems clearly to conflict with recognized scientific principles relating to
thermodynamics and conservation of energy." But he insisted ther was an
"overwhelming" evidence that the motor's output energy exceeded the external
input energy, adding that "there is no contradictory factual evidence." He went so
far as to state that Newman was entitled to a patent as long as it did not conflict
with any existing patents.

All of this came as a great shock to Sears. It was he, not Newman, who nominated
Schuyler. "We felt reasonably safe with a person of his background," he explains.
In a final pleading to the judge, Sears asked, "Why are we still paying power bills
if Newman has actually achieved his claims? The Court should exercise some
common sense and refrain from joining those who apparently believe in the tooth
fairy... Manifestly, this court has no power to abrogate a natural law."

In his ruling, Judge Jackson accepted the major points of Schuyler's report, but
said he was unwilling to conclude as yet that Newman has produced a "truly
pioneering invention." That decision awaits aanother hearing, now set for January.
Sears denies that this decision has any implications for the general patent review
process. But one effect may be to bar the office from dealing summarily whith
such unusual claims in the future -- a development that could sharply increase the
examination delays experienced by inventors with more plausible claims.

To Newman, the dispute has become a crusade. Having spent thousands of dollars

already in lawyer's fees, consulting fees, and court costs, he will soon pay to
publish a book describing both his invention and the patent fight. He says that "the
world is fortunate that I'm not afraid of a ruckus, I intend to fight this untill hell
freezes over."

Science (July 11, 1986), Vol. 233

Newman's " Energy Output" Machine Put to the Test


Marjorie Sun

What's a device with a battery pack, a magnet, and a coil wired together?

For the past 6 years, Joseph Newman, an inventor from Mississippi, has been
loudly proclaiming that it's a revolutionary machine which produces more power
than it uses. The National Bureau of Standards recently issued its own verdict
after analyzing Newman's machine: "In none of tests did the device's approach
100%.... Our results are clear and unequivocal," the bureau said.

Newman has gone to great lengths to try to win a patent on his energy output
machine. When the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office indicated in 1984 that the
device did not work, Newman sued the agency. He hired a publicist, and the
media often portrayed him as an underdog pitted against the scientific
establishment. Then the court ordered Newman to submit the machine to the
National Bureau of Standards for testing. Newman reluctantly complied.

A physicist and two electrical engineers from the bureau tested the machine in a
variety of ways to measure its energy input and output and used instrumentation
that is common in research engineering laboratories. The sole power source of the
device was 116 9-volt batteries. According to the test results, the device's
efficiency ranged from 27 to 67%, depending on the voltage, the power drawn
from the device, and the condition of insulating tape on one of the parts. (The tape
kept burning from sparks generated by the machine, which caused the efficiency
to drop and had to be replaced frequently.)

According to John Lyons, director of the bureau's National Engineering

Laboratory, the device basically converted direct current to alternating current. He
noted that there are several machines already on the market that do the same
thing, but they run at 90% efficiency or higher.

Newman had court permission to observe the bureau's tests, but never appeared
for any of the experiments, which were conducted between March and June. His
spokesman Evan Soule said Newman will ask the court to order the testing of the
test equipment. Newman said in an interview, "I have no respect for the National
Bureau of Standards. This is a conspiracy against me."

The testing cost the bureau $75,000, which it hopes to recoup from the patent

office. The patent office will submit the results to U.S. District Court for the
District of Columbia, which will try the case in December.

Measurement & Analysis of Joseph Newman's Energy Generator


Dr. Roger Hastings, Ph.D.

Abstract ~

The author has made numerous measurements on the Energy Machines developed
by Joseph Newman of Lucedale, Mississippi. The machines are large, air core,
permanent magnet motors. The most important design rule specified by the
inventor is that the length of wire in the motor coil be very long; preferably long
enough so that the switching time between current reversals is shorter than the
time required for propagation of the current wavefront through the coil. Various
models contain up to 55 miles of wire, with air core coil inductances of up to
20,000 Henries. The permanent magnet armatures have very large magnetic
moments. Thus the motors exhibit high torque with low current inputs. The
motors generate large back current spikes consisting of pulsed rf in the 10-20
MHz frequency range. These spikes provide large mechanical impulses to the
rotor, energize fluorescent tubes placed across the motor, and tend to charge the
dry cell battery pack. The total generated energy --- consisting of mechanical
work, mechanical friction, ohmic heating, and light --- is many times larger than
the battery input energy.

Newman's theories and machines will be described. Measurements indicating net

energy gain from the devices will be presented. A phenomenological
mathematical description of the motor will also be presented. Finally, the author
will present his personal impressions of Newman's work.

Newman's Theory ---

Joseph Newman is an inventor who lives and works at his home in Lucedale, MS.
He became interested in electromagnetic energy some 25 years ago, and began a
self-study program. After searching standard texts for a mechanical description of
electromagnetic interactions, he concluded that no such description existed.
Newman decided that he would have to generate his own mechanical theory of
electromagnetism, and over the following several years he evolved his gyroscopic
particle theory. This theory, or model states that all matter and energy is
composed of a single elementary spinning particle which always moves at the
speed of light. The gyroscopic particle has mass, and it can neither be created or
destroyed. All energy conversions, in this theory, involve an exchange of
gyroscopic particles. E = mc^2 is the expression of this concept, and simply
represents an accounting of gyroscopic particles during an energy conversion.

Electric and magnetic fields consist of gyroscopic particles flowing at the speed
of light along the field lines. When an electric or magnetic field is created, the

particles initially come from the materials which energized the field. For example,
when a battery is connected to a wire, gyroscopic particles flow at the speed of
light down the wire, and they tend to align the gyroscopic particle flow fields of
the electrons in the wire. The electricgyroscopic particle flow field extends
outside the wire creating the circumferential magnetic field of the wire. The
energy in the magnetic field is Nmc^2, where N is the number of particles in the
field, and m is the mass of an individual particle. This energy, or these particles,
came from the electrons of the copper.

Thus, Newman considers the current flowing in the wire to be a catalyst which
energy to emanate from the atoms of the wire. He claims that he has developed a
mechanism whereby field energy can be pumped out of the copper atoms in the
wire, thereby reducing their mass without consuming the voltage source which
has supplied the catalytic current flow. Since the mass is consumed totally, there
is no pollution in this process. One gram mass, if totally consumed,could supply
enough energy to power a home for one thousand years. Newman describes his
theory and its applications in his book, THE ENERGY MACHINE OF JOSEPH

Description of Newman Motors ---

Newman's motors may be described as two-pole, single phase, permanent magnet

armature, DC motors. That is, the armature consists of a single permanent magnet
which either rotates or reciprocates within a single coil of copper wire. The coil is
energized with a bank of dry cell, carbon zinc batteries. In the rotating models,
which will be emphasized in this paper, the battery voltage to the coil is reversed
each half cycle of rotation by a mechanical commutator attached to the shaft of
the rotating armature. Motor operation is sensitive to the angle at which the
voltage is switched, and this is optimized experimentally. On some models, the
commutator also interrupts the voltage several times per cycle, creating a pulsed
input to the coil.

The coils are constructed with a very large number of turns of copper wire. In all
models, the coil inductive reactance is much larger than the coil resistance at
operating speed. However, the coil resistance is large enough so that even in the
locked rotor condition, very little current flows through the coil. The motors
typically draw less than ten milliampere so that small capacity batteries (e.g., 9
volt transistor batteries) can be used in series for the power supply. Self resonant
frequencies (frequency at which the coil inductive reactance equals the coil
distributed capacitive reactance) are typically on the order of the armature
rotation frequency. The permanent magnet armature is very strong, and TIGHT
COUPLING TO THE COIL is emphasized in Newman's later models [emphasis
added]. His early models used up to 700 pounds of ceramic magnets, while later
models used smaller armatures made with powerful neodymium-boron-iron
magnets. The commutator is protected by fluorescent tubes placed across the
motor. Enough tubes are placed in series so that the battery voltage will not break
them down. When the coil is switched, the tubes are lit by the resulting high
voltage, minimizing arcing across the commutator.

Newman's motors exhibit the following extraordinary characteristics:

1) High torque is realized with very little input current and very little input power.
The battery input power is typically several times smaller than the measured

frictional power losses occurring when the armature rotates at its operating speed.
His motors are at least ten times more efficient than commercial electric motors
(perform the same work with one tenth the input power.)

2) The batteries last much longer than would be expected for the current input. It
has been demonstrated that "dead" dry cell batteries will charge up while
operating a Newman Motor, and subsequently be able to deliver significant power
to normal loads (e.g., lights). The batteries fail by internal shorting rather than be
depletion of their internal energy.

3) Significant rf power is generated by the motor (primarily in the ten to twenty

megahertz range). The rf is a high voltage relative to ground, and will light
fluorescent or neon tubes placed between the motor and ground in addition to
lighting the tubes placed across the motor coil. The rf current flows through the
entire system, and has been measured calorimetrically to have an rms value many
times larger than the battery input current.


A large amount of data has been collected by many individuals on the various
Newman Motors. While Newman's most recent prototypes are perhaps the most
interesting because of their reduced volume, I will present data on his original
prototype large machine which has been more extensively investigated. Measured
motor parameters are listed below:


Weight ........................... 9,000 pounds

Copper Wire Length ...... 55 miles
Coil Inductance ............. 1,100 Henries
Coil Resistance .............. 770 Ohms
Coil Inside Diameter ...... 4 feet
Coil Height .................... 4 feet


Rotor Weight ..................... 700 lbs. ceramic magnets

Rotor Length ..................... 4 feet
Moment of Inertia .............. 40 Kg-sq.m.
Magnetic Moment ............. 100


Battery Type ..................... 6 Volt Ray-O-Vac Lantern

Total Series Voltage .......... 590 Volts


Torque Constant ................ 15,400 oz. in./amp

Drag Coefficient ................. 0.005 Watts/sq.rpm.
Q at 200 rpm ..................... 30
Power Factor, 200 rpm ...... 0.03

The torque constant was measured at DC and agrees with calculations. The drag
coefficient was measured by plotting the motor speed versus time after
disconnecting the batteries. It was found that the decay is exponential with the
drag torque being proportional to the angular speed. With the motor operating at
200 rpm, the following measurements and calculations were obtained:


Battery Input Current ............ 10 milliampere

Battery Input Power .............. 6 Watts
Rotor Frictional Losses .......... 200 Watts
RF Current (rms) ................. 500 milliampere
RF Ohmic Losses in Coil .......... 190 Watts
Additional Loads ................. Fluorescent Tubes
Incandescent Bulbs
Fan (belt driven)

The frictional losses are computed from the measured drag coefficient. The ohmic
losses are computed from the coil resistance. Without considering the additional
loads, it is seen that the output energy of the machine exceeded the input by a
factor of 65!

Oscillograph photos show that the current waveform is dominated by the very
large spike which occurs when the magnetic field of the coil collapses. The
leading edge of this spike is shown in Figure 1. The staircase current rise is typical
of the Newman Motors, with the width of the stairs in all cases being
approximately equal to the length of the coil winding divided by the speed of
light. Although the average current in the spike is at DC, the actual current
waveform under the stairs is pulsing at a frequency of about 13 megahertz. The
time average current in the waveform agrees with the calorimeter measurement of
the rf current.

Figure 1 [Not shown]. Reproduction of oscillographs showing Newman Motor

switching current spike. Spike leading edge is shown with the magnified time
base in second and third oscillograph. Rotor speed was 120 rpm.


A phenomenological theory of operation is suggested here, which involves the

following sequence of events:

1) The battery is switched across the coil and a current wavefront (gyroscopic
particles) propagates into the coil at a speed determined by the coil's propagation
time constant.

2) Before the wavefront completes its journey through the coil, the battery voltage
is switched open. At this point the coil contains a charge equal to the current
times the on-time.

3) When the switch is opened, all of this charge leaves the coil in a very short
time, creating a very large current pulse in the coil.

4) The magnetic field generated by this current pulse (gyroscopic particle flow)

propagates out to the permanent magnet armature, and gives it an impulsive


5) The magnet accelerates, and the resulting magnetic field disturbance of the
permanent magnet is propagated back to the coil, creating a back-emf. However,
by the time this occurs, the switch is open so that the back emf does not impede
the current flowing in the battery circuit.

These notions agree qualitatively with the measured waveforms. After one-half
cycle of rotation, a charge on the order of 0.01 Coulombs will be contained within
the coil. From the oscillograph this is seen to be dumped in a few milliseconds,
creating a current of several amps. This current continues to flow for some ten
milliseconds before decaying to zero.

Newman's Motor can be described by the following set of equations:

(1) J? + F(?) = K(sub t)I sin (?)

(2) LI = RI = V(?) - K(sub i)? sin (?)

J = Rotor Moment of Inertia
F = Friction and Load Torque
K(sub t) = Torque Constant
I = Coil Current
L = Coil Inductance
V = Applied Voltage
K(sub i) = Induction Constant
? = Rotation Angle

The first equation is Newton's second law applied to the rotating magnet, the
second is the coil current circuit equation. The voltage is the value applied to the
coil within the commutator. If the first equation is multiplied by ? and the second
equation is multiplied by I, and both equations are averaged over one cycle, the
sum of the resulting equations gives:

(3) <IV> = <?F> + <I^2R> + (K(sub i) - K(sub t) <?Isin ?)

where the brackets indicate a time average over one cycle of rotation.

The term on the left is the power input. The first two terms on the right represent
the mechanical power output (combined frictional losses and load power), and the
ohmic heating in the coil windings. The last term is zero if the torque constant is
equal to the induction constant, as would be the case in a conventional motor.
However, as postulated above, if the induction constant is smaller than the torque
constant, the last term supplies the negative power.

To view this another way, assume that the input voltage, through the commutator
action varies as V = V(sub o)sin (?). If we also assume that the rotor angular
speed, ?, is nearly a constant, w, the following expression applies for the motor

<wF> K(sub t)w<Isin ?> K(sub t)w


(4) E = ______ = __________________ = ___________

<IV> V(sub o)<Isin ?> V (sub o)

The following two equations can now be solved for the presumed constant motor

(5) LI + RI = (V(sub o) - K(sub i)w)sin(wt)

(6) <F(w)> = K(sub t)<I sin(wt)>

The solution depends upon the details of the mechanical load function, F(w). If,
however, the torque constant and voltage are both very large (as they are in
Newman's Motor), then the angular speed is approximately [2]:

V(sub o)
w apr.= __________
K(sub i)

and the expression for the efficiency becomes:

K(sub t)
E apr.= __________
K(sub i)

If the torque and induction constants are equal, the motor is nearly one hundred
percent efficient. If the torque constant exceeds the induction constant, the
efficiency* exceeds 100%.

[*Note: the PRODUCTION efficiency can exceed 100% the CONVERSION

efficiency cannot exceed 100%]


Joseph Newman has demonstrated that his Theory is a useful tool by which
predictions of circuit function can be made without mathematics. For example,
his gyroscopic particles interact as spinning particles (through the cross product of
their spins), and this qualitatively describes magnetic induction. In complicated
electromagnetic systems, exact solutions to Maxwell's equations may be difficult
or impossible to obtain, while a phenomenological mechanical picture can be
visualized to give qualitatively correct results. Mechanical models of
electromagnetic interactions were considered essential by scientists of the 19th
century. Maxwell originally derived his famous equations by using a mechanical
model of the electromagnetic field, and stated the following [3]:

"The theory I propose may therefore be called a theory of the electromagnetic

field because it has to do with the space in the neighborhood of the electric or
magnetic bodies, and it may be called a dynamical theory because it assumes that
in that space there is MATTER IN MOTION, by which the observed electro-
magnetic phenomena are produced .... In speaking of the energy of the field, I
wish to be understood literally: ALL ENERGY IS THE SAME AS
MECHANICAL ENERGY.." [Emphasis added.]

Regarding Joseph Newman's Motor, I have no doubt about its performance or


about the profound importance of its future applications.



Regarding a rigorous mathematical description of the underlying phenomena, it is

clear that much effort, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to
achieve this end.



author, Evan Soule, editor. Joseph Newman Publishing Company, Rt 1, Bx 52,
Lucedale, MS 39452 [1st Edition published in 1984.]

[2] The precise condition for this approximation to be valid is that the locked
rotor torque be much larger than the applied mechanical torque at speed
multiplied by one plus the square of the ratio of inductive reactance and
resistance. This condition applied to some of Newman's Motors, and in particular
to the most recent small volume devices. In the larger motors the voltage is
applied with a phase shift chosen to optimize efficiency, and it can be shown that
Equation 8 still applies in the limit of large inductance.


Clerk Maxwell, T.F. Torrance, ed., Scottish Academic Press Ltd., Edinburgh
(1982). [From Maxwell's Presentation to the Royal Society, 1864).

The above was written by Dr. Roger Hastings, Ph.D., in 1987 for apresentation
before a National Conference of the International Tesla Society.


Dr. Roger Hastings has a Ph.D. in Physics, University of Minnesota, 1975; MS in

Physics, University of Denver, 1971; BS in Physics, University of Denver, 1969.

Dr. Hastings was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Virginia, 1975-77

with research in organic superconductors and the physical properties of solutions
of macro-ions and viruses. Currently, Dr. Hastings is a Principal Physicist with the
UNISYS Corporation. As a consultant, Dr. Hastings also designs electric motors
for other corporations.

*The latest commutator design enables higher voltages to be utilized.

Note: The above article was written several years ago. The principles described
above are generally applicable "across the breadth of the technology." However,
considerable improvements to the commutator design have been made in the
recent past. These improvements are intended to actually reduce the intensity of
the sparking by distributing the physical connections over a wider area. The
reader should bear in mind that there are TWO totally different design systems
(but many sub-configurations within each basic design): there is one commutator
design when the energy machine is intended to function as a GENERATOR and a
totally different commutator design when the energy machine is intended to

function as a MOTOR. The latest design improvements to the commutator system

apply to the machine operating as a MOTOR. Subsequent torque can be utilized
for mechanical systems or can be used in conjunction with a conventional

Joseph W. Newman:
South African Patent Application # 831,296
"Energy Generation System having Higher Energy Output Than Input"

Background of the Invention:

1. Field of the Invention ~

The present invention relates generally to devices or systems (including methods for
generating useable energy such as for example electrical energy from electromagnetic fields,
electrical energy or electromagnetic fields from matter, and more particularly to devices or
systems (including methods) for producing electrical current flow for use as electrical power,
and magnetic fields of force which cause motion (obvious work), or electrical current flow or
for increasing electromagnetic potential energy available for use or mechanical energy
available for use.

2. Prior Art ~

There have been many devices proposed over the years for producing electrical energy, with
mechanical friction, thermo-electricity, photoelectricity, piezoelectricity, electrochemistry
and electromagnetic induction being the chief forms of primary energy capable of producing
electricity. Of these, the only significant source of commercial electrical power has been the
mechanical actions of electric generators, and for mobile power the chemical action of
batteries has been important. Useable motion has resulted from the interactions between the
input of electrical energy and the magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields of force (electric
motors) and heat or light as a result of input of electrical energy through conventional
mechanical systems, heaters, lightbulbs, etc.

All of the prior art systems are designed according to rigid mathematical laws taught both in
physics and electrical engineering that coincide with the hypotheses rigidly accepted by the
industrial and scientific communities concerning the Second Law of Thermodynamics (1850).

From the foregoing generally accepted hypothesis it has also been generally accepted and
rigidly taught in physics and electrical engineering that the electric current flowing in a closed
circuit from a battery, electrical generator, etc., is used up in the mechanical device being
operated by this flow of electric current, and that all such electric current producing systems
would only put out at most work equal to the work initially put into the system, or in
accordance with generally accepted laws stating that a particular electrical system was only
capable of a given output of energy and no ore.

These beliefs have till this date remained rigid in both the industrial and scientific
communities in spite of proof of Einsteins equation of E = MC2. Nuclear reactors convert
matter into useable electromagnetic energy in the form of heat, which converts water into
steam to turn conventional turbines for production of electric current by conventional

electrical generating means. This system is extremely inefficient, using less than 1% of the
energy of the atom and producing a deluge of contaminated materials that have caused a
serious problem of safe disposal.

Additionally, the basic electrical generators in use throughout the world today utilize the
principle of causing relative movement between an electrical conductor (for example a rotor)
and a magnetic field produced by a magnet or an electromagnet (for example a stator), all
using the generally accepted hypothesis that the greater the electrical conductivity of the
material being moved through the field, the more efficient will be the electrical generation.

From the foregoing generally accepted hypotheses, it also has been generally accepted that
there should always be movement between, for example, the rotor and stator elements, and
that only generally accepted electrical conductors, that is materials with high electrical
conductivity, will effectively serve in an electrical generation system.

However, in one of the systems (Figure 3) of the present invention, electrical generation can
occur with the relatively static elements and with materials that are not generally considered
to be of high electrical conductivity, although of course the present invention likewise can
utilize relatively moving elements as well as materials of generally accepted high electrical
conductivity, if so desired, as occurs in the systems of the present invention illustrated in
Figure 5 and Figure 6.

The prior art has failed to understand certain physical aspects of matter and the makeup of
electromagnetic fields, which failure is corrected by the present invention.

Brief Description of Drawings:

For a further understanding of the nature and objects of the present invention, reference
should be had to the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the
accompanying drawings, in which like parts are given like reference numerals and wherein:

Figure 1 is a schematic, side view in generalized, representational form of a first embodiment

of an electrical generator based on the principles and guidelines of the present invention.

Figure 2 is a close-up view in general form of an electrical charge pickup element that can be
used in the generator illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a schematic view in generalized, representational form of a second embodiment

of an electrical generator based on the principles and guidelines of the present invention.

Figure 4 is a schematic view in generalized, representational form of the negative and

positive particles exhibiting gyroscopic actions that emanate from a magnet to form an
electromagnetic field.

Figure 5 and Figure 6 are schematic views in generalized, representational form of third and
fourth embodiments of a combined electrical generator and motor utilizing a static, relatively
large coil energized by a relatively low current driving a rotatable magnet, wherein the
embodiment of Figure 5 the rotatable magnet is positioned along side of the coil and in the
embodiment of Figure 6 the rotatable magnet is positioned within the open core of the coil.

Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments

Basic Principles & Guidelines ~


In accordance with the principles of the present invention and as generally illustrated in
Figure 3, an electromagnetic field 10 comprises flows of quanta or particles 20, 30 of
electrical energy flowing from each of the poles 21, 31 of a magnet (or electromagnet) 40 to
the other pole, following the "lines of force" 11 of the electromagnetic field. These particles
20, 30, believed to be traveling at the speed of light, are always coming out of one end 21, 31,
respectively, flowing from a relatively high-energy source to a low-energy source.

These particles 20, 30 are, it is believed, negative and positive charges and have a spin
producing a gyroscopic motion and follow the mechanical laws of gyroscopic action. The
mass of each of the particles 20, 30 equals the energy of the particles divided by the speed of
light squared. The peripheral speed of the gyroscopic particles is believed to be the speed of

For purposes of illustration only and as a matter of nomenclature, the positive charge particle
20 is going in one direction (N to S) with a clockwise spin, and the negative particle 30 is
going in the opposite direction with a counter-clockwise spin. Of course, if a particle such as
20 or 30 is flipped around 180 degrees, it becomes the opposite charge or type of particle.

The electromagnetic field 10 is thus the orderly flow of the positive and negative charges 20,
30, moving at the speed of light from the north and south poles 21, 31, to the south and north
poles 31, 21, respectively, and follow the paths of what is termed in the art as the lines of
force 11 of the electromagnetic field 10.

As is known from the laws of gyroscopes, a gyroscopic particle or body moves at right angles
to the direction of an applied force. Therefore, when a force is applied to the electrical energy
particles 20,30, they will move at right angles to that force.

It should also be noted from known gyroscopic laws that the electrical energy particles 20, 30,
when they move with their gyroscopic axis straight into an object, tend to knock that object
straight, but if that object hits the particles at an angle to the axis other than at zero or 180
degrees, the particles are moved off at an angle from the straight.

Additionally, it is noted that a magnetic field caused by a current flowing through a wire
comes from negative and positive particles, such as 20, 30, with a net flow of such particles
going in the same direction but with opposite spin.

In the system and method of the present invention, the foregoing principles serve as
guidelines in the present invention.

Reference is further had to pages DD23 through DD27 of the Disclosure Document and to
Page 8, Line 26 through Page 11, Line 23 of the prior Application Serial number 25,907 and
its Figures 7-10.

From the foregoing disclosures, many different devices, structures, and methods are possible
to embody the principles and guidelines of the system of the present invention, which in
general will utilize a material or substance or structure to place a force at the proper angle to
the gyroscopic particles 20, 30 wherein the particles 20, 30 follow a path or paths which do
not cancel one another out, thereby producing electrical current at appropriate outputs for
further use or for increasing available potential electrical for ultimate use

First Embodiment (Figure 1) ~

One possible, exemplary embodiment using the principles of the system of the present

invention is schematically shown in the generalized illustration of Figure 1.

As illustrated in Figure 1, there is provided an electrical current generator 100 comprising an

outer keeper housing 115 and an inner, pressure-containing, closed housing 116 supported
therein by insulated supports 105. A vacuum exists in the area 106 between the two housings
115, 116, which vacuum is regulated and induced by means of the vacuum line 104 with its
gauge 107 and its control valve 108. The outer housing 115 acts as a keeper for magnetic
fields of force, and can be made for example of soft iron, while the vacuum in area 106
prevents the leakage or discharge of static electrical charges that might build up on the
exterior of the inner housing 116.

A gas or gas-liquid mixture 117 which may also include solid particles such as for example
lead or brass filings, is included within the inner housing 116 surrounding a series of aligned
magnets 120 carried by insulating braces or supports 121 and producing a high, combined
electromagnetic field. The magnets 120, which can for example be cryogenic magnets, have
their "north" and "south" poles aligned (as illustrated by the "Nn" and "Ss") so that their
magnetic fields reinforce one another.

The level of the gas or gas-liquid mixture 117 in the housing 116 is regulated by means of the
line 122 with its gauge 123 and control valve 124. Electric current output wires 119 are
provided and extend down to electrically connect with a wire pick-up system 118 (shown in
close-up in Figure 2), which can for example be in the form if very small wires forming a
closely spaced network or mesh or of a porous conducting metal body or sheet, located in and
extended throughout the fluid 117 in the housing 116.

It is noted that a thimbleful of gas contains a fantastically large number of extremely tiny
bodies that are in continuous, random motion moving at extremely high speeds. Hence, the
fluid 117 continuously applies a force to the gyroscopic particles (analogous to particles 20,
30 of Figure 3) moving at the speed of light in the high electromagnetic field (produced by
the magnets 120) as they continuously collide with each other, which results in the fluid 117
becoming electrically charged. The charged fluid 117 discharges its electrical charge to the
pick-up wire network 118 positioned in the fluid, and the electric current so produced and
generated is taken off for use via the electrical output wires 119.

As an alternative to having internally contained magnets 120, the electromagnetic field

needed in the fluid 117 could be produced by a source located outside of the confines of the
fluid 117 as long as the significant field was produced within the fluid 117.

Second Embodiment (Figure 3) ~

A further exemplary, generalized embodiment utilizing the principles of the system of the
present invention is shown in schematic form in Figure 3.

The electrical current generator 200 of Figure 3 comprises an extended member 201 of a
special material having its atoms especially aligned to produce electric current when
positioned in an electromagnetic field but which does not on its own exhibit any substantial
magnetic field outside of its boundary surfaces but substantially contains the filed within
itself. This is in contrast to "magnetic" materials which likewise have atom alignment but
which also exhibit or produce a substantial magnetic field in the area surrounding it.

The generator 200 further comprises for example two magnets 202, 203, with their north and
south poles facing each other, with the member 201 positioned between them, and with the
three elements 201-203 held static with respect to each other. Because of the special nature of

the material of the member 201 and its special atom alignment, it will produce a direct
current through output line 204 as a result of the gyroscopic actions of the particles of the
electromagnetic field 205 produced by the facing magnets 202, 203, on the specially aligned
atoms in member 201, which phenomenon occurs even when and even though the member
201 is completely static with respect to the magnets 212, 203. It may be desirable in some
applications, however, to allow or produce some relative movement between the generator
elements 201-203.

The output line 204 extends to an appropriate "load" 206 for using the electrical current
generated by the generator 200. A return line 207 completes the circuit back to the member

Based on experiments to date, it is believed that brass and lead are materials that can have
their atoms especially aligned to interact with the gyroscopic particles (analogous to particles
20, 30) flowing between the magnets 202, 203 and will substantially contain within their
surface boundaries the magnetic field produced by the aligned atoms or molecules.

With respect to producing the proper material with atom alignment for the member 201, it is
noted that most materials seem to align their atoms in random directions when formed by
conventional methods of production. It can be observed, however, that certain materials can
be made magnetic by putting the material in an electromagnetic field while cooling from a
temperature of around 1000 degrees C. The magnetism is the result of atom alignment of the
material in a given direction (See pages DD19 through DD21 of the Disclosure Document).
All materials are affected so as to align parallel or across lines of force when in a powerful
electromagnetic field. Accordingly, if a material while being formed is cooled in an
extremely powerful electromagnetic field, the atoms of the material will take on a particular
alignment. The atom alignment direction could be varied depending on whether the
electromagnetic field was aligned with the material or at a 90 degree angle to the material.
This would result in the atoms of a material having their particular electromagnetic spin
direction primarily along the same axis.

Merely having atom alignment, however, is not sufficient. Additionally the material for the
invention should be such that it exhibits very little if any magnetic field in the area
surrounding it. Thus it should be noted that the exterior electromagnetic field that occurs
from the atom alignment of the conventional magnet is not duplicated in the material of the
invention, because the electromagnetic energy resulting from atom alignment in the material
of the invention will be primarily contained within the boundaries of the material. It is
believed that lead, made super-conductive by immersion in a bath of liquid helium, for
example, is such a special material and cold serve as the material for member 201.

This then results in having a material that would place a force at the proper angle on the
gyroscopic type particles moving in the electromagnetic field so as to cause an EMF to be
produced even when the material was sitting still (See also the first paragraph of page DD23
and paragraphs 4, A through E, of page DD19 in the Disclosure Documents).

It is believed that high, contained pressures, as well as other methods, can also probably
produce atom alignment as the atoms of a conductor or any material will react to sufficient
external force (See the first paragraph of page DD35 of the Disclosure Document). This
possibility also is indicated by the fact that hard knocks or impacts will demagnetize a

The proper procedure of material production in achieving atom alignment with internally
contained fields of force will cause the controlled release of electrical energy in

electromagnetic fields of force when the material of the invention is placed in the lines of
force of the electromagnetic field.

Third & Fourth Embodiments (Figure 5 & Figure 6) ~

A. Related Principles ~

(1) Numerous scientific tests and experiments made by the inventor indicate that the magnetic
field resulting from an electrical current flowing through a conductor is the result of atom
alignment within that conductor at an extremely fast speed with an ability to reverse atom
alignment just as rapidly without the magnetic hysteresis associated with conventional
materials considered "magnetic". Prior to this time it has been believed and taught by the
scientific community that the magnetic field associated with an electric current carrying
conductor was the result of the electric current itself and not of the conductor material, for
example copper, which was considered to be "non-magnetic".

Even the inventor was influenced and misled by these teachings and attempted to
mechanically explain and justify the prior teachings, as is seen on page DD27 of the
Disclosure Document, which is an important part of this patent application.

As taught in the present invention, however, what mechanically happens is that the
gyroscopic particles making up the electric current moving in a conductor interact with the
electromagnetic makeup of the atoms of the conductor, causing them to align extremely
rapidly, thereby then releasing some of their electromagnetic makeup in the form of a
magnetic field exactly as explained in great detail for conventional magnetic materials in the
Disclosure Document.

This is easily proven and understood by taking for example a size 14 gauge conductor one
foot long, winding it into a coil, and connecting the coil to a meter and a 1.5 volt battery. The
total current registered on the meter will be 1.5 volts and the strength of the magnetic field
created from the short conductor will be extremely small. Next, the same type of test is run
again but with the length of the conductor increased to 2000 feet, for example. The total
current registered on the meter will now be considerably less, but the strength of the magnetic
field given off from the conductor will now be extremely large!

This shows that the magnetic field is not from the electric current flow, but is the result of the
interaction of the gyroscopic particles that make up the electric current interacting with the
atoms of the conductor! This causes the gyroscopic particles of the electric current not to be
able to make the circuit back to the battery so quickly, and therefore the meter shows less
current used.

The magnetic field is the result of the atom alignment of the conductor. The more atoms in a
conductor (up to a point), the stronger the magnetic field produced from a given amount of
electric current input. Again, this is proven by changing the diameter of the conducting wires
and, with the lengths being the same, the strongest magnetic field will result from the
conductor with the largest diameter. The reason for this is that there are more conducting
atoms to interact with the gyroscopic particles of the electric current moving through the
conductor, which results in a greater number of conducting atoms being aligned, thereby then
releasing some of their electromagnetic makeup, exactly as has been explained in great detail
in the Disclosure Document as being possible for all matter.

If the magnetic field produced was strictly based on the amount of current going through a
conductor, as taught in the prior art, then the strongest magnetic field would result when

current went through a large diameter and short length conductor, because the current flow
through the entire circuit is greatest at that time. However, experiments prove that the shorter
a conductor is made, the greater the current flow through the entire circuit and the less
strength of the magnetic field surrounding that conductor. The longer that same conductor is
made (up to a point), the greater the magnetic field surrounding the total mass of the
conductor and the less current that makes the complete circuit of the entire system. Reason:
more atoms!

(2) Numerous scientific tests and experiments made by the inventor also indicate that the
magnetic field created when an electric current moves in a conductor does not use up
measurable energy when performing obvious or unobvious work, force or power. This is true
no matter how strong or how immense the power of the motor or electromagnets is. Reason:
the magnetic field coming from the conductor is the result of extremely quick atom alignment
within that conductor. Therefore the energy in the magnetic field is the energy that makes up
the atom of the conductor! This energy is literally Einsteins equation of E + MC2, and
therefore the energy is believed to be moving at the speed of light. This energy use cannot be
measured by todays measuring instruments. This has been explained in great detail in the
Disclosure Document and is believed to be true of all matter.

(3) The same is true for the electric current that comes from a conventional battery. The
electromagnetic energy coming from the battery is the energy that makes up the atoms of the
material of the battery. Again, this energy use is not measurable by todays measuring
instruments. Electric meters of all types are simply mechanical devices that measure the
amount of electric current that comes into that instrument. They do not measure the amount
of mass that has been converted into electromagnetic energy.

Present technique in science states that the electric energy flowing from a battery is used up
in the device operated by that flow of electric current. This is not true at all! The
electromagnetic energy released from the atom makeup of a battery has a relatively infinite
capacity to do obvious work, force, or power.

This is easily proven even with a small motor and a 1.5-volt battery. With a battery connected
to the motor to operate it and with a meter to take readings, the motor is then physically
stopped from turning by holding or restraining the shaft. At that moment the motor is
performing no obvious work, force or power, but the meter will register a greater flow of
current. The magnets of the motor can be taken out and the reading will be the same. If the
electricity was being used to operate the motor, the meter would register more current when
the motor was running.

The electric current not only will operate the motor but, once it flows through the complete
circuit back to the battery, it also does additional work based on Faradays Laws of
Electrolysis within the battery itself. What has happened is that the electromagnetic energy
released from the atoms of the material of the battery, once they have completed the circuit,
then take a "short cut" and move large pieces of the mass of one material of the battery over
to the other material of the battery. The inventor has stated and shown throughout the
Disclosure Document that the effect of gravity was the unobvious effect of electromagnetic
energy. Once the materials of the battery have combined, the extreme desire for the two
materials to merge is physically reduced. These materials will attempt this merger in any way
possible and, if the electric current initially released from a battery is not allowed by
mechanical means to complete the circuit back within itself, the electromagnetic energy then
in the mechanical means will perpetually (in a relative, theoretical sense) perform obvious
work, force or power. The reason: the force that initiated this flow of current (electromagnetic
makeup of atoms of material) is constant, similar to hydraulic pressure, with the noticeable

exception that it is moving (it is believed) at the speed of light and will interact with the
electromagnetic makeup of the atoms of other materials, causing them to release some of
their electromagnetic makeup in the form of a magnetic field. This then multiplies the
capacity for doing obvious or unobvious work, force or power, which can then react with
another conducting coil or with the electromagnetic energy within the magnetic field or a
conventional magnet and multiply this effect even further, on and on for a relatively unlimited
source of energy.

The same is true in not letting the current get back to a conventional generator. If a
mechanical means is set up so that the electric current is "trapped" without completing a
circuit, the gyroscopic particles of the current have a capacity for continuous work without
increasing the power input into the generator system. If, however, the circuit is complete and
the electric current moving in the system does absolutely no obvious work, power or force,
the gyroscopic particles making up the current and retuning to the generator will then increase
the need for more power input into the system. The reason is in the opposing effect of
magnetic fields as defined in Lenzs Law. This law is simply an observation of this effect,
which before now has never been fully understood.

4. Numerous scientific tests and experiments made by the inventor also indicate that there is a
correlation between the electromagnetic spin orientation of the atoms of non-conductors,
semi-conductors, and conductors, and the varying results achieved with an electric current in
attempting to move through these materials, or when moving these materials through a
magnetic field attempting to induce electric current.

The gyroscopic particles in a moving electric current interact with the atoms of the material
through which the current is moving. Each atom can efficiently interact with only an exact
amount of electric current, and if exceeded, there is an interruption of orderly movement.
Then the angle of release of the gyroscopic particles from the atoms are such that the
electromagnetic release of the gyroscopic particles are such that the electromagnetic release
from these atoms are in the form of heat, exactly as explained in great detail in the Disclosure
Document. This effect is easily observed by the fact that the resistance decreases relative to
an increase of the cross-section of the material. Reason: more atoms are within that given
area, and for a fixed input of electric current there are more atoms to receive and interact
efficiently with the gyro-particles making up the electric current.

Again, the same is true for resistors designed for deliberately producing heat. Such resistors
are not materials that are considered to be good conductors of electric current. It is stated and
shown in great detail in the Disclosure Document that the electromagnetic spin orientation of
the atoms of a non-conductor are different from that of conductor atoms, and therefore
different results will occur from the same inputs of electromagnetic energy.

This is easily seen by the fact that, in a resistor, for a given amount of electric current input,
the heat release increases as the diameter increases. What that means is that the property of
resistance has decreased. On a conductor it is just the opposite. If the diameter is increased
the resistance is decreased, but so is heat release. Again, this is an indication that the gyro-
particles in the electric current movement interact with each atom of the material.

This same effect shows up again in conventional electrical induction from a conductor
interacting with a magnetic field.

Experiments by the inventor have indicated that the property of conventional induction is the
result of the same property of resistance.

If one increases the diameter of a conductor, lengths staying the same, one decreases the
amount of electric current relative to the total number of atoms within the conductors under
consideration. Or, if one takes a given number of wires of the same diameter and length and
moves a magnet across them, the current produced will be considerably less than if one takes
the same diameter wire, but only one wire, and increases its length considerably and then
forms it into a coil forming the same number of wires on any one side and then moves the
same magnet across only one side of that coil; the electric current generated will then be
considerably greater. Reason: the property of resistance. This is a mechanical effect within
the gyroscopic electromagnetic makeup and orientation of the atoms of all materials that have
the mechanical ability to perform a given task efficiently up to a point concerning input of
additional electromagnetic energy and then mechanically causes varying results once this
threshold is exceeded.

This and all other thoughts and innovations in this and the previous disclosures of the
previous application and the Disclosure Document previously put forth show that there are
many different mechanical ways to release a relatively unlimited source of energy from
electromagnetic energy that makes up all matter and which results from this invention.

B. Working Prototypes ~

Figure 5 and Figure 6 illustrate rough working prototypes of this aspect of the invention.
These embodiments are only relatively inefficient prototypes built by hand for the purpose of
demonstrating the invention. It should be self-evident that the prototypes by various
mechanical means and designs can easily be made extremely efficient, and the illustrated
embodiments are being presented only for general representational purposes.

As is illustrated in Figure 5, there is provided a combined electrical current generator and an

electromagnetic motor comprising a rotatable mounted permanent magnet 200, a battery 201,
brushes and commutator 202, bearings 203 and power, mounting shaft 204, and a first,
primary magnetic producing coil 205 and a secondary electrical producing coil 206. The two
coils 205 and 206 are juxtaposed together in parallel disposition with concurrent core center
lines, with the magnet 200 positioned alongside of coil 205 at or near its core center line with
the rotational axis of the shaft 204 positioned orthogonally to the center line.

In the prototypes a very small battery 201, for example size "N" of 1.5 volts is used.

When the circuit is completed, the battery 20 converts an immeasurable amount of its mass
into electrical current (gyroscopic particles moving at the speed of light) which goes through
the commutator and brushes 202, and then enters magnetic producing coil 205 made for
example from insulated #14 or #15 gauge copper wire with the total weight of the coil 205
being for example 70 to 90 pounds. This causes the atoms of coil 205 to align extremely fast
and then release some of their electromagnetic makeup (gyroscopic particles) in the form of a
magnetic field. This field then interacts with the gyroscopic particles making up the magnetic
field coming from the atoms of the material of the permanent magnet 200. This causes
magnet 200 to attempt to align its magnetic field movement with the magnetic field
movement coming from the atoms of coil 205, resulting in the rotation of magnet 200 and the
shaft 204 to which it is attached. This then changes the position of the commutator and
brushes 202 relative to each others initial positions, which then causes the electric current
coming from battery 201 to be going in the opposite direction into coil 205, causing the atoms
of coil 205 to extremely quickly reverse their alignment and the polarity of their magnetic
field that they are emitting. The reversed field then interacts again with the magnetic field of
permanent magnet 200, causing it to rotate further.

This process is then continuously repeated, producing continuous rotation of the shaft 204
which can be used as a source of motive power in many different ways. A power belt wheel
207, for example, using a continuous V-belt is illustrated as a general representation of this
motive power source for producing useful, obvious work. In a prototype test run with a small
1.5- volt type "N" battery, the shaft 204 and the magnet 200 rotated at a high speed for
approximately 12 hours before running down. By improving the particular design features of
the prototype and by using longer lasting batteries, the rotation time of the shaft 204 can be
greatly increased to a theoretical point approaching "perpetual" for all practical purposes. At
the same time, the alternating magnetic field produced by coil 205 induces into coil 206
electrical induction which then causes coil 206 to produce an alternating current across its
"load", which current can be made to exceed the conventional output of battery 201. The
battery source 201 can be replaced as needed.

It is very important to understand that the longer the length of the conducting wire in coil205,
the stronger will be the magnetic field and the less electric current that will complete the
circuit and get back into the battery and destroy the mechanical source of the electrical
current. This effect can be increased further by increasing the diameter of the conducting wire
in coil 205 and then greatly increasing its length still further in the coil.

Reason: the gyroscopic particles making up the electric current interact with the atoms of coil
205. The more atoms in coil 205, relative to length, the longer it takes the gyro-particles of
the electric current to influence them and get out the other end of the coil. It is then easily
seen that if the direction of the current into coil 205 is then reversed, this then further
increases this lag time. Reason: The gyroscopic particles have inertia and are believed to be
moving at the speed of light and are interacting with the gyroscopic particles making up the
atoms of conducting coil 205. These atoms also have inertia, and when the direction of
current is reversed into coil 205, the incoming current then collides with the current already
in coil 206 going in opposite directions.

This causes a brief hesitation during the time the current already in the coil is being forced to
reverse its direction of the atoms within coil 205 that have already been influenced to become
aligned. This causes a constant force throughout the circuit, but does not allow very much
current to get back into the battery 201 to destroy the mechanical means that initiated the
release of electric current in the first place.

Therefore, it should be further understood that the faster the current direction reverses into
the coil 205, the more efficiently the matter of battery 201 is converted into pure electrical
energy (E = MC2) without the destruction of the mechanical situation that initiates the
electrical current release.

It is also important to understand that the stronger the magnetic field coming from the mass of
magnet 200, the greater will be its rotational speed. Additionally, the greater the magnetic
field coming from the mass of coil 205, the greater will be the rotational speed of magnet 200
and, up to a point, the greater the electric current input from battery 201, the greater will be
the percentage of the atoms making up coil 205 that are aligned. This probably has the same
relationship as does achieving atom alignment in conventional magnetic materials. Once
complete atom alignment is reached in coil 205, no amount of current will cause those atoms
to increase the strength of the magnetic field emitting from those atoms.

Therefore, it should be clear that for a given input of electric current from battery 201, the
most efficient design is one in which most of the atoms of coil 205 are influenced to atom
alignment by that given electric current, which means increasing the diameter and the length
of the conducting wire of coil 205 to the point that the strength of the magnetic field produced

is sufficient to cause rotation of the magnet 200 to a speed that allows none or at least very
little of the electric current that initially comes from the battery 201 to complete the circuit
and get back into battery 201 and destroy or reduce the mechanical effect that induced the
conversion of the matter of the battery 201 in electric current in the first place.

Again this desired effect can be increased by increasing the strength of the magnetic field
given off by the atoms of the permanent magnet 200.

In the second embodiment of Figure 6, the structure and operation of the prototype is
substantially identical to that of Figure 5 with the major exception being that the magnet 300
and shaft 304 elements (and related sub-elements 302, 303, and 307) are positioned inside of
and within the core of the primary coil 305, as compared to the placement of the magnet 200
and shaft 204 elements next to and along side of the coil 205 of Figure 5. Therefore, for
purposes of brevity, a detailed description of the elements of Figure 6 will not be repeated,
but it is noted that the corresponding and analogous elements and sub-elements are similarly
numbered in Figure 5 and Figure 6.

It is also important to again stress the fact that the prototype designs shown are presented
simply to prove the correctness of the invention, and it should be clear that the invention can
be made extremely more efficient by utilizing all of the magnetic field produced by coil 205
and designing the magnet 200 of a shape and strength that efficiently interacts wit the
majority of the magnetic fields from coil 205. The illustrated prototypes are relatively highly
inefficient in this regard, but even so, the results of the invention itself greatly exceed the
prior art as to the use of electric current from whatever source and interaction with an electric
motor or whatever work was conventionally performed.

The applicant feels it is very important to again stress that, in building many varying designs
of this invention, consideration must be given to the fact that the energy in the field of force
of any type of magnet is the energy that makes up the atoms of the material from which it
comes! This energy is a real entity with (it is believed) a gyroscopic action. It is literally
Einsteins equation of E = MC2. And it is believed that this energy moves at the speed of light
and makes up all matter, and that this energy has a constant pressure effect back to the atoms
of the material from which it came, similar to hydraulic pressure.

This effect is additionally more fully understood by stating the following results obtained
from experimentation by the applicant in the process of this invention.

(a) When the system is initially attached to a 1.5 volt size N battery 201 or 301 and the
magnet 200 or 300 and related rotation entities are placed close to or in the center of coil 205
or 305, the following results are observed:

If the electric current produced in coil 206 (306) is then fed back into coil 205 (305) in
accordance with proper polarity, the rotation speed of magnet 200 (300) will then accelerate.
If fed back into coil 205 (305) in wrong polarity, the rotation speed of magnet 200 (300) will
slow down.

This proves that the total force from coil 205 (305) interacting with the magnet 200 (300) is
greater when the electrical energy from coil 206 (306) is fed back into coil 205 (305) than
when only the initial electrical energy from battery 201 (301) is fed into coil 205 (305).

When two or three batteries are electrically connected together in series so as to create for
example three or four and one-half volts of electrical input, this effect is multiplied.
Remember that, up to a point, the greater the electrical input, the greater the percentage of

atom alignment within the coil 205 (305).

This further proves that the electric current produced in coil 206 (306) is a result of the
gyroscopic particles of energy released from the magnetic fields that came from the
electromagnetic makeup of the atoms of coil 205 (305), and is not part of the initial electrical
energy released from the atoms making up the materials of battery 201 (301)! The coil 206
(306) can be taken out of the system, or its electrical current fed away from the system, and
the rotational speed of the magnet 200 (300) will not observably change. The rotational speed
of the magnet 200 (300) will noticeably change, however, when the electric current from coil
206 (306) is fed back into coil 205 (305)!

Now a different result:

(b) When the electric current from battery 201 (301) becomes weaker to the point that the
magnetic field coming from coil 205 (305) has weakened and shrunk allowing the magnetic
field of the rotating magnet 200 (300) to expand and then noticeably induce electric current
into coil 206 (306) and into coil 205 (305), then reverse results are observed. When the
magnetic field from coil 205 (305) is large, then the magnetic field from magnet 200 (300) is
If coil 206 (306) is then short-circuited, the rotation of magnet 200 (300) will noticeably slow
If the electric current from coil 206 (306) is fed back into coil 205 (305) in wrong polarity,
the rotation of the magnet 200 (300) will stop. If fed back into coil 205 (305) in correct
polarity, the rotation of the magnet 200 (300) will slow down. At that point, the rotation of
the magnet 200 (300) will not accelerate, no matter how connected!
These results show that, at this time, the magnetic field from magnet 200 (300) noticeably
induces a current in coils 206 (306) and 205 (305) that opposes the rotation of the magnet 200
(300). This effect has already been mechanically explained, and it has been shown that Lenzs
Law was simply an observation of that mechanical explanation.

These results further demonstrate that the expanding and collapsing magnetic fields from coil
205 (305) and 206 (306) do not noticeably affect each other detrimentally because the
resulting magnetic fields from all the coils are the results of fluctuating atom alignment
within the coils! Remember, the gyroscopic energy particles making up the magnetic fields
have a hydraulic pressure effect back to the atoms from which they came. Also remember that
the atoms making up the material of the permanent magnet 200 (300) are stationary as to
atom alignment direction! Therefore, the pressure effect resulting from an opposing field that
the magnet 200 (300) induced is immediate, as is hydraulic pressure.
The magnetic field emitted from the atoms of coil 205 (305), relative to induction into the
atoms of coil 206 (306), however, are fluctuating and out of step, so to speak, and therefore in
harmony with each other. The pressure effect from the induction of coil 205 (305) into coil
206 (306) is an action of the atoms of coil 205 (305) and back into the atoms of coil 206
This action is seen again when the invention is hooked into 115 volt AC, and battery 201
(301) is not used.
The magnet 200 (300) will not rotate even though the magnetic field from coil 205 (305) is
strong and is alternating. Reason: The fluctuating magnetic field is so fast that the inertia
mass of magnet 200 (300) cannot get started in one direction before the magnetic field from
coil 205 (305) has reversed, thereby causing magnet 200 (300) to vibrate only microscopically
at 60 cycles per second.
And, if a 60-watt bulb is connected to the system of coil 205 (305), it will light only dimly,

and there is a lag time of two or three seconds before it lights.

If then coil 206 (306) is connected to a meter, there is a reading of 49 volts, and if the meter is
replaced by another 60-watt bulb, it will light only extremely dimly. The 60-watt bulb
connected to coil 205 (305), however, will now become noticeably brighter! This again shows
that the action and reaction results of the atoms of the coils are not noticeably detrimental to
each other because of the lag time (out of step, so to speak) resulting in reinforcing the
flipping atom alignment of the coils.
From this further explanation of the invention it is seen that desirable results may be obtained
by the following:
For example, in Figure 6 the magnet 300 may be of a design and/or be located at a distance
from the inside diameter of coil 305 and coil 306, whereby the majority of the magnetic field
from the magnet 300 do not cut the conducting loops of coil 305 or 306. Yet the alternating
magnetic field produced by coil 305 should efficiently have the majority of its gyroscopic
particles interacting with the majority of the gyroscopic particles making up the magnetic
field of the permanent magnet 300, but not directly reacting with the atoms making up coil
305, or magnet 300!
When the magnetic lines of force of the magnet 200 (300) cross at right angles with the
conducting wires of coil 205 (305), 206 (306), a braking action is incurred. It should be noted
that, as the inner diameter of coil 205 (305) increases, the percentage of time of braking effect
Along this same line of instruction, the commutator segments 202 (302) can be made of a
large diameter and the area of brushes made small, whereby, when the brushes cross over the
gaps in the commutator segments, there will be no short circuit at any tie directly back to the
battery 201 (301).
By combining the slip rings and brushes (the slip rings can be made of a small diameter) to
the side or sides of the brushes and commutator segments 202 (302), then battery 201 (301)
does not have to rotate with magnet 200 (300).
The no. 14 and No. 15 gauge copper insulated wire of 70 and 90 pounds (31.5 and 40.5
kilograms) used for the motor coil 205 (305) and the generator coil 206 (306) respectively in
the first hand-made prototypes of the embodiments of Figure 5 and Figure 6 for
demonstration purposes only, come in standard buckets of varying weights from wholesale
outlets. It was then wound in coils as shown and, as taught, the more conducting wire sued,
the better the results. The magnets 200 and 300 were each initially about a 2-1/2 inches (6.25
cm) cube and can be any size and strength desired.
In a further, rough, hand built demonstration, working prototype of the invention of the type
illustrated in Figure 6, the primary motor coil 305 was made of No. 5 gauge copper wire in a
single, continuous wire form weighing approximately 4,100 pounds (1,845 kg.) with a coil
lop diameter of 4-1/2 feet (135 cm), while the secondary or generator coil 306 was made of
No. 24 gauge copper wire in a single, continuous wire form weighing approximately 300
pounds (145 kg) with the same, approximate loop diameter of 4-1/2 feet (135 cm) with both
coils 305, 306 coincidently forming a cylinder of approximately 30 inches (75 cm) in length.
The coils 305, 306 were built around a cylindrical fiberglass core body of approximately 200
pounds (90 kg) having a vertical longitudinal center-line axis.
The rotating magnet 300 was made up of six separate parallel cylindrical magnetic columns
spaced and disposed about the periphery of a hollow cylindrical fiberglass surface of
approximately 20 inches (50 cm) diameter. Each column was 30 inches (75 cm) long and was
composed of a stack of 70 individual ceramic ring magnets in disc form as made by
Jobmaster Magnets (Randallstown, MD 21133 USA). Each disc had a thickness of 7/16 inch
(1.09375 cm), an inner diameter of one inch (2.5 cm) and an outer diameter of 4 inches (10

cm). The discs were stacked and secured together in 4-inch (10 cm) diameter fiberglass tubes
longitudinally mounted on the inner surface of the 20-inch (50 cm) diameter fiberglass
cylinder. The composite magnet 300 had a total weight of approximately 400 pounds (180 kg)
and a total length of 30 inches (75 cm) and an approximate diameter of 20 inches (50 cm).
The magnet 300 was mounted for rotation on a horizontal shaft 304 extending across the
hollow core of the coils 305, 306 crossing through the center point of the longitudinal center-
line of the cylinder and orthogonal to the longitudinal center-line of the magnet 300 for
rotation within the open center area of the cylindrically disposed coils 305 and 306 with the
longitudinal center-lines of the coils being vertically disposed.
With a DC battery source 301 of two 12-volt lantern batteries and seventeen 6-volt lantern
batteries all ins series (totaling 126 volts), a measured voltage of 126 volts and a measured
current of 99 milliamps was noted in the primary coil 305. Concurrently a voltage reading of
640 volts and an amperage measurement in excess of 20 milliamps were noted in the
secondary or generating coil 306, with the magnet 300 rotating at a speed of 120 rpm. Thus
the system was outputting and producing in the generating coil 306 useable electricity in
excess of 102 % of that being input in the motor coil 305! This excess useful electrical energy
of course is in addition to the further useful mechanical energy available at the exemplary
drive takeoff 307 on the rotating shaft 304, on which the 400-pound, 30-inch long magnet 300
was rotating at 120 rpm!
Thus the invention, by utilizing the energy of the gyroscopic particles in the magnetic field,
produces a greater energy output than the energy input to the system, thus producing results
beyond presently accepted scientific teachings of the world.
This prototype achieves exactly what has already been described in great detail in applicants
prior patent applications. In this prototype there was simply used a stronger magnet and a
larger diameter conducting wire of great length that has a considerably greater number of
atoms aligned when current is put into the system, and used a greater number of atoms in the
generator coil of fine diameter conducting wire.
While the results of the energy released from this particular prototype is highly impressive to
others, applicant still has only scratched the surface of the energy that can be released using
the principles of the present invention.
Again, as has already been stressed, the most efficient design is one in which the least amount
of input of current causes the greatest amount of atom alignment.
This data does not constitute any departure from the applicants previous work, but is only to
further document that which has already been stressed in the prior patent applications.
Varying the DC voltage for the battery source 301 shows that obvious efficiency will continue
will continue to rise as the voltage input goes up!
Also, the leverage factor advantage of the invention, combined with the inertia of the 400-
pound magnet 300 rotating at 120 rpm (even while causing the electrical generator to put out
over 100% of energy input) proves the invention to be greatly over 100% efficient even at this
slow rpm.
It is contemplated that the next prototype will use super-conducting type material for the coil
305 with a magnet 300 having a magnetic material comparable to that of cryogenic-type
magnet relative to percentage of atom alignment or size.
This will result in the size of the invention being much smaller and yet with the available
work output being much greater than the prototype just described. Reason: The most efficient
type design is one whereby the least amount of current input into the motor coil produces the
greatest atom alignment of said motor coil and having rotatable magnet also comparable in
strength, relative to size.

The invention can be made without using the coil 206 (306) and producing just useful
mechanical energy.
Coil 206 (306) can be merged or wound with coil 205 (305).
The magnet 200 (300) can be an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a cryogenic magnet, or
any magnet.
The design of magnet 200 (300) can create a strong but retained magnetic field.
The design of coil 205 (305) can be used to further retain the magnetic field of magnet 200
Alternating current can be used in place of the DC battery 201 (301), if the magnet 200 (300)
is designed accordingly.
The coils 205 (305) and 206 (306) may be made up of several coils rather than a single coil.
The magnet 200 (300) may be made up of several individual magnets rather than from just a
single magnet.
From the foregoing it should be understood that, unlike the teachings of the prior art, the
following is desired in the design of the coil 205 (305) under the principles of the present
(a) Current initially flowing into and through the coil should be small compared to the energy
output of the system;
(b) A relatively large diameter wire or its equivalent is used for the coil;
(c) A relatively large number of coil loops or coils is used;
(d) A relatively long, continuous length of coil wire or its equivalent is used; and
(e) The greatest magnetism for a given mass of the magnet 200 (300) is desired but may be
designed to that the magnetic lines of force will not cut the coils at a right angle.
The present invention applies to any mechanical device that is operated by electrical energy.
In accordance with the principles of the present invention, the mechanical device should be
designed wherein the electrical current as much as is feasible cannot get back to its source,
but the circuit is completed whereby the pressure force is constant throughout the system.
What has been invented, built and disclosed is an invention of immense importance to the
well-being of the entire world. There will be many devices built from what has been shown
and taught. It should now be known that all matter is made up of electromagnetic energy and
that there are many mechanical ways to release this energy, as has been stated throughout the
five prior related patent applications hereof and the Disclosure Document. All of these future
developments will be as a result of the present invention, which releases energy above and
beyond conventional energy release mechanisms prior to this invention
Claims ~
What is claimed is:
(1) An electrical energy generation system for generating useable electrical energy,
a source of at least one magnetic field;
useable electrical energy output means associated with said magnetic field for making
available for sue the useable electrical energy generated in the system; and
application means associated with said magnetic field for applying an adequate force at the
proper angle to the gyroscopic type energy particles making up said magnetic field to cause
said gyroscopic type energy particles to follow a desired direction producing useable

electrical energy at said output means, the amount of said useable electrical energy being
greater than the amount of any external energy input to said source and said application
(2) The system of Claim (1), wherein said application means comprises magnetic means for
producing a magnetic field and a closed housing associated therewith containing a fluid in the
magnetic field produced by said magnetic means, said fluid becoming charged as a result of
its interaction with the gyroscopic type energy particles making up said magnetic field.
(3) The system of Claim (2), wherein said magnetic means is a series of aligned magnets
positioned centrally within said housing but electrically insulated therefrom.
(4) The system of Claim (2), wherein there is included a further, keeper housing surrounding
said closed housing and electrically insulated therefrom, said keeper housing tending to keep
and concentrate the magnetic field produced by said magnetic means within it.
(5) The system of Claim (2), wherein said output means includes a network of metallic
surfaces immersed in said fluid to pick up the electrical charges on said fluid.
(6) The system of Claim (1), wherein said application means comprises a member having its
atoms aligned to produce a net magnetic field which is at least substantially contained within
the surface boundaries of said member.
(7) The system of Claim (6), wherein said member is positioned in operative association with
at least one magnet, and said member and said magnet are held static with respect to one
(8) An energy generation system for generating useable energy, comprising:
at least one mass of material producing a source of at least one magnetic field;
useable energy output means associated with said magnetic field for making available for use
the useable energy generated in the system;
alignment means associated with said mass for causing at least some of the atoms of said
mass to alternately align and disalign, releasing some of the internal energy making up the
affected atoms of said mass; and
utilization means for utilizing some of the energy released from the affected atoms of said
mass producing useable energy at said output means, the amount of said useable energy being
greater than the amount of any external energy input to said mass, said alignment means and
said utilization means.
(9) An energy generation system for generating useable energy, comprising:
at least one mass of material producing a source of at least one magnetic field;
useable energy output means associated with said magnetic field for making available for use
the useable energy generated in the system;
alternating electric current means associated with said mass for producing an electric current
in said mass in an alternating direction, causing an alternating magnetic field to encompass
said mass; and
current retarding means associated with said mass for at least partially entrapping said electric
current in said mass an effective amount for producing useable energy at said output means of
an amount greater that the amount of energy input into said mass from said alternating
electric current means.
(10) The system of either one of Claim 8 or 9, wherein:
the energy generation system comprises an electrical energy generation system; and said
useable energy output means comprises an electrical power output means.

(11) The system of either one of Claims 8 or 9, wherein:

the energy generation system comprises a motion generation system; and said useable energy
output means comprises useable motion output means.
(12) The system of Claim (9), wherein said current retarding means includes at least one coil
of wire of effective size having an effective number of turns of wire of an effectively large
diameter and an effectively great length for at least partially entrapping said electric current.
(13) The system of Claim (9), wherein said current retarding means includes a rotary
magnetic mass designed to react said alternating magnetic field encompassing said mass of
material, said alternating magnetic field reversing no faster than the atoms of said mass of
material can flip and realign; said rotary magnetic mass being made long to adjust to this
requirement, the distance of the arc of circle traveled by the ends of said rotary magnetic
mass being great; great leverage from said alternating magnetic field of said mass of material
being applied to said rotary magnetic mass, and, in addition to the increased distance of arc
traveled by the ends of said rotary magnetic mass before the magnetic field of said mass of
material reverses, greatly increasing the time in which a maximum force is exerted by the
gyroscopic type energy particles moving in a magnetic field coming from the maximum
number of atoms aligned in said mass of material, causing a longer time of acceleration of
said rotary magnetic mass before the atoms of said mass are required to reverse.
(14) The method of generating suitable useable energy, comprising the steps of:
(a) providing a magnetic device that has a material mass into which an electrical current is
introduced, which results in causing pertinent atom alignment within said material mass,
thereby releasing some of the electromagnetic energy making up the atoms of said material
mass in the form of a magnetic field, causing the gyroscopic type energy particles of said
magnetic field to then interact with the gyroscopic type energy particles making up a
magnetic field coming from the atoms of a different material mass; and
(b) having the magnetic device then cause a release of useable energy through at least one
power outlet and resulting in producing a greater energy output than external energy input to
the device.
(15) The method of Claim (14), wherein the material mass into which the electric current is
introduced is a superconducting material, and said separate magnetic mass is at least
equivalent to a cryogenic magnet.
(16) The method of Claim (14), wherein step (a) is achieved by the step of having said
material be a conducting material and said separate magnetic mass be of any desired
configuration of strength or type.
(17) The method of Claim (14), wherein the material mass(es) are made of a material or
substance that allows for extremely fast atom alignment without the delay or conventional
degrees of hysteresis loses normally associated with conventional iron atom alignment.
(18) A method of generating useable electrical energy from a source of at least one magnetic
field, comprising the following step:
applying an adequate force at the proper angle to the gyroscopic type energy particle to follow
a desired direction producing useable electrical energy at an output means of an amount
greater than the amount of any external energy input to the system.
(19) The method of Claim (18), wherein there is further included the step of:
maintaining all of the elements of the system in fixed locations without any normal, visible
movement taking place within the system.
(20) A device that increases the availability of useable electrical energy or useable motion, or
both, from a given mass or masses by a device causing a controlled release of, or reaction to,

the gyroscopic type energy particle making up or coming from the atoms of the mass or
masses, which in turn, by a properly designed system, causes an energy output greater than
the energy input.
(21) The method of producing useable energy, comprising the following steps:
(a) inputting energy into a device from an external source;
(b) having electrical current flow within said device; and
(c) utilizing the internal electromagnetic energy of at least some of the matter in the device to
add to the energy being input to the device from the external source to produce useful energy
for use outside of the device having an amount greater than the energy being input to the
(22) A method for generating useable energy from at least one mass of material producing a
source of at least one magnetic field, comprising the following steps:
(a) producing an electric current in said mass in an alternating direction, causing an
alternating magnetic field to encompass said mass; and
(b) at least partially entrapping an effective amount of said electric current in said mass for
producing useable energy at said output means of an amount greater than the amount of
energy input to said mass from said alternating electric current means.
(23) The method of Claim (22), wherein in step (b) there is included the step of providing a
separate magnetic source positioned so that its magnetic lines of force avoid significantly
cutting the material through which the electrical energy flows, avoiding a braking effect that
would retard the desired motion of said magnetic source.
(24) The method of Claim (22), wherein in step (b) there is included the step of:
(c) retarding the flow of current through said mass to a very great extent, producing at most a
relatively small negative current flow through said mass.
(25) The method of Claim (24), wherein step (c) is achieved at least in part by a step of
providing at least one relatively large coil of wire having a relatively large number of turns of
wire of a relatively large diameter and a relatively great length.
(26) The method of Claim (24), wherein step (c) is achieved at least in part by the step of
utilizing a retaining means by which the electric current is at least mostly retained within at
least one member outside of the source of said electric current and then, as a result thereof, is
capable of producing a continuous electromagnetic product.
(27) A method for generating useable energy from at least one mass of material producing a
source of at least one magnetic field, comprising the following steps:
(a) causing at least some of the atoms of said mass to alternately align and disalign, releasing
some of the internal energy making up the affected areas of said mass; and
(b) utilizing some of the energy released from the affected atoms of said mass, producing
useable energy at an output means of an amount greater than the amount of any external
energy input to the system.

Top ~ Home

di Eugenio Odorifero

Aprile 2006.
Ai nuovi lettori di A.S. raccomando la lettura delle parti precedenti rispettivamente nei numeri 42, 44, 45
e 47. Altrimenti la comprensione del testo potrebbe risultare difficoltosa. In questa parte, ho terminato il
dispositivo e iniziato i primi test. Da adesso si comincia a fare sul serio...

Status del progetto

Alla fine della parte precedente avevo scritto una road map da seguire per completare il progetto. La
ripropongo qui come tabella, con gli attuali progressi in atto.

Attivit Stato
Finire il rotore come specificato
Verificare la presenza, o almeno la possibilit di un rendimento superiore al
Appena il rotore in grado di girare decentemente girare un primo filmato.
Costruire e poi aggiungere gli altri elettromagneti. Testare strada facendo.
Appena raccolti dei dati di qualche interesse svolgere una documentazione pi
Pubblicare questa documentazione (su A.S., in rete o su altre riviste) e avvisare il
mondo della free-energy . ;)
Trovare un posto decente (e relativamente sicuro) dove curare meglio il progetto e
magari fare dimostrazioni pratiche. Sembra un dettaglio banale ma al momento
non c'.
Proseguire la costruzione aggiungendo ulteriori dati, notizie e bilanci. Aggiungere
altre foto e ulteriori filmati, specie se si crea interesse.

=completato =in corso =non iniziato

Di seguito, naturalmente, saranno discussi e mostrati i punti in atto.

Completamento del Rotore

Il periodo che seguito alla pubblicazione della quarta parte servito, oltre a completare il rotore stesso,
per una discussione su come implementare gli elettromagneti. E' emerso intanto che il minimo
sindacale da costruire era costituito da due elettromagneti: uno per l'induzione e uno naturalmente per
spingere il rotore. Abbiamo constatato che, in entrambi i casi, occorre quantomeno un diametro di un
centimetro in pi rispetto al magnete permanente quindi 3.2 cm.
Per il resto, le altre misure sono:

1) filo da 0.35mm, altezza 2.7cm

2) filo da 0.2mm, altezza 0.5cm (usato per l'induzione)

Nonostante la diversit degli elettromagneti, la sorpresa che in induzione non sono molto diversi: 1Volt
e 100mA, sempre con lo stesso tipo di test manuale. Qui di seguito l'immagine delle bobine prima di

Le immagini sottostanti mostrano il rotore completato e montato con i suddetti elettromagneti.

Non manca qualche svista progettuale. L'esempio pi lampante lo spostamento da un lato di entrambi i
rotori (gi visibile nelle foto di sopra) per far posto alle boccole e ai relativi spinotti dell'elettromagnete
grosso e posso garantivi che anche cos entrano a stento. Qualche problema anche con l'elettromagnete

In ogni caso, questo l'attuale assetto delle bobine.

Primi Test

Spinta a mano

Va da s che la prima cosa che ho fatto stato attaccare il tester alla bobina di induzione dargli una
spinta a mano e vedere quello che succedeva. Il risultato stato un massimo 1.7 V~. Non andato
malissimo, comunque credevo di pi.

Prova col reed 1

Non poteva mancare l'interruttore magnetico ogni altro sensore ha un'implementazione pi complessa.
Per esperienze precedenti sono partito con l'alimentazione minima. Di per s i risultati non sono stati
molto diversi dal test a mano libera, ma la cosa che mi preoccupava di pi, e che ho visto manifestarsi
anche a 3V, la scintilla del reed che degrada il componente stesso molto rapidamente (lo brucia a
poco a poco - i primi momenti non ci si accorge nemmeno). Questo mi ha spinto a usare il metodo
suggerito da Innocenti tempo addietro: collegargli un condensatore in parallelo.

Prova col reed 2

Nella scelta del condensatore ho scelto semplicemente il pi piccolo che avevo a disposizione: 22 F.
Appena provato ad utilizzarlo le scintille hanno smesso immediatamente pur mantenendo il pieno
funzionamento dell'apparato.
Esperimento riuscito.

Test con la resistenza variabile

Ho scelto una resistenza variabile di 1K e l'ho collegata in serie prima del condensatore. La
performance stata disastrosa anche a valori bassissimi (2 e poco oltre). Da Franco avevo misurato
quanto consumava la bobina di eccitazione: 600mA. Tantissimo. Tuttavia nei test compiuti finora, e in
quelli che seguiranno, l'alimentazione di 500mA, quindi gi sottoalimentato. Evidentemente non poteva
andare oltre.
Esperimento fallito.

Test di misurazione n.1 Alimentatore 500 mA

Questo test forse quello pi importante tra questi primi. Anticipo subito che un'insieme di successo e
fallimento e che comunque si possono dedurre molte cose interessanti e che m'incoraggiano a continuare.
Il test sul voltaggio stato fatto col multimetro digitale gi precedentemente fotografato. Tuttavia per la
misurazione dell'amperaggio (in alternata) e la frequenza ho dovuto ricorrere al prestito di un multimetro
pi avanzato.
per l'ingresso i valori sono quelli dichiarati dall'alimentatore (sia volt che gli ampere)
per il voltaggio in uscita sono ricorso al multimetro personale
per l'amperaggio e la frequenza in uscita i valori sono quelli del multimetro avanzato. Per
l'amperaggio ho usato il fondoscala di 200mA.
Gli altri dati, ossia il valore in Watt e il n.di giri al secondo, sono stati ricavati per calcolo.

Altre note:
nella misurazione dell'amperaggio il rotore ha significativamente rallentato: tale risultato visibile
soprattutto al crescere del numero dei giri. Inoltre i valori erano fortemente altalenanti: ho riportato
pertanto il valore massimo. Inizialmente pensavo che la cosa fosse probabilmente dovuta ad un
leggero disallineamento del rotore che facesse variare la distanza fra magnete e elettromagnete e
quindi la misurazione, invece (ma questo si vedr pi avanti) responsabile la quantit di filo
impiegato per bobinare l'induttiva, evidentemente maggiore in un verso che nell'altro.
Il voltaggio e amperaggio in uscita sono misurati in alternata.
La frequenza stata misurata con una precisione di 10Hz. Il numero di giri approssimato per difetto.
Il test da 12V stato saltato per non compromettere il reed.

Input Output
Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt Freq.(Hz) N. di giri/sec.
3.0 500 1.50 1.5 105 0.1575 20 3
4.5 500 2.25 2.3 127 0.2921 40 6
6.0 500 3.00 3.0 137 0.4110 60 10
7.5 500 3.75 4.2 116 0.4872 70 11
9.0 500 4.50 4.7 95 0.4465 80 13

Come gi detto, i dati che vi sottopongo mostrano molte notizie: alcune buone, altre cattive.
Iniziamo dalle cattive.
I pessimisti vedranno subito che il rapporto entrata/uscita, espresso in Watt, va dal 9% (quinta riga) al
13% (terza riga). Il che significa che per andare ad un rendimento superiore al 100% dovrei mettere a 6
Volts e costruire almeno 8 avvolgimenti di induzione almeno che, con pi avvolgimenti, non insorgano
ulteriori problemi. Prima di lanciarmi in questa erculea impresa vorrei fare altre analisi e altri test.
Ma andiamo in una lettura pi attenta: se prendiamo il risultato migliore, 6 Volts, notiamo che vengono
prodotti 3.0 Volts e 137 mA. Notiamo pure che il numero di giri soltanto pari a 10. Notiamo pure che
con 11 giri (forse 12, per via dell'approssimazione) rasentiamo il mezzo Watt. La bella notizia
fondamentalmente questa: bastano una dozzina di giri al secondo per rasentare il mezzo Watt! Le
bobine, in induzione, fanno un gran bel lavoro, sotto tutti punti di vista! Cosa farebbero con 20,30 o 50
giri al secondo?
Il problema vero la performance in ingresso. Ossia, per parlarci chiaro, come produrre con 3.0 Volts, 10
giri al secondo o, a 6.0 Volts, 20 giri al secondo. Quali sono le possibili soluzioni?

1) Portare l'alimentazione delle bobine da 500 a 600mA. Il Test con la resistenza variabile aveva
fatto notare come poca resistenza in pi aveva quasi fermato il rotore. Visto che, come gi
specificato, l'assorbimento era di 600 mA, ci si pu al contrario aspettare un netto miglioramento.
Se tale miglioramento supera il 20% (di tanto infatti aumenta l'amperaggio) e otteniamo, per
esempio, il 50% di giri in pi, allora corrente spesa bene, e il numero di bobine necessario per
ottenere overunity scende drasticamente.
2) Diminuire l'attrito. In effetti il problema attrito ben presente, nonostante abbia fatto di tutto
per poterlo evitare (cuscinetti a sfera aperti e ben oliati) in fase di montaggio.
3) Diminuire il peso. Il peso complessivo del rotore non da sottovalutare: ormai credo che il chilo
lo abbia superato abbondantemente.
4) Provare un quasi ciclo chiuso. Ossia, reimmettere la corrente in uscita, sommandola con quella
in entrata (e vedere l'effetto che fa :) )
5) Cambiare bobina: 600mA di assorbimento sono davvero troppi!
6) Produrre bobine di induzione pi grandi in circonferenza per aumentare, se non l'amperaggio,
almeno il voltaggio.

Quindi i prossimi test saranno orientati su questi aspetti.

Test di misurazione n.2 Alimentatore 1000 mA

Giorno 1

Sospettando che, sottoalimentata, la bobina statore facesse scarsamente il suo dovere, sono passato ad un
alimentatore da 1000 mA, cos da avere certezza delle sue piene capacit (che ricordiamo assorbe 600
mA o almeno cos stata valutata).

Input Output
Volt mA Watt Volt(Repulsione) Volt(Attrazione)
3.0 1000 3.0 3.0 3.4
4.5 1000 4.5 3.8 4.0
6.0 1000 6.0 4.4 4.4
7.5 1000 7.5 5.2 5.2
9.0 1000 9.0 5.6 5.5

Avendo effettuato il test col multimetro personale, non quello avanzato, il test si purtroppo fermato qui.
Potete notare che nella prima riga si ha, in termini di voltaggio un apporto uguale o superiore a quello
erogato (chiaramente l'amperaggio inferiore). Ho deciso di mantenere questi dati perch serviranno da
confrontare pi tardi.


Dopo aver richiesto il multimetro avanzato, col quale stavolta

ho compiuto tutte le misure, ho rifatto d'accapo il test, sempre
comunque con i medesimi valori d'ingresso. Tale test, l'ho
svolto in due parti: nella prima ho usato la modalit di
repulsione, ossia lo statore fa girare la ruota respingendo i
magneti al momento opportuno (da notare che la foto si
riferisce alla prima riga della tabella, il tester impostato sul
frequenzimetro e le cifre in piccolo sono i Volt in alternata),
nella seconda lo statore attrae i magneti, ossia i poli sono stati
invertiti per attrarre i magneti anzich respingerli. I risultati
sono riportati nelle tabelle qui di seguito.

Modalit: Repulsione

Input Output
Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt Freq.(Hz) N. di giri/sec.
3.0 1000 3.0 3.3 133 0.43 50 8
4.5 1000 4.5 4.1 127 0.52 60 10
6.0 1000 6.0 4.7 106 0.49 80 13
7.5 1000 7.5 5.5 79 0.43 80 13
9.0 1000 9.0 6.0 54 0.32 90 15

Modalit: Attrazione

Input Output
Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt Freq.(Hz) N. di giri/sec.
3.0 1000 3.0 3.7 129 0.47 60 10
4.5 1000 4.5 4.7 130 0.61 70 11
6.0 1000 6.0 5.6 118 0.66 80 13
7.5 1000 7.5 6.6 79 0.52 100 16
9.0 1000 9.0 6.9 54 0.37 100 16

Il risultato mi ha lasciato entusiasta, anche se dovr fare la verifica con 600 mA reintroducendo la
resistenza. Nella prima riga della prima tabella, e nelle prime due della seconda abbiamo addirittura un
voltaggio superiore a quello fornito!
Rimane comunque un fatto: in amperaggio, pi il numero dei giri aumenta (quindi anche il voltaggio in

ingresso) invece di aumentare, diminuisce. A livello visivo, mentre misuro l'amperaggio, aumenta si la
velocit, ma anche un terribile effetto frenante. In una prova intermedia, cortocircuitando, senza alcun
tester, la bobina in uscita ho ottenuto lo stesso effetto, forse anche peggiore. Mi viene da pensare che il
risultato cos positivo ottenuto oggi, nel voltaggio, potesse essere dipeso dal maggiore assorbimento
dell'attuale tester. Questo porta a delle conseguenze: la consapevolezza cio che la bobina di induzione
asimmetrica (ossia ha pi filo in un verso che nell'altro), con conseguenze fin troppo visibili.

Test con le lampadine

In questo test non ho preso misurazioni. Ho provato a inserire

come carico varie lampadine (2.2, 3.6, 4.8 e 6 Volts). Il test
ha confermato la tesi sopracitata: si ricrea un effetto di ritorno
e il motore, nel suo complesso, rallenta. Comunque il risultato
migliore, paradossalmente, lo ha dato la lampadina da 6
Volts. Nella foto, infatti, potete vederla col voltaggio in
entrata di 6 Volts, tuttavia funziona anche con voltaggi pi
bassi. Ma la spiegazione c', perch tra tutte le lampadine
quella che assorbe meno corrente: 150 mA. Se vedete le
tabelle di sopra, in effetti, l'erogazione di corrente alternata si
avvicina pi a questo valore.

Test di misurazione n.3 Alimentatore 1000 mA uscita rettificata

In questo test mi sono proposto la rettificazione della corrente alternata attraverso

il metodo classico: aggiungendo cio all'uscita un rettificatore e un condensatore
in parallelo, come nella foto a fianco. Il condensatore di 100 F, che ho scelto
per avere garanzia di una corrente stabile. Per il test sono tornato al vecchio
multimetro, in quanto non ho pi necessit di misurare l'amperaggio in alternata
n tanto meno le frequenze. Una cosa ve la anticipo subito: alla misurazione
dell'amperaggio il fastidioso effetto di frenata si notevolmente ridotto. Questo
mi fa pensare che una costruzione pi attenta della bobina di induzione, unita alla
rettificazione potrebbe ridurre il problema fino a renderlo trascurabile.

In attrazione

Input Output (alternata) Output (rettificato)

Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt
3.0 1000 3.0 3.7 129 0.47 4.37 39 0.17
4.5 1000 4.5 4.7 130 0.61 5.21 55 0.28
6.0 1000 6.0 5.6 118 0.66 6.09 70 0.42
7.5 1000 7.5 6.6 79 0.52 7.24 92 0.66
9.0 1000 9.0 6.9 54 0.37 7.85 104 0.81

In repulsione

Input Output (alternata) Output (rettificato)

Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt Volt mA Watt
3.0 1000 3.0 3.3 133 0.43 4.55 40 0.18
4.5 1000 4.5 4.1 127 0.52 6.03 60 0.36
6.0 1000 6.0 4.7 106 0.49 7.51 81 0.60
7.5 1000 7.5 5.5 79 0.43 9.07 110 0.99
9.0 1000 9.0 6.0 54 0.32 9.35 125 1.16

Potete notare come in repulsione questo test abbia portato a risultati interessanti: il voltaggio sempre
maggiore di quello indicato e, a 9 Volts, ho finalmente superato la produzione di 1 Watt. Lo svantaggio
l'amperaggio minore che tuttavia in alternata decresceva e ora aumenta regolarmente. La prova con le
lampadine salta, con valori di amperaggio del genere non funzionerebbe comunque.

Attivit di contorno

Ho fatto girare un filmato del dispositivo in funzione. Il test ripreso il n.2 in attrazione. Il file, se non lo
trovate sul DVD di Altra Scienza, comunque scaricabile su
Mi sono oltrettuto divertito a creare un'ipotetica pagina web e ho iniziato (ma giusto iniziato) a produrre
un'animazione con Blender in cui mostro il montaggio virtuale dell'apparecchio. Per ora non ho fretta,
anche perch come avete visto, rispetto la sperimentazione, non la priorit. Pi avanti, forse...
Ho postato, oltre alla consueta mailing-list, anche sul nuovo forum di Twilight Science generando una
buona discussione. Il link si trova in fondo all'articolo.


Ringrazio Giovanni Odorifero per il prestito del multimetro digitale avanzato e per aver girato il video.
Sergio S. per aver fornito il suo parere da profano su questo progetto.
Franco Montefuscoli, Eugenio Martucci e tutti i frequentatori della mailing list, i partecipanti del forum
Twilight Science (in particolare Molotov T.M.B., Conan Endogawa, Phobos&Deimos) per i consigli.


Mailing list:

Posta Elettronica:
Discussione sul forum Twilight Science:

Der Traum des schottischen Pfarrers!

Ein faszinierendes Stck Technik, dieser voll funktionsfhige, handgefertigte Stirling-Motor: ein
feinmechanischer Przisionsmotor in Miniaturausgabe. Hergestellt in Deutschland - aus edlen
Rohstoffen, 24 Karat, vergoldet, robust und von langer Lebensdauer. Er wird ber einen Spiritusbrenner
betrieben. Nach dem Siegeszug der Dampfmaschine befassten sich am Anfang des 19. Jh. viele Erfinder
mit Wrmekraftmaschinen: Ein schottischer Pfarrer namens Robert Stirling trumte von einer weniger
gefhrlichen und energiesparenden Bewegungs-Maschine. Im Jahr 1816, Stirling war gerade 26 Jahre
alt, war seine Idee des Luftmotors patentreif. Fast 200 Jahre spter hat seine Erfindung nichts von ihrer
Faszination eingebt.

Stirling Motor. Handgefertigtes Funktionsmodell, 24 Karat, vergoldet, mit Glaskolben und Holzsockel.
Abmessungen 148 x 100 x 60 mm.

Sehen Sie den Stirling-Motor in Aktion:

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Description of selected design:

We chose a displacer design which incorporates the use of a regenerator. The displacer design uses one
cylinder to expose the contained gas to either a hot or cold source and a second cylinder to convert the
hot gas expansion to power. The cylinders are connected by a conduit to allow the gas to be transferred.
Some of the components will be constructed from transparent materials to facilitate the demonstration of
thermal principles acting on the mechanical components. Refer to Figure 1 for a conceptual view of our
selected design.

Figure 1: Isometric Stirling Engine with Solar Collector

Two piston design: power piston and displacer piston

Displacer piston is insulated and loosely-fitted
Gas is allowed to move past the piston
Controls whether gas will be heated or cooled by displacing gas to either the hot or cool
side of the cylinder
Insulated to prevent heat transfer from hot to cold sides
Power cylinder accepts expanded gas causing piston to move

Ease of Demonstration
Transparent high temperature glass section in the displacer cylinder

During displacement of gas, regenerator increases heat loss during hot to cold transfer and heat
gain during cold to hot transfer
Improves efficiency

Solar Collector
Parabolic collecting mirror
Conducting rod to bring heat to engine

Justification for Design Selection

Uses a regenerator
Best design for demonstration
Ease of construction
Closed system able to use gases other than air, i.e. helium
Parabolic solar collector easily positioned and inexpensive to construct

STM Engine cutaway view

(Click on Picture for Larger View)

STM PowerUnits offer an effective alternative to internal combustion engines, which are
approaching theoretical limits in terms of efficiency and reduced emissions. The main
differentiating features of the external combustion STM engine are as follows:
STM PowerUnits have been designed to achieve 30% net electrical efficiency and 80%
total system efficiency in a combined heat and power (CHP) mode.
STM PowerUnits are capable of continuous operation with simple maintenance at 10,000
hour intervals.
STM Stirling cycle technology is scalable to larger applications.
STM PowerUnits will meet the 2003 California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations
for NOx emissions.
The products of combustion never come into contact with any moving parts, improving
reliability and reducing maintenance.
STM PowerUnits have less than half the number of parts of a typical internal combustion
Very low noise and vibration
Unprecedented fuel flexibility
Can operate using an external heat source instead of fuel
Download STM Clean Energy Brochure

The Right Engine

In contrast to traditional gas and diesel internal combustion engines that take in fuel and air
inside the cylinder, the STM engine works differently. Instead, the STM engine contains a
sealed-in amount of working gas that is used over and over. Rather than burning fuel inside the
cylinder, the STM engine uses external heat to expand the gas contained inside the cylinder and

push against its pistons. The STM engine then recycles the same captive working gas by
cooling and compressing it, then reheating it again to expand and drive the pistons, which in turn
drives a generator.
As a result, the STM engine provides benefits that are advantageous to many power
applications. These benefits include smooth, clean, quiet engine performance without the need
for a compressor, muffler or emissions equipment. In addition, the STM engine is highly efficient
and durable.


Stirling-cycle technology - How it works

The STM engine is a four-cylinder, double-acting Stirling engine with a swash plate drive. At the
heart of the engine are four independent gas enclosures each comprised of the volume under a
piston (compression volume), the volume above the adjacent piston (expansion volume), a
series of three heat exchangers connecting these two volumes, a cooler adjacent to the
compression volume, a heater adjacent to the expansion volume and a regenerator between the
heater and the cooler.

Click picture to view a movie demonstration

The four pistons are arranged symmetrically around a swash plate that forces the reciprocating

motion of any two neighboring pistons to be 90 out of phase. The gas enclosures are charged
with high-pressure hydrogen that serves as a working fluid. The reciprocating motion of the
pistons causes the volume of hydrogen to increase and decrease alternately. The expansion
spaces are maintained at a high temperature by continuous combustion of fuel or some other
source of heat (waste heat) outside the tubes of the heaters. The compression spaces are
maintained at a low temperature by liquid cooling of the coolers. Therefore, the temperature and
the pressure of the hydrogen during expansion is higher than during compression. The hydrogen
absorbs heat from the combustion process, converts a portion of it to mechanical power, which it
delivers to the pistons, and rejects the balance to the liquid coolant. The mechanical power
delivered by the hydrogen to the pistons is aggregated and converted to rotating shaft power by
means of the swash plate drive. The regenerator, which is the third heat exchanger, does not
exchange heat with the outside. It alternately absorbs heat from and releases heat back to the
hydrogen in order to improve the engine efficiency. The engines output shaft is connected to a
generator to make three-phase electrical power.

Maxwell's Pressure Demon and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

By John Marshall Dudley
Theory predicts that it should be possible to violate the second law of thermodynaics. An
experiment was constructed to evaluate the theory, and it was found to produce power in the
form of electricity from the kinetic energy of molecules of air at room temperature. The
experimental power produced by the device over a temperature range of 20 - 55 C was within
5% of that which the theory predicted across the entire range.
Other sources of the power, such as electrochemical were evaluated and eliminated as
The Second Law
The second law of thermodynamics is considered by most physicists to be indisputable. The
saying goes that if a theory violates this law, then the theory must be wrong. This is despite the
fact that the law with respect to entropy can be proven mathematically false (1), and the
temperature gradient of the any planet's atmosphere proves it physically false (2) as well. The
real question is if it can be experimentally proven false in a laboratory at the macro level on a
time scale that humans are comfortable with, something more than microseconds, and less than
the age of the universe. If experiments are done and they dispute the theory at macroscopic
levels with times of seconds, minutes and hours, then the second law must be declared false,
both from a mathematical standpoint as well as a physical reality. There is indeed evidence that
for submicroscopic particles this law can be violated. See Beads of doubt (3) for information on
this. Even mesoscopic systems can routinely violate the second law as well (4). The reality that
it can be violated consistently and continuously at the macroscopic level should show that the
concept of the second law of thermodynamics is flawed and false.
"The second law of thermodynamics says that a closed system's entropy can only stay the same
or increase, it can never decrease (5). This is of course false for an ergodic function such as
entropy as proven by the above reference.
The law can also be expressed as "It is impossible to construct a heat engine that, operating in a
cycle, produces no effect other than the ahsorption of thermal energy from a reservoir and the
performance of an equal amount of work." (6)
"it is impossible to construct a cyclical machine that produces no other effect than to transfer
heat continuously from one body to another body at a higher temperature." (6)
That those last two reference restrict the second law to a machine that is operating in a cycle is
curious, generally there is no such restriction on what machines to which the second law of
thermodynamics applies. The violation of the second law of thermdynamics outlined in this paper
is done though with a device which is NOT cyclic, but rather continuous.
Maxwell's Demon
Maxwell's Demon is a thought experiment which has a door that is opened and shut when a
molecule of gas approaches. It is opened if the molecule has greater than the average speed,
and closed if it has less. Thus only the "hotter" molecules pass though the door, so the gas on
the other side of the door will be warmer than those left behind. This would violate the second
law of thermodynamics, and the theory is that the amount of energy required to make the
decision on whether to open the door or not equals or exceeds the energy gained by doing so.
Another demon that is closely related is the pressure demon, also known as Maxwell's pressure
demon. In this thought experiment the wall acts like a diode, letting molecules of a gas travel in
one direction, but blocks them from going the other direction. Thus one side gets pressurized
and hot, and the other side loses pressure and gets cooler.
But as the above references indicate, for molecular sized particles and smaller, the second law

can be violated. So, does Maxwell's (Pressure) demon provide a way to do this at the macro
level? It certainly appears that it might.
Exploring Maxwell's demon, the idea was that one does not want to extract any energy as heat.
First this is a low grade energy, and second, it is hard to measure minute temperature
differences. It would be much better if we could extract electricity directly. This is easy to
measure and quantify. So, if we can construct the door to not let through a molecule, but rather
let through an electron from the molecule's shell instead, we would have a method of generating
electric current.
Collision Induced Tunneling
As it turns out, this is not difficult to do. The method to accomplish this is called tunneling (see
Intro to Quantum Mechanics (7)), a concept that is well understood and quantified in quantum
mechanics. Basically an electron has a finite probability of being anywhere within an area around
an atom according to Schrdingers wave equations. If the molecule is moving, this area
increases in size. The average velocity of an oxygen atom at 300 K is just under 500 m/s. So if a
molecule of gas hits a few atom thin non-conductor with a conductor behind it, there is a small
probability that one of the atom's electrons will tunnel through the insulating layer, and end up
trapped on the conductor side. This process is also enhanced by what is termed "collision
induced tunneling", which generates a force on the orbital electrons equivalent to a field gradient
of over 5 million volts per inch when it is decelerated from the average velocity of a gas particle
over the distance of a typical atom. This force is far in excess of what is needed to cause heavy
asymmetric tunneling through the insulating layer. This thus becomes the equivalent of
Maxwell's pressure demon with the electron.
Thus if we take a sheet of metal, and put a very thin insulating layer on the surface of this, and
place another piece of metal next to it with a small air gap between them, we would expect a
potential difference to develop between the two sheets. Since electrons would be trapped in the
one that has the insulating layer, it should become more negative than the one without the
insulating layer, which would continually bleed off any charge by contact with molecules of the
air (especially any of which had recently lost an electron).
Putting a thin layer of insulator on a sheet of metal only a couple of atoms thick is usually not
easy, except with aluminum. Aluminum will acquire an atom or two thick layer of Aluminum
Oxide (Al2O3) on it's surface within seconds of being exposed to any oxygen. So ordinary
aluminum will have what is termed a passivated layer on it. This meets the requirements for the
Maxwell pressure demon quite well, providing a very thin layer that electrons can tunnel through,
yet end up trapped on the aluminum side.
So all that is needed to try this experiment is a sheet of aluminum with a thin sheet of another
metal, such as copper or brass, separated by a very small gap. Then a multimeter can be used
to measure the potential difference between the two sheets of metal.
Note however that very thin aluminum foil should not work quite as well as a thicker sheet. If the
foil is too thin, then the electron can tunnel right through the foil ( (8)) and end up on the other side of
the foil, instead of depositing a charge on the foil as desired. The aluminum should be at least as
thick as heavy duty Reynolds wrap, or the voltage and current developed will be lower than it
would otherwise.
With two different metals however, one might surmise that the effect is some type of battery
effect. Although there is no known mechanism for this to occur with only air or an insulator
between the sheets, the fact that if the aluminum is thin foil the effect should be reduced can be
used to disprove this theory. In addition, one could use two different thicknesses of aluminum,
and the thinner one should always be positive to the thicker one if electron tunneling is causing
the potential difference. Increasing temperature should cause absorbed water to evaporate, and
the surface conductivity of the insulator to decrease, thus reducing the power generated by the

device, but tunneling will increase and should cause a dramatic increase of power,
approximately doubling for every 14 degrees Celsius. Although humidity should increase the
power if from chemical reactions, it is likely to increase as well if due to tunneling. From the tests
shown below, that the energy is being generated from tunneling of electrons from the captured
gas are supported by experimental evidence and is not a chemical reaction except at high
humidity levels or wide gaps.
Of course if we are violating the second law of thermodynamics without violating the law of
conservation of energy, there must also be a cooling effect on the gas. If we examine a molecule
that has collided with the insulating layer and lost an electron, it will bounce off the layer
elastically, and move toward the other sheet of metal. However since it has lost an electron, it
will be positively charged and slowed by the electric field between the two sheets, so that when
it reaches the other sheet and gets neutralized, it has lost the same amount of energy as was
deposited electrically on the insulated sheet. Thus this is indeed an implementation of Maxwell's
demon. This also puts an upper limit on the voltage that can be developed between the plates.
Basically the maximum voltage that can be developed in a rarefied gas will be the kinetic eV
times the number of degrees of freedom of the molecule of gas at that temperature. (At 300K or
room temperature that works out to be about 116 meV, assuming 3 degrees of freedom. The
Diatomic gases nitrogen and oxygen have 5 degrees, but 2 of them are for rotation so should
have no effect with an electric field). If the gas is not rarified, then collisions with other molecules
can continue to add energy as it loses it by moving toward the other plate so that a voltage can
be reached that is significantly higher than the kinetic eV of the gas. The mean free path of an
oxygen molecule in air is about 67 nm. Thus for a molecule that has lost an electron to make it
back to the copper plate it will encounter d/67 nm collisions on the average with other molecules.
For a typical fiberglass screen (d = .01") this works out to be about 240,000nm/67collisions/nm =
3600 collisions. Since collisions will cause the average velocity of a molecule to approach 0,
they will tend to cause the molecule to tend to drift back toward the aluminum plate due to the
electric field. The result is that the expected energy produced should decrease dramatically as
the distance between the plates is increased, and even with this narrow gap, the expected
efficiency should be very low. If the energy source is electrochemical then the produced power
should not be affected significantly by the distance between the plates. Once again,
experimental evidence supports that the energy is from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules
and not electrochemical since slight variations in the distance between the plates produce large
changes in the voltage.
Temperature Dependence of Tunneling
At any rate the hotter the air between the plates, the higher the voltage that can be developed
due to the increased energy of the molecules and increased mean free path. The increased
collision rate should also increase the maximum current the device can deliver as well. The
other limiting factor is that the gas molecule must have sufficient energy to cause the electron to
tunnel through the barrier plus the voltage on the aluminum plate. An air molecule at 300 K will
have an average kinetic energy normal to a plate of 38.7 meV at 300 K. A one oxygen thick
aluminum oxide potential barrier is reported to have a breakdown voltage of approximately 1.5
volts. Thus the maximum voltage that can be expected to be maintained on the aluminum plate
at any temperature cannot exceed this, since at voltages greater than this, a reverse current can
develop and discharge the plate. However electrons can penetrate this barrier from gas if it is
one or two molecules thick by tunneling.
It is expected that the voltage and current will increase exponentially with temperature. This is
characteristic of tunneling, where only the highest energy electrons are capable of tunneling
through the barrier. Also it is expected that the effect will be very strongly dependent on
humidity. Water has a molecular weight of 18 and can disassociate into a H+ and a OH-. The
OH- not only has an extra electron making it negatively charged, but it has a molecular weight of
17, about half of a typical molecule of nitrogen or oxygen in air. Thus a water molecule or
hydroxyl radical will be traveling at a velocity approximately 40% faster than that of a typical

molecule, approximating a molecule of air at about twice the absolute temperature (600 K or
about 330 C). It is expected that at normal humidity levels, the water molecule and hydroxyl
radicals will be the primary source of electrons to cross the barrier at temperatures around 300K
due to it's higher velocity and negative charge in the case of they hydroxyl radical.
The equation for tunneling through a thin insulating layer is:
I(T) = I(To) * [T/To]^2 * Exp[ - E/2k * (1/T - 1/To) ] (#1)
With a Taylor expansion in the limit of small temperature changes, one can show that the
temperature dependence is:
I(T) = I(To) * Exp[a * (T - To)] (#2)
which shows that the expected curve over a limited temperature range is an exponential as we
assumed earlier.
See Leakage Current Subtraction and Signal Calibration (9) and The Diode (10)
E is the band gap of the material. The band gap of thick layers of aluminum oxide is
approximvately 9 eV. Thin layers, such as one or two atoms thick get into the area of a "size
dependent band gap", which will be approximately half of the bulk band gap for very thin films.
Thus in the math below I will use a band gap energy of 4.5 eV. A slight error in this number
changes the result significantly, so if we get close to the correct answer it should be supportive
of the theory.
If we assume we are working with a solid instead of a gas for the electron source, and using 20
degrees C (293 K) as To, then substituting in the above equation #1 we get:
I(T) = I(To) * [T/293]^2 * Exp[ - 4.5/(2*8.6*10^-5) * (1/T - 1/293) ]
Now, if we assume that we are getting tunneling from the collision induced tunneling on one side
of the aluminum oxide layer only, then we have either 5 or 6 degrees of freedom for a diatomic
and triatomic molecules. For a diatomic molecule this is from 3 translational degrees of freedom,
2 rotational degrees of freedom, and one vibrational degree of freedom. Note that although the
vibrational degree of freedom normally adds 2 degrees of freedom, the kinetic and the potential,
only the kinetic affects the collision induced tunneling. Some diatomic molucles do not have a
vibrational mode, (11) due to their tight binding, such as oxygen and nitrogen. For triatomic
molecules there are 3 degrees of translational freedom, and three degrees of rotational freedom,
but due to the strong binding for molecules such as carbon dioxide and ozone, there is no
vibrational mode. Since there are molecules with both 5 and 6 degrees of freedom, due to the
exponential nature of the equation, those with 6 degrees will have much more effect than those
with 5 degrees of freedom. Thus we use use 6 degrees of freedom in our computations despite
that only a small portion of normal air will be composed of molecules with this many degrees of
freedom.. The result is:
I(T) = I(To) * [T/293]^2 * Exp[ - 4.5/(2*6*8.6*10^-5) * (1/T - 1/293) ]
Now, that would be for contant volume, but we used constant pressure, so using Boyles law we
compute that the gas density is proportional to 293/T for each measurement:
I(T) = I(To) * 293/T * [T/293]^2 * Exp[ - 4.5/(2*6*8.6*10^-5) * (1/T - 1/293) ]
I(T) = I(To) * T/293 * Exp[ - 4.5/(2*6*8.6*10^-5) * (1/T - 1/293) ]
I(T) = I(To) * T/293 * Exp[ - 4360.5 * (1/T - 1/293) ]
Experimental Verification
A unit was built by putting a sheet of copper between two fiberglass screens then that was
sandwiched between two 5X5 inch 1/4 inch thick aluminum plates. This was bolted together with
bolts on opposite corners of the assembly. The voltage was measured using a CSi/Speco DMR-
2322A with 1 Megohm input impedance on the 200 mV scale (Spec says it is 2 Meg. but is

wrong). An Omitron E5CS thermocouple temperature monitor and controller was used to
measure temperature. A Maytag kitchen oven with mechanical thermostat was used for the

The white alligator clip is on the thermocouple probe that is inserted into the assembly for
recording the temperature.
It was found that the voltage generated was very dependent on the pressure applied to the
plates. It was found that as you increased pressure the voltage would peak, then begin dropping
off again. Apparently what happens is that the plates are brought closer together so that the air
gap decreases until everything is totally flat. After that the screen begins compressing, reducing
the cell openings, so the space with air in it decreases. If the voltage were strictly
electrochemical, then it would be expected that the voltage would continue increasing, even as
the screen got pressed down.
The first test run was to determine if the voltage generated could be electrochemical. Initially the
unit was tested at about 30% humidity. The unit was not tightened down at all, just assembled,
so that it would be easy to diffuse humid air into the gap. The voltage recorded was 3 mV and
the resistance was measured to be 200 Meg ohm. Using a DVM with a 1 Meg input impedance,
the initial locomotive force needed if this was electrochemical would be 3X10-
3*200X10^6/1X10^6 or about .6 volts. This is an indication that the voltage source could be
electrochemical, since the voltage generated electrochemically between the copper and the
aluminum tested in water is approximately .66 volts. Then the unit was placed into a sealed
container with a wet paper towel and left to sit. Within a few hours the humidity approached
100%. The voltage and resistance was taken again. The voltage had increased to .215 volts and
the resistance had dropped to just under 2 megohm. Using these measurements with the DVM
impedance gives that the initial electromotive force if from an electrochemical cell of
approximately .6 volts again, which is what would be expected if this were being generated

electrochemically. These initial tests indicate that at room temperature and when not tightened
down the source may be electrochemical. All additional tests have been run at humidity levels
under 30% to try and alleviate this possible source of error as much as possible. The hope is
that the low humidity reading is apparently from the electrochemical contribution because of the
wide gap from not tightening it down since it is known that when tightened down the voltage will
approximately double, but the electrochemical voltage should not change.
Since elevated humidity creates an electrochemical cell, testing with varying humidities to
confirm if water vapor is or is not a major contributor to the tunneling when using copper sheet
and aluminum plates are used is not possible.
Temperature Testing
The bolts on the assembly were tightened from the above measurements until a peak voltage
was found, and then left there for the temperature tests.
The following data was recorded
Temperature Celsius Expected mV potential
20 5.7 5.7
25 7.4 7.44
30 9.3 9.63
35 12 12.37
40 15 15.7137
45 19.1 19.93
50 24.6 25.03
55 32 31.23

This graph depicts a Maxwell Demon unit which measures 5X5 inches and is a sandwich
of copper foil in the center, with fiberglass screen on each side of the foil, and 1/4 inch
aluminum plate on each side. This is bolted together and pressure adjusted for maximum
output voltage at 20 C and low humidity
The red line is the experimental data, and the green line is a graph of the computed data from

the above equations for tunneling from gas molecules. As can be seen the deviation from the
expected by the experimental results is never more than 5%.
If the energy were being generated electrochemically from moisture absorbed on the screen
creating a battery effect, the voltage and current should drop off with elevated temperatures
which would drive off the absorbed layer of water thus discounting that mechanism.
Additional testing using a thick aluminum plate covered with thin aluminum foil and with thin
aluminum foil in place of the copper foil has generated up to .5 mV potential depending on
temperature, with the thick aluminum plate negative as expected. Since only electrons that not
only tunnel through the aluminum oxide barrier but also the entire foil will register in this test, the
very low readings are expected and confirm our hypothesis. In this case all electrochemical
sources of the potential have been totally eliminated, the same foil is used on both sides of the
screen, only the two outside foils are backed by the aluminum plates so that any electrons that
tunnel through the foil will still be captured. Tests with elevated temperatures show an
exponential increase in voltage and current, which is consistent with the previous
measurements. Note that the DVM used had a resolution of .1 mV, so any readings that are half
the resolution were bouncing between the two readings. However even with this crude
resolution, it is easy to see that the increase in voltage and current is roughly an exponential
again as expected.
Data for thin aluminum foil in place of the copper foil, and covering the aluminum plates:
Temperature Celsius mV potential
20 0.0
25 0.0
30 0.05
35 0.1
40 0.1
45 0.2
50 0.25
55 0.3
60 0.4
65 0.5
The experiment was evaluated for thermoelectric components. For the aluminum foil with
aluminum experiment, all thermoelectric components should cancel out, since the same metals
at the same temperature are used on both the positive and negative leads. In the case of copper
foil in the middle, there could be some thermocouple voltages generated, but these should
cancel out as well since the leads were run out of the oven together, and the only thermal drop
is where the leads exit the oven, and both leads are identical and of the same material. All
junctions are either at room temperature or test temperature, and since the lead material on both
is the same, all junction offsets have to cancel out as well.
Humidity Testing of foil and Foil on Plate
Since there is no electrochemical contribution to the aluminum foil vs foil on plate, a humidity test
was run once again. The method was the same as before, a wet paper towel was enclosed with
the unit and left for several hours. Initially with the humidity under 30%, the voltage measured
was 0.0 mV, meaning it was less than 0.1 mV. After being exposed to > 90% humidity for
several hours it read 0.3 mV, thus supporting the hypothesis that water molecules are much
more efficient at supporting Maxwell tunneling than the gas molecules in air. The potential
increased 3 or 4 to one, which is what would be expected if there was a linear relationship
between humidity and voltage due to water molecules providing the voltage.
Hydroxyl Testing of foil and Foil on Plate

The device was allowed to stabilize again under 30% humidity. Then it was placed into an
enclosure which was infused with ozone. Ozone will react with the humidity present and will
produce hydroxyl radicals. This was left for about an hour so it could diffuse into the device and
the voltage was measured again. It was found that the voltage increased from <0.01 mV to 2.1
mV. This is a strong indication that either the hydroxyl radical is even more efficient at Maxwell
tunneling than a water molecule as expected, or that ozone contributes more tunneling than the
normal mix of molecules in air that have 6 degrees of freedom since oxygen and nitrogen only
have 5 degrees.
The number of molecules that will be striking the surface of the metal at 300 K can be figured
from the equation Molecules/sec/cm^2 = 2.67X10^25/sqrt(MT) where M is the molecular weight
of the gas and T is the temperature in Kelvin at atomspheric pressure. This works out to be
2.91X10^23 per cm^2 for nitrogen. A 5 X 5 inch surface is 161.29 cm^2, so with two sides this is
322.6 cm^2. Thus the number of molecules striking both sides of the center sheet is about
9.4X10^25 per second. The current is 1.6X10^19*.0057/1,000,000 = 9.12X10^10 electrons per
second. So the efficiency of this is extremely low, with only about one molecule in every
1.03X10^15 producing an electron in the aluminum plate. However, if the hydroxyl radicals are
the primary source of the current, then since they only compose about .05 parts per trillion in the
air, the efficiency for hydroxyl radicals is approximately 1.9%. Note that since the number of
molecules striking the surface per second decreases with the square root of the temperature,
and the power produced increases exponentially, the efficiency increases very rapidly with
Quantum mechanics provides an easy way to implement a version of Maxwell's pressure demon
that produces electricity directly. This violation of the second law of thermodynamics means that
there are possibly ways to extract useful quantities of energy directly from the thermal energy of
a gas at room temperature. This may at some future date lead to devices that can operate on
the temperature of the environment directly. Such devices should no longer be dismissed out of
hand as impossible simply because they violate the second law of thermodynamics.
6) Serway, Raymond A., 1986, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Second Edition, Saunders
Publishing, New York, Page 480.
11) Serway, p. 463

Release [2.6]

What is magnetism?
The Neutron and the Strong Force:
Decoupling or splitting the Electron and Proton magnetic fields:
Using Nuclear spin to decouple the flows:
How does this effect gravity?
Comparing other devices:
Hamel Cones:
Expiermental Device - Aluminum Splitter
Device 2 - The Nuclear Magnetic Resonant Battery
Notes and NMR References:
Reference constants and formulas:

[It may be helpful to scan the definitions at the bottom of the article, as well as consider
the references on NMR for a mental picture]

Magnetism has been studied for centuries and almost from the beginning seemingly wild claims as to its
importance have been stated. As I too have now studied magnetism it becomes much more obvious that
as the 2nd most powerful force we have discovered, these claims may not be so inaccurate. My studies
have led me all the way into quantum physics at the smallest measurable places where this force is
detected. My surprise is what Leedskin and many of the others have been pointing towards, that
magnetism is actually two forces working in harmony. More specifically four forces. It may very well be
that in the splitting of these magnetic flows lies the [Source] of free energy.
Engineering magnetism at the atomic level is the only piece we are missing at present. The needed
mathematical relationships must be converted to useful formulas to accomplish this for each device

What is magnetism?
At the roots of magnetism, within the atom, we discover 4 different sources which can result in a
magnetic flow external to the atom itself. Magnetism is a force linked to 4 separate forms of spin at the
atomic level.
1 - Proton Particle Spin [42.5781 Mhz / Tesla] NMR
2 - Proton Orbital Spin [around 2 Mhz / Tesla] NMR
3 - Electron Particle Spin [28.025 Ghz / Tesla] ESR [Reversed component from Proton]

4 - Electron Orbital Spin [around 12 Ghz / Tesla] ESR

The 4 types of spin are all very different and distinct. In the normal magnetic field all these spins are
setting in alignment and create basically one polarized magnetic field, in which the Proton is the
dominant force in weight [mass is 1836 times higher]. However the Electron has a magnetic moment
around 658.2106881 times the Proton. In a coherent magnetic field with both a Proton and an Electron it
should be noted that the electron is spinning the opposite direction of the Proton. It's particle momentum
is reversed from its magnetic field. When combined within a Neutron this becomes important.
In the non magnetized atoms these spins are distributed such that none align consistently as they orbit the
atom. In the atoms of Iron Cobalt and Nickel these spins come into alignment enough to create a coherent
flow. In Iron the Electron shell is magnetic and the Nucleus is not. In Cobalt both are magnetic.
As an atomic particle spins, its motion contains two different yet linked spin properties.
Angular momentum [the spin of mass]
Magnetic moment [the magnetic field]
The method in which atomic particles interact is through the magnetic field , the charge of the particle,
and the strong force. The EM field is a Proton Electron field. From the nucleolus outwards EM is 1000
times stronger then any other force, it is the energy responsible for actions between atoms. Angular
momentum is linked to the mass or weight of a particle and determines the particles power to effect other
matter. However it is only through the EM or magnetic field that this energy can be transferred beyond
the Proton layer. The magnetic field is the agent by which the momentum is transferred. Each of the
particles involved has a "charge," as well as a "magnetic precession of spin." The Proton has 1836 times
the mass of the electron, but exactly the same size charge, only positive rather than negative.
Proton charge e = 1.602 x 10 ^ -19 coulombs
Electron charge -e = -1.602 x 10 ^ -19 coulombs
The motion of [particle] spin is how the charge becomes two of the magnetic fields.
Protons magnetic dipoles precess around 42.5781 Mhz / Tesla
Electrons magnetic dipoles precess around 28.025 Ghz / Tesla
The motion of [Orbital] spin is the other method. Magnetic dipole precessional frequency ranges were
mentioned previously for the other two fields.

As a particle spins it couples energy in three methods:

Its [electrical charge] is seen to reach out as an inverse distance squared force. This force is divergent in
all directions.
Its [magnetic field] is seen to reach out as an inverse distance cubed force. This is a raw force of dipole
magnetism independent of frequency of precession. It is caused by the electron traversing a circle at
.999999... the speed of light, and spinning a reverse direction, as it does. The Proton doing similar yet
with a like direction of spin as orbit.
Its [RF field] is seen to absorb and radiate photons at its NMR or ESR frequency as a little point source
of RF or microwave energy. This is a link between magnetisms dipole [precession frequency] and the
photons frequency.
This interaction has the capacity to flip the dipole completely over increasing its energy by placing the
magnetic moment in opposition, and the angular momentum in an aiding state with all opposite particles
in the field. The only way that both magnetic polarized states could be stable is if there are a combination
of 4 forces, 1 is always in opposition to the other 3. The forces at work here are magnetic polarity of the
Proton in its orbital, magnetic polarity of the Electron in its orbital, Proton angular momentum, and
Electron angular momentum.

Because the RF frequency is a function of the surrounding magnetic field strength, the particles may
interact across a wide band of RF EM spectrum. That of electrons, reaching far in excess of there natural
microwave range as well as far below, if they are removed from the atom as with an electric arc.

The important differences:

The Proton is seen as a magnetic dipole spinning 1 Mhz to 400 Mhz. Protons are seen as heavy or
massive particles compared with Electrons. The Protons orbital motions are seen spewing out Mhz
frequencies depending on the atoms they are inside which lay ~1000 times lower in frequency then the
Electrons. The Protons g-Factor is seen at 5.5, meaning when Protons orbital and particle motion are
combined the resulting magnetic moment is 5.5 times stronger then either alone. This brings the Protons
magnetic moment up by a factor of five to around [7.878 10-26 J/T]. The Protons particle and Orbital
motions fall in the same direction. The 2 magnetic fields generated from these two motions are coupled
at the atomic level, and normally no external fields ever enter the atom strong enough to realign or break
the coupling apart. They are seen as one complex motion magnetically in alignment, the result of two
different spin frequencies, both in the Mhz region. Thus if we tilt the orbital field we also tilt the
particle field.
The Electron is seen spinning in the 28 Ghz region. Thats about 1000 times faster then the Proton. Its
mass or weight is seen as very small compared to Protons [mp / me = 1836.152701] , yet the net electric
charge is identical only reversed in value. The Electrons g-Factor is about 2, meaning that when its orbital
and particle spins are coupled they add up to twice the magnetic moment [ -1856.9 10-26 J/T]. These two
spins are magnetically coupled as well and would both tilt together if suspended in a gas form. However
in solid or liquid forms, electron orbits are fairly stationary forming bonds with other atoms.

These two relationships are what may give us the ability to split the fields:

Magnetic Moment - Electron / Proton - Ratio: Ue / Up = 658.2106881

Mass - Proton / Electron - Ratio: 1836.152
The Electrons particle spin is seen in reverse of its orbital spin however, and this presents a very special
case for a particle creating a magnetic field. The two magnetic fields are seen one winding around inside
the other in reverse direction such that the particles momentum ends up reversed of its magnetic moment.
This creates the particle of opposite effects when coupling to the Protons magnetic field. Electron particle
spin is reversed of Proton particle spin if both are in the same magnetic field.
In a magnet these 4 spins all fall into alignment because over all they effect one another and loosely
couple to one another orbitally yet tightly couple within particle orbital paths of each one. There are two
kinds of magnetic alignment between these particles, and within NMR studies we see the differences. An
orbital spin that receives excess energy through photon absorption, takes a spiral path and flips its motion
completely over, reversing its N / S polarity. Normally when orbital spin flips, particle spin does also as
the two are coupled together. To cause these two spins to decouple takes a very strong magnetic field far
in excess of anything we could hope to accomplish in our garage. The energy is lowest when the
magnetic moment is aligned with the external magnetic field.

The EM field of atoms:

So here we see a picture where the Nucleus is hanging suspended inside the Electron shell. A large mass
with a small magnetic coupling, free to be flipped around by external magnetic fields which effect the
momentum of the atom the greatest if the magnetic bond between Electron orbital and Proton can be
overcome. As the electron orbitals are normally locked in place by chemical bonding or crystal structure,
after magnetization they are pretty solid. Held in place by a much stronger magnetic force and far less
actual mass.

As particles communicate through ESR and NMR they do so between "like" particles. Electrons may
send photons that will not interact with Protons and also the reverse is true, yet each will exchange
photon energy with their neighbors. Electron and Proton magnetic fields will tend to precess around the
same vector, only flipping there alignment between two stable states. In both alignments 1 force of the 4
is always acting in opposition. An atom with a high nuclear spin will function very well at spreading
NMR between atoms, as will a paramagnetic atom will with ESR.

Coherent Matter:
Within matter at the core of all atoms, the nucleus, is setting the major mass of the atom. It is spinning, it
also may have a magnetic field. In most normal matter the directions of spin is not aligned and will tend
to cancel. Coherent matter is seen where the spinning mass of all atoms are moving in sync or in the same
spin plane. Their is another synchronization possible with a magnetic nucleus as well, where all dipoles
are spinning in sync. This would result in a synchronous spinning magnetic field. In an object at rest, this
coherent spin of mass may not be perceptible. It is only when we set this object in motion that we would
observe anything unusual. If we can couple to this spinning weight and manipulate it, possibly we can
cause device rotation, as well as bring Nuclear energies outwards.Coherent matter is where one or more
of these atomic qualities are coupled across a great many atoms and they all begin to act as one with
respect to at least one force. Magnetic, vibrational, electric, or mass rotation planar angle of spin.

Nuclear Mass rotation:

It should also be noted that it is possible to rotate almost the entire weight of a material like copper by
magnetically spinning its Nucleus. If a great many of the Nucleus's of atoms can be set into a coherent
spin plane of momentum, then tilting this momentum spin plane is the equivalent of tilting a fast
spinning fan. If you hold an electric fan straight outwards, blowing away from you, then quickly tilt it
downwards, you will realize the importance of this principle. It generates a rotational torque that tries to
spin you around on your feet. This mechanism of tilting a spinning mass by rotating the spin plane
applied at the Nucleus of atoms would impart about 95% of the mass of the material into a torque. This is
very possibly why an induction motor is seen to turn in a rotating magnetic field. Copper setting in a
rotating magnetic field will align its nuclear spin to the field, rotating the field will rotate the angular
momentum of the mass of the copper atoms much like the fan in the above illustration. The spin
momentum will sit at 90 degrees to the poles of the field. In the Roshin and Godin disc we see the
horizontal magnets pulling the nucleus very quickly to one side, then releasing them to slowly return to
vertical. During the fast tilt at 12 or more points along the cylinder this is causing an induction motor
effect for a quarter of a rotation. If the spin momentum is strong enough the nucleus may continue to spin
on around due to its own momentum. If the iron in the Searl disc is imprinted with a sine wave at the
NMR frequency of copper, times the number of rollers, then here we might see one reason the device
would both spin the momentum of nucleus into motion as well as reach a level of coherent matter. As we
slide along the side of the Searl disc cylinder, we would see a spinning magnetic field imprinted over the
vertical static field.
If we spin the copper nucleus magnetically, we get a physical torque. If we increase the frequency of
magnetic spin so it hits the NMR frequency or a lower harmonic, which is the natural mass vibration rate,
we may see a point where the nucleus begins to add energy to the momentum from its normal spiraling
flipping motion. Coupling photon absorbed energy into physical spin.

The Neutron and the Strong Force:

As we put the nucleus together, its weight does not equal the sum of its parts. The force existing as the
"Strong Force" holding the nucleus together is removed from the atomic weight as a subtracted mass. Add

up the weight of all the Protons and Neutrons, then subtract the gluon force converted to mass by
E=MC^2. The weight is always less. The mass that is lost in the resultant atomic weight of the nucleus is
the strong force or energy. The strong force is a sucking inwards of all particles inside the Nucleus. It
draws them inwards.

Here we see a direct conversion of mass into binding energy. When the Strong force operates on the
nucleus particles it reduces their mass by a finite amount.
This seems to be the first level where gravity is naturally altered within the atom. This may be where
it can be controlled.

Classicaly three kinds of energy were identified that can come out of the nucleus, Alpha, Beta, and
Gamma radiation. Either from parts exiting the nucleus as Helium and being expelled, or from orbital
jumps to a lower energy level inside the nucleus. This is called nuclear energy and is far stronger then
electron generated energy. Also the gluon energy is stronger then magnetism but only operates at a very
short distance from the particle vortexes. This may give a clue as to how the particle vortexes work.
Any atoms with more then 83 Protons are too big to remain stable and slowly fall apart over time. Their
nucleus decays. Bismuth is the largest stable atom. How is it we can get two particles close enough
together for the gluon force to grab them? Why does this process cause a weight loss?

Getting 2 Protons and an Electron together in a stable link to form a Nucleon, where the oppositely
spinning vortexes overlap one another in the Neutron is amazing indeed. It requires reducing the force
that holds them apart. Both are charged oppositely and so attract Yet the magnetic fields are opposite of
spin momentum in each one.

Orbital structure of an atom:

Electron and Proton naturally attract from voltage [Fig 1]. When they sit in a magnetic field they both
spin opposite directions. However as they come closer the spin of momentum coupling overcomes the
magnetic field attraction. As we see in copper induction expierments, momentum is coupled through the
magnetic field without being effected by the polarity of the magnetic field. Electron and Proton flip into
a magnetic opposition [Fig 2], aligning their momentum vectors and a balance point is reached where
voltage is pulling and magnetism is pushing. This can be achieved either vertically as pictured or laying
broadside as in the Searl disc. We now have the electron cloud forming at some distance from the Proton
shell. Indeed we see these two particle magnetic fields as very different, and this may be why matter does
not simply disappear as we combine Proton and Electron. This pattern would seem to be of a scalar
opposing nature magnetically at the orbital level. This may explain why the electron does not crash into
the Nucleus but why does it circle in an orbit? This answer may lie within the quantum physics model. As
the Electron is only apearing at quantum intervals, and also spining, the effect of this spinning pulsating
force would be seen as wheel gears, turning against the ones the Proton is emitting. Talk about "Searl
disc" similiarity. These two spinning opposite directions with all the weight in the Proton, the Electron is
hurled around the Nucleus at near lightspeeds. No more sensless talk about momentum type orbital paths
in a frictionless space, this is all electromagnetic and powered from the spin of the Particle vortexes
winking on and off as they cross this density.

The Neutron:

If quadrature alignment is reached [Fig 3] then Electron and Proton can merge [Fig 4] to become a
Neutron [Fig 5]. The two forces of spin and magnetism setting at 90 degrees, the electric force pulls the
particles together and overlapping. A beta energy particle is exchanged, and one quark flips. At this point
their momentum swings back into perfect alignment, canceling voltage and almost all the magnetic
forces from radiating [Fig 5]. [The Neutron still has a magnetic dipole moment of -1.913 Un. and there is
a technology called Neutron scattering using its Larmor frequency as well, around 1 Gig]. When they are
still setting at 90 degrees only the voltage vector is interacting [fig 4], the spin and magnetic vectors have
not yet recoupled. It is between these two last steps where we may find the method of tapping the energy
of Source.

As a Neutron they have become a scalar canceling device, falling into a momentum locked position with
spins aligned. Intresting to note that only in this configuration do they now apear to have an attracting
magnetic field, an attracting Voltage, and spin alignment. This unique alignment with one inside the
other. This could be likened to a short circuit at the source generation point for the EM field. They are as
close as they can get to all attractive forces. Both alter their size, the resultant Neutron size lies between
Electron and Proton. A new force emerges in holding these together, and becomes the Strong Force
comming now out of the Neutron just a little, sucking all the Nucleus together and altering the weight of
the particles setting inside it. We now see a particle with a high mass and a weak magnetic field. The two
tornadoes of Source "merging" as the strong force.

When the Neutron is removed from the Nucleus it will find itself setting in a more negatively charged
field, if not entirely surrounded by the Electron shells of other atoms. To stay together it is noted that one

Proton must be close enough to maintain a dominant Positive voltage with a dominant Proton spin. This
forms the Nucleon. If the Neutron is removed from the atom it will decay within 10.3 minutes back into a
Proton and an Electron plus a Beta energy packet and a quark flip. Here we see a weight gain as well as
an extra energy gain as they come apart. This is a surprise because we were taught that "energy in"
must equal "energy out." A Neutron will dismantle itself outside the atom, giving off energy as it
becomes heavier. How can a Neutron falling apart, both gain weight, and emit energy? So here we see a
greater output then the sum of the parts with respect to Neutrons exiting the atom and exiting the Strong
Force area.
The Neutron only produces the Strong Force when setting next to another Proton in a Nucleon. As a
combined particle, the Neutron is only slightly larger then the Proton, and about half as large as an

Neutrons are not stable and can be manipulated, as the surrounding Protons keep them stable by
providing spin coupling through the strong force as well as positive voltage potential and a weak
magnetic force. This would tend to push the Neutrons inner Electron and Proton inwards closer to center
of spin. The Electrons orbiting also effect them because their magnetic field is far greater then the
Protons and it is opposing so also pushes inwards. This causes the Neutron to become smaller then the
Electron alone and pushes it towards a higher density. This may actually be what alters gravity and the
Neutron may be the particle that is the link to other densities. Here at the Nucleus all the known
forces would seem to come together.

Momentum of spin - Electric - Magnetic - Scalar - Strong Force - Gravity

The Neutron can be viewed as a very close configuration of the same Electron and Proton particles we
have dealt with in their Orbital positions. The close bond is one that is barely in balance within the
atom, and comes apart if removed from the atom. It is very likely that we can effect this close
relationship to extract energy from Source by developing a process of partially splitting the two
while still inside the Nucleus. If we can toggle between Fig 4 and Fig 5 without destroying the

[An electron shell may form around Copper or Aluminum with its Proton magnetic field synchronized
through all the atoms to become strong enough to repel the electrons magnetic field if induction is
operating. A strong Proton generated magnetic field should act like the nucleus of an atom, if charged
positively. The charge can be induced into the coppers electron shell but the magnetic field must come
from the nucleus. Protons may orbit a negatively charged magnet as well.]

[Here we see that to produce the strongest possible Proton magnetic field, would require a material like
Copper or Aluminum be charged positive. Then Protons aligned through NMR resonance into the same
plane of spin. Hitting the system at 90 degrees with a strong electron generated magnetic field, we see the
fields separating in the Neutrons, and tapping the strong force. This is the force that is shown to alter
gravity right on the periodic table. This is also a force that is based on the two constants of spin found in
the Electron and Proton which can never be depleted.]

Atomic force breakdown:

Strong force - Overlaps all the Nucleus and particles inside it - [Neutron + Proton = Nucleon] [Effects
mass or gravity lowering weight]
EM - Works mainly from the Protons outwards and overlaps Protons and Electrons, however within the
Neutron there may be scalar canceling EM of the highest magnitude possible, where both forces are seen
to create torsion or time at their closest distance.
Gravity - Seen as a constant force across all the particles, however at the nucleus within the strong force

it is lower then the sum of all the parts outside the Nucleus.

[The Proton is seen as the Particle that seems to sit within both forces, interacting with complexity in
both fields.]
[When a Neutron comes apart, breaking back into a Proton and Electron, it emits energy, as it leaves the
Nucleus it gains weight]

Decoupling or splitting the Electron and Proton magnetic fields:

[The 90 degree tilt, reaching a new stable state between Proton and Electron fields, Quadrature
If we succeed at creating two magnetic fields setting at 90 degrees to one another where Protons align to
precess around one, and Electrons align around the other, we could expect magnets to saturate along
these two 90 degree angles as more atoms take on this alignment forming longer chains. We could also
expect that the transmition of ESR and NMR energies would become polarized along such a 90 degree
relationship as photons jump between atoms. Further the hint from the Searl disk that high voltages may
accompany each field of the polarity following the particle generating the field. When the forces of EM
no longer cancel within atoms and begin to apear at the edges of the material, we can expect a lot of
energy to become present.

Two natural states of alignment between Electron and Proton magnetism:

State one: [The low energy state]

The magnetic moments are aligned - The angular momentum is opposing
State Two: [The high energy state]
The magnetic moment is opposing - The angular momentum is aligned
Either state sets at least one force in opposition to the other three.
Once the electron shell is bonded into a solid, the Proton field normally takes on one of these two states,
precessing around it, unless a higher magnetic field becomes present at another angle moving through it.

Splitting the fields

We see the magnetic field strongest off the ends of a dipole magnet and weakest off its sides. If we can
place the blotch wall of each of the fields exactly over the strongest field of the other, we will get the
greatest decoupling between the two fields spin planes. In this state the two fields will become the least
interactive and should split. If a magnet becomes linked in a long chain of magnets, its interaction to

others fields decreases. The magnetic interaction is strongest off the ends of a long run of magnets and
near the center of the string it is very weak. You can show this with 2 very long chains of magnets, which
if held together at the center, do not show any sign of effecting one another. Yet through each one is
travelling a very strong flow and upon reaching the end of the magnet it jumps out to interact. A string of
Neo disc magnets stacked to a foot and a half long, can be placed between two tables and will exhibit
great strength at staying together. Upon placing it centered over another stack crossing at 90 degree
angles, the two centers can be touched and moved apart and will neither attract nor repell. It is only
where the magnet strings ends come together where we get strong interactions. Once quadrature
magnetization is established over a certain distance we might expect it to be self sustaining.

In splitting we need to offer the string ends a good termination point. We want an Electron based
magnetic field crossing a Proton based field at 90 degrees. Then we want to force the Protons and
Electrons in our material to shift, chaining into the field that is operating at its like spin properties. All we
have to seperate them is the difference of weight, magnetic moment, and magnetic dipole precession

If we have achieved quadrature alignment at the EM layer then its force should be felt at the strong
force layer as well hopfully effecting the Neutron.

Using a magnetic material to split the fields:

One possible method [cobalt magnets]:
Since the Electrons 2 magnetic fields are usually fairly locked in during magnetization in a permanent
magnet, if we position part of it horizontally and part vertically, then as we add momentum to the disc our
Protons in the horizontal plane will want to align vertically. If we then coax them using another slightly
weaker magnet at 90 degrees [vertical], they should tilt vertical and begin to precess around it, at some
RPM where the momentum of the Proton begins to exceed its weaker magnetic holding force. This static
state where both particles are at 90 degree magnetization is the one that may begin to cause relativistic
alterations. This could be as simple as two magnets carefully aligned on both sides of a cylinder wall. At
some critical velocity the field would split in the horizontally polarized magnet.
Another method of causing momentum in a magnetic disc:
If we simply place many stronger magnets at 90 degrees with moving intersecting fields such that we
cause the Protons to all spin one direction along many points around the cylinder, we are effectively
creating small rotating gyros. As we spin them through a 90 degree spin to the cylinders outer surface
they will all impart a momentum to turn the disc. This is possible because nearly all the mass of an atom
is in the nucleus, and it is the nucleus that will be spinning. You can show this principle by holding a fast
turning bicycle wheel on its axis, while setting on a swivel chair. As you roll the wheel one direction in
front of you, perpendicular to spin, one hand moves up as the other moves down, your chair will start to
turn. While this method should be able to start a disc into motion it will not split the fields totally, yet it
will create a small time interval where blotch walls pass at 90 degrees which may cause a smaller effect,
but certainly not a complete saturation. This would appear however to be a rotating magnetic field at
the nuclear level.

Using a non magnetic material to split the fields:

In a non magnetic solid material the electron orbitals are locked by chemical bonding and crystalline
structures, however they are not magnetic. A material like Aluminum or Copper will need to be
magnetized along its electron orbitals by passing a steady current through them one direction if we are to
couple them to the Neutrons inner Electron vortex. This will create a grouping of electrons along the
correct spin planes simulating a magnetic atom. Both of these materials have a high nuclear spin so the
Protons will be effected by both magnetic field and momentum. The key to this method will be to create
the proper magnetization in the Copper horizontally, which will turn the electron orbitals into little
magnets creating the 90 degree field. A second vertical magnetic field must be present slightly lower to
capture the Protons as the higher momentum of the disc begins to tilt them vertical.
This method could be used by sheeting a vertically polarized magnet with Copper or Aluminum or even
wrapping it with a coil as a torrid. It could also be done with only copper coils. Either way it will still
have to be spun up to reach the threshold where Protons tilt vertical and Electrons stay horizontal. As this
process is happening within the copper atoms, all can be started with DC currents. If it is desired to do
this without spinning the disc, using only copper coils then some method of entraining the Protons with
an NMR frequency may prove effective. The energy in the NMR would have to exceed the threshold of
the difference of the two coils field strength. This would add a third coil pulsing the NMR frequency in
the correct plane to tilt Protons towards the weaker field.
The Searl disc may be using many of these methods at different RPMs.

The [avalanche] effect

[bringing the micro effect to the macro world]

As we start this interaction in one small area of the device, it may be hard to envision how it can spread

to envelope the entire disc, as well as effect surrounding matter. This is explained in the coupling
between atoms setting next to one another as the two magnetic fields begin to increase in strength from
the decoupling and from greater numbers of protons lining up in the new field. One of the methods of
energy transfer between adjacent atoms is NMR, however this method is in fact frequency dependent.
This means that as some of the Protons begin to tip to 90 degrees and accelerate, their field in this
direction becomes stronger. They will also radiate photons of the correct energy to effect nearby Protons
tending to tilt them into alignment. These photons will be ignored by the Electrons which have a
frequency about 1000 times higher. As new Protons get hit with NMR photons they will begin to flip
into a spiral path towards reversing to 180 degrees. As they cross the new 90 degree magnetic field some
will be trapped by it and begin to precess around it instead of continuing there flip. The Protons will all
begin to seek the new alignment as time progresses, particularly if their NMR energy level is high overall.
The Electrons will have a similar process tending to strengthen the horizontal magnetic field and holding
them even tighter with the reinforced ESR energy oscillating between atoms in the plane at 90 degrees to
the Proton energy. Also as the unpaired Neutron within Copper begins to split its magnetic field, the
strong force will release energy, and the Electrons magnetic field will pop out aiding the polarization. As
the process continues it may at some point become self sustaining, and spread beyond the 90 degree
magnets of the device all through the entire system if configured correctly to allow this.
Two magnetic fields aligned at 90 degrees and building towards light speed unity. Particle velocity
should speed up but never actually hit light speed, because the magnetic field is not perfectly dipole in
nature. There is always some magnetic field off the sides of a dipole, however as frequency raises the tilt
angles of NMR and ESR narrow, as the precession frequency raises, and far less energy will appear off
the sides of the dipoles. This may push electrons into a high enough frequency to begin to radiate light.
Thus the glow.
This describes a runaway condition we see in the devices studied. The better we succeed at splitting the B
fields of Proton and Electron the faster the device may runaway. We can either attempt to slow the
acceleration effect using very thin cylinders, or we can counter it with a method of reuniting the fields.
Either way it must be accomplished within the device at the atomic layer before the device crosses the
density threshold of 3rd density and vanishes.

Using Nuclear spin to decouple the magnetic flows:

In studying NMR technology it becomes apparent there is another method of decoupling Electron and
Proton fields, at least temporarily. When one hits the atom at 90 degrees with a 1/4 wave NMR pulse, the
Proton field tilts to 90 degrees then slowly recovers, sometimes taking several seconds to stabilize back
into alignment as it spins back up through a spiral path. With this splitting method the Proton field can be
kept in a state of equator spin around the standing magnetic field. If a constant supply of pulses are fed
to the material keeping Protons spinning then this alignment may be enough to alter the Neutrons. A
standing magnetic field must flow through the material in the vertical plane, then pulses are added at 90
degrees in an attempt to keep Protons spinning on equatorial paths. If the pulses are hitting at properly
timed intervals this method may be useful for thin materials such as cylinders or spinning cylinders. No
DC holding field is possible for Proton alignment as it must be free to spin, so pulses must be kept
constant, strong, and very short in duration, preferably four times the NMR frequency, or 1/4 wave pulses
spaced exactly several wavelengths apart. No stable quadrature magnetization could be expected to
support itself in this method however it may be much easier to achieve if one uses good electronics
designs. A formula for device cylinder spin, and pulse frequency could be set up to cover almost the
entire surface of a disc with pulses before Protons can complete their realignment. This would establish a
large enough area on the cylinder to generate high voltages between its outer and upper surfaces.

An AC holding field may be possible by setting up a rotating magnetic field at the NMR frequency
around a thin material like a sphere or cylinder, with two iron core electromagnets above and below it.
An iron core could even be placed through the center of the cylinder to transmit the DC magnetic field
constantly along the Aluminum or Copper surface on the inner side. Are we starting to look like a Searl

disk yet? The beauty of this design is that if we remove the pulses the effect should cease. If we decrease
the intensity, then less atoms would tilt and a governor may be designed to regulate voltage output.
Whether or not we achieve a total Nuclear resonance through the device would be hard to say, and
experiment is in order. If the atoms stacked vertically on one another, do effect one another by magnetism
and NMR energy this field may spread up and down the vertical sections of the material causing all to
spin in sync at some point.

How does this effect gravity?

Important to note here that it is a physics constant we may be effecting, that of Electron and Proton
particle spin and relating to Planks constant. The Electron and Proton at their smallest points of spin in
the Neutron may be the link to time and gravity, not so much the orbital motions. This is where we hit the
wall of relativity as well as quantum physics. However since we gain control of their magnetically
coupled orbital motions we have gained the ability to tilt them as well. This may be the link between the
forces of EM and Gravity we have been looking for. As the Electrons momentum is less then 1/1000 the
Protons this unlinking may seem of no consequence, however remember in a particle traveling at
.999999... light speed this slight difference is magnified by a relativistic amount. Decoupling Electron
and Proton Spin momentum may be the strongest effect we could hope for in this sense. Decoupling them
inside the Neutron may effect time itself.
The Electron may seem to effect the Proton very little but the difference is very near c [light speed] and
this interaction may seem to be pushing a constant of physics just a bit off its natural state. However at
the Neutron level we may also be effecting the strong force by tilting the fields away from one another.
As the Protons motions are freed from the Electrons motions from the decoupling of the magnetic fields
now setting at 90 degrees to one another, both particles would increase in frequency due to at least one
countering force being decoupled. Previously when they both sat in an attracting field, their magnetic
moment is alike but the angular momentum of each one is opposite in direction. In the Neutron they sit
with momentum aligned and magnetic fields in a powerful opposition. As the momentum is transferred
across the magnetic field this would tend to lower angular momentum of both particles. As they decouple
spin increases. If time is truly the increment of spin as Wilbert Smith has suggested then the overall time
frame of the atom in this split configuration will speed up, approaching or exceeding the time flow rate of
free space.
Time flow rate across an area of space is linked to the vector sum of all spin rates for all particle motions
[Wilbert Smith]. And this is why the entire device as well as all surrounding mater within the corona
become altered as device quadrature magnetic saturation is reached. The Searl disc shows us this
phenomenon manifesting in a spherical area surrounding the device. Even dislodging the dirt in the
ground if it is formed within it. At the corona appears a wall where time flow changes rather quickly, and
this barrier may causes a torsion force that will rip matter apart.
When the time frame reaches an equal rate as free space we could expect the effected atoms to become
weightless. This is a very small change in time flow rate and observed in the blue shift seen in the GPS
satellite system. If there is enough energy in the interaction to push further then we could expect the
object to become gravity repulsive and a push towards the next higher density. If the density threshold is
crossed and the system then shut down, we may expect it to achieve the next higher stable state of matter,
naturally landing it in the 4th density as the atoms fall back into normal alignment at the next higher
frequency band. At this state it becomes totally invisible to 3rd density beings.
Reversing the process may become as important as achieving it at this point, much as designing brakes
before we build a 400 Hp engine and place it in a car.

How much force must be applied to the Proton with its weaker magnetic field and
higher mass to tilt it ?
The requirement is only that we have enough momentum of spin to tilt the Protons magnetic alignment
from the stronger field into the weaker field. These two fields must cross at 90 degrees inside the atoms.
If using a non magnetic substance for splitting, the 90 degree field will effect the electrons motions as
well, so it must be kept as much weaker as possible, otherwise the electrons may begin to realign around
it as well. It is very important to find the threshold point and no more where the Protons tilt. As the
chemical bonding of these materials do not hold the magnetic field within their structure. As the EM field
moves into quadrature magnetism it will effect the Neutrons and begin to split them as well, effecting
time and gravity.
With the cobalt magnets however, both fields could even be the same. As the orbitals are magnetic within
the structure of the materials there is little chance they will demagnetize one another at the same Tesla
rating. However with both fields the same it may become impossible to return them to their original state.
They may tend to toggle randomly causing a chaotic condition. The best interaction will be if the
momentum is used to cause the threshold switching, as then the maximum possible numbers of Protons
will be under device control.

Forces that pull the Proton vertical:

Device spin, centrifugal force, mass, [aligned angular momentum]

Vertical magnetic weaker field. NMR in the correct plane of motion.

Force Window:
The device spin [particle momentum I] must be calculated as to our [disc radius R] and our
RPM [rotational velocity V] as an [energy value J]. It must be calculated to cross the threshold of
[magnetic field coupling Bh ] in the horizontal plane and the added [energy J] must be enough to couple
to the [magnetic field Bv ] in the vertical plane without crossing it. The parameters of [Disc Radius],
[Disc Angular Velocity], and our two [magnetic fields Bv Bh] must be determined before we can expect a
successful result.
These are the basic relationships that must be considered to arrive at a mathematical solution for initial

Critical threshold:

It should be understood that this effect of new atomic alignment will manifest as a total quantity of the
sum of all atoms attaining the new alignments, yet at some point these fields alone become strong enough
to self radiate through the material of the device. Thus a different method of control must be accessed
to reverse the process or control it. As well the startup device must reach this critical threshold.
The critical threshold will be the point where the Protons new magnetic field becomes strong enough to
maintain its new alignment without the aid of our external magnets, and it begins to spread outside the
domain of the magnets starting the process. There will be a minimum number of atoms involved in
maintaining the 90 degree field outside the magnets inducing the effect. These atoms will be linked by
the 90 degree magnetic field the sum of all atoms with electrons in alignment and the NMR energy
moving between the atoms.
It becomes apparent that each material we consider using must be calculated differently. This is because
the nuclear spin of all atoms is different. Some atoms do not have a nuclear magnetic field we can even
couple to externally. Others have a very strong one. However it is interesting to note that even the ones

that do not radiate far may look like opposing magnets setting in one alignment.
The magnetic moment of the Proton field is readily available on the NMR charts as "magnetic moment"
for most all the elements. It represents a Joules/Tesla or J/T value.
Nuclear magnetic moment of only about 2% of Iron is .15696 , Copper is 2.87549, Nickel .96827 These
numbers represent the magnetic field strength of the Protons magnetic force, they are different for each
element and why NMR can be used to detect elements. The electron ESR is not so easy as finding it on a
chart however. They must each be calculated based on the Proton field they sit within and the external
magnetic field from outside the atom.

The next most important issue after discovering the start up "critical threshold" is the control mechanism.
With two magnetic fields manifest through our device, and two planes of ESR / NMR exchanging energy
between atoms, the only solution is to reattach the magnetic fields one atom at a time and try to control
the quantity of atoms in each alignment.
One method identified by Searl is to hit the device with a 28 to 29 Mhz RF fields. This should tend to
send Protons into an NMR flipping motion of a higher energy state where as they rotate or flip they cross
the electron 90 degree field becoming trapped in it once again for a time. The time this can last can be
over one second as NMR has a time lag. While tilted back they will no longer add to device spin.
This frequency will have to be device dependent based on the material in effect and the standing
magnetic field present. It could be something as simple as two resonant coils setting vertically and
horizontally with a switch to electrically couple them. It would absorb NMR from one spin plane and
then transmit it into the other, causing the Proton field to tilt as NMR interactive photons are radiated in
the wrong plane dispersing Proton alignments. This would only work if NMR resonance is consistent
across the device strong enough to couple to one of the coils. If it is not then an external transmitter must
be used only hitting the band close enough to effect NMR flips. This transmitter must be located within
the system such that it does not loose the time frame of the device. So control may become a balance of
controlling the NMR energy between the two polarized planes within the device. Note this system is
separate from the startup system, which can not be expected to control the process once started.

In the selection of materials it is noteworthy to identify a few very basic qualities of the atoms we are
working with and attempt to correlate the parameters to accomplish a method of engineering devices,
down to magnetic force splitting into the Neutrons.
Iron: The magnetic field in iron is mostly in its Electron layer. Of course the weight of iron is mostly
setting in its Nuclear center which has a neutral magnetic field. When coupling a magnetic field through
Iron almost none of the atoms weight or mass is effected in the least, [2% natural abundance]. As iron is
magnetized, its chemical bonding connections are seen to roll with the external magnetic field setting up
a new angle with other magnetic domains around it. The resistance to this force is linked only to the
electron mass which is some 1800 times lower then its Nuclear mass, and its resistance to chemical
bonding roll, and the temperature. A magnetic field generated from flowing current through Iron
wire would be seen to have only an Electron generated field.
Copper: The magnetic field in copper is setting only in its Nucleus, attached to its weight or mass
tightly, and able to roll if acted on by an outside magnetic field. Coppers electron shell is magnetically
neutral and is only effected by a magnetic field as a reflection, or an induction, of its nucleus inducing a
reverse field to that applied externally, from the inside. This is why copper is seen as an inductive
element. A magnetic field moving through copper is seen to couple to its "mass" and the Proton generated

magnetic field will have to tilt the atoms weight as it changes angles. There will be a delay because of
momentum during the tilting process as the weight will resist altering its spin angle. The Electron shell
will react also generating an opposing magnetic field to the incident field. Thus the second force is a
repulsive magnetic field. A magnetic field generated from flowing current through Copper wire
would be seen to have both an Electron and a Proton generated field.
Aluminum: In Aluminum the Electron shell is also neutral, however it's Nuclear magnetic moment is
higher then Copper. Although the mass of Aluminum is lower then copper the magnetic coupling is
Silver: I added Silver here because it has almost as low a Nuclear spin as Iron. With Silver wire one
can generate almost completely Electron generated fields. Due to the fact that Silver is a better conductor
then copper, these qualities make it perfect for the ideal splitting device if one needs magnetic coils
creating magnetic fields with almost no mass interactions.
Cobalt: In Cobalt we see that both electron layer and Nucleus have a magnetic field inherent within
them. An external magnetic field moving through cobalt will effect both. The electron shell is tightly
bonded, so if tilting the Nucleus with a stronger magnetic field, it should decouple from the electron
Effects: Effects that can be used to alter the free floating Nuclear Mass motions of materials are not
limited to magnetism, or electric potential. Even though if you shake a block of copper atoms, it is the
electromagnetic forces that keep the Nucleus centered and spining, this force allows a flexibility to
appear between the Proton and Electron shell. The Electron shell is extremely light by comparison to the
Nucleus of an atom, but in solids the Electron shell is anchored into the structure bonds and its mass is far
greater then one Neucleus. The Nuclear mass can be vibrated using many forms of energy.
Physical vibration
Moving magnetic field
A Vibrating voltage [Capacitance coupling]
It should be noted that where the Electron Mass of a material comes into natural harmonic ratios with the
Nuclear mass, a coupling of vibrational energy may be possible, if the material is suspended in a
magnetic field and free to vibrate. [See section on Hamel Cones]
Quadrature magnetization:
If we wanted to produce a quadrature magnetization with the least amount of effort, it would seem the
best material would be one known to have both a magnetized Electron shell, as well as a high nuclear
spin to begin with. Of the three basic magnetic metals, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt, Cobalt jumps out as the
perfect candidate. We would expect that Cobalt would be the easiest material to create the effect in, as it
naturally has both Proton and Electron magnetization. This is providing we can achieve a controlled
separation of the two and align it to effect the Neutrons.
Moving towards metals that are non magnetic at the electron layer, we are now faced with causing them
to become magnetized or placing them beside Electron magnetized materials like iron. The metals
Copper and Aluminum jump out here as they are electric conductors and can be magnetized simply by
passing current through them. If the current is passed vertically then a natural spin would manifest in the
correct plane to align properly with our vertical magnetic field. The current would tend to tilt the electron
fields exactly where we want them. We would still need the correct device spin to hold the
Proton orbitals vertical, however now we have a device that may not need its 90 degree magnets at all.
Simply wrap a magnetic cylinder with copper as a toroidal coil. Cylinder is magnetized N/S vertical, the
same direction we flow current through the wires. The Proton tilts should manifest within the copper
wire. This explains a great many devices at this point, combining magnets and copper wire in such a

method. Now we may find some ability to define the correct parameters.
[For reference here are a few elements]

Iron -

Specific gravity 7.87 [mass/volume]

Isotope 57
Symbol Fe
Name Iron
Spin 1/2
Natural Abund. 2.11900
Magnetic Moment 0.15696
Gamma (x 10^7rad/Ts) 0.86806
Quadrup.MomentQ/fm^2 ---
Frequency 1.379 Mhz
Reference Fe(CO)5
Iron is a natural material to use to place a magnetic field next to another material, however it will not be
very useful as to splitting the magnetic fields . We see its natural abundance at 2%, this means we will
get erratic results if any, as only 2% of its nuclear magnetic fields can be coupled to consistently with RF.
There will be a very low amount of NMR jumping between atoms. Irons Nucleus would be impossible to
align to a weaker field crossing at 90 degrees to its Electron field. Iron would be best thought of as a
magnetic conductor able to distribute the magnetic field in a constant manner along a better
substance for doing the splitting.

Copper -

Specific gravity 8.95

Isotope 63
Symbol Cu
Name Copper
Spin 3/2
Natural Abund. 69.17000
% Receptivity (rel. to 13C) 0.06500
Magnetic Moment 2.87549
Gamma(x 10^7rad/Ts) 7.11179
Quadrup.MomentQ/fm^2 -22.00000
Frequency 11.290
Reference [Cu(CH3CN)4][ClO4]
Here we see copper is a better choice for splitting the fields. It's natural abundance falls into two different
levels on the NMR chart. The most commonly found Isotope of copper is at 69% abundance [listed
above]. It's next is found at 30% where we see a slightly higher NMR frequency. This means if we have a

cylinder of copper built it may have one or probably both Isotopes found in varying degrees with two
NMR frequencies present. Although copper is a good choice it is still a gamble and two sets of numbers
will have to be followed assuming we will fall somewhere between them both. Copper is an excellent
choice for coupling torsion from a magnetic field but may not be the best choice for splitting the
magnetic fields consistently. Yet with a magnetic moment half that of Aluminum and a greater mass it
may be far easier to accomplish with a wider force window. As copper is non magnetic at the electron
layer, unless current is flowing through it, some form of current induction will be necessary to generate
the horizontal field Bh. Current may have to constantly flow vertically through the material to magnetize
[The Searl disk is an example of the two Iron and Copper touching in a cylindrical method so as to make
use of both]

Aluminum -

Specific gravity 2.7

Isotope 27
Symbol Al
Name Aluminum
Spin 5/2
Natural Abund. % 100.00000
Receptivity(rel. to 13C) 0.20700
Magnetic Moment 4.30869
Gamma(x 10^7rad/Ts) 6.97627
Quadrup.MomentQ/fm^2 14.66000
Frequency 11.095 Mhz
Reference Al(NO3)3
Aluminum has a natural abundance of 100 %. This means that we will get very consistent results across
all the atoms of Aluminum as found in nature. Its nuclear magnetic moment is very high 4.3 making it
easy to couple to the Protons magnetic field yet a little harder to tilt it. In a one Tesla field we can expect
NMR to be operating around 11 Mhz consistently across all the atoms. Due to the high magnetic
moment of Aluminum, we may run into a problem with RPM and the force window will
be narrower. We will have to spin the disc around 2 times faster then a copper disc to break free of the
horizontal field Bh. Another interesting note is that Copper and Aluminum lay very close to the same
NMR frequency. Aluminum is not magnetic so it will be necessary to flow current through it to create
field Bh. It may also be necessary to support this field with 90 degree magnets because Aluminum is a
poor conductor and creating a strong enough field to align Protons may be impossible without some
external help.


Specific gravity: 8.9

Isotope 59
Symbol Co
Name Cobalt
Spin 7/2

Natural Abund. % 100.00000

Receptivity(rel. to 13C) 0.27800
MagneticMoment 5.24700
Gamma(x 10^7rad/Ts) 6.33200
Quadrup.MomentQ/fm^2 42.00000
Frequency 10.103
Reference K3[Co(CN)6]
Amazingly cobalt seems to offer all the needed parameters . 100% abundance, high weight, high
magnetic moment, plus it is paramagnetic, magnetized along the electron shell as well as at the nucleus.
With this material we could be certain that both magnetic fields are present and can be coupled to for
splitting the fields. Cobalt magnets run between 0.8 T to 1.1 T and should work for NMR Proton tilting
easily. A cylinder rich in cobalt would need nothing more then to be magnetized horizontally Bh, and
have opposing magnets at the correct Tesla rating Bv. There would be no need to have electric flow
induced prior to tilting the Proton field. The entire disc could reach total saturation in both planes of
quadrature magnetization. Two magnets of slightly different strength one as Bh and one as Bv a little
weaker could be glued together or on opposite sides of a thin cylinder and spinning may be all that is
needed to split the fields. Rows of these could be arranged around a cylinder of sphere, truly the simplest
method I have found as of yet.

Disc size:
As to how disc size will effect the process lets consider a simple formula for angular momentum
Particle Angular momentum = [Mass] times [Velocity] times [Radius]
This may represent the momentum imparted to a Proton or Electron setting within our disc.
We see that as we increase [Mass] [Velocity] or [Radius] we get a multiplying effect of the other two on
the angular momentum . Increasing the disc radius can increase the effects of momentum on the outer
layer of the disc by several magnitudes. We have no control over the mass of a Proton [1.672623110-27
kg]. We can however effect both the [Velocity] or RPM and the [Radius] of our disc. The suggestion in
this formula is not to build our spinning disc too small, rather as large as practical. As the angular
momentum of our disc will be coupled into the Protons angular momentum when they are sitting in
alignment within a magnetic field, the higher we go the better. This is a coupling of angular momentum,
and is not a coupling of magnetic spin frequency per say. Whatever momentum we are able to add will
tend to spread our force window wider as Protons will be effected 1836 times more then Electrons. The
difference must exceed the magnetic bond between Proton and Electron magnetic fields as well as the
Electrons momentum alone.
Ref [Angular momentum of a particle]
Further if we consider the moment of inertia and apply it to a rigid spinning object [this is for reference
and probably will not apply to just our particle]
I = mr ^2
Moment of inertia [I] = mass times the radius squared
Angular momentum [rigid object] = Moment of Inertia times Angular Velocity
From these two formulas we see a similar multiplying effect of [Velocity] [Radius squared]

Ref [Angular momentum] [Moment of Inertia]

It is noteworthy that doubling the radius of our disc should increase the angular momentum by a
factor of around 4, reducing the RPM necessary by the same factor.
The larger the disc and the higher the RPM the wider the "force window" to reach critical
threshold. Further to decrease the disc radius will require our 90 degree magnets to more precisely find
the exact window where Electrons tilt and Protons do not tilt.

Comparing other devices:

It should now become obvious that what Hutchisen may have found was a method of entraining both
Proton and Electron frequencies, and tilting them towards 90 degree positions, using the correct
frequencies crossing such that sums and differences matched NMR and ESR rates in different quadrature
planes. He did send objects into another density, which completely vanished, as well as levitate objects.
The other possibility is to push both into higher rates of angular momentum by applying aiding spin
forces to both simultaneously, this would seem all but impossible without first decoupling the two
magnetic forces to some extent.
The Sweet VTA takes on a new outlook as well. Aligning the Protons in a weak magnetic field. It would
take only a small force at the correct frequency to tilt the Protons into two canceling positions while
entraining the electrons to flip the full 180 degrees. We end up extracting the electrons accelerating
energy, while neutralizing the Protons energy. The reverse momentum of electron would be seen as the
cold electric energy, in this model. As with normal electric flows, electrons are always flowing within the
atomic orbits of atoms where greater opposing momentum constantly counters them. Also noteworthy
that the actual splitting may be happening within the copper wire rather then within the magnet. The coils
do not make any sense whatsoever as to turns to voltage ratios. The correct 4 coils set up with proper
alignment may be all that is necessary, magnet conditioning may be merely setting up the NMR or ESR
frequencies to split the field in the copper atoms of the coils. The quadrature polarization may be working
its way even down the wires to the load. This would require the electron current to be moving parallel
with the magnetic field rather then at 90 degrees to it. This energy would be delivering two magnetic
fields rather then one.
In the plasmas we seem to see an energy gain, where electrons are completely freed from atomic orbits
for a time in the ionized path through the air.

Hamel Cones:
Hamels concept of "mass into energy" would seem to apply to the Nucleus of atoms, where we see the
Strong Force causing a similiar effect of mass into energy. Here we see the atomic weight of the Nucleus
is reduced by a mass and becomes the Strong Force related to one another by E = MC^2.

How is spin induced in Hamel cones?

The cones do not spin as we think of spin in a Searl disc, rather they vibrate, precess, or tilt, in little
circles top and bottom. The vibration in the center cone moves in the same pattern found at the Nucleus
of the atom in a magnetic precession, operating at several Mhz in the atom. This is called the NMR
[Nuclear Magnetic Resonance] frequency. Because the cones are interlocked, the top cones lower apex is
moving in a small circle. The lower cones upper region is moving in a small circle with the same
direction of spin but 180 degrees out of phase or tilt. The cone in the center is moving both top and
bottom and couples to the Atoms Nucleus electrostaticly. The Nucleus of the atom is the heaviest part,
and this coupling is a vibrational mass coupling of energy transmitted through the EM field between
Protons and Electron shells. This is only possible because the cone is able to pass the Nuclear vibrations
through its Electron mass structure, because it is also floating in a magnetic field and free to vibrate in
this same motion. As the vibrations pass between atoms they cause a coherent NMR to link throughout a

section of the Aluminum. Once the device spin or vibration becomes coherent, the heavier Nucleus of all
Aluminum atoms will want to align with it in the same spin plane, just as with a spinning disc. The
Protons and Neutrons will be pressed to flip vertical and there precession will be the same as the center
cone. Along the magnets at the rim of the cone the Protons will be held in horizontal spin by the
magnetic field and unable to flip upwards. At some point away from the magnets, as the magnetic field
drops away, the Protons and Neutrons will be found tilting upwards, overpowering the magnetic field.
This is the point or ring of vibrational threshold for step one. The NMR frequency will determine where
this latitude is located along the cones mass and the physical vibration will be found to be a subharmonic
of the NMR frequency along this one latitude. This process is identified as step one, and is the source
of the cones motion or spin. It is the device motor.
In my current model, the two step process for tunning a Hamel cone would be these:
1 - Achieve the highest possible cone vibration resonance frequency through good design choices. [get
the cones to vibrate]
2 - Split the magnetic fields by finding the resonant subharmonics that land the NMR frequency closer to
the horizontal magnets.

How does the Hamel cone split the fields?

The NMR frequency of Aluminum changes with the strength of the magnetic field it is setting within.
Therefore as we move away from the horizontal magnet ring along the cones larger circular edge towards
its tip, the NMR frequency drops with the magnetic field strength. In step one we cause one ring or
latitude of the cone to enter a coupling with the Nucleus of the atoms and the cone starts to vibrate at
some subharmonic frequency of the NMR frequency. There should be found that by increasing the
compression of the field the cones are setting in, more then one rate of precession may be achieved, and
the frequency of vibration should increase, moving the latitude of NMR closer into the magnetic field. If
we can get the NMR ring to move into the correct area of the magnetic field, then across some small
region it should cause the Protons to tip up where the horizontal Electron generated magnetic field is at
the correct intensity to cause the Electron and Proton fields to split inside the Aluminum atoms all the
way down to the Neutrons. This is step two, quadrature magnetization.

At the place along the cone where the horizontal magnetic field ratio is correct, if the Protons have
attained a strong vibrational coupling along this same latitude, the field should split tilting the Protons
magnetic field vertical, breaking away from the Electrons horizontal field. Working its way into the
Neutrons, as the field splits within the strong force area, energy flow begins outwards, now through a
vibrationally coupled system, all the way to the Proton and Electron layer and the split begins to
propagate throughout the cones. Negative electric force charges the sides of the cones surface and
somewhere around the center point we could expect a positive charge to manifest. Control is with a
vertically polarized magnetic field, said to gate the flow. However this magnet would tend to upset the
sensitive balance between vertical and horizontal magnetic fields, in such a thin cone material, and rejoin
the fields by overpowering them both in the thin Aluminum.
The force window can be seen as getting the first NMR resonance to manifest on a cone latitude as close
to the correct magnetic field area as near the magnets as possible. The vertical tilting force on the
Protons, and the NMR coupling frequency latitude of cone mass to NMR frequency, must cross at the
correct horizontal magnet strength to form a splitting area. If the two never come close enough then a
cone that simply vibrates may never cross the threshold of splitting the fields and releasing Neutron
energy. Getting the cones to vibrate is only the first step, this creates the vertical momentum force for
Proton alignment. They must resonate an NMR subharmonic, with a mass physical vibration, crossing
the magnetic field at the proper intensity to create the split of Proton and Electron magnetic fields along
one latitude, before it can spread. It would seem that strength and placement of the base and upper
magnets may help support the vertical field, and more attention should be directed here as well. Being
able to regulate the gating magnets strength may allow a sliding of the NMR ring latitude slightly up or

down the cone to coincide with the proper distance from the horizontal magnets to begin the splitting

If the electron mass of the free floating cone can be vibrationally coupled to the vibrational rate of the
nucleus at a subharmonic then nuclear Resonance should envelope the cones upper and lower areas
where circles are widest. If we could build a cone such that its electron mass was equal to the mass of one
nucleus this would vibrate up rather quickly. This small cone would have only around 3,813 atoms total
and its total electron mass would be equal to the mass of one Nucleus. Having identical weight it would
easily vibrate at the exact rate of the Nucleus and begin to couple the Nucleus vibrations between atoms.
Growing larger requires a sub harmonically coupled vibrational rate. Lowering the magnetic field will
help because it will lower the nucleus precession rate. This will not effect the coupling mass but it will
allow for vibrating a heavier object more quickly at a lower harmonic.

These parameters are within our means to measure and to easily alter as well as to control. The Hamel
cone is tunned through a laborious process of adjusting the opposing magnets floating distance, altering
the stress holding the mass of the cone, thus its vibrational rate. However if the cone has not been, by
chance, engineered to fall within a certain range, then no vibrations will surface. It would seem the cone
in the center is the one that will emulate the atom most closely, as it circles both top and bottom.

A possible tunning method for Cones:

The NMR frequency can be determined mathematically for Aluminum for the magnets used and the
distance they are at from the Aluminum, dropping off at an inverse distance cubed rate. Two devices can
be fabricated to measure both vibrational mass rate, and NMR rate.
Mass vibration sensor:
A section of the cone is polished to shiny. A laser light pen is connected to the frame and hits the cone
reflecting off onto a calibrated piece of white paper, with a grid pattern and a photo sensor behind it with
a small hole. Cone vibration is seen as a dot size increase, or a line width. If the paper is moved further
away this will be amplified. A simple circuit can connect to a frequency counter that should read the
frequency of vibration.
NMR sensor:
A coil is wound around the frame, outside the cone of about 30 meters of wire horizontally level. The
length of this wire could be near the calculated NMR frequency wavelength. This could be wound on a
separate form that may be removed. A second coil is placed inside the cone with vertical polarization as
an NMR receiver. It must be near the center of the cone and have a shield around only its outer edge, not
its side edges. It can be fitted with a tunning capacitor and set to resonate at the NMR frequency as well.
A strong signal generator can now be used to scan the cones resonance. When the NMR frequency is
stumbled on a simple RF field strength meter should show the cross coupling between the two coils as a
sharp resonant peak, or a group of them appearing along the cone. This can be achieved with a diode and
a voltmeter much like Hutchisens hand held unit. The positioning of this coil must be very accurately
vertical and the connecting wires must be very short and shielded running to the meter that must have a
shielded box. Or a radio receiver could be tuned using a CW receiver, and following the signal generators
As the cone is frequency scanned in this manner the vibrational rates of both "device resonance" and
"nuclear resonance" should show on one of our sensors. Finding the rates and then altering parameters to
tune them to cross at one frequency harmonic is the method for tuning in step one. A fully tuned
magnetically floating cone may physically vibrate when the correct NMR frequency hits it, indicating that
the cones electron mass has linked to the NMR vibrational rate. It should be determined how many
frequencies this can be made to happen at, and how high we can run this frequency up.
Magnet selection for Hamel cones:
All magnets are a combination of Proton and Electron magnetic fields, which have opposite spin
momentum in the same field. The horizontal magnets running around the cones should favor Electron
spin and avoid Proton spin. Proton magnetic spin carries with it a high mass momentum, Electron
magnetic spin does not.
The best magnets to use for the horizontal field would be magnets with little or no Nuclear spin. Magnets
with a high Nuclear spin like Cobalt will tend to resist the Proton tilt in the Aluminum slowing the
splitting process. Ceramic ferrous [ferrite] magnets would probably be the best choice. Ideally the
Protons in the Aluminum will be held by the Electrons magnetic field in the magnets we select and easily
tilt away from it when the spin force becomes strong enough. Gating magnets aligned along the top and
bottom of the device may be Cobalt or even Neo. However this may just as well inhibit shutdown and

An alternate method is suggested for building the cone magnets using Iron or Ceramic ferrite rings. An

iron or ferrite ring can be very precisly magnetized by spinning it past very strong magnets at high RPM.
A very uniform magnetic field will result. Spining the cones ring past a neo magnet South pointing
inwards will produce a uniform field in the iron with North pointing outwards. The reverse can be done
with the stator ring. The setup for this would require a spining test jig able to spin the rings up either
before they are atached to the cones, or spining the cones afterwards. The normal method of coil pulse
magnetization produces the wrong shaped field for a Hamel cone, resulting in a North South vertical
alignment like the Searl disc uses. Testing can be checked by slowly turning the ring and watching field
strength from a stationary point. It should be very constant along the entire ring.

Once they are magnetized, stronger magnets must be kept away from them because iron can be effected
quickly by Neo magnets touching them. Alternates would be to do this with a machined magnetic
material or a molded ceramic and magnetized after assembly. This would ensure a uniform field. Piecing
seperate magnets along the ring will produce a random intensity magnetic field and NMR may not find a
complete circle around the cones. If seperate magnets are used then each one should be tested with a
compass against the earths field to ensure a same distance reach is present where the compass is seen to
move half way between the magnets force and the earths force.
Adjustment of the magnetic compression screw should cross the two vibrations at several points, and the
higher the better. Just because a cone vibrates, does not mean it will not vibrate at a higher, almost
undetectable rate, if compressed further. The vibration sensor would be a valuable item to detect these
higher rates and to peak them. Pushing the physical vibration rate higher up towards the 16 Khz limit of
physical vibration may help. Nuclear vibrational coupling will be increased the closer the frequencies
come to one another. The Aluminum NMR frequency may be setting at around 1 to 5 Mhz some inches
off the horizontal magnets. A chart can be created to predict where the NMR rings would form and
mapped onto the cones as a frequency. The cone must vibrate at a sub harmonic of the NMR frequency
landing as close to the magnets as possible for splitting the fields.

An expiermental device for "splitting" in Aluminum:

Concept of operation:
4 coils are provided for individual control of Proton and Electron motions. Device is designed to find
the correct parameters by allowing a large number of variables to be applied. The DC coils are
outside the NMR coils so they will not interfere with the high frequencies hitting the sphere. No iron
is to be used in the device, because the individual magnetic fields will be skewed or bent as they pass
through iron. All the magnetic fields must converge in tact inside the Aluminum sphere. The outer
DC coils fields will pass through the NMR coils because they are not Alternating fields, and will
receive no inductance as they pass through them. However the DC coils will attenuate some RF
from the NMR coils.

It is noted that silver wire would be better then copper wire because it has a much lower Nuclear

spin and thus coils overlaying one another would offer much less induction interference to one

The Electron bias coil is provided to keep a strong Magnetic field in the horizontal plane reaching
all the way to the Neutrons. The Proton trap bias coil is a slightly weaker field designed to catch the
Protons as they are tilted vertical delaying them from returning for splitting. The NMR coils are set
up to offer two planes of motion induction for the Nucleus, one will split the fields and the other will
join them. The difference is achieved by reversing one coil polarity, rotating it 180 degrees in phase.
Also other phases can be experimented with for various tilting angles if phase driving circuits are

Measurements are available with a compass, and a voltmeter. The core sphere should develop a
voltage as with the Searl disc when the fields split, + at the center and - on the outer ring. Voltage
taps are provided for drawing currents and large copper conductors should be used. The compass
may be kept near the top of the vertical North pole, and slightly to one side. As NMR resonance is
hit, this pole may be seen to spread tilting the compass slightly downwards no longer pointing to the
exact center. This is because the lines of flux have found new paths through the Aligned Protons
coherently through the material. If Aluminum wire is used to tap the voltage we may expect the
field splitting to migrate up it and actually provide the cold electric effects. It is thought that by
using copper the dissimilarity should stop the splitting from leaving the device.

The ultimate device would add the ability to spin the sphere, in the case that this may be the only
way to get the Neutrons to seperate, since the inner Protons magnetic field seems to be totally
hidden under the Electrons. The Neutrons magnetic moment is [ - ]. It is my assumption that since
the Sweet VTA does not need a spining device, this expierment may be enough. I am expecting that
since the orbital Protons are operating within the strong force area, tilting them will be enough to
split the Nuetron forces.

If quadrature magnetization can be accomplished in Aluminum, I would expect a constant voltage

electric force apearing, the sum of many electron volts alignedat atomic levels, and probably a
function of the magnetic chain length or the diameter of the Aluminums solid parts. Thus sphere
size may become important to voltage output, and thickness may be important to current capability.

Device 2 - Rolling the Proton field at an NMR frequency

There is one other method to split the magnetic fields that may prove intresting, requiring slightly
more energy input. That of rolling the Protons field through a circle positioned 90 degrees to the
steady Electron magnetic field. If it can be rolled at an NMR frequency then Protons and Nucleus of
atoms will be spining in one field and the other field will cross it at 90 degrees. In this configuration
the entire Nuclear mass of the splitting material is spining although the device is stationary at the
electron layer and does not apear to move. With this method iron can be used in the electro magnets
in the stationary field, so can be much closer and stronger. The NMR coils will be situated at 90
degrees to one another and fed 90 degrees out of phase setting up a rotating magnetic field at the
NMR frequency or a sub harmonic, or even a short pulsed waveform, also setting just inside the
stationary magnetic field.
Proton dipoles will be held in a constant state of circular spin, in a spin plane perpendicular to the
Electron field. An Aluminum disc or cylinder could be used for this expierment.

The Nuclear Magnetic Resonant Battery is a similar device concept.


In the Nuclear Magnetic Resonant Battery or NMR Battery pulses are fed through a Copper tube or
cylinder vertically. This creates a magnetic field pulsing around the inside of the tube at 90 degrees and
causes the Protons to move into a magnetic spin, still precessing around the vertical magnetic field, but at
90 degrees to it. Because the Copper tube completely wraps the Aluminum tube all the Protons are
effected at once and the device does not have to physically spin. When the Aluminum reaches Nuclear
resonance at the full 90 degrees the fields split into the Neutrons. Noncancelling EM begins to appear
along the surfaces of the Aluminum top and bottom [one voltage polarity] and sides [other voltage
polarity]. The device is totally controlled electronically by the pulse amplitude and pulse length. If the
pulses stop then the Protons slowly spiral back up into alignment with the vertical magnetic field and it
should shut down.

David Lowrance
Public Domain Paper 03-15-06

Notes and NMR References:

Note 1

In AG work it is common to use values relevant to a 1 Tesla magnetic field, as many Neo magnets land
between 1 and 1.5 Tesla. It is noteworthy to mention however that the precession rates [NMR and ESR
frequencies] given in this paper are relative to 1 Tesla and these rates will be altered as the field is
lowered or raised.
Note 2
It is also well know now that the particles Proton and Electron are not really particles, but energy in a
wave looping function. However as they still possess the same measurable effects of magnetic moment
and angular momentum, I have chosen to use the word particle to describe them.
Note 3
A mental image presented of the Roshin and Godin Russian Searl disc duplication may be an aid to
understanding references in this paper, as well as a basic understanding of how NMR and ESR function.

Other References:

Spin Plane - As an electron is seen in an orbit around the nucleus, any one complete circle lies within a
single plane, or plane of motion. As the magnetic vector lies at 90 degrees to this it is important to have
some way to reference the angle. This is similar to an electric coil, whose winding all lie
approximately within one plane, and the magnetic field generated lies at 90 degrees to this plane. While
the Electron eventually winds its way around the entire electron shell, its spin plane shifts, however if the
atom is magnetic more of these spin planes align to form a greater field external to the atom along one
spin plane. The electric spin plane is seen 90 degrees to the magnetic field and tends to contain more
electron motion of one direction of spin.
EM - Electro magnetic force is 1/137 as strong as the strong force. EM is the force operating at the
Electron layer, and between Protons and Electrons.
Strong Force - The force found at the nucleus of atoms where vortexes or particles are very close to one
another. The Neutron is seen as an Electron vortex overlapping a Proton vortex such that spin is coupled
and EM is canceled. In this tight configuration the strong force is dominant. It drops off just outside the
nucleus and does not effect the Electron cloud. Strong force can only hold 83 Protons in a stable
configuration. Bismuth is the largest stable atom.Within the strong force is a weight reduction where the
total mass is lighter then the sum of its parts.
Nuclear - With reference to the unit at the center of an atom consisting of Protons and Neutrons which
are tightly bound by the strong force. The major weight of the atom exists within this nucleus. The
Electron shell is seen to exist outside the influence of the strong force, and operates only by electro
magnetic force.

Proton - The Proton is seen generating the major magnetic force found in the nucleus of the atom, thus it
is the coupling link between the atoms major mass and magnetism for atoms that do have a nuclear
magnetic moment. Tilting the external magnetic field that is coupled to a Proton tilts its spinning mass
rotation offering a resistance of momentum. The Proton is seen to spin the same direction of its orbital
motion and as such offers a higher energy output then Electrons when magnetism and momentum are
combined. Particle that spins CCW in a magnetic field, bound in the strong force at the nucleus of
Nucleon - A paired Proton and Neutrroon found in the Nucleus of an atom
Neutron - The combined Electron Proton vortexes that cancel their Electro Magnetic fields, and
are bound in the nucleus by the strong force.
Electron - While described as a particle, the electron is really a quantum wave energy moving between
densities. It is only in our density at very specific intervals of time or quantums where its force is felt like
the spokes on a wheel as it spins. The importance is that we have identified its main measurable
manifestations. That of magnetism, electricity, and radiation frequency as related to "angular momentum"
and "magnetic moment." The electron spins opposite its magnetic moment. Electrons create a magnetic
field some 600 times stronger then Protons with a mass over 1800 times lower.Particle that spins CW in a
magnetic field, freely roaming the electron cloud and is not bound by the strong force.
Quadrature - Forces that are linked together in a 90 degree relationship such that energy between angles
of forces are linked. The electron set into motion creates a quadrature magnetic field. The Electrons spin
on the quantum level partially creates the time flow rate [Wilbert Smith].
Quadrature magnetization - The theoretical state within an atom where Protons precess around one
magnetic field, and Electrons precess around another magnetic field, such that both magnetic fields sit at
90 degrees to one another. Both fields sit in the blotch wall of the other. This may be a necessary
transitional configuration to the creation of Neutrons, where both are seen to end up overlapping.
Density - A stable state of matter, one set of parameters where the atom is stable to interact with other
matter at the same state.Our physical world is one such possible state, where atomic particles have found
an equilibrium. The sages through the ages have envisioned many more such worlds and named them.
They indicate we are now on the 3rd leveled density of mater. Claimed Alien contact as well has
suggested this model is accurate and moving into higher densities changes the laws of momentum,
gravity, and time flow rate.
Source - The sought after place where free energy is moving into this density and powering the atoms
and all manifestations of energy found here. The regenerative source, or the root location of tapping that
source of energy. I believe that Source will be located within matter, and is found at the crossing point of
atomic particles entering and leaving this density.
Dipole - The quality of magnetic fields as they are created from electron motion to manifest two
directions of force along its B vector. One labeled North and one labeled South. The earth has a magnetic
South pole setting at its North Geomagnetic pole. The North pole of a compass, will attract to a South
magnetic pole of a free magnet.
Blotch wall - The center point between the dipole ends of a magnet where almost no magnetic field
exists with enough magnetic polarity to effect anything. Holding one magnet inside the blotch wall of
another allows for the least interaction between them. Within atomic orbits that are more perfectly
aligned spherically, this effect may lead to another stable state of atoms, once supporting magnetic fields
are established.
Compass - The simplest most convenient way to detect a magnetic field, although often overlooked today
as a tool of science. Caution is in order because if held too close to a Neo magnet may be completely
reverse polarized if forced into a reverse field alignment. If using a compass it should be periodically
checked against the earths field and realigned as needed using a neo magnet.

Reference constants and formulas:


Planck constant: h 6.626075510-34 Js

Proton mass energy equivalent: 1.503 277 43 x 10 -10 J 938.272 029 MeV
Electron mass energy equivalent: 8.187 x 10 -14 J 0.510998 MeV [Me C^2]
Proton mass: 1.672621 x 10 -27 kg
Electron Mass: 9.109 38 x 10 ^ -31 kg 5.485 x 10 ^-4 u
Mass ratio Electron / Proton: 5.446 170 x 10 ^ -4
Mass ratio Proton / Electron: 1836.152
Proton g-Factor: 5.585
Proton magnetic moment: 1.410606 x 10^-26 J T^-1
Proton gyromagnetic ratio: 2.675 x 10 ^8 s^-1 T^-1 over 2pi = 42.5774813 Mhz/ T^-1
Electron magnetic moment: -928.476 x 10 ^ -26 J T^-1
Electron volt-joule relationship 1.602 x 10 ^-19 J 5.609 x 10^35 eV = (1 Kg)C^2
Joule-electron volt relationship: 6.241 x 10 ^18 eV = 1J
Proton Electron ratio: Ue / Up = 658.2106881
Electron magnetic moment: -9.284770110-24 J/T
Proton magnetic moment: 1.4106076110-26J/T

NMR Formulas:

Energy of a photon E = h V [h = 6.626x10^-34 J [Planks constant]] [V = frequency]

Gyromagnetic ratio V = Y B [Y = V / B] [V = frequency [Hz]] [B = magnetic field strength [Tesla]]
[Y = gyromagnetic ratio]
Transition energy E = h Y B [h = 6.626 x 10 ^-34] [Y = gyromagnetic ratio] [B = magnetic field
strength] [V is between 15 and 800 Mhz typically in medical apparatus]
Ionization potential for an organic molecule is 6 x 10 ^ -19 J
In NMR the energy in a photon is a function of its frequency times planks constant. For the photon to flip
a nucleus magnetic field over this must equal the Transition energy. There is only one B field strength
that can match any particular photon. Atoms setting all in the same magnetic field will easily exchange

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Artificial Gravity Generator Now Possible?

An artificial gravity generator is probably the science-fictional pseudo-science device most disliked by
physicists. Used as a plot device as early as 1930 by Olaf Stapleton, artificially-produced gravity fields
make space flight a lot easier and more bearable for everyone. But it's impossible, right?

(From Facility during testing)

Recent work done by researchers supported by the European Space Agency have measured the
gravitational equivalent of a magnetic field for the first time in a laboratory. Martin Tajmar (ARC
Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Austria), Clovis de Matos (ESA-HQ, Paris) and colleagues have
successfully produced and measured a very weak gravitomagnetic field.
They summarize their results as follows:
An acceleration field was found to be induced by applying angular accelerations to a
superconductor. The field produced is directly proportional to the applied acceleration with a
correlation factor higher than 0.96. All mean values are 3.3 times above the facility noise level.
The gravitational field is emitted from the superconductor and follows the laws of field
propagation and induction similar to those of electromagnetism as formulated in linearized
general relativity.
Gravitational peaks were observed when the superconductor passed its critical temperature while
it was rotating. Their sign changed with the orientation of the angular velocity.
For the first time, non-Newtonian gravitational and gravitomagnetic fields of measurable
magnitude were observed in a laboratory environment.
The existence of the gravitational Faraday law was shown.

(From Experimental Detection of the Gravitomagnetic London Moment)

The results were presented at a one-day conference at ESA's European Space and Technology Research
Centre (ESTEC), in the Netherlands, 21 March 2006.

(From Experimental Setup)

"We ran more than 250 experiments, improved the facility over 3 years and discussed the
validity of the results for 8 months before making this announcement. Now we are confident
about the measurement," says Tajmar, who performed the experiments and hopes that other
physicists will conduct their own versions of the experiment in order to verify the findings
and rule out a facility induced effect.
(From Towards a new test of general relativity)

This is a very intriguing development, if it can be duplicated by other researchers. Artificial gravity fields
were almost immediately decried as fantasy, not science fiction. The other method of creating "artificial
gravity" was first used in science fiction just a year after Stapleton; Jack Williamson wrote about the City
of Space in 1931:
"The City of Space is in a cylinder," Captain Smith said. "Roughly five thousand feet in
diameter... The cylinder whirls constantly, with such speed that the centrifugal force against
the sides equals the force of gravity on the earth. The city is built around the inside of the
(Read more about the cylindrical space station)

Readers might also want to explore a more recently suggested method of obtaining weak artificial gravity
for space stations; see this article on non-conductive tethers.
Read more about the ESA experiments; nice paper (pdf) also online. Thanks to an alert reader for the tip
on this story.
(Story submitted 3/24/2006)



Take a leap into hyperspace

05 January 2006
From New Scientist Print Edition
Haiko Lietz
EVERY year, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics awards prizes for the best papers
presented at its annual conference. Last year's winner in the nuclear and future flight category went to a
paper calling for experimental tests of an astonishing new type of engine. According to the paper, this
hyperdrive motor would propel a craft through another dimension at enormous speeds. It could leave
Earth at lunchtime and get to the moon in time for dinner. There's just one catch: the idea relies on an
obscure and largely unrecognised kind of physics. Can they possibly be serious?
The AIAA is certainly not embarrassed. What's more, the US military has begun to cast its eyes over the
hyperdrive concept, and a space propulsion researcher at the US Department of Energy's Sandia National
Laboratories has said he would be interested in putting the idea to the test. And despite the bafflement of
most physicists at the theory that supposedly underpins it, Pavlos Mikellides, an aerospace engineer at the
Arizona State University in Tempe who reviewed the winning paper, stands by the committee's choice.
"Even though such features have been explored before, this particular approach is quite unique," he says.
Unique it certainly is. If the experiment gets the go-ahead and works, it could reveal new interactions
between the fundamental forces of nature that would change the future of space travel. Forget spending
six months or more holed up in a rocket on the way to Mars, a round trip on the hyperdrive could take as
little as 5 hours. All our worries about astronauts' muscles wasting away or their DNA being irreparably
damaged by cosmic radiation would disappear overnight. What's more the device would put travel to the
stars within reach for the first time. But can the hyperdrive really get off the ground?
The answer to that question hinges on the work of a little-known German physicist. Burkhard Heim
began to explore the hyperdrive propulsion concept in the 1950s as a spin-off from his attempts to heal
the biggest divide in physics: the rift between quantum mechanics and Einstein's general theory of
Quantum theory describes the realm of the very small - atoms, electrons and elementary particles - while
general relativity deals with gravity. The two theories are immensely successful in their separate spheres.
The clash arises when it comes to describing the basic structure of space. In general relativity, space-time
is an active, malleable fabric. It has four dimensions - three of space and one of time - that deform when
masses are placed in them. In Einstein's formulation, the force of gravity is a result of the deformation of
these dimensions. Quantum theory, on the other hand, demands that space is a fixed and passive stage,
something simply there for particles to exist on. It also suggests that space itself must somehow be made
up of discrete, quantum elements.
In the early 1950s, Heim began to rewrite the equations of general relativity in a quantum framework. He
drew on Einstein's idea that the gravitational force emerges from the dimensions of space and time, but
suggested that all fundamental forces, including electromagnetism, might emerge from a new, different
set of dimensions. Originally he had four extra dimensions, but he discarded two of them believing that
they did not produce any forces, and settled for adding a new two-dimensional "sub-space" onto Einstein's
four-dimensional space-time.
In Heim's six-dimensional world, the forces of gravity and electromagnetism are coupled together. Even
in our familiar four-dimensional world, we can see a link between the two forces through the behaviour
of fundamental particles such as the electron. An electron has both mass and charge. When an electron

falls under the pull of gravity its moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. And if you use an
electromagnetic field to accelerate an electron you move the gravitational field associated with its mass.
But in the four dimensions we know, you cannot change the strength of gravity simply by cranking up the
electromagnetic field.
In Heim's view of space and time, this limitation disappears. He claimed it is possible to convert
electromagnetic energy into gravitational and back again, and speculated that a rotating magnetic field
could reduce the influence of gravity on a spacecraft enough for it to take off.
When he presented his idea in public in 1957, he became an instant celebrity. Wernher von Braun, the
German engineer who at the time was leading the Saturn rocket programme that later launched astronauts
to the moon, approached Heim about his work and asked whether the expensive Saturn rockets were
worthwhile. And in a letter in 1964, the German relativity theorist Pascual Jordan, who had worked with
the distinguished physicists Max Born and Werner Heisenberg and was a member of the Nobel
committee, told Heim that his plan was so important "that its successful experimental treatment would
without doubt make the researcher a candidate for the Nobel prize".
But all this attention only led Heim to retreat from the public eye. This was partly because of his severe
multiple disabilities, caused by a lab accident when he was still in his teens. But Heim was also reluctant
to disclose his theory without an experiment to prove it. He never learned English because he did not
want his work to leave the country. As a result, very few people knew about his work and no one came up
with the necessary research funding. In 1958 the aerospace company Blkow did offer some money, but
not enough to do the proposed experiment.
While Heim waited for more money to come in, the company's director, Ludwig Blkow, encouraged him
to develop his theory further. Heim took his advice, and one of the results was a theorem that led to a
series of formulae for calculating the masses of the fundamental particles - something conventional
theories have conspicuously failed to achieve. He outlined this work in 1977 in the Max Planck Institute's
journal Zeitschrift fr Naturforschung, his only peer-reviewed paper. In an abstruse way that few
physicists even claim to understand, the formulae work out a particle's mass starting from physical
characteristics, such as its charge and angular momentum.
Yet the theorem has proved surprisingly powerful. The standard model of physics, which is generally
accepted as the best available theory of elementary particles, is incapable of predicting a particle's mass.
Even the accepted means of estimating mass theoretically, known as lattice quantum chromodynamics,
only gets to between 1 and 10 per cent of the experimental values.

Gravity reduction

But in 1982, when researchers at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg implemented
Heim's mass theorem in a computer program, it predicted masses of fundamental particles that matched
the measured values to within the accuracy of experimental error. If they are let down by anything, it is
the precision to which we know the values of the fundamental constants. Two years after Heim's death in
2001, his long-term collaborator Illobrand von Ludwiger calculated the mass formula using a more
accurate gravitational constant. "The masses came out even more precise," he says.
After publishing the mass formulae, Heim never really looked at hyperspace propulsion again. Instead, in
response to requests for more information about the theory behind the mass predictions, he spent all his
time detailing his ideas in three books published in German. It was only in 1980, when the first of his
books came to the attention of a retired Austrian patent officer called Walter Drscher, that the
hyperspace propulsion idea came back to life. Drscher looked again at Heim's ideas and produced an
"extended" version, resurrecting the dimensions that Heim originally discarded. The result is "Heim-
Drscher space", a mathematical description of an eight-dimensional universe.
From this, Drscher claims, you can derive the four forces known in physics: the gravitational and
electromagnetic forces, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. But there's more to it than that. "If Heim's
picture is to make sense," Drscher says, "we are forced to postulate two more fundamental forces."

These are, Drscher claims, related to the familiar gravitational force: one is a repulsive anti-gravity
similar to the dark energy that appears to be causing the universe's expansion to accelerate. And the other
might be used to accelerate a spacecraft without any rocket fuel.
This force is a result of the interaction of Heim's fifth and sixth dimensions and the extra dimensions that
Drscher introduced. It produces pairs of "gravitophotons", particles that mediate the interconversion of
electromagnetic and gravitational energy. Drscher teamed up with Jochem Huser, a physicist and
professor of computer science at the University of Applied Sciences in Salzgitter, Germany, to turn the
theoretical framework into a proposal for an experimental test. The paper they produced, "Guidelines for
a space propulsion device based on Heim's quantum theory", is what won the AIAA's award last year.
Claims of the possibility of "gravity reduction" or "anti-gravity" induced by magnetic fields have been
investigated by NASA before (New Scientist, 12 January 2002, p 24). But this one, Drscher insists, is
different. "Our theory is not about anti-gravity. It's about completely new fields with new properties," he
says. And he and Huser have suggested an experiment to prove it.
This will require a huge rotating ring placed above a superconducting coil to create an intense magnetic
field. With a large enough current in the coil, and a large enough magnetic field, Drscher claims the
electromagnetic force can reduce the gravitational pull on the ring to the point where it floats free.
Drscher and Huser say that to completely counter Earth's pull on a 150-tonne spacecraft a magnetic
field of around 25 tesla would be needed. While that's 500,000 times the strength of Earth's magnetic
field, pulsed magnets briefly reach field strengths up to 80 tesla. And Drscher and Huser go further.
With a faster-spinning ring and an even stronger magnetic field, gravitophotons would interact with
conventional gravity to produce a repulsive anti-gravity force, they suggest.
Drscher is hazy about the details, but he suggests that a spacecraft fitted with a coil and ring could be
propelled into a multidimensional hyperspace. Here the constants of nature could be different, and even
the speed of light could be several times faster than we experience. If this happens, it would be possible
to reach Mars in less than 3 hours and a star 11 light years away in only 80 days, Drscher and Huser
So is this all fanciful nonsense, or a revolution in the making? The majority of physicists have never
heard of Heim theory, and most of those contacted by New Scientist said they couldn't make sense of
Drscher and Huser's description of the theory behind their proposed experiment. Following Heim
theory is hard work even without Drscher's extension, says Markus Pssel, a theoretical physicist at the
Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Potsdam, Germany. Several years ago, while an
undergraduate at the University of Hamburg, he took a careful look at Heim theory. He says he finds it
"largely incomprehensible", and difficult to tie in with today's physics. "What is needed is a step-by-step
introduction, beginning at modern physical concepts," he says.
The general consensus seems to be that Drscher and Huser's theory is incomplete at best, and certainly
extremely difficult to follow. And it has not passed any normal form of peer review, a fact that surprised
the AIAA prize reviewers when they made their decision. "It seemed to be quite developed and ready for
such publication," Mikellides told New Scientist.
At the moment, the main reason for taking the proposal seriously must be Heim theory's uncannily
successful prediction of particle masses. Maybe, just maybe, Heim theory really does have something to
contribute to modern physics. "As far as I understand it, Heim theory is ingenious," says Hans Theodor
Auerbach, a theoretical physicist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich who worked with
Heim. "I think that physics will take this direction in the future."
It may be a long while before we find out if he's right. In its present design, Drscher and Huser's
experiment requires a magnetic coil several metres in diameter capable of sustaining an enormous current
density. Most engineers say that this is not feasible with existing materials and technology, but Roger
Lenard, a space propulsion researcher at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico thinks it might just
be possible. Sandia runs an X-ray generator known as the Z machine which "could probably generate the
necessary field intensities and gradients".

For now, though, Lenard considers the theory too shaky to justify the use of the Z machine. "I would be
very interested in getting Sandia interested if we could get a more perspicacious introduction to the
mathematics behind the proposed experiment," he says. "Even if the results are negative, that, in my
mind, is a successful experiment."

Who was Burkhard Heim?

Burkhard Heim had a remarkable life. Born in 1925 in Potsdam, Germany, he decided at the age of 6 that
he wanted to become a rocket scientist. He disguised his designs in code so that no one could discover his
secret. And in the cellar of his parents' house, he experimented with high explosives. But this was to lead
to disaster.
Towards the end of the second world war, he worked as an explosives developer, and an accident in 1944
in which a device exploded in his hands left him permanently disabled. He lost both his forearms, along
with 90 per cent of his hearing and eyesight.
After the war, he attended university in Gttingen to study physics. The idea of propelling a spacecraft
using quantum mechanics rather than rocket fuel led him to study general relativity and quantum
mechanics. It took an enormous effort. From 1948, his father and wife replaced his senses, spending
hours reading papers and transcribing his calculations onto paper. And he developed a photographic
Supporters of Heim theory claim that it is a panacea for the troubles in modern physics. They say it unites
quantum mechanics and general relativity, can predict the masses of the building blocks of matter from
first principles, and can even explain the state of the universe 13.7 billion years ago.
Return to article
Printed on Fri Mar 24 17:57:29 GMT 2006


di Joseph Misiolek
Iniziamo con alcuni principi base sulla realt fisica che sono importanti per capire come
manipolare lo spazio-tempo.
I scienziati ortodossi non sono capaci di arrivare a certe metodologie perch la loro
educazione una versione limitata di una pi estesa teoria dove questi fenomeni sono
possibili. Questo il motivo per cui potreste non riconoscere alcuni di questi principi sulla
base della fisica scolastica.
Ma se leggete attentamente noterete che la trattazione coerente e riuscirete a
capirla...user un linguaggio semplice, senza equazioni matematiche o termini troppo
tecnici in modo che tutti possano usufruirne.
Il concetto che "tutto vibrazione" scientificamente valido, la materia fatta di onde
elettromagnetiche che non sono altro che un tipo di vibrazione che trasmette energia.
Queste onde esistono in una matrice a cinque dimensioni di etere che il "media"
attraverso cui si propagano...questa matrice costituita da sei dimensioni parallele che
insieme danno origine a quella che noi definiamo "realt" con tutti i suoi fenomeni ed
La chiave per ottenere cose come l'invisibilit della materia, il teltrasporto, l'antigravit, o
modificare lo scorrere del tempo, sta nel provocare "vibrazioni" in una di queste
dimensioni. Nello spazio 3D (il nostro spazio a tre dimensioni) si pu muovere la materia
avanti e indietro, destra e sinistra, sopra e sotto con alcuni interessanti risultati, ma la realt
composta da pi di tre dimensioni, e creando un campo elettrico o magnetico che avvolge
la materia e la fa vibrare in altre dimensioni ci permette di alterare le caratteristiche stesse
della materia. Alterazioni che dipendono da quale dimensione si v a utilizzare.
Gli scienziati ortodossi lavorano con un sistema a tre dimensioni e sono capaci di produrre
la tecnologia limitata che vediamo tutti i giorni intorno a noi.
La creazione di questi campi iperdimensionali possibile grazie a bobine dalla speciale
Questa una tabella che riassume le tecniche che stiamo per discutere in questa trattazione:

Direzione della frequenza

Metodo Effetto ottenuto
campi magnetici ed elettrici
incrociati producono un campo
terza dimensione invisibilit
gravitazionale rotante accoppiato
alla luce
bobine in configurazione x-y-z
creano un campo
quarta dimensione teletrasporto
quadridimensionale accoppiato
campo gravitazionale solitono
modulato da flusso magnetico
quinta dimensione antigravit
devia il flusso di etere attorno
bobina caduceus produce un viaggio nel tempo e distorsione
sesta dimensione
campo scalare temporale


Affinch un oggetto diventi invisibile, la luce deve passargli attraverso o piegarsi attorno ad
esso. Noi analizzeremo un metodo per piegare la luce attorno ad un luce
potrebbe passare attraverso un oggetto se questo viene portato via da questa dimensione ma
questo non il caso che tratteremo qui.
La luce non si piega o devia a causa di un campo elettrico o magnetico perch i fotoni non
hanno una carica elettrica. Comunque ben noto che la gravit piega o devia la luce.
Affinch la gravit riesca a piegare significativamente la luce serve un campo
gravitazionale molto intenso come quello creato dalla massa di una stella o meglio ancora di
un buco nero. Ovviamente ricreare un campo gravitazionale cos intenso in laboratorio
impossibile e sarebbe anche disastroso.
La luce non si piega significativamente in un campo gravitazionale debole perch tale
campo non fortemente accoppiato all'oggetto stesso che genera il campo.
Per spiegare questo necessario un esempio:
pensate ad un cantante lirico e ad un calice di cristallo...finch il cantante non emette la
giusta frequenza non ci sar un adeguato trasferimento di energia tra le onde sonore e il
calice affinch si rompa. Non questione di potenza bruta ma di indovinare la giusta
frequenza di risonanza.
Allo stesso modo, la gravit di un pianeta statica se paragonata alla luce. Affinch l'una
influenzi l'altra deve essere raggiunta la condizione di risonanza. Se si modula o si fa
vibrare la gravit alla giusta frequenza, la luce si piega seguendo le linee di forza del
campo...pi ci si avvicina alla frequenza di risonanza e minore sar la potenza richiesta.
Ora la domanda :
come si pu modulare la gravit?
Quando un campo elettrico e uno magnetico si incrociano o intersecano con la giusta
angolazione viene prodotta la gravit in un direzione perpendicolare ad entrambi. Questo

illustrato nella figura 1 con uno schema vettoriale.

In accordo con quanto detto, modulando il campo elettrico o quello magnetico, si otterr un
campo gravitazionale vibrante alla stessa frequenza. Fare questo semplice se si usa una
corrente alternata per elettrificare un oggetto o energizzare una bobina.
Ad ogni modo, un dispositivo che piega la luce attorno ad un oggetto necessita di un campo
gravitazionale rotante, in modo che la luce che arriva verso di esso incontra questo campo,
si piega su di esso e lo segue per poi proseguire il suo cammino.
Esaminiamo un esempio calzante con il nostro caso:
Prendiamo il caso di un oggetto sferico carico (elettricamente) immerso in un campo
magnetico come quello illustrato nella figura 2.

Se si traccia il vettore gravit, sapendo che esso perpendicolare al campo magnetico ed

elettrico, si trover che esso ruota attorno all'oggetto come un vortice. Per modulare questo
campo, meglio alternare la componente elettrica usando un tesla coil, grazie al fatto che la
sua alta tensione e alta frequenza garantiscono una certa intensit di campo attorno

L'alta frequenza tende inoltre a far rimanere il campo sulla superficie dell'oggetto grazie
all'effetto "pelle".
Il campo magnetico pu essere prodotto da una Helmholtz coil, o anche una singola spira o
meglio ancora una serie di spire.
Una raffigurazione molto schematica quella della figura 3-4...per la helmholtz coil
cliccate qui.

Prendiamo ad esaminare cosa accade quando un fotone entra in un campo gravitazionale

modulato in questo modo.
Il fotone entra nel campo e viene immediatamente trasportato via lateralmente dal vettore
gravit rotante, spedendolo attorno all'oggetto. A causa della conservazione del momento,
questo fotone dovr seguire il campo finch non ritorna allo stesso medesimo tragitto di
quando era stato fotone uscir dal campo con una traiettoria perfettamente in
asse con quella di entrata.
Dal punto di vista di un osservatore esterno il fotone non ha mai cambiato traiettoria e
quindi nessun oggetto ha bloccato la sua traiettoria...l'oggetto invisibile. Questo
meccanismo illustrato in figura 5.

Per capire l'antigravit bisogna capire la gravit. La gravit una forza di spinta non una
trazione. Essa non altro che l'effetto di trascinamento dell'etere risucchiato dalla massa di
un oggetto. (Ho spiegato questo nella sezione sul campo del punto zero e l'energia del punto
Il trucco sta nel canalizzare questo flusso di etere (questo etere non altro che il campo del
punto zero) attorno all'oggetto in modo che l'oggetto stesso non ne risente della sua azione
di trascinamento.
Per fare questo serve un vortice solitono. Un solitono ha l'abilit unica di viaggiare
efficientemente attraverso un fluido perch canalizza il flusso attorno ad esso.
Avete presente le ciambelline di fumo che si divertono a fare i fumatori? Se ci fate caso
queste "ciambelline" riescono a viaggiare nell'aria per un periodo relativamente lungo
considerando la debolissima spinta che viene loro impressa dal fumatore.
Queste ciambelline canalizzano l'aria attorno a loro stesse perch si comportano come se
fossero un insieme di ruote messe in un cilindro che viene poi piegato fino a formare una
In poche parole sono come tante rotelle messe secondo uno schema toroidale.
Esse rotolano attraverso l'aria (o qualsiasi altro fluido) con una resistenza molto bassa
proprio come una ruota rotola sul terreno.
Queste "ciambelline" di fumo sono un solitono. A ben vedere Homer Simpson ha ragione a
nominare sempre queste ciambelle!
Per produrre un solitono capace di canalizzare l'etere attorno ad esso (vedi fig 6), bisogna
iniziare con un dipolo magnetico.
Un dipolo magnetico un campo a forma di mela dove il flusso magnetico esce verso l'alto
per poi ridiscendere.

Questo tipo di campo pu essere visto nelle immagini raffiguranti barre magnetiche vicine
a limatura di ferro per evidenziare le linee di forza del campo magnetico. Altro esempio
quello del campo geomagnetico del nostro pianeta che genera le cosiddette fasce di Van
Allen. Anche una semplice spira di filo elettrico alimentata da una sorgente pu generare
un dipolo magnetico.
Questo dipolo gi un solitono costituito da un flusso magnetico.

Per accoppiare il dipolo con il flusso terrestre di etere, questo campo magnetico deve essere
modulato nella stessa direzione da un campo gravitazionale oscillante. Questo tipo di
campo gravitazionale oscillante gi stato discusso nel precedente caso dell'invisibilit,
solo questione di riprendere tale caso e alterarlo per produrre un solitono invece di un
semplice vortice come quello visto in figura 3.
Se il vortice viene stirato e piegato in un circolo former un toroide...un solitono. E' solo un
piccolo esercizio mentale di topologia!
Per replicare questo in termini di campi elettrici e magnetici, si parte con un anello
conduttore, tipo una spira di filo come quella usata per l'esempio del dipolo magnetico.
Ovviamente un vero e proprio avvolgimento toroidale migliore perch produce un campo
magnetico pi intenso.
Attorno alla lunghezza di questo anello (o toroide se si optato per un toroide) bisogna
avvolgere un'altra bobina coassialmente. Entrambi gli avvolgimenti (toroide e bobina
esterna) vanno alimentati con corrente alternata (nell'immagine viene indicata corrente
continua il che necessita di una modulazione esterna) per generare il campo megnetico, poi
entrambe le bobine vengono collegate agli elettrodi opposti di un generatore ad alta tensione

per creare il campo elettrico.

Tutto questo illustrato nella figura 7.

Questo sistema scherma ogni oggetto posto dentro l'anello dal campo gravitazionale
terrestre se il flusso di etere sufficientemente deviato. Se il campo del dipolo molto
intenso, il flusso di etere verr deviato con pi forza e l'intero anello sar spinto in alto.
Questo anello pu semplicemente schermare la gravit, ma anche generare propulsione.
Qui ho fornito soltanto lo schema concettuale...per un progetto pi specifico andare nella
sezione "sperimentare l'antigravit".

Il teletrasporto la rimozione di un oggetto dallo spazio tridimensionale, attraverso una
scorciatoia nella quarta dimensione, per poi reinserire l'oggetto nello spazio tridimensionale
ma in una differente posizione.
Nella quarta dimensione lo spazio pu essere piegato con facilit in modo da portare il
punto di destinazione vicino all'oggetto o viceversa il punto in cui si trova l'oggetto viene
distorto fino ad arrivare al punto di destinazione.
Piegare lo spazio nelle tre dimensioni richiede quantitativi di energia e campi gravitazionali
enormi, ma nella quarta dimensione uno scherzo!
Per ora ci interesseremo solamente di come agganciare un oggetto e portarlo nella quarta
Nella fisica ordinaria esiste un operatore matematico chiamato "operatore trasversale" (non
so se ho tradotto bene il termine, quello originale cross product... una specie di calcolo
tensoriale, simile per certi versi alla regola del parallelogrammo).
Quando due vettori (la freccia indica il verso e l'intensit del campo) sono incrociati uno
con l'altro, un terzo vettore appare che ha un certo angolo rispetto agli altri due. Come gi

detto un vettore gravit proporzionale al prodotto trasversale di un vettore magnetico e

uno elettrico.
Comunque quando si incrociano tre vettori, alle giuste angolazioni, viene prodotto un
quarto vettore perpendicolare a tutti gli altri tre...dove punter tale vettore? Nella quarta
Questo un concetto che appartiene molto alla teoria dell'iperspazio...leggete il libro
Iperspazio di Mikio Kaku per capire meglio questi concetti. Comunque intendo fare una
bella trattazione sulla teoria dell'iperspazio nella sezione "astronomia e cosmologia".
Una configurazione X-Y-Z di tre bobine toroidali svolge bene questo lavoro, tale
configurazione illustrata nella figura 8.

Ognuna delle tre bobine produce un dipolo magnetico il cui campo al centro
perpendicolare agli altri due campi delle altre due bobine. A questo punto c' un flusso
magnetico a quattro dimensioni, o iperflusso, che concentrato maggiormente al
centro...ora solo questione di accoppiare tale iperflusso con l'oggetto posto al centro dei
tre toroidi per mandarlo nella quarta dimensione.
Il solo iperflusso non per sufficiente a far questo. Noi siamo agganciati allo spazio
tridimensionale da una forza elastica che pu essere sconfitta solo in due modi: o
pompando un quantitativo enorme di energia nelle bobine o facendo pulsare le bobine alla
frequenza di risonanza della quarta dimensione.
Pensate allo spazio come a un foglio di gomma, per deviare un punto del foglio sopra o
sotto (cio sul piano verticale z) potreste spingere sul foglio e mantenerlo stirato con una
certa spesa di energia, oppure potreste far vibrare il foglio in modo che i punti su di esso si
muovano sopra e sotto.
Se si indovina il mix giusto di frequenze si pu creare una onda stazionaria sul foglio, che
corrisponde all'energia minima usata per ottenere la massima deformazione del foglio
stesso. Si ritorna sempre al concetto di risonanza.
La frequenza di risonanza dello spazio situata pi o meno nella frequenza superiore delle
onde radio fino alle microonde.
Quando queste frequenze sono pompate nelle tre bobine, questo genera non solo campi

magnetici vibranti ma anche campi elettrici. Questo dovuto a un principio fisico delle
leggi di Maxwell, che asserisce che campi magnetici in movimento producono campi
Il vantaggio qui sta nel fatto che questo campo elettrico indotto insieme all'oggetto ad
essere teletrasportato, accoppiando automaticamente l'oggetto all'iperflusso vibrante.
Ritornando all'esempio del foglio di gomma, se l'onda stazionaria nel foglio ha un'ampiezza
sufficiente, questa onda strapper un pezzo del foglio e diventer un pallone di gomma a se
stante rispetto al foglio.
Se si mappa il campo magnetico di tre bobine a schema X-Y-Z, esso sembra una ipersfera
Se la frequenza di risonanza raggiunta questo campo collassa in una ipersfera magnetica,
portando tutti gli oggetti in prossimit fuori nell'iperspazio.
L'oggetto teletrasportato incapsulato in una bolla di spazio fluttuante nella quarta
dimensione, e sar completamente disconnessa dalla realt tridimensionale.
Pu essere difficile raggiungere questa frequenza di risonanza, cos pu essere meglio
iniziare con un semplice arrangiamento di bobine X-Y-Z per produrre un campo magnetico
rotante che verr poi modulato dal rumore bianco.
Questa rotazione pu essere ottenuta facendo pulsare ogni bobina ma con uno sfasamento
fra le tre. In questo modo il prodotto trasversale di ogni vettore magnetico non punta
sempre nella stessa direzione. Lo scopo principale di questa rotazione di indurre campi
elettrici nell'oggetto senza preoccuparsi della modulazione alla frequenza di risonanza dello
spazio. Questa modulazione compito di una quarta bobina.
In questo modo si ottiene anche una certa invisibilit dell'oggetto e i raggi di luce vengono
piegati via.
Questo campo rotante viene poi modulato da una quarta bobina alimentata con rumore
Il rumore bianco consiste di tutte le possibili frequenze di uno spettro con un certo range, se
questo rumore bianco ha un range fra le onde radio e le microonde allora la frequenza di
risonanza pu essere garantita.

Questo un metodo per aprirsi una strada nell'iperspazio.

Il viaggio nel tempo un processo molto simile a quello del teletrasporto. Entrambi
includono il fatto di viaggiare attraverso lo spazio-tempo senza seguire un percorso
tridimensionale. L'unica differenza sta nella direzione verso cui applicata la frequenza.
Nel teletrasporto la direzione perpendicolare alla terza dimensione spaziale, qui invece la
direzione di applicazione verso la sesta dimensione.
La sesta dimensione quella che separa gli universi paralleli, un p come la prima
dimensione (destra e sinistra) separa due binari paralleli. Applicando la frequenza corretta
nella dimensione corretta, si permette ad un oggetto di liberarsi dallo spazio a cinque
dimensioni (che appartiene alla nostra linea temporale) e agganciarsi ad un'altra linea
La produzione di un campo capace di risuonare nella sesta dimensione implica la
comprensione di una teoria particolare dell'iperspazio. Detto semplicemente...tutte le onde

elettromagnetiche hanno delle componenti nelle dimensioni superiori (la parte immaginaria
dell'onda) a cui si pu accedere cancellando la componente tridimensionale che noi
In pratica necessario mettere in "coniugazione di fase" ogni campo elettrico, magnetico e
quindi elettromagnetico dell'onda.
Coniugazione di fase non altro che un termine che indica il processo di aggiungere un
campo o un'onda alla sua immagine speculare cos che si cancellano a vicenda.
Lo si comprende meglio se si spiega la natura delle onde.
Le onde consistono in energia oscillante fra stati immaginari e reali. In altre parole, in un
momento l'energia reale e visibile come un movimento nel media in cui viaggia, e in un
momento successivo l'energia immaginaria o energia potenziale immagazzinata nello
stress del media.
Per esempio in una stringa vibrante la componente reale visibile dalle vibrazioni della
stringa stessa, mentre la componente immaginaria evidente nei picchi di ampiezza della
stringa dove tutta l'energia immagazzinata nel tessuto della stringa stirata.
In questo esempio, lo stiramento viaggia nella direzione della stringa (longitudinale) mentre
la direzione della vibrazione, il movimento fisico attuale di un punto della stringa,
perpendicolare cio trasverso.
Nel caso di un pendolo, l'energia commuta tra quella cinetica al centro di esso quando il
pendolo raggiunge la massima velocit, a quella potenziale, quando l'energia
immagazzinata nel campo gravitazionale al punto pi alto del pendolo.
Proprio come l'energia potenziale (parte immaginaria) di una stringa perpendicolare a
quella cinetica (parte reale), cos in questo esempio l'energia potenziale gravitazionale
perpendicolare a quella cinetica. La sola differenza che nel caso della stringa, l'energia
potenziale una dimensione inferiore di quella cinetica, e nel pendolo una dimensione
Per le onde elettromagnetiche, la componente immaginaria punta nella quinta dimensione (
vero l'ho letto anche in Iperspazio, capitolo 4 "il segreto della luce: vibrazioni nella quinta
Nella coniugazione di fase viene cancellata la componente reale, lasciando l'energia
manifestarsi solo nella componente immaginaria. Ad ogni modo questa onda in
coniugazione di fase deve oscillare in qualche modo. L'energia non distrutta...solamente
trasformata o diretta in un'altra direzione.
Siccome non pu oscillare pi fra il reale (spazio tridimensionale) e l'immaginario (quinta
dimensione), perch il reale stato eliminato essa deve oscillare fra l'immaginario e
qualcosa di superiore.
Siccome la componente immaginaria vibra nella quinta dimensione, questo qualcosa di
superiore deve essere per forza la sesta dimensione.
Da un punto di vista tridimensionale, tutto quello che vedr un osservatore esterno sar un
campo scalare dove il valore del campo lo stesso ovunque ma rimbalza su e gi di valore
nel tempo.
Questo "rimbalzamento" nel tempo e non nello spazio l'evidenza visibile che la
modulazione diretta nella sesta dimensione sta avendo luogo...e la sesta dimensione il
Einstein disse che la quarta dimensione il tempo, ma ci sono almeno due dimensioni

fisiche extra che servono a spiegare alcuni fenomeni fisici che non stiamo qui a spiegare.
Uno scopo gi stato in parte spiegato ed l'esistenza della parte immaginaria delle onde
EM...per vi consiglio caldamente la lettura di Iperspazio di Mikio Kaku...rende tutto pi
facile da capire.
La configurazione della bobina necessaria per produrre questi campi scalari la caduceus
coil illustrata nella figura 9. E trattata anche nella sezione sperimentale di questo sito,
nonch oggetto di sperimentazione nel forum.

E' un pezzo di filo avvolto ad elica che crea una contro-rotazione delle correnti e che quindi
fa opporre i campi magnetici.
Quando la si alimenta con un segnale alternato, l'incrocio fra gli avvolgimenti consente ai
campi generati di cancellarsi in coniugazione di fase ed essere trasformati in campi scalari.
Per accoppiare questo campo scalare all'oggetto si dovrebbe caricarlo con un generatore ad
alta tensione in continua come un Van De Graaf o un generatore AT in alternata come un
tesla si ha il coraggio. Perch cosa dovrebbe succedere?

In questa trattazione non sono stati date specifiche di costruzione, ma abbiamo enunciato i
principi che devono essere compresi per poter passare alla sperimentazione.
Semplicemente, pensate in termini di flusso di etere, accoppiamento in risonanza, campi
scalari, poi si passa ad utilizzare l'appropriata configurazione delle bobine per raggiungere
questi risultati.
Se andate alla sezione "sperimentare l'antigravit" di questo sito ho gi messo uno schema
della caduceus e un progetto di anello antigravitazionale sempre di Misiolek con tutte le
specifiche. In pi avete l'ausilio del forum che vi permetter di scambiarvi suggerimenti ed
esperienze con chi come voi tenta di realizzare tutto ci.
Siete avvisati che queste tecniche sconfinano nel regno dell'ignoto (apposta mi piacciono!) e
che la coscienza pu essere alterata dalla dislocazione spazio-temporale, proprio come
successo ai marinai del Philadelphia Experiment.
La vita risiede non solo in queste dimensioni ma si diffonde attraverso il tempo, le

dimensioni e altri livelli di percezione...giocare con i campi scalari, specialmente nella

forma di laser in coniugazione di fase modulati da segnali audio, ha il potenziale di aprire
portali, consentendo a forze malevoli di entrare in questa realt e danneggiare lo
Wow! Mi ricorda Doom! Preparer una bella doppietta a pallettoni...nel caso ce ne fosse
bisogno. Anche qualche carica di Semtex non guasta mai!
E' un dato di fatto che l'invisibilit, il viaggio nel tempo, teletrasporto e antigravit sono
tecniche esistenti e realizzate segretamente. Ci sono testimoni, documenti governativi ed
evidenze fisiche che lo questione semmai come riprodurre queste
Ok il documento finisce qui...cosa state aspettando? Andate nella vostra cantina e iniziate la
Io ho iniziato da poco...tante menti messe insieme possono accelerare la ricerca! Vi aspetto
nel forum per discutere di tutto questo e sentire le vostre esperienze!

A cura della redazione di Altra Scienza

Se c' qualcuno che ha contribuito davvero a dare ad Altra Scienza contenuti unici e di spessore quello
Franco Montefuscoli. Esperto di energia e di propulsione alternativa, il nostro collaboratore pi

A.S.: Negli ultimi tempi si sta creando molto interesse per le energie alternative. Quali consideri
come migliori fonti energetiche?
Franco Montefuscoli: Parlando di quelle normali, naturalmente la fotovoltaica che esiste ormai da
decenni. Per la mancanza di sensibilit e consapevolezza politica e culturale di questa realt non ha
preso mai davvero piede in Italia. Col rendimento delle ultime celle in commercio arriviamo al 20%. Un
chilometro quadrato renderebbe 200-300 MW.
Se avessi il potere di farlo ordinerei subito di costruire centrali geotermiche a tutto spiano. Per funzionare
hanno solo bisogno dell'acqua.

A.S.: Per quando riguarda la free energy vera e propria, quali dispositivi ritieni pi attendibili?
F.M.: Quella elettrostatica, il dispositivo di Coler, ma soprattutto l'elettrete che poco conosciuto ma che
secondo me potrebbe far svoltare il mondo e rendere il petrolio semplicemente merda. Anzi peggio, il
petrolio non fa crescere nemmeno le piante...

A.S.: Facci un esempio di sfruttamento dell'energia elettrostatica.

F.M.: La Testatika, ma purtroppo non mi chiaro il funzionamento. Per tanto non voglio dare nulla per
scontato. Per essere scontato deve essere funzionante e riproducibile da chiunque nel mondo.
Attualmente non conosco nemmeno una replica.

A.S.: Bene, mi sapresti dire perch il dispositivo di Coler pi credibile di altri?

F.M.: Prima di tutto funzionante col principio della risonanza visto che in un campo magnetico
rotante. Tuttavia ritengo tale dispositivo difficilmente governabile.

A.S.: Ed ora passiamo all'elettrete. Come l'hai scoperto?

F.M.: L'ho fatto sfogliando l'enciclopedia Rizzoli per vedere se nel tunnel del dimenticatoio era sfuggito
qualcosa d'importante. Ed ho trovato l'elettrete.

A.S.: Che sostanzialmente un condensatore permanentemente carico. E davvero cos?

F.M.: Si. Cortocircuitandolo non perde mai la carica, a differenza degli altri condensatori.

A.S.: E perch allora non lo usano tutti? Infondo sta nell'enciclopedia!

F.M.: A parte il fatto che c' enciclopedia e enciclopedia, sono sempre meno quelli che le sfogliano e
sempre pi quelli che perdono tempo con i reality.

A.S.: Per strano: tutti pensano a MEG che ha il presunto rendimento del 500% e nessuno lo ha
riprodotto efficacemente, mentre nessuno pensa ad un condensatore che gi c' che ha un
rendimento pressoch infinito...
F.M.: E' la poca conoscenza di questo dispositivo, l'elettrete, di cui si conosce in genere troppo poco. A
parte Altra Scienza nessuno ne ha mai parlato. Ma 'ndo vivo?
Eppure Alessandro Volta, Da Vinci, Marconi, Fermi sono nati qua... Ah, se lo sapessero come sarebbero
dispiaciuti di non vedere ancora una centrale con questo principio...

A.S.: Ma per caricare e produrre questo elettrete c' bisogno di accorgimenti particolari?
F.M.: Ci vuole un dispositivo di alta tensione e, mi raccomando, a corrente continua, altrimenti non

A.S.: Mi fa pensare che il modo per produrlo sia semplice ma pericoloso.

F.M.: Consiglio di farlo a chi ha gi conoscenza di elettrotecnica ed elettrostatica, comunque l'ho gi
descritto su Altra Scienza qualche numero fa...

A.S.: L'hai riprodotto?

F.M.: Qualcosa ho fatto... Sono ricerche che richiedono tempo e pazienza, purtroppo non sono le ricerche
pi mi stanno a cuore. E nel cuore ho le ricerche sulla propulsione elettrica.

A.S.: Bene, parliamo della propulsione alternativa: quale ritieni il dispositivo pi attendibile,
F.M.: Naturalmente il treno a levitazione magnetica. Altro che ponte sullo stretto.

A.S.: Del tipo tedesco o giapponese?

F.M.: L'unico che fa servizio regolare quello cinese: parte da Pechino, ma non ricordo bene che linea...

A.S.: Ultimamente nei forum si parla molto di campi magnetici rotanti o di campi di torsione. Cosa
ne pensi a riguardo?
F.M.: Anche qui, come nel caso dell'elettrete, quello che si avvicinato di pi di tutti lo scienziato
brasiliano Fran De Aquino che schermando la gravit al 70% e quello che riuscito pi di tutti ad
avvicinarsi alla propulsione elettromagnetica. Questo concretamente, le altre cose sono pressoch teoria.
Come spesso succede, ci si interessa di pi delle cose fantascientifiche che di quelle concrete. E' sulle
cose concrete che bisogna agire!

A.S.: Per anche il lifter concreto...

F.M.: Ma qualsiasi essere pensante nota che concreto ma poco utile, per via delle potenze troppo
piccole. E' sicuramente interessante, ma non se ne vede un futuro. Praticamente un vicolo cieco.

A.S.: Quindi gli ioni non sono una buona idea. Nemmeno lo Ionocraft?
F.M.: Nemmeno. L'unica strada da percorrere con l'elettrostatica quella di costruire un'aereomobile
creando una depressurizzazione sopra il veicolo, cos salirebbe verso l'alto senza fare rumore, usura,
inquinamento, con la sola elettricit di Alessandro Volta, colui che ha trasformato con la sua elettricit
l'inferno del nostro pianeta in un posto pi vivibile.

A.S.: Torniamo al MEG di Tom Bearden. Secondo te non pu funzionare. Perch?

F.M.:Perch qualsiasi flusso magnetico variabile riproduce sempre un flusso magnetico variabile in
perdita col flusso primario. L'aggiunta dei magneti non porta a nessun rendimento maggiore per via della
staticit dei flussi dei magneti che non possono oscillare col campo magnetico variabile primario anche
se i picchi di apertura delle correnti oscillanti sono maggiori non c' nessun guadagno per via della durata
breve dell'impulso che viene contrastata dal rilascio delle cariche magnetiche del ferro in un tempo
maggiore, quindi, anche se sembra che con l'aggiunta dei magneti c' un aumento di rendimento, questo

dovuto a maggior assorbimento delle bobine primarie. Questa teoria non frutto di ragionamento
fantasioso ma di una sperimentazione lunga e continua, e la sostengo a meno finch non venga confutato
da qualcuno che ha fatto un esperimento analogo, concreto e reale.

A.S.: Secondo te il moto perpetuo possibile?

F.M.: Sicuramente si.

A.S.: Come?
F.M.: Un esempio di moto perpetuo sono gli elettroni che girano intorno al nucleo oppure i pianeti che
girano intorno alle stelle.

A.S.: Ighina.
F.M.: Passiamo oltre...

A.S.: Quali sono gli attrezzi e i materiali che usi nel tuo laboratorio per i tuoi esperimenti?
F.M.: Innanzitutto, la bobinatrice (autocostruita), poi quelli ordinari: trapano, fresa, mola, saldatrice,
seghetto e poco altro.

A.S.: Per progettare usi il CAD? Tutta questa precisione lascia supporre che usi mezzi sofisticati.
F.M.: Faccio come Tesla. E Tesla non aveva AutoCAD. Uso la testa e le mani. Qualche volta la lente
d'ingrandimento per i lavori pi precisi.

A.S.: Che cosa faresti per scuotere un po' d'interesse per l'energia alternativa, la propulsioni
innovative, lo spazio?
F.M.: Io instaurerei un appuntamento annuale dove le menti pi creative della nazione potessero mostrare
le loro invenzioni e il loro ingegno soprattutto sull'energia instaurando un premio decisamente
ragguardevole: parlo di almeno un milione di euro. Ed i partecipanti non siano limitati a titoli di studio o
dall'et poich solo la passione per questi argomenti che pu raggiungere obiettivi inimmaginabili.

A.S.: Come costituiresti la commissione giudicatrice?

F.M.: Non facile... i romani dicevano chi giudica i giudici?

A.S.: Che qualit dovrebbero avere questi giudici, almeno?

F.M.: Devono essere dei fisici sperimentali, non solo teorici. Senza pregiudizi, aperti mentalmente e con
grandi conoscenze sugli argomenti. Ma non ingenui: devono essere anche capaci di scovare trucchi e
raggiri, ma ovviamente devono avere le qualit sopracitate.

A.S.: Qualcuno del CICAP?

F.M.: Si, ma giusto qualche elemento... non l'intera commissione.

A.S.: Dove troveresti i dindi per il premio?

F.M.: Togliendoli da uno dei tanti sprechi che la nazione fa. Per la nazione un milione di euro in questo
senso si recupera facile.

A.S.: E tu piuttosto dove trovi la moneta per le tue ricerche?

F.M.: Non faccio viaggi, non corro dietro a cose futili o all'ultimo modello di telefonino. E i soldi li trovo.

A.S.: Cosa pensi del Progetto Valery?

F.M.: Penso che se esisteva questo premio gi funzionava da un pezzo... Senza, chiss quando sar finito.

A.S.: Entrando nella tua casa non posso fare a meno di notare l'illuminazione a led che hai
realizzato lungo il corridoio e in altre stanze. Me ne vuoi parlare?
F.M.: Innanzitutto l'ho realizzato principalmente per non pensare pi alla sostituzione delle lampadine:

una vera rottura di scatole, oltre ad essere costoso, sia per le lampadine sia per i consumi elettrici che ho
notevolmente abbattuto.

A.S.: Quanti led ha ogni lampada? Quanto consumano e

quanto illuminano?
F.M.: Ogni lampada ha circa 60 led, consumano 3W e
illuminano come 30W. Quelle colorate consumano 0,1W.

A.S.: Ho notato che anche spente illuminano lo stesso, me

ne puoi parlare? Consumano davvero nulla?
F.M.: Si certo, illuminano. Ma in maniera molto ridotta, ma
sempre utile come luce notturna. Questa caratteristica
d'illuminarsi gliela conferisce la conferisce il filo di ritorno
che crea un condensatore di linea che raccoglie le cariche
elettriche disperse lungo il conduttore che il led, essendo un
diodo, ne raddrizza le semionde convertendole nella sua
trasformazione in emissione fotonica.

A.S.: Quindi al momento non si trovano in commercio.

F.M.: No, non si trovano, bisogna costruirsele da s per il

A.S.: Ma non avevano ideato i led grossi per

F.M.: No, mai visti in giro.

A.S.: Mi hai presentato un articolo sui supercondensatori. Ci hai sperimentato un po' su? Quali
possibilit offrono?
F.M.: Tanta capacit rispetto alle batterie, leggerezza e poco spazio. Peccato per i costi: 100 farad costano
25 euro. E i prezzi sono anche in aumento.

A.S.: Sei un fan del famoso illusionista David Copperfield. Uno dei suoi trucchi pi famosi quello
della levitazione e del volo...
F.M.: ...che nessun altro riuscito mai a ripetere n prima n dopo. Nessuno sa come fa, nemmeno i suoi
pi famosi colleghi. Tutto questo dovrebbe suscitare grande interesse e curiosit, ma come mai ci si
limita a guardare e basta? Un uomo che vola non mica tanto normale...
Premetto che lui per preparare questa magia ci ha messo sette anni, questo senza cavi, n fili come da lui
dichiarato alla TV svizzera, e purtroppo a tutt'oggi non sono riuscito a sapere come fa. Se qualcuno ha
qualche idea in merito avvisi Franco Malgarini (, ndAS), ma dubito che ci possa
accadere. Per ci spero.

A.S.: Come vedi il mondo nel 2050?

F.M.: Peggio di adesso. Andiamo sempre peggio, nonostante si sappia cosa fare per migliorare si lascia
tutto cos alla deriva. Per me siamo in troppi. Il pianeta non fatto per tutta questa moltitudine di persone
perch la natura ha i suoi equilibri. E vanno rispettati, altrimenti il peggioramento sar tale da superare il
punto di non ritorno. Il problema pi grande dell'umanit il sovraffollamento. Senza una soluzione per il
2050 saranno dolori per tutti (soprattutto per i nostri discendenti).

A.S.: Per la popolazione italiana notoriamente in calo, insieme ai giapponesi.

F.M.: La TV non te lo dice, ma forse in questo contesto siamo [gli italiani, ndR] meno fessi degli altri.
Probabilmente sentiamo di pi la responsabilit di mettere al mondo un essere umano in luoghi sempre

Ed ecco a voi il moto perpetuo!

Schema base

La ruota gira in senso orario


Il magnete n1 tira il segno meno alla sua destra e spinge il segno pi alla sua sinistra mettendo in
rotazione la ruota dei magnetini.

Il magnete n.2 con il segno pi rivolto verso la ruota attrae a s il segno meno che si trova alla sua destra
e spinge il segno pi che si trova alla sua sinistra raddoppiando la forza di spinta e di rotazione.



Come Funziona

L'etere che si trova ovunque viene risucchiato dalla parte superiore del disco e rilasciato nella parte in
basso permettendo cos al disco di salire in alto.

Da: "kosol ouch" <>

A: <>
Oggetto:here is me kosol i got a multi hyper ring portal drive to
share with you
Data: luned 27 marzo 2006 12.03

here is me kosol ouch i got a multi hyper ring portal drive to share with you and everyone in europe and
the worlds.
the drive is made of neodymanium magnet rings , surrounded by barium tenate dielectric , and
surrounding the barium tenate is bismuth rings , and surrounding the bismuth multi rings is two coil wrap
around every rings connected in revers polirity to the power source , to control the magnetic field that is
being generated from the two tesala coil and the magnet it self , coil act as a magnetic field rotator of
counter rotation and clockwise rotations in respect add the same time or alternatively .
this technology simple and short cut, no need for math nor thoery but purely practic at the builder desire
and size that he or she wanted to build .
as well is economical.
any way take a look at the picture .
thanks in advance kosol ouch .

Da: "kosol ouch" <>

A: <>
Oggetto:is me kosol here is the time machine craft technology .
Data: luned 27 marzo 2006 12.14

the time craft use the sphere device technology alots,

it conscit of 8 tesala coil , four for each hemisphere , and a spiral cooper coil which chang the
magnetism into electricit to feed that back to the power of the craft .
the affect is to emulate the philidipiya experiment technology the perfection of it . with out the safty
hazard of the philidipiya experiment project of 1942 .
so the 8 tesala coil fire at the two himesphere to create and hardness magnetism fog , that will grow all
around the craft , and the frequency of the electromagnetic fog color is determented by the rotation of the
hemisphere and the frequency generator that control also the out of the tesala coil . the hemisphere
contain mangnet, illumanium , and barium tenate .
as you know the hemisphere is constructed just like a capacitor , as well the core cup also that will be
screwed into the hemisphere .
basically it is a philidipya experiement technology in the time craft .
thanks in advance
from kosol ouch

Da: "kosol ouch" <>

A: <>
Oggetto:the detail of the sphere device drive and pyramid craft 1of 2
Data: luned 27 marzo 2006 12.25

the detail of the sphere device drive and pyramid craft .

the craft is design as a pyramid to help accomidate the drive pretty much .
i also attached the coil circuit as well . you already know about my sphere device this is the latest update
from it , you also has the photo already which i don't have to send a agian .
i will send other detail as to incrementation ect .
thanks in adavance .
regard kosol ouch

Electrical and Mechanical Analisys for Kosol device

Note that this is not a definitive conclusion, much more will follow as building
among the groups develop.
I have based this work on Lacosta's configuration with 5 multilayered spheres
and the electrical part done by me ( Vince )

I know that you probably have already compute inertia momentum for the
spheres and total mass , but i have decided to separate the circuit powering
the motors, so i will do this separation:

Circuit 1 : Powering 1,3,5 multilayered spheres

Circuit 2 : Powering 2,4 multilayered spheres

The reason why i have separated the circuit will become apparent further
in this document.

Each sphere is made of different materials :

Bi , Al , Bi, Dielectric , Bi, Al , Bi .

we have 5 of these spheres with decreasing radius following platonic math.
Also magnets follow the same configuration, a dielectric beetween 2 magnets

Inertia momentum for each single sphere is J= 2/5 ( m R^2 )

since the sphere is made of multi layers we have to compute the total
inertia momentum for the entire multilayered sphere

R1 = radius for Bi shell

R2 = radius for Al shell
R3 = radius for Bi shell
R4 = radius for Dielectric shell
R5 = radius for Bi shell
R6 = radius for Al shell
R7 = radius for Bi shell
R8 = radius for distance from the rotation center for the entire first multilayered sphere
( Look the drawing made by Lacosta for referring )

Computation for each shell give 7 quantities

J1 = 2/5 ( m1 (r1-r2)^2 )
J2 = 2/5 ( m2 (r2-r3)^2 )
J3 = 2/5 ( m3 (r3-r4)^2 )
J4 = 2/5 ( m4 (r4-r5)^2 )
J5 = 2/5 ( m5 (r5-r6)^2 )
J6 = 2/5 ( m6(r6-r7)^2 )
J7 = 2/5 ( m7(r7-r8)^2 )

Total inerita momentum and mass for this sphere are:

Jt = J1+J2+J3+J4+J5*j6+J7
Mt= M1+M2+M3+M4+M5+M6+M7

This computation needs to be done for each of the 5 multilayered spheres

so we will have Jt1,Jt2,Jt3,Jt4,Jt5 ,and Mt1,Mt2,Mt3,Mt4,Mt5

so Total mass and Inertia momentum are


Circuit for the kosol device


Note for Lacosta :

I have seen that total mass for your device is 233kg , with that mass
you need industrial grade motors , you also have to choose according
to your needs, if the motor will be Ac or Dc, since this device is
outside current electrical assumptions, at the moment i don't know
which result it might cause if you attach an Ac motor to the power grid.

I will make the assumption that the motor are Dc , in my device

the total mass ia less than 2kg, and i have 2 Dc motors which unloaded
have a regime speed of 21000 rpm.
Coils are put at the equator fo rhte spehre since magnets have the
maximum linear speed , the inductance for the coils is Leq and is
equivalent with the series of single inductance coil
Leq = L1+L2+.......

Building notes:
Every Dc motor has 2 parameters K and b
K is a scalar value indicating the electrical countertension during
duty cycle for the same motor, b is a parameter depending on the
attached mass and friction at the connection points.
You should know both this values are given by hte constructor.

Equations for the first motor are:

E is voltage , Om is angular speed , a is angular accelleration

E-iR-KOm=0 ( electrical part )

Ki-bOm=Ja ( mechanical part )

since a = d Om / dt

we have a differential equation which need to be solved

Ki-bOm=J ( dOm/dt )

solving this 2 equation gives :

d (Om / dt) + Om ( k^2 +bR )/ RJ - k E / Rj =0

let's use some constant for ease of computing

C1= (K^2 +bR )/RJ


the differential equation is

d (Om /dt) +c1 Om -c2 E =0

To solve this equation we need to know differential math, i did all

the computatios for you , and after computing the solution and relative
constant at initial at 0 sec we have:

Om(t) = (KE/ ( K^2 +bR ) ) ( 1 - exp (-k/Rj ) t )

This equation is divided in 2 parts , a regime state and a transient

the transient is the main reason why i have split the circuit into 2

Transient state will give indication about how slow or fast the
system will reach its working stable condition.
since 2 different motors are powering the circuit , and each motor
has a different mass to rotate , we will have 2 different transient
and regime states.

Red curve is transient for first motor and the blue one , for the second
both have different time constant and regime state.
This means that one motor, due to different mass to rotate will
reach different speed of rotation in a different time.
We need to solve this problem .
First of all the 2 stable angular speed are :

for the first motor :

Om1 = K E / ( K^2 +b1 R1 )

and for the second motor


Om2 = K E / ( K^2 +b2 R2 )

we want that at regime state the angular speed to be the same

so simply put we need to impose Om1 = Om2

solving and simplifying the equation gives:

b1 R1 = b2 R2

this will give the value for the resistor to use in the second circuit

R2 = b1/b2 R1

since b1 is dependent on mass we could use the ratio in another form

R2= m1/m2 R1

We have solved one problem but another reamains.

regime speeds now are the same, but we still have different
transient states, this means that the regime speed will
be reached in different times, although this time is very little
the 2 spehres might be phased out during rotation.
Fortunately because of magnetic interaction beetween the spheres
the phasing out will be more and more less as the rotation proceed.

I f you still want the solution here it is:

time constant for the first motor is :

t1 = R1J1 / k

for the second :

t2 = R2J2 / k

Dt = t1-t2

Dt = ( R1 J1 / k - R2 J2 /k ) 0.63 sec ( 0.63 sec is a constant , and normally is

referred as the time that is needed for a system
to reach stable state )

so , if you want to nullify the difference in time beetween the 2 circuits you need
to start the second one with a time delay of Dt.

Charge measuring

Charge in this device builds up, we still don't know how much this charge will be ,
if the device follows the lifter tech or BBrown effect, we at least must expect
17.35 kv to see noticeble antig effects , to measure you can do 2 things,
build a circuit of your own ( able to measure femtofarad to picofarad ) or buy an
hihg impedence capacitance meter.
Since you want to measure charge for the shells you need to put the anode an catode
to close the circuit on the outer and inner shell for each sphere , the device is
rotating so you will need mercury contacts or brush contacts ( subject to consumption )
you need to place firmly the contacts beetween the spehres and make all the wiring
connection pass through the inner shaft which needs to be hollow.

If you want the schematic for a capacitor meter here it is ,

but i advice you to use a professional one since it can be used
with much higher precison and could measure much higher voltages

Vcc is at -5v
U1 is a Schoktty diode voltage triggered
Q1 is a npn bjt normally the have a very low
parasitic capacitance beetween collector and base.

Working for the device:

power the main 2 circuit, keep the feedback coils off
let the device reach 550 rpm with a stable rotation
turn feedback coils on , after a certain amount of time
the device should sustain itself , main powering circuits
could be turned off .

Da: "kosol ouch" <>

A: <>
Oggetto:the detail of the sphere drive and the pyramid crafts 2 of 2 .
Data: luned 27 marzo 2006 16.35

the detail of the sphere drive and the pyramid crafts 2 of 2 .

well i sended all that i know to you , good luck and have fun .
thanks in advance from kosol ouch

Animaris Percipiere: Walking Robotic Sculpture Stores Wind Energy

The Animaris Percipiere is a free roaming clockwork mechanism sculpture created by artist Theo
Jansen. This sculpture, the most recent of his animari, will walk the main square of Linz, Austria in
September as a part of the Ars Electronic Festival.

(From Animaris Percipiere)

Jansen is slowly working toward machines that will be capable of long-term autonomous motion, slowly
roaming the beaches of the Netherlands.
"Animals are machines as well," said Jansen. "I was making animals with just the tubes
because they were cheap but later on they turned out to be very helpful in making artificial
life because they are very flexible and multifunctional as well. I see it now as a sort of protein
-- in nature, everything is almost made of protein and you have various uses of protein; you
can make nails, hair, skin and bones. There's a lot of variety in what you can do with just one
material and this is what I try to do as well."

A seventh-generation "animal," the Jansen Animaris Percipiere contains lemonade bottles into which air
is slowly pumped as the beast moves by wind power; this enables it to walk for several minutes after the
breeze passes.
"They have a food source in the wind so they can store energy and use it later on," said
Jansen. "The downside is that they might have to wait for days, for the wind hopper to move
on and on and then be able to move for maybe five minutes. They are just like snakes. Snakes

also lie in the sun for days digesting their food.

(From Evolution of Wind Creatures on Beach)

Although these clockwork animals are obviously very gentle beasts indeed, Theo Jansen's work is very
reminiscent (in its whimsical style) of Jack Vance, who created the mechanical walking fort for a 1964
See the article on the previous generation - the Animaris Rhinoceros Transport; if you like clockwork, see
the very cool Robot Crab: Crustacean Clockword Automata. I found the tip for this story in next month's
dead tree version of Wired.
(Story submitted 8/22/2005)

Advances In Desalination:
The Aul EGD Process
Robert A. Nelson

A simple method of desalting ocean water now exists which uses no external
energy, and produces electrical power at the same time! This revolutionary
process, called Electro-Gravitational Desalination (EGD), makes it possible to
recover as potable water more than 80% of the saline or brackish water treated
with the process. It also produces at least enough electrical power to operate
pumps to keep the system flowing.

According to Albert Aul (email inJanuary 2003), the Aul EGD process is
currently "dormant" because:

(1) "It was discovered that the gap between anode and cathode had to be
maintained at 0.25 inches for the process to oeprate. This created a design and
maintenance problem that limited the cost effectiveness of any equipment built,
regardless of size.

(2) " Marine micro-organisms, such as gallionella, attacked copper voraciously:

numerous test units were literally detroyed by them (chlorine does not appear to
kill such organisms.

(3) "Most importantly, the development activity ran out of funds. Given the above
described difficulties, a prolonged and expensive effort to overcome them was not
to the best interest of the funding sources, and the work was abandoned."

Accordingly, the following information is presented with the suggestion that only
the construction of a 1-gpd unit be attempted as a survival apparatus that can be
cleaned manually, without concern for cost efficiency.

As human population increases, fresh water resources are being depleted rapidly
due to waste, pollution, declining water tables, and subsequent salting-up
(increased concentrations of dissolved minerals) of ground water, rivers, etc.. This
makes desalination increasingly necessary and cost-competitive with the
transportation of fresh water over long distances. Some 900 desalination plants
with a total capacity of almost 300 million gallons/day are located throughout the
world today.

Several processes have been developed for desalination of water. Distillation is

the oldest and most common desalination process in use. Other processes include:
solvent extraction, electro-dialysis, reverse osmosis, propane extraction, freezing,
and ion-exchange systems. All of these methods consume large amounts of energy
that alters the economics of desalination. But the cost of transporting fresh water
is increasing, so desalination remains cost-competitive.

The new method of Electro-Gravitational Desalination (EGD) is the discovery of

Albert H. Aul, who received U.S Patent # 3,474,014(Cl. 205-150) and several
foreign patents for his invention.

Electronic coagulation of saline solutions has been developed since the early
1940s, but such systems employ strong direct current. The Aul EGD system
requires no externally applied energy; rather, it generates its own electrical power.
It is in effect a salt-water battery in addition to its desalination applications. Aul
explains EGD as follows:

"The principle upon which EGD is based is galvanic to the extent that a 'primary'
(not rechargeable), low-power battery is galvanic. In any EGD system (as in any
battery), each cell contains two electrodes: a copper anode and an aluminum
cathode. The electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid in a storage battery, but only sea
water in an EGD unit) 'connects' the electrodes at one end, but in order to
complete an electric circuit it must be connected at the other end as well, and in
order not to deplete the 'battery very quickly (as would be the case if the
electrodes were connected only with a wire and no 'resistance' --- called a short-
circuit), some resistance (or 'load') must be added, such as lights, or a motor or
other devices, in the connection between the electrodes at the other end.

"Electricity is produced by chemical action, and in the case of an EGD unit using
copper anodes and aluminum cathodes, oxygen and aluminum are the materials
that react with each other, and hydrogen is the catalyst. In plain terms, a catalyst is
a substance that causes other substances to become unstable and recombine to
become stable. Aluminum and oxygen, when in contact, without the presence of
hydrogen, will remain independent and stable, but in the presence of hydrogen
will combine, releasing electrons. Water is hydrogen and oxygen. When in EGD
the aluminum and oxygen combine, the hydrogen goes off mostly as a gas.

"In the EGD systems as described, no other electrode-metal reactions with

materials in the water have been measured or observed. However, with the
electrical field that exists, the particles of salts (chlorine, sodium, bromine,
magnesium, and every other substance attached to the water molecules) become
attracted to the electrodes. The field generated by the EGD system is stronger than
the field that holds these particles to the water molecules; thus the copper anode
electrode attracts the positively charged particles (anions), and the aluminum
electrode attracts the negatively charged particles (cations), the particles or ions
being molecules too, but composed of only atoms that each represents. Sea water,
for example does not contain sodium chloride (table salt); chlorine and sodium
ions are individually attached to the water molecule. In nature they only combine
when the water molecule has been evaporated away, and there is no 'occupied'
water molecule to become attached to. In EGD, these ions become detached
because of the electrical field.

"In EGD the field strength is really unimportant, as long as a field exists. We
make up for that lack of a field strength of a copper/aluminum EGD device by
flowing the water through a large number of cells. The number of cells and the
flow rate dictates the rate of desalting and the amount of saline material
remaining in the water after it has gone through EGD processing. There are
limitations on flow rate for each design, and there are minimum numbers of cells
for each design. The maximum number of cells is dictated by the builder of the
EGD devices; there is a point in each design where the amount of matter removed

in relation to the cost of the cells is so small that it becomes impractical to have
the extra cells.

"As the materials (ions of various salts) accumulate adjacent to the electrode
surfaces, and the water's laminar flow downward along the electrode surfaces
carry the ions out of the field, much of the ion material becomes reattached to
water molecules not in the field (they redissolve), forming a dense brine. That
water from which the saline ions have migrated, now is unburdened and less
dense than the saline water. The desalinated (desalted) water occurs in the center
of the gap between the electrodes and is "bouyed" up by the denser saline water
below, so that the desalted quantity is to be found at the top, center-of-gap
location of each cell.

"Only about 30% of the EGD process depends on chemical reactions. For this
reason the initial urge of technical persons to analyze the process using
conventional electro-chemical thermal balance equations should be subdued. The
well-known phenomena of the behavior of matter ions in solution between a non-
reactive cathode and non-reactive anode, more closely represents the facts, except
that the electrolyte is not an electroplating medium, and that the system is
galvanically disposed by a minimum reaction of cathode (aluminum) and
electrolyte-borne oxygen/hydrogen, rather than with applied energy from an
external source."

Of the 30% of the EGD process that includes chemical reactions, many of the
materials are released as gases such as hydrogen, chlorine, and others. Hydrogen
and chlorine also recombine to form hydrogen chloride, which reacts with
calcium carbonate to produce precipitant calcium chloride and free hydrogen.
Some of the liberated ions of sodium, calcium and magnesium recombine with
the carbonate radicals disrupted from calcium carbonate and form respective
carbonates and hydroxides. (Figure 1)

Because most of the salts are removed by EGD rather than by reducing the
electrodes, the electrodes last a very long time and require only periodic cleaning.
The cathode reduction rate is calculated at 0.0013 oz. avoir. of aluminum
hydroxide for each 100 gallons of water desalinated. The average value of current
produced is 0.000022 amp/sq. in. of cathode surface in contact with saline water
being processed.

Albert Aul describes a very simple model that can be constructed to demonstrate
the principle of EGD:

"Two metal plates, one of aluminum and one of copper, approximately 2" x 3" x
1/16" thick, are drilled with two 1/4" diameter holes in the top corners of both
plates. Insert wood dowels through the holes so as to support the plates about 1/2"
apart in a wide-mouthed jar of about 3-pint capacity. Connect the electrode plates
with a short piece (about 5") of insulated wire, to both ends of which are soldered
alligator clips. Fill the jar with ordinary tap water in which is dissolved about 1/2
gram of table salt. Then add a few milligrams of thymol blue pH indicator. Adjust
the pH with a minute amount of very dilute acetic acid (vinegar) and sodium
hydroxide (lye) until the water turns an orange color. Any additional acetic acid
will increase the pH and produce a bright red color. Additional lye will change the
color to clear yellow. The apparatus now is complete."

The two plates are electrically connected using the wire and clips, thereby
establishing a galvanic cell of the type described by Albert Aul. After several
minutes a noticeable change becomes apparent: the copper plate becomes
blanketed with a thin layer of dark red color, and the aluminum plate is covered
with a thin yellow layer. As the copper anode attracts positive ions and decreases
the pH in its area, the indicator turns bright red in that region. The pH increases
around the aluminum cathode and the indicator changes to a yellow color in that
zone as the negative hydroxyl ions accumulate there. Within ten minutes the
colored layers become about 1/16" thick on each side of the metal plates. Then
streams of red and yellow fluid can be seen coming off the bottom of the metal
plates and extending to the bottom of the jar. As the operation continues, the
colored zones increase at the bottom of the jar. After several hours of operation,
small flecks of aluminum hydroxide form on the aluminum cathode.

"The indicator changes color because the positively charged (electron-deficient)

hydrogen atoms are attracted to the copper anode, and the negatively charged
hydroxyl ions are attracted to the aluminum cathode. In the same manner, the
dissociated salts yield positive ions of sodium, magnesium, and calcium that are
attracted to the copper anodes while the anions of chlorine, carbonates, and
hydroxides are attracted to the aluminum cathode. As the solution of ions
increases near the plates they establish a gravitational convection flow in which
the denser fluid layers containing higher concentrations of salt ions settle to the
bottom of the jar, leaving the fluid zone between the electrode plates depleted of
dissolved salts, i.e., desalinated."

The construction of a practical EGD system requires certain constraints. For

instance, the gap between the aluminum and copper electrodes must be 1/4", with
only a narrow margin for variation. If the gap is too narrow, it short-circuits as
chains of aluminum hydroxide build up and bridge between the electrodes. If the
gap is too wide, the electrochemical potential is too low and insufficient to the
electrochemical reaction threshold. Also the water must enter the system within
the electrode zone, not below it, as indicated in Figure 2. The following is a
description of a preferred embodiment of the Aul EGD process:

"Four tubular copper anode containers were connected in such a manner as to

permit saline water to be introduced a distance from the bottom of one tube, then
permitted to flow out of the top of that tube into the next tube, where the inlet was
in the identical location of the first, and so on for all four tubes. The distance from
the bottom of the containers to the inlets was sufficient not to impede the
deposition of the precipitants nor cause the incoming water to be mixed with the

"Tubular aluminum cathode elements were then suspended into the tubular anode
containers. The cathodes were connected together by... an insulated wire. The
anodes were connected together by an insulated wire, and then connected to one
side of a meter calibrated to be read in milliamperes. The cathodes were
connected to an electrical resistance of 10 ohms. The electrical resistance was
connected to the other side of the ammeter.

"The axes of the copper anode containers and the aluminum cathodes were
coaxial and oriented perpendicular with the earth's surface. The total capacity of
the system was measured at 2.7 gallons of water. At the bottom of each container
a stopcock was provided for the removal of precipitants.

"Saline water was introduced and permitted to flow continually through the
system at a rate of 2.7 gal./day. the water was tested. The total dissolved and solid
saline materials were 36,000 ppm of water before the introduction into the
process, and only 370 ppm after ejection from the system, indicating about 99%
desalination. The precipitants were removed as a dense brine which measured
104,000 ppm of suspended solids for each 2.7 gallons processed."

After sea water containing about 15,000 ppm of dissolved or suspended solids has
passed through a series of about a dozen Aul EGD cells, its saline content has
been reduced to about 250 ppm. This is good drinking water. If the water is used
for agricultural purposes, a higher saline content is acceptable.

In 1965, Louis Shaffer, chief of the Reclamation Bureau's Division of Hydrology

at San Bernardino, tested an Aul EGD plant which processed water from the
Salton Sea to yield desalted water about equal in quality to kitchen tap water in
San Bernardino. Shaffer said:

"It's a revolutionary approach to the age-old problem of converting sea water to

fresh water in the arid regions of the world."

The Aul EGD process has become a dormant technology since the death of the
inventor. This elegant technology now awaits further development, and a thirsty
society awaits its implementation. Following herewith are Albert Aul's US Patent
# 3,474,014 and construction plans for EGD units with 1 gallon/day and 100 gpd
capacity. As stated at the beginning of this report, only the construction of a 1-gpd
unit can be recommended as a survival apparatus...


1. Aul, Albert H.: U.S Patent # 3,474,014 (Cl. 204-150), 21 October 1969;
"Electro-Gravitational Desalination of Saline Water"
2. Stuart, Fred E.: "Electronic Coagulation"; Public Works (April 1947), pp. 27-
3. Murphy, George W., & Batzer, David: "Apparatus for Studying Electro-
Gravitational Separations"; J. Electrochem Soc. (December 1952), pp. 520-526.
4. Luce, Capt. J.D.: U.S. Coast Guard Trip Report (12 January 1966):"Visit to
General Marine Technology Corp."
5. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Report (23 April1965/3 May 1965):"U.S. Salinity
Lab Water, Untreated & Desalinated Salton Sea Water, & Sea Water Comparison
with City of San Bernardino Water."
6. San Francisco Chronicle; 5 July,1965
7. Hoblscher, Prof. Erwin C.: "Analysis of Desalination Process Proposed by Mr.
Albert Aul"; Supplementary Report (17 January 1969).

Foreign Patents Issued to Albert Aul for EGD:

Australia # 435,486 (62,235/69), 10 May 1973.

Belgium # 740,506 (20 October 1969).
Canada #909,716 (12 September 1972).

France # 2,063,974 (69-35684), 17 October 1969).

Great Britain # 1,271,829 (20 October 1969).
Israel # 33,147 (28 September 1972).
Italy # 1,045,106 (10 May 1980).
Japan #792,258.
Sweden # 343,282 (15 June 1972).

Figure 1: ElectroGravitational Desalination ~


Figure 2: EGD Cell ~

U.S. Patent # 3,474,014

Electrogravitational Desalination of Water

U.S. Cl. 204-150 (Oct. 21, 1969)

Albert H. Aul


Electrogravitational method of desalination of salt water using two dissimilar

metal electrodes connected externally which form a galvanic couple creating
current flow through the system. Portions of salts that are attracted to the
electrodes establish concentrated areas of higher density that settle to the bottom
of container whereby the solution removed from the bottom is of a greater
concentration than the water thereabove.

This process removes the saline materials from saline water for the purpose of
making the water potable and useful for agriculture without ill effect.

The novelty of this invention is that it requires no application of energy from any
source external to the process; that it incorporates no critical or strategic materials
and that it is completely self-contained.

Existing desalination processes require the application of heat energy or electrical

energy from an independent source to make the process operational, whether for
direct separation of saline material from water by electrolytic means using applied
electricity, distillation of steam or evaporated water, operation of pumps and other
equipment necessary to such processes.

This invention produces its own electrical energy as well as making it possible to
recover more than 80% of the volume of saline water injected into the process, as
desalinated water.

Minerals such as aluminum and alloys of aluminum and other minerals react with
saline materials that are dissolved and suspended in saline water. These chemical
reactions cause the saline materials to combine with the minerals placed in the
water for that purpose. The chemical reactions cause a change in the energy levels
of various atoms in the reacting molecules.

When non-reacting minerals such as copper, alloys of copper or other minerals

are placed at a distance from the reacting minerals with an unobstructed quantity
of saline water between the reacting and non-reacting materials, an electrostatic
field is caused to exist.

The mineral in contact wit the saline water and reacting with the saline water is
called the cathode. The mineral in contact with the saline water and considered
non-reacting is termed the anode. When the cathode and anode are placed at a
distance from each other with an unobstructed quantity of saline water in contact
with the surface of each, and when an electrically conductive material is placed so
that it continually is in contact with both the cathode and anode, but not in contact
with the saline water, an electric current is caused to exist. The rate of chemical
reaction, production of electrical energy and rate of separation of the saline
materials and their removal from the saline water are proportional.

Saline water tested by this process was obtained from the Pacific Ocean having a
content of dissolved and suspended solids 44,000 milligrams per liter of water of
which 6400 milligrams of the same solids were CaCO3 (calcium carbonate).
After processing per this process, wherein the reaction was controlled to
accomplish a separation of saline materials of approximately 70% of the amount
contained in the saline water, analysis of the processed water showed that the total
of solid materials remaining dissolved and suspended in the water measured
10,660 milligrams solids per liter of water. Of these solids 1,530 milligrams were
calcium carbonate. The control was subsequently adjusted to cause more
separation and removal of saline materials; the resulting analyses showing the
processed water to contain 650 milligrams per liter of water of solid matter, of
which 320 milligrams were calcium carbonate.

The reacted materials do not adhere to the cathode but disengage as their density
increases and fall to the bottom of the vessel in which they are contained. Non-
reacting materials suspended in the water being processed become charged in the
electrical field between the cathode and anode. Each particle will then be
attracted to the next as their respective negative and positive poles come into
opposition. Ultimately the accumulated density exceeds their former buoyancy as
a result of the coalescence by attraction and these materials deposit at the bottom
of the vessel in which they are contained.

The electric current produced as a by-product of the desalination process

chemical reaction was measured to have an average value of 0.000022 ampere per
square inch of cathode surface in contact with the saline water being processed.
For each combination of cathode and anode the electromotive force as measured
to be 0.5 volt. The rate of separation and removal of saline materials from the
water, termed desalination, has been calculated. The calculations are based on the
amount of material separated and removed from the water, the observed change in
measurement of electric current and the amount of water processed. The rate of
desalination of one cubic inch of saline water in contact with the surfaces of one
cathode and one anode of one square inch area, where the cathode and anode are
in mutual contact with an electrically conductive material not in contact with the
water, is two minutes for water having a content of 650 parts of solid material in
suspension and solution per million parts of water after processing from an
original state wherein 44,000 parts of solid material in suspension and solution
per million parts of water were measured before processing.

By analysis 31,675 parts of cathode materials were reacted and removed from the
cathode for each million parts of water processed, where the processed water
contained 650 parts of solid material in suspension and solution for each million
parts of water.

The material separated and removed from the water by the desalination process
described herein, are removed from the bottom of the vessels in which they are
deposited, and made available for processing into chemical, metals, chemical
products, metal products, and all other uses to which they are applicable. Many of
the materials released by the chemical reactions of the process are released as
gases, such as hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine and others.

These gases partially combine in the water, small portions of chlorine gas
dissolving. Hydrogen and chlorine combine to form hydrochloric acid that in turn
reacts with calcium carbonate resulting in free hydrogen gas and precipitant
calcium chloride. The hydrogen gas expands out of the water to atmosphere.

The chlorine gas is released when the sodium chloride molecule is disrupted by
the electrochemical reactions of this process. As the chlorine atoms are
recombined as described in the foregoing so does the sodium atom combine with
the carbon atoms of the disrupted calcium carbonate molecule resulting in
precipitant sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide.

For a clearer understanding of the invention, specific examples of the invention,

specific examples of the invention are given below. These examples are merely
illustrative ad not to be understood as limiting the scope and underlying principles
of the invention.

Example I:

A tubular container of copper was constructed into which a cylindrical rod of

aluminum was suspended coaxially. The aluminum cathode was connected to the
copper anode with an electrical conductor.

The entire assembly was oriented with the axes of the cylindrical parts
perpendicular to the earths surface. Saline water was introduced into the anode
container. The saline water had a content of dissolved and solid saline matter of

35,00 parts per million of water.

The distance by which the surfaces in the container and the cathode rod were
separated was 0.75 inch. The water was permitted to remain in the container one
hour. After one hour the water was removed and tested. The remaining dissolved
and suspended solid material was measured at 28,900 parts per million of water.

Example II:

Four tubular copper anode containers were connected in such a manner as to

permit saline water to be introduced a distance from the bottom of one tube, then
permitted to flow out of the top of that tube into the next tube where the inlet was
in the identical location of the first, and so on for all four tubes. The distance from
the bottom of the containers to the inlets was sufficient not to impede the
deposition of the precipitant nor cause the incoming water to be mixed with the

Tubular aluminum cathode elements were then suspended into an anode

container. The cathodes were connected together by an electrically conductive
material. The anodes were connected together by an electrically conductive
material. The anodes were then connected to one side of a meter calibrated to be
read in millamperes. The cathodes were connected to an electrical resistance of
10 ohms. The electrical resistance was connected to the other side of the

The axes of the anode containers and the cathodes were coaxial and oriented to be
perpendicular with the earths surface. The total capacity of the system was
measured at 2.7 gallons of water. At the bottom of each container a means was
provided for the removal of precipitants.

Saline water was introduced and permitted to flow continually through the system
at a rate of 2.7 gallons per day. This produced 0.05 amperes of electrical current
at an electromotive force of 0.5 volts continually. The water was tested. The total
dissolved and suspended solid saline materials were 36,300 parts of water before
introduction into the process and 370 parts per million parts of water after
ejection from the process. The cathode reduction rate was calculated at 0.0013
ounces avoirdupois of aluminum lost for each 100 gallons of water desalinated.
The precipitants were removed as a dense brine that measured 104,000 parts per
million parts of water of suspended solids for each 2.7 gallons processed.

The present invention in its broader aspects is not limited to the specific minerals,
mechanizations and examples described, but also includes within the scope of the
accompanying claims any departures made from such minerals, mechanizations
and examples which do not sacrifice their chief advantages.

What is claimed is:

1. The process of desalination of salt water which comprises flowing such water
between spaced-apart, substantially vertically arranged dissimilar metal electrodes
in a cell-like means, the electrodes being connected by an electrical conductor
outwardly of the water, whereby an electric current flows between them,
attracting, by such flow of current, portions of the salts to each electrode, whereby
to cause an increase in density of water adjacent to each electrode, permitting

settlement downward from adjacent the electrodes to the bottom of cell-like

means, and removing from the bottom a brine of greater concentration than that of
the water thereabove.

2. The process as defined in claim 1 together with the subsequent steps of flowing
the upper portions of such water between electrodes of further cell-like means,
and repeating the remainder of the steps so set forth, whereby to effect
progressive desalination


566,324 (8/1896) Kendrick (Cl. 204-150)

2,451, 067 (10/1948) Butler (Cl. 204-248)
3,342,712 (9/1967) OKeef (Cl. 204-148)


U. S. PATENT No. 3,474,014


Electrogravitational Desalination of Saline Water (EGD), is a process designed for the

desalting of sea water to produce potable and agricultural water as a supplement to existing
water supplies, for application in sea coast communities.

The invention operates much the same as a storage battery except that there are a great
number of cells, and the electrolyte (sea water), continuously flows through the system. The
amount of residual salts left in the product water is controlled by the flow rate; the faster the
water flows the more is left in it, conversely the slower the water flows the more is removed,
however, for each design there is an optimum flow rate and a minimum flow rate. The
average minimum flow rate should never fall below one gallon per day for any system, but for
larger systems this figure is even too low. The rule of never permitting the system flow rate to
be less than 10% of the designed optimum flow rate in units over 10 gallons per day is best to

Although some ion exchange takes place in the system and is the source of the by-product
electrical power that is generated, most of the saline matter is removed by the
electrogravitational phenomenon. Between the rods (the cathodes) and the tubes (the anodes),
an electrical field comes into existence when tube and rod are connected together electrically
(outside of the electrolyte), with some kind of resistance load (light bulbs, or motors, etc.)
between. The electrolyte forms the other connection between the rod and tube. The
dissolved salts are, in fact, ions (atomic sized particles) with positive or negative charges,
attached to the water molecules. The electrical field in the EGO process causes these ions to
be detached from the water molecules and migrate to either the anode or cathode, depending
on the charge of the ion.

The ions accumulate at the surfaces of each (rod and tube), but only the Oxygen and
Hydrogen ions will react with the materials of which the rods and tubes are made, and in the
case of the designs contained in these instructions, only the rods are consumed over a long

period of time. The rest of the ions (the salt ions) accumulate at the rod and tube surfaces,
gradually being drawn downward by gravity until these reach the space below the rod (where
there is no electrical field), where these redissolve (the ions become reattached to the water
molecules), forming a dense brine. To this brine is added the hydroxides formed by the ion
exchanges (reactions) between rods and those ions we mentioned before. These hydroxides
are in the form of flakes and whitish in color. These flakes are only slightly more dense than
the water, and though most will fall to the bottom, some will stay suspended in the water and
usually filtered out before the product water is used. These hydroxides are harmless, being in
fact one of the two constituent materials used in treating digestive tract ailments in products
bearing trade names of Maalox, Di-Gel, etc. The main ingredients of these products are
aluminum and magnesium hydroxides, of which ours is aluminum hydroxide.

Other beneficial side effects of EGD operation include the release of chlorine ions, which
expand out of the water as a gas (rising to and out of the water's upper surface), some, of
course, is carried down with the other materials. The gaseous chlorine destroys harmful
organisms. All but trace amounts of chlorine are usually removed from the product water by
aerating before storage, as it comes from the output filter.


These instructions contain basic information for the construction of two different units; a unit
that will produce 100 gallons per 24 hour day of water containing 400 parts per million total
dissolved solids, from saline ocean water containing 30,000 parts per million total dissolved
solids from which suspended matter has been removed by filtration to ten microns, and a one
gallon per 24 hour day unit producing water of the same quality as that specified for the 100
gallon per day unit from the same source .

The designs have been developed to permit the builder to obtain materials that are
commercially available from hardware stores, plumbing supply centers, lumber supply
centers and retail metal products suppliers. Significant latitude has been allowed to facilitate
substitutions as well as permitting the builder to fully decide on certain materials as well as
size of materials and parts. Where strict limitation was necessary in material selection, and
dimensions they are clearly identified. The designs have been developed from fully tested and
demonstrated laboratory devices.

Construction of tube assemblies for both types of units only differs in size. Rod assemblies
for the two differ in construction due to the very small diameter of the one gpd unit's rods.
The one gallon unit is intended to be an emergency device only, the design does not lend
itself well to prolonged use as it is a hand filled unit, and when not in use must be
disassembled completely, and all parts thoroughly dried (after removing all traces of saline
water by rinsing in fresh water). The following instructions give more on the subject of
storage .


100 gpd:

Figure I illustrates a vertical side view with partial cut-away to show cell (tube and rod,
assembled), position and identify certain components as well as construction fundamentals.
The solenoid shown is for lifting the perforated plate that pushes the valves open momentarily
to dump the waste brine. The dumping need only be done once each day, and for no more
than a half second of time. A hydraulic cylinder may be used instead, but this requires a
motorized pump. The cylinder may be preferable over the solenoid in order to get the force

needed to raise the valves against nearly 800 lbs. of water weight, but this is a decision the
builder must make based on equipment availability. The schedule for Figure I is on the page

Figure II gives the recommended construction dimensions for the housing. Items 9 and 14 on
Figure I need not be mounted to their support angles, but can be laid on them. The lid should
be locked into position only to prevent shifting and dislocation that would adversely affect
rod/tube alignment and electrical connections. The method of locking is optional. Inlet and
outlet pipes are not shown or specified on the housing. The builder has the option as to which
way these should project from the unit (whether out the ends or the sides), keeping in mind
that the inlet of water to the tubes is at the bottom and the outlet at the top.

Figure IIA shows the location of two sets of holes that correspond to the mounting positions
of the rods, and the tabs for making the electrical connections to the tubes. The .201" diam.
holes are for mounting of the rods to the lids as well as making the electrical connections to
the rods. The .250" diam. holes are for passing the wires from the tube electrical connection
tabs out onto the lid top where the connections can be made. The frame for the valve plate lift
ropes and lifting mechanism support is also shown on Figure IIA . Standard fiberglass sheets
come in a maximum size of 4' x 8'. These can be cemented together with a wide strip of the
same material to obtain the larger dimensions recommended in these instructions, using
epoxy cement (2 part is recommended).

Figure III and its associated schedule illustrate the assembly of the tubes for the system. The
recommended spacing center to center of each tube in both directions is 2-1/2" (from
centerline of a tube to the centerline of its neighbor tubes). The inlet and outlet direction is
shown for illustration purposes only, and as stated are optional.

Figure IV and its associated schedule illustrate tube constructions. All the materials
recommended are those in use for transfer of potable water (drinking and cooking water). It is
recommended that the builder use only those materials, and not materials that might be

Figure V illustrates rods for both 100 gpd and one gpd units. Details VI - X should be
carefully examined. Detail VI and Detail VIII should be drilled in line with the .201" diam.
holes in Figure IIA, which in turn must align with the tube array.

Detail VIII supports the tube array and is drilled to permit the valve stems to hang down.
Detail VI maintains tube alignment and separation at the top of the tubes, while allowing the
tabs to clear.

Detail IX calls out perforated plastic sheet, but expanded metal sheet that has been
completely coated with a well bonded coating without obstructing the perforations so that the
waste water may pass through, may be preferred. The plate must lift the valve stems against
approximately 800 lbs. of water weight, without permanently deforming.

Figure XI illustrates the electrical connections recommended; 1) connections are series

connections that add the voltage of each cell so connected to the next, and 2) connections are
parallel connections that add the current values of the cells so connected. Per the
recommended connections shown, an average total of 997 Watts will be available. This
power is ample for operating a water pump motor 1/4 hp to 1/3 hp), for filling the unit, at a
constant rate. If it is preferred by the builder that the power be first converted from the DC
produced to AC, it must be kept in mind that some power loss will result in such conversion.
It is recommended that the builder employ a power panel containing a wattmeter and

switching so that power stability can be monitored. Power drop-off is directly related to
reduction in desalting activity, and is usually due to the rods having become coated with
hydroxides. This condition can be corrected without shutting the unit down, by employing a
hand held ultrasonic generator, and touching each tube for a few minutes to "shake-off" the
hydroxide materials. Care must be taken not to cause an electrical short or to be subjected to
electrical shock during this process. It is recommended that the ultrasonic device be fully
electrically insulated. The rods can be vibrated through their mounting screws.

One gpd:

Figure XII illustrates the recommended container for a one gallon emergency use device.
Figure XII and its associated schedule are considered clear enough to permit construction of
such a device, employing the other applicable parts of this instruction (Figures IV, V, XI and
their associated schedules), and the general recommendations given herein.

Figure XII - Item 10 is the top plate of the base box. This plate supports the rods and is
where the electrical connections should be made. The electrical leads can be connected to a
"jack" type socket on the side of the housing (base box), from which a number of items can be
operated if fitted with mating plugs. Some of the possible devices are: an emergency
transceiver radio, light, emergency radio transmitter beeper. The device will produce an
average 0.98 Watts, ample in a number of the devices mentioned. As shown on Figure XII,
the lid assembly is also the filling reservoir. Again, as in the 100 gpd unit, the builder has the
option of the outlet location, as well as the inlet to the first cell. The outlet should have a
valve so that the flow can be controlled, but when flow is controlled at the outlet, extra care
must be taken to prevent overflow of the tubes from filling with more water than is being
allowed to pass out. Corrosion and electrical shorts can result that would seriously effect the
desalting capability of the device.


If a unit is stopped for any reason, it must be drained of all saline water, the electrical circuit
opened (switched off), the cell components thoroughly rinsed and dried (fresh water rinse). If
the units are to be stored after having been used, stopped and dried, the rods should be
removed from the cells and stored separately. Some corrosion of the tubes may occur in
storage, or a patina may form in them. Providing that such storage is not for an exceptionally
long period that might seriously damage the tubes, the unit can usually be put back into
operation very quickly by filling the tubes with any of the liquid copper cleaners generally
available to remove the corrosion products .The cleaner must be thoroughly rinsed out of the
system before using the system again. The rods should be cleaned to remove all oxides and
expose bare metal. Electrical connection points should be carefully inspected and corroded
parts cleaned or replaced .

The desalting unit should be filled with filtered sea water taken from far enough offshore to
minimize the pollutant content. The finer the filtration, the lower the risk of potential
troubles. Petroleum contaminants for instance, can cause very frustrating contamination that
will obviously stop the process from operating effectively.

These units should be operated in as motion free an environment as possible. Agitation of the
water in the tubes will cause mixing which totally defeats the process function. Too high a
flow rate will cause turbulence that results in the same problem. The one gallon unit can be
used in life boats as long as there is relative calm, or as long as internal "sloshing" can be

The waste brine tank in the bottom of both units must be fitted with a means for removing the
brine periodically. To monitor the level, a clear plastic window can be cemented into the
housing wall, and a manually operated drain valve installed. The brine can be evaporation
dried and its salt content recovered .

SCHEDULE FOR FIGURE I [ # Required / gpd]

1) 108" x 78" fiberglass sheet (3/16" to " thick) [1 / 100 ]

2) Figure IV tube assembly [ 660 / 100 ]
Figure IV tube assembly [ 48 / 1]
3) Figure V rod [ 660 / 100 ]
Figure V rod [ 48 / 1 ]
4) #8-32 x 1" round hd. machine screws [ 660 / 100 ]
#5-40 non-conductive, non-corrosive hex. nuts [ 192 / 1 ]
5) Detail IX (can use fully epoxy coated expanded metal) [ 1 / 100 ]
6) 1/4""std. thd. eye bolts w/nuts [ 4 / 100 ]
7) 1/4" marine quality nylon rope [ approx.600 ft. / 100 ]
""""" [ 15 ft. / 1 ]
8) DC (or optional AC) 1" stroke vert.mnt. solenoid. [ 1 / 100 ]
(must lift min. 1000 lbs .)
9) Detail VI fiberglass sheet (3/16" to 3/16" min. thick) [ 1 / 100 ]
10) 3" x 6" x 1/4" aluminum angle (paint with epoxy) [ 48 ft. / 100 ]
11) 2" x 2" x 1/4" aluminum angle (paint with epoxy) [ 144 ft. / 100 ]
12) 3" x 3" x 1/4" aluminum angle (paint with epoxy) [ 28 ft. / 100 ]
13) 104" x 84" fiberglass sheet (3/16" min. Thick) [ 2 / 100 ]
84" x 74" " " " " " [ 2 / 100 ]
14) Detail VIII fiberglass sheet (3/16" to 1/2" thick) [ 1 / 100 ]
15) Detail VII 1/2" P\/C or ABS pipe, and elbows (cementable) [ as req. / 100 ]
16) 72" x 102" fiberglass sheet (min.3/8" thick, double-up 3/16"
cementing pieces together at edges to prevent leaks) [ 1 / 100 ]
17) 3" x 6" x 1/4", aluminum angle (paint with epoxy) [ 13 ft. / 100 ]
18) 1/4" - 20 x 4" bolt with min. g' thread length [ 4 / 100 ]
19) 1/4" - 20 hex. nut for above bolts, with lock washers [ 4 / 100 ]
20) 2" spacers (cut from tubing, or drill cut round -Alum.) [ 4 / 100 ]
21) 1/4" aluminum plate 6" x 32" [ 1 / 100 ]
22) Detail X; 1/4" -20 x 36" threaded round [ 2 / 100 ]
23) Detail X; 1/4" -20 hex. nuts & lockwashers [ 4 / 100 ]
24) Detail X; 1/2" O.D. (min. 3/8" I.D.) tubing, 30-1/2" lg. [ 2 / 100 ]


For 100 gpd unit:

A ~ 30 rows of cells interconnected as shown

B ~ 23 cells per row, with transition connections made per Detail VII
C ~ Salt water inlet into bottom of first cell
D ~ Desalted water outlet from top of last cell
E ~ Cell inlet
F ~ Cell outlet

NOTE: Connect first cell and next cell outlets to adjacent cell inlets for 659 cells (last cell's
outlet is outlet D).

For 1 gpd Unit:

A ~ 8 rows of cells interconnected as shown

B ~ 6 cells per row, with transition connections per Detail VII
D ) Same as above (100 gpd schedule)

NOTE: connect first cell and next cell outlets to adjacent cell inlets for 48 cells (last cell's
outlet is outlet D).


1) Plastic pipe "T" (PVC orABS), cementable, modify for achieving dimension-A, if
for 100 gpd -- 1" x 1/2" 1320 required
for 1 gpd = 3/4" x 1/" 96 req.

2) Plastic pipe: for 100 gpd = 1/2" dia. (PVC/ABS) 360 ft. req.
for 1 gpd = 1/4"dia. (PVC/ABS) 40 ft. req.

3) Plastic pipe' el' (PVC/ABS), cementable, modify for achieving dimension -A, if necessary:
for 100 gpd = 1/2" 1320 req.
for 1 gpd = 1/4" 96 req.

4) Copper tubing:
for 100 gpd = 1" diam x 0.03 wall x 64" lg.(3520 ft.) 660 req.
for 1 gpd -- 3/4" dia. x .06 wall x 18" lg. (72 ft) 48 req.

5) Plastic pipe:
for 100 gpd -- 1" dia. (PVC/ABS) x 2" lg. (110 ft.) 660 req.
for 1 gpd = 3/4" dia. (PVC/ABS) x2" lg. * ft.) 48 req.

6) Plastic (PVC/ABS) closure caps drill thu to fit 7:

for 100 gpd -- 1" cementable 660 req.
for 1 gpd --- 3/4" cementable 48 req.

7) Standard faucet washer:

for 100 gpd -- 660 req.
for 1 gpd -- 48 req.
Note: Must seat and seal hole in 6 without binding, but leak free

7) 2" long bolt selected to fit hole in faucet washer:

for 100 gpd -- 660 req.
for 1 gpd --- 48 req.

8) 2" long bolt selected to fit hole in washer:

100 gpd -- 660 req.
1 gpd -- 48 req.

9) Hex nuts to fit bolt 8:

100 gpd -- 1320 req.
1 gpd -- 48 req.

10) #6 self-tapping screw, 3/8" long:

100 gpd -- 660 req.
1 gpd -- 48 req.

11) 3/16" wide x 1" lg. X .03 max thick, screw mounting electrical wiring link:
100 gpd -- 660 req.
1 gpd -- 48 req.

Dimension A: for 100 gpd = 2-1/2" ; for 1 gpd = 2"

Dimension B: for 100 gpd = 1-1/2" max.; for 1 gpd = 1-1/2" max.

Dimension C: for 100 gpd = 2"; for 1 gpd = 2"

Dimension D: for 100 gpd = 3/4"; for 1 gpd = 3/4"

Dimension E: for 100 gpd = 1/2" dia.; for 1 gpd = 1/4" dia.


1) 3" x 3" aluminum angle x " thick (epoxy paint), 22 ft. req.; make frame so that fiberglass
sheet attach inside

2) Lid: top & bottom of lid must be assembled and sealed to lid frame as a box, and so
assembled that the fill pipe just enters the gap between the rod and the tube without binding
or causing spillage. Lid "box" is salt water reservoir for and filling thru 6" diam. hole.

3) Bottom support plate, 1/8" min. fiberglass sheet, 1 req.

4) Fiberglass sheet for sides, bottom and lid: approx. 25 sq. fr., 1/8" min. thickness

5) 1" x 1" x 1/8" aluminum angle, 30 ft. required: when preparing assembly with items 3 & 9
& 10, arrange so that disassembly can be achieved with ease (screw mount support ledges
only. Short pieces on which these plates can be laid then screwed in place.).

6) Seal this 19" x 15" x 1/8" thick min. fiberglass sheet to box as reservoir for waste brine. A
drain pipe must be added, with a valve out of box side, to permit waste brine removal.

7) [Missing in plans]

8) Epoxy coated expanded metal sheet for valve lift, 1 req.

9) Tube holding plate, 1 req, 1/8" fiberglass sheet.

10) Rod holding plate, 1 req., 1/8" fiberglass sheet.


Figure I: Elevation, 100 gpd assembly ~


Figure II: Elevations, 100 gpd unit housing ~

Figure IIA: Top View, 100 gpd housing ~


Figure III: Tube array plan & tube connection data ~


Figure IV: Tube assembly construction ~


Figure V: Rod assemblies construction ~


Details VI: Figure X:


Figure XI: Electrical Connections ~


Figure XII: Housing for 1 gpd unit ~

Top ~ Home

Dossier de il giornale della natura, a cura di Luisa Motta e Paolo Vaccaro

In questo dossier troverete:

La casa e la salute
Analisi del luogo
Materiali sani per ledilizia
Finiture delle superfici interne con prodotti naturali
Unabitazione sana e personale
Stanza per stanza
Quali regole

Gli ambienti
La cucina naturale
Quali mobili?
I fornelli
La camera da letto sana
Buon riposo!
Silenzio e Sobriet
Quale letto?
Reti e materassi
E sopra tutto...
Il Bagno
Non solo per lavarsi

Ambienti esterni
Ambienti esterni, ma vitali!
Quattro suggerimenti per il balcone e il terrazzo
E quattro suggerimenti per il giardino
Piante in terrazzo e sul balcone
Il giardino al naturale
Fare largo uso di essenze autoctone
Disporre le piante come in natura
Potare e falciare il meno possibile:
Creare uno specchio dacqua
Installare nidi artificiali e mangiatoie per gli uccelli
Non usare prodotti chimici
Consigli utili

Ambienti di lavoro:
Un ufficio al naturale
La carta
Penne, evidenziatori, correttori...
Il computer

Architettura e colore
La scomparsa del colore
Gli antichi significati dei colori

I materiali
Ma dove trovo i mattoni ecologici?
In Italia la bioarchitettura in ritardo...
... eppure qualcosa si muove
Questo legno, diffidate dalle imitazioni
Il legno giusto
Il massello
I materiali per i mobili

Gli elettrodomestici
Consigli per luso
Consigli per luso
Fornelli e forno
Consigli per luso della cucina elettrica
Boiler e acqua calda
Consigli per luso del boiler elettrico
Piccoli elettrodomosetici
Come si risparmia energia in casa
Diciannove regole per il risparmio ecologico

Gli impianti
Stufe & termosifonie bioedilizia
Lenergia solare
I combustibili per limpianto di riscaldamento
Conduzione, convezione e irraggiamento
Il clima di un edificio
Aria, luce, gas: la casa pulita
Gli effetti sulla salute
Principi generali
Il mercato e i costi
Fra quattro calde pareti
La casa a dimensione duomo
Limpianto termico bioecologico
Riscaldamento bioecocompatibile
Impianto elettrico bioecocompatibile
Premessa sulle scelte energetiche
Tendenza corrente
Indicazioni di carattere generale sugli impianti elettrici domestici

Gli effetti nocivi di geopatie ed elettrosmog:possiamo difenderci senza cambiare casa
Lesperienza del domoterapeuta

La casa e la salute

La Bioarchitettura si pu definire come una disciplina che si prende cura di progettare tenendo conto di
un sottile equilibrio esistente tra la natura, luomo e lambiente.

I criteri delle bioarchitettura si ispirano alla necessit di costruire abitazioni in cui luomo possa vivere
sano, psicologicamente sereno in armonia con lambiente. La casa dovrebbe essere come un elemento
organico, un guscio che ci protegge e ci ripara, vive e respira con noi. La struttura deve essere realizzata
con materiali biocompatibili, non inquinanti, privi di sostanze tossiche. Aria e acqua devono essere
igienicamente sicure. La luce solare deve penetrare nellambiente domestico il pi possibile, onde evitare
al massimo luso di quella artificiale. I colori impiegati nelle nostre case devono armonizzare con i nostri
stati danimo, essere cio, rilassanti, avvincenti, luminosi, mai aggressivi.
La nostra casa deve riflettere la nostra personalit, accogliere i nostri interessi, raccontare la storia della
nostra vita, la nostra evoluzione spirituale e soprattutto il luogo sicuro dove ritrovare e custodire i nostri
affetti. Troppo spesso larchitettura moderna frutto di tendenze che trascurano le esigenze
psicologiche di ciascun individuo. Le cose progettate negli ultimi decenni sono spesso standardizzate,
progettate con forme troppo squadrate, sicuramente pi curate nei servizi, ma concepite in modo poco
organico, cio lo spazio, la distribuzione dei locali quasi sempre statica, definitiva, non lascia spazio a
eventuali cambiamenti per le esigenze di chi vi abita. Troppo spesso si presentano abitazioni asettiche,
funzionali, ma terribilmente incolori.
Nello spazio Casa Sana presenteremo una serie di prodotti con esempi di applicazioni di materiali
Particolare attenzione porremo su questi tre argomenti:
1) Analisi del luogo - Rapporto tra il luogo dellabitazione (inteso come sito) e salute
2) Materiali sani per la bioedilizia
3) Finitura delle superfici interne con prodotti naturali

Analisi del luogo

La scienza che si occupa dellanalisi del luogo destinato ad unabitazione si chiama geobiologia, ha
origini antichissime e studia le influenze delle radiazioni terrestri sugli esseri viventi.
importante prima di edificare unabitazione, uno spazio di lavoro per comunit e cos via, realizzare un
rilievo geobiologico onde verificare lintensit del campo radioattivo naturale.
indispensabile valutare se nel sottosuolo sono presenti oltre a campi magnetici reticolari, correnti
dacqua, faglie, crepe geologiche, in quanto questi fattori creano situazioni geobiologicamente perturbate
che possono essere causa di disagi e malanni per luomo. Tutto questo fu opera di studio del Dr. E.
Hartmann a partire dal 1976, che evidenzi la relazione tra malattie e luogo e di M. Currj.
Questi due ricercatori hanno elaborato una teoria secondo cui i flussi elettromagnetici del terreno
scorrono come una griglia, o un reticolo sulla superficie terrestre, quando i punti si intersecano si hanno
situazioni ad alto rischio per la salute.
Per questo motivo si consiglia, ad esempio, nelle camere da letto di spostare il letto se si trova in un
punto di incroci della rete tellurica.
I rilevamenti geobiologici nei tempi passati erano affidati al rabdomante che con la sua bacchetta testava
il terreno e solo se il responso era positivo si procedeva alla costruzione della casa. Oggigiorno abbiamo a
disposizione nuovi strumenti tra cui il geomagnatometro.
Un altro tipo di inquinamento invisibile dato dalle radiazioni elettromagnetiche, occorre quindi porre
lattenzione che labitazione sia sufficientemente lontana da linee elettriche di alta tensione, ripetitori
radar e cos via.
Materiali sani per ledilizia
un luogo comune pensare per chi vive in una citt che allesterno delle proprie abitazioni ci siano
pericolose fonti di inquinamento, ma troppo spesso si ignora che proprio nelle nostre case ci sono
altrettante sostanze dannose alla nostra salute.
Molte abitazioni costruite con avanzati mezzi tecnologici sono paragonabili a scatole chiuse senza

contatto con lesterno, quindi malsane per conseguenti ristagni di sostanze tossiche derivanti da materiali
plastici, pavimenti, vernici, isolamenti e collanti sintetici.
Il tutto sigillato da serramenti ermetici che non permettono alcuno sfogo esterno e producono alti livelli
di concentrazione di esalazioni dannose, responsabili di vari disturbi e malattie delluomo.
I criteri di valutazione dei materiali di costruzione dovrebbero essere in primo luogo attenti allaspetto
sanitario. Un materiale da costruzione vive a contatto con luomo e come il suo abbigliamento deve
essere confortevole in tutte le stagioni. Per essere considerato un buon materiale deve essere composto
senza sostanze nocive, deve possedere buone capacit traspiranti, onde evitare fenomeni di
surriscaldamento in estate e rapido raffreddamento in inverno.
Tra le sostanze pi pericolose per le nostre abitazioni ricordiamo: formaldeide: pannelli di fibra,
truciolare e compensato; radon: in alcuni materiali per ledilizia realizzati con scarti da altoforno;
materiali isolanti: isolamenti di schiuma formaldeide ureica; amianto: intorno a tubi, caldaie, camere di
combustione, tegole, piastrelle, pannelli antincendio; trattamento tossico del legno: legname dei tetti e

Finiture delle superfici interne con prodotti naturali

I prodotti per costruzioni naturali, come i colori, le cere, gli oli, le sostanze per il fissaggio dei legni e gli
impregnanti creano una atmosfera gradevole e sana.
bene che nella scelta di un prodotto per la finitura delle superfici interne tenere presente che siano
prodotte con materia prime naturali, sia che si tratti di una pittura murale, smalto o altro
Queste sostanze sono familiari alluomo da decine di migliaia di anni, le materia prime della chimica
moderna non possono vantare tali esperienze. consigliabile in fase di acquisto verificare sulla
confezione la dichiarazione completa delle sostanze utilizzate per il confezionamento del prodotto.
Esiste in commercio unintera gamma di prodotti in grado di fornire una risposta naturale a qualsiasi tipo
di problema di finitura: impregnanti, vernici, lacche trasparenti e coprenti, pittura per pareti, prodotti
detergenti e per la manutenzione della casa.
Oggigiorno ci sono sempre pi persone che considerano pi importante la natura e un clima abitativo
sano e accogliente, un ambiente non inquinato che non la facilita di manutenzione, la sterilit e la
resistenza delle superfici ai graffi.
Molte vernici e pitture contengono piombo che nocivo alla salute, tradizionalmente usato come
essiccante, anche se attualmente il suo impiego stato sensibilmente ridotto non stato del tutto bandito.
I mordenti sintetici contengono 40/50% di solventi mentre i tipi alla nitrocellulosa arrivano al 70%.
Avere quindi molta cura nella scelta di pitture e vernici, sempre e in ogni caso acquistare prodotti che
portano indicano tutti i componenti nel dettaglio.
Nello spazio dedicato al tema Casa Sana saranno quindi principalmente sviluppati questi tre argomenti,
saranno esposti con dettagliata descrizione i prodotti pi idonei alla costruzione o ristrutturazione di una
casa ecologica.
A sostegno di tali argomenti saranno tenute tre conferenze:
Analisi del luogo (inquinamento geobiologico, inquinamento elettromagnetico, indagini e rimedi; Dott.
Paolo Nardelli, geologo)
Materiali sani per ledilizia (R. Holzer/Loris Fantini consulenti bioedili)
I fattori ambientali possono influenzare la vita dei nostri sensi in modo positivo? (Ale Hasselink,
terapeuta artistico)
Inoltre sar allestito un piccolo laboratorio che dimostrer lapplicazione e lutilizzo dei colori e degli
intonaci naturali.

(Il Giornale della Natura n.96 settembre 1996)


Unabitazione sana e personale

Bioarchitettura qualcosa di pi di una semplice revisione o di una progettazione salutistica della casa.
realizzare ambienti giusti per il corpo e per lo spirito

Il luogo dove si cerca rifugio, dove ci si ricarica, dove si sta insieme a chi si ama o dove si cerca un
momento di solitudine. Questo e molto altro ancora la casa. Perci necessario che sia in sintonia con
chi la abita e con lambiente.
Come per lalimentazione, non ci basta pi che un cibo, o la nostra casa, siano esenti da sostanze nocive
o da elementi inquinanti; importante che ci sia qualcosa in pi, lelemento vitale, che nel cibo la sua
maggiore potenzialit nutritiva e la sua ricchezza superiore, nella casa lespressione sottile e
onnipresente della personalit di chi la abita.
In pratica, il momento di riunire tecnica e arte.
Realizzare unabitazione sana e in sintonia con noi stessi pi semplice se la casa deve ancora essere
costruita, ma si pu fare molto anche in un appartamento pi o meno vecchio.
In questottica, il bioarchitetto colui che indica le malattie della struttura e le cure pi adatte, e poi
ascolta, studia e interpreta colui o coloro che abiteranno la casa per aiutarli a materializzare nei vari
ambienti il loro modo di essere.
Ciascuno di noi, quindi, deve risvegliare il proprio istinto, riaprire il proprio libro dei sogni, ritrovare il
coraggio di guardarsi riflesso nei mobili, nei quadri, nelle piante, in tutto ci che si trova nella casa.
Larchitetto, invece, dovr scoprire la capacit di ascoltare e di trasformarsi in un suggeritore,
rinunciando spesso alle soluzioni deffetto, che sono le sue immagini, per lasciare posto allimmagine del
suo cliente.
La casa deve risultare accogliente per ciascuno dei suoi abitanti; quindi bisogna ricordarsi dei bambini,
che hanno esigenze specifiche e che spesso non sanno esprimerle e, perch no, di animali e piante.

Stanza per stanza

Ogni ambiente avr le sue qualit e le sue esigenze specifiche.
La camera da letto deve essere il luogo del riposo, e quindi sar libera da elementi, colori, attrezzi che
possano stimolare e quindi alterare questa sua funzione. Le altre attivit che non siano il dormire avranno
altri luoghi per essere realizzate.
Importantissima la cura del letto, dai materiali alla posizione, fino ai suoi abiti: materassi, cuscini,
lenzuola e coperte.
Cos, sar nel soggiorno che ci incontreremo e che svolgeremo le attivit che pi ci interessano. Questo
deve essere un luogo studiato per essere adatto allincontro, ma anche al relax e alla solitudine.
Poi la cucina, il luogo del fuoco, dove si preparano i cibi che sono il sostentamento del nostro corpo. Qui,
ovvio, particolare attenzione va data alla salubrit e alla praticit duso dellambiente, del suo arredo,
dei vari impianti e di tutti quei piccoli attrezzi che sono di uso talmente comune che spesso ci
dimentichiamo di osservarne le caratteristiche.
Lacqua regina nel bagno, altro luogo di relax, oltre che di pulizia.
E infine la terra, che d la vita alle piante di casa, del balcone e, se ci sono, del giardino e dellorto.
Anche qui si pu progettare qualcosa di pi vivo, di pi intimamente nostro, se prestiamo attenzione e
seguiamo un po listinto.

Quali regole
Pochi punti fermi ci devono guidare nella realizzazione o nella ristrutturazione della casa: leliminazione
(dove possibile) di ci che pu essere nocivo alla salute, nostra e dellambiente, luso di sostanze naturali
per pavimenti, mobili e pitture, labbandono dei criteri del consumismo e della moda a favore di quelli
della sobriet e del proprio gusto.
A questo punto, non si pu dire come sar il volto della biocasa: se avr solo linee rette o angoli smussati,
se sar ricca di colori vivaci o se avr poche tinte tenui...
A ciascuno spetta la scelta, in sintonia col proprio gusto e con le proprie reazioni di fronte agli oggetti,
alle forme, ai colori.
Il risultato finale sar una sorta di specchio che ci ritragga al meglio.

Per guidare ciascuno di noi in questo affascinante lavoro sulla propria casa, abbiamo preparato un dossier
che intreccia spunti introspettivi e simbolici con indicazioni pratiche e tecniche di lavori da realizzare.
Un dossier composto da una parte antologica, che raccoglie una parte del lavoro di tutti questi anni del
Giornale della natura e del suo interesse per la bioarchitettura, e da una parte originale, di aggiornamento
e di completamento degli articoli gi usciti. Cos larchitetto Giancarlo Allen, che da sempre cura per noi
questi temi, insieme ai suoi colleghi, ha raccolto, rivisto e realizzato una visita guidata alla biocasa,
stanza per stanza, ambiente per ambiente.

(Paola Di Pietro,Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.21 dicembre 1993 )


Gli ambienti

La cucina naturale
La cucina la fabbrica della casa, un luogo di produzione in cui avviene il processo di trasformazione
del cibo che serve a rinnovare le energie di chi vi abita. In quanto luogo di produzione, la cucina
contemporanea diventata il luogo a pi alta tecnologia, e insieme a pi alto inquinamento, della casa.
Elettrodomestici di ogni genere e per gli usi pi disparati, inseriti in mobili specializzatissimi e spesso
molto costosi, che trasmettono unimmagine asettica, ordinata, igienistica, ma che celano insidie spesso
insospettabili, legate ai materiali quasi sempre sintetici con cui sono prodotti.

La peggiore qualit dellaria di tutta la casa si concentra in cucina, per effetto delle esalazioni di fornelli e
caldaie e dei prodotti per la pulizia. Il pi alto consumo di energia e acqua avviene in cucina. La pi alta
produzione di rifiuti avviene ancora in cucina.
Allinterno della casa, la cucina dovrebbe essere invece il luogo pi colorato e profumato, pi vivace e
stimolante, perch in esso possa avvenire ogni giorno il rito della trasformazione di acqua, farina,
verdure, uova, aromi in cibo, in prodotti sani ma anche gustosi e stimolanti. In una cucina non si deve
respirare lodore del detersivo o del disinfettante, ma il profumo del pane, laroma di salvia, origano,
rosmarino, alloro. Le superfici non devono essere quelle lisce, ospedaliere e incolori dei laminati plastici
alla formaldeide o di certi marmi tombali, ma devono comunicare vita ed energia.
Nella casa ecologica, quindi, bando a tutto ci che tende a trasformare la cucina in un laboratorio
tecnicamente strutturato, basato sulla logica dellartificializzazione e della velocizzazione del processo di
produzione del cibo. Bando ai precotti, ai surgelati, ai conservanti, bando agli elettrodomestici superflui,
con particolare riguardo a surgelatori e forni a microonde. In cucina devono entrare le materie prime che
la natura ci mette a disposizione seguendo il ritmo delle stagioni, fresche o conservate per breve tempo in
frigorifero. Queste materie prime devono essere lavorate con il ritmo e lenergia delle mani e non scon
volte con le velocit vorticose e la violenza degli elettrodomestici.
La cucina il cuore fisico della casa. Oltre alla preparazione dei cibi, in cucina si riuniscono spesso molte
altre attivit legate alla conduzione della casa. La cucina, in quanto cuore, un luogo essenzialmente
femminile; le sue mura devono favorire le abilit, linventiva, la creativit, lo spirito organizzativo, il
senso buono del risparmio peculiari delle donne. Queste qualit, non necessariamente riservate alla
donna, angelo del focolare secondo stereotipi superati, tornano a essere indispensabili allinterno di un
modello di vita pi sano, consapevole e responsabile nei confronti della nostra salute e di quella

Quali mobili?
Nella cucina naturale i mobili potranno essere in legno massiccio o in muratura, il trattamento delle
superfici sar a base di prodotti vegetali per verniciare, cerare, rivestire. I piani di lavoro dovranno essere
ampi e differenziati, in legno per tagliare, in marmo per impastare, in ceramica o acciaio per lavare.
Dovr essere previsto, nelle immediate vicinanze, un luogo fresco e areato per immagazzinare i cibi. In
caso di spazi ridotti, la dispensa potr essere realizzata in contenitori in legno non trattato, ben ventilati.
Si dovr tendere il pi possibile a chiudere il cerchio del ciclo produttivo del cibo. Lideale sarebbe
poter disporre di un piccolo angolo di giardino o di un terrazzo per realizzare un orto che ci consenta di
avere alimenti freschi nelle stagioni giuste, ma anche di poter riciclare, per la concimazione, tutti i residui
organici prodotti in cucina. A questo proposito sarebbe utile disporre di contenitori diversi per la
separazione dei rifiuti.

I fornelli
Fondamentale la presenza del fuoco e dellacqua, che non devono essere sacrificati in piccoli spazi ma
collocati in modo da consentire un lavoro comodo e agevole. Grandi fornelli (ideali quelli industriali) che
possano accogliere pi pentole nello stesso momento, senza costringerci a inutili equilibrismi. Grandi
bacini per lacqua, dove poter lavare e risciacquare le verdure comodamente.
Indispensabile una buona cappa aspirante che espella allesterno i prodotti della combustione dei fuochi e

gli odori troppo forti. sconsigliabile, invece, stivare in cucina i prodotti per la pulizia, che peraltro
dovrebbero essere ridotti al minimo ed essere il pi possibile naturali. Anche in spazi ristretti si pu
realizzare un piccolo forno a legna per la cottura del pane, e un piccolo braciere per la cottura alla piastra
o alla griglia. La presenza del fuoco vivo della legna e la possibilit, anche se solo una volta alla
settimana, di ripetere il rito della preparazione del pane, ridanno alla nostra vita sensazioni e ritmi pi
giusti e pi umani. La cucina naturale, sulla base di ci che si detto fin qui, non pu essere relegata in
ambienti di fortuna, ma le deve essere garantito tutto lo spazio necessario. La cucina naturale deve
riprendere le sue dimensioni tradizionali, tornare a essere perno della casa. Quando lo spazio limitato,
come succede nella maggior parte delle abitazioni, meglio che ci sia un unico grande ambiente per
cucina, pranzo e soggiorno che tante piccole stanze separate.
Questo consentir che le diverse attivit della casa si possano svolgere in comunit tra tutti i membri
della famiglia: giocare e cucinare, fare i compiti e ascoltare musica. Diaframmi mobili o elementi
darredo possono, in caso di necessit, isolare parte dellambiente o mascherarlo alla vista. Ad altri
ambienti il compito di garantire la meditazione, la riflessione, la cura del s .

(Giancarlo Allen, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.5 maggio 1992)

La camera da letto sana

La posizione del letto, che cosa tenere nella stanza, che cosa evitare, i colori pi adatti. Ecco i consigli
del bioarchitetto per un dolce sonno

Il letto elemento di arredo fondamentale in ogni casa, la cui qualit indissolubilmente legata a quella
del sonno. Mentre dormiamo il nostro fisico e la nostra psiche si rigenerano, ricostruiscono le loro
Trascorriamo mediamente a letto, e quindi in camera da letto, un terzo della nostra vita. Questo tempo
prezioso per affrontare nel migliore dei modi quegli altri due terzi fatti di attivit spesso intensa.
Non quindi difficile intuire come a questo luogo si debba prestare unattenzione particolare. Molto
spesso malesseri persistenti e a volte vere e proprie patologie vengono attribuite a cause inesistenti,
intervenendo anche a livello medico, quando invece la loro origine pu essere messa in relazione con la
qualit del sonno.
Se il luogo in cui si dorme, per le sue caratteristiche, in grado di impedire un buon sonno, gli effetti
sulla qualit della vita sono diretti e il nostro corpo diventa pi vulnerabile alle aggressioni della fatica,
dello stress e delle malattie. I bambini, gli anziani e i malati, trascorrendo la maggior parte della giornata
a letto, sono sottoposti pi di altri ai rischi di un luogo inadeguato (gli ospedali insegnano). Viste le
premesse, la stanza da letto va considerata come il luogo pi delicato della casa, quello da proteggere
maggiormente per far s che trasmetta sensazioni di calma e distensione e faciliti il riposo e il
rilassamento. Valgono naturalmente, a questo proposito, tutte le indicazioni date finora per la casa nel
suo complesso e per limpiantistica.
Le attenzioni devono essere accentuate per la camera da letto, a partire dalla scelta della sua posizione
allinterno dellabitazione, che dovr essere quella pi protetta dai rumori interni ed esterni.
Lesposizione migliore quella a est, per consentire che il sole del mattino possa illuminare la stanza al
risveglio, e far s che il riposo pomeridiano, soprattutto dei bambini, sia protetto dal surriscaldamento
provocato dal sole diretto sul lato ovest della casa.
Larredo della camera da letto dovrebbe essere semplice e sobrio, per non dire essenziale, cos come la
parte impiantistica. Concentrare in camera da letto funzioni diverse da quella del sonno unabitudine
poco salutare. Leggere, ascoltare musica, guardare la televisione sono attivit da svolgere in ambienti
diversi. Esse richiedono infatti un impianto elettrico complesso e sono quindi causa di inquinamento
elettromagnetico in grado di disturbare il sonno. Anche per la conservazione degli indumenti opportuno
individuare un ambiente apposito, come una stanza guardaroba o una cabina armadio, per evitare di
portare nel luogo del sonno le polveri dellesterno o il residuo dei prodotti chimici usati nei lavaggi a

Un buon letto, materiali naturali, luci soffuse, tende per filtrare la luce naturale: questo lessenziale. I
colori da preferire per le superfici sono quelli freddi come il verde e il blu, rilassanti e riposanti. Se il
luogo dove la casa sorge rumoroso si dovr dedicare molta attenzione a una buona insonorizzazione:
doppi vetri, tende pesanti e porte e finestre a tenuta risolvono i problemi meno preoccupanti. Per le
situazioni pi difficili necessario intervenire sulle murature con materiali naturali che non ne
impediscano la traspirazione, meglio se posti allesterno (sughero, fibre di legno, intonaci isolanti a base
di calce e cos via).
Lultima verifica, ma non in ordine di importanza, va fatta per quel che riguarda la posizione del letto
nella camera. La tradizione suggerisce di preferire una posizione che ci consente di tenere la testa verso
nord, in questo modo il corpo si orienta nel senso dellasse terrestre. A volte per con questa semplice
indicazione interferiscono disturbi di ordine geologico presenti nel sottosuolo e in grado di squilibrare il
campo elettromagnetico naturale, creando problemi di stress geopatico a volte anche preoccupanti.
Largomento richiederebbe approfondimenti seri. Un atteggiamento non superficiale quello di affidarsi
al proprio istinto, allenarlo e ascoltarlo pi di quanto un ritmo di vita spesso disumano ci consenta di fare.
Ognuno di noi in grado di valutare la qualit del proprio sonno e di riflettere sul suo rapporto con il
luogo in cui dorme. Sintomi spesso trascurati come difficolt ad addormentarsi, crampi notturni, senso di
spossatezza al risveglio, possono indicare che il letto o il luogo in cui posto sono inadeguati. In questi
casi spesso il problema si risolve spostando il letto in unaltra parte della stanza o addirittura in unaltra
stanza. In casi pi complicati meglio rivolgersi a tecnici qualificati.

(Giancarlo Allen Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.15 maggio 1993)


Buon riposo!
Dormire fondamentale per la salute psicofisica, per questo importante curare larredamento della
camera da letto e tutti i suoi accessori

Passiamo un terzo della nostra vita a dormire, e quando dormiamo stiamo normalmente fermi in un posto,
in un luogo definito, non soggetto in genere a spostamenti nel tempo e nello spazio. Il tempo dedicato al
sonno indispensabile al nostro vivere. Mentre dormiamo il nostro fisico e la nostra psiche si rigenerano,
ricostruiscono le loro energie, quelle energie indispensabili ad affrontare una giornata di attivit pi o
meno intensa. Molto spesso malesseri persistenti e a volte vere e proprie patologie vengono attribuite a
cause inesistenti intervenendo anche a livello medico, quando la loro origine pu essere invece messa in
relazione semplicemente con la qualit del sonno.
I bambini, gli anziani e i malati, trascorrendo la maggior parte della giornata a letto, sono sottoposti pi di
altri ai rischi di un luogo inadeguato (gli ospedali insegnano). Viste le premesse, la stanza da letto va
considerata come il luogo pi delicato della casa, quello da proteggere maggiormente per far si che
trasmetta sensazioni di calma e distensione e faciliti il riposo e il rilassamento.
Le attenzioni per la camera da letto devono essere accentuate, a partire dalla scelta della sua posizione
allinterno della casa, che dovr essere quella pi protetta dai rumori interni ed esterni. Lesposizione
migliore quella a est, per consentire che il sole del mattino possa illuminare la stanza al risveglio, e far
s che il riposo pomeridiano, soprattutto dei bambini, sia protetto dal surriscaldamento provocato dal sole
diretto sul lato ovest della casa.

Silenzio e Sobriet
Larredo della camera da letto dovrebbe essere semplice e sobrio, per non dire essenziale, cos come la
parte impiantistica. Concentrare in camera da letto funzioni diverse da quella del sonno unabitudine
poco salutare. Per la conservazione degli indumenti opportuno individuare un ambiente apposito, come
una stanza guardaroba o una cabina armadio, per evitare di portare nel luogo del sonno, le polveri
dellesterno o il residuo dei prodotti chimici usati nei lavaggi a secco. Un buon letto, materiali naturali,
luci soffuse, tende per filtrare la luce naturale: questo lessenziale. I colori da preferire per le superfici
sono quelli freddi come il verde e il blu, rilassanti e riposanti. Se il luogo dove la casa sorge rumoroso
si dovr dedicare molta attenzione a una buona insonorizzazione: doppi vetri, tende pesanti e porte e
finestre a tenuta risolvono i problemi meno preoccupanti. Per le situazioni pi difficili necessario
intervenire sulle murature con materiali naturali che non ne impediscano la traspirazione, meglio se posti
allesterno (sughero, fibre di legno, intonaci isolanti a base di calce).

Quale letto?
Lultima verifica, ma non in ordine di importanza, va fatta per quel che riguarda la posizione del letto
nella camera. La tradizione suggerisce di preferire una posizione che ci consenta di tenere la testa verso
nord, in questo modo il corpo si orienta nel senso dellasse terrestre. A volte per con questa semplice
indicazione interferiscono disturbi di ordine geologico presenti nel sottosuolo e in grado di squilibrare il
campo elettromagnetico naturale, creando problemi di stress geopatico a volte anche preoccupanti.
Un buon letto deve essere realizzato con materiali naturali, meglio se in legno massiccio trattato con cere
e vernici naturali. Da escludere ogni parte metallica nella struttura, ma soprattutto nella rete o nel
materasso, per il possibile effetto-antenna che il metallo, specie in forma di spirale, come nelle molle dei
materassi, pu svolgere nei confronti delle onde elettromagnetiche presenti sempre pi massicciamente
nel nostro habitat. Il sommier, e cio il letto rivestito di tessuto, dovrebbe evidentemente essere realizzato
con tessuti e imbottiture naturali.
Reti e materassi
Fondamentale il sostegno che al nostro corpo danno il materasso e la base sottostante. Il mercato offre
ormai diverse soluzioni per realizzare un letto sano: per quanto riguarda il materasso, si pu scegliere
quella pi legata alle nostre tradizioni, cio limbottitura in lana o in crine animale o vegetale dentro un
rivestimento in cotone pesante. Questa soluzione richiede una manutenzione periodica, per evitare il
compattamento delle fibre nelle parti pi sottoposte a pressione, e per arieggiare le fibre stesse.
Lo stesso vale per il Futon, il materasso che ci viene dalla tradizione giapponese, e che ha una imbottitura

di cotone anzich di lana. Esistono poi le soluzioni pi innovative, che vengono dalla lavorazione del
lattice di gomma o dallaccoppiamento di pi materiali diversi attraverso stratificazioni opportunamente
studiate, che tendono a permettere un uso differenziato stagione per stagione del letto, sovrapponendo al
lattice di gomma naturale il cotone o la lana in relazione alluso estivo o invernale del materasso.
La base che regge il materasso laltro elemento fondamentale del letto e deve assolvere innanzitutto al
compito di garantire un sostegno ottimale alla colonna vertebrale, facendo s che essa mantenga la sua
conformazione naturale spesso minata dalle posizioni scorrette a cui ci costringono gli arredi non studiati
ergonomicamente che riempiono scuole, case e luoghi di lavoro. In estrema sintesi, la colonna vertebrale
dovrebbe mantenere durante il sonno una posizione diritta quando si dorme su un fianco, e a forma di S
poco accentuata quando si dorme supini. Per ottenere questo risultato necessario poter contare su una
base non troppo rigida (tavola di legno), non troppo elastica (molle o altro). Le migliori prestazioni
ergonomiche vengono offerte oggi dalle reti realizzate con doghe in legno di faggio leggermente curvato,
montate su un telaio, sempre in legno, attraverso supporti elastici in gomma naturale. Anche in questo
caso bisogna fare attenzione alle parti metalliche, alle vernici e alle colle.

E sopra tutto...
Insieme al materasso e alla base sottostante, completano il letto il cuscino e le coperte. Il cuscino ha la
funzione di garantire il giusto sostegno al collo, che con la sua struttura anatomica complessa e delicata
spesso fonte di dolori. Per le vertebre cervicali vale quindi allincirca lo stesso discorso fatto per la
colonna vertebrale: esse dovranno essere allineate quando si dorme di fianco, e leggermente incurvate
quando si sta supini.
Anche per la coperta la scelta pu essere effettuata tra una soluzione pi legata alle nostre tradizioni e
una proveniente, in questo caso, dai Paesi del Nord Europa. La coperta di lana o la trapunta, sempre
imbottita di lana, abbinata a lenzuola di lino o cotone, sono i modi nostrani di vestire il letto. Essi
consentono piacevoli abbinamenti di colore, danno senso di ordine ed eleganza, ma richiedono lunghi
tempi di preparazione. Le fibre utilizzate devono essere rigorosamente naturali e possibilmente non tinte
a meno che i colori non siano vegetali. Tra i diversi tipi di lana, indubbiamente la pi adatta al letto la
lana merinos grezza, calda, traspirante e leggera allo stesso tempo.
Una soluzione tradizionale nei Paesi del Nord Europa invece quella del cosiddetto piumone, ormai
largamente utilizzata anche da noi. Un letto vestito con un piumone ha unimmagine pi informale e pu
essere preparato molto pi in fretta. Anche in questo caso, attenzione alle materie prime: il piumone deve
essere realizzato con una percentuale la pi alta possibile di piume doca o di anatra, e con una bassa
percentuale di penne sempre degli stessi animali. Il rivestimento deve essere di cotone, per consentire alle
piume di respirare e arieggiarsi. Attenzione, nei negozi vengono spesso definiti piumoni dei prodotti
realizzati con imbottiture di fibra sintetica.

(Giancarlo Allen,Il giornale della Natura Illustrato n.21 dicembre 1993)

Il Bagno
Non solo per lavarsi
Adeguare o progettare i vari ambienti in modo bioecologico vuol dire anche scoprirne tutti gli usi e i

Il bagno convenzionale un luogo di transito veloce, il pi delle volte angusto e impersonale, rivestito
allinverosimile di piastrelle per essere lavabile, asettico, igienico. Negli ultimi tempi per, anche il
bagno diventato oggetto di attenzione di una logica dei consumi perversa.
Vasche idromassaggio energivore e costosissime, piastrelle firmate dagli stilisti dellalta moda come se
fossero abiti da sera, rubinetteria e accessori coordinati. La sostanza per non cambia, ledilizia
contemporanea continua a considerare il bagno poco pi che un ripostiglio, sacrificandone gli spazi in
modo esasperato. Questo a volte inevitabile in relazione alle dimensioni generali dellalloggio, a volte
invece solo frutto di una consuetudine che sottovaluta il ruolo e le potenzialit del bagno come
ambiente della casa a tutti gli effetti.

Nellabitazione naturale, il bagno il luogo dellacqua, elemento vitale per eccellenza, che oltre a lavare
rilassa, tonifica, rinvigorisce con unindubbia azione terapeutica. Meglio sarebbe, dunque, separare il
gabinetto dal bagno vero e proprio, dando a questultimo le dimensioni di una stanza come le altre, ben
illuminata, aerata, in stretto rapporto con il verde esterno, giardino o terrazzo che sia, tale da far s che il
lavarsi torni a essere un piccolo rito domestico.
Anche in bagno, quindi, essenzialmente materiali naturali, piastrelle di ceramica o cotto
antisdrucciolevole nelle parti pi soggette a essere bagnate, legno per il resto, intonaci traspiranti, colori
rilassanti e piante verdi.
fondamentale curare la ventilazione per controllare lumidit in eccesso e il rischio radon (gas
radioattivo), che nei bagni cresce notevolmente. Anche il pavimento richiede unattenzione particolare, la
temperatura deve essere pi alta, e in questo caso sono ideali i pavimenti o le pareti radianti.
Unattenzione particolare va dedicata allimpianto elettrico, che deve essere realizzato in modo attento,
mettendo a terra tutte le parti metalliche e rispettando in modo scrupoloso le normative in vigore, e
allontanando comunque il pi possibile le apparecchiature elettriche.
Lultima attenzione va dedicata ai consumi di energia e di acqua, che in bagno sono purtroppo elevati. Da
questo punto di vista, una doccia consuma meno acqua di un bagno, e uno scambiatore pu recuperare il
calore delle acque di scarico a nuovo uso. Lideale sarebbe poi riciclare veramente le acque utilizzate o
utilizzare acqua piovana raccolta e depurata anzich acqua potabile, ma in questo caso il percorso tra
normative rigide e burocrazia ottusa diventerebbe arduo.
Il riscaldamento dellacqua con pannelli solari o utilizzando il calore prodotto da stufe o concimi invece
oggi relativamente facile e poco costoso, e il risparmio energetico che se ne ottiene sensibile.

(Giancarlo Allen, Il Giornale della natura Illustrato n.21 dicembre 1993)


Ambienti esterni

Ambienti esterni, ma vitali!

Dal giardino al vaso sul davanzale, le piante e lo spazio in cui vivono sono
parte della casa

Io non nacqui, invece mi fondarono:

mi misero tutti i nomi insieme,
tutti i cognomi:
mi chiamai cespuglio, poi susino,
larice e poi frumento,
per questo sono tanto e cos poco,
cos moltitudine e tanto abbandonato,
perch vengo dal basso,
dalla terra
Pablo Neruda
(da El mar y las Campanas)

Forse per compensazione o legge naturale, non so, allaumento costante delle zone ex naturali ci
ritroviamo con un forte incremento del verde privato; quasi insaziabile fame che si traduce, fin troppe
volte, in esperimenti innaturali, pretenziosi e ostentati.
Allora, quello che non si deve fare, e prendo ottimo spunto dai consigli della Magrini (G. Magrini, Idee
per un balcone fiorito, Mondadori,), :
il bellissimo balcone da rivista darredamento;
obbligare le piante a vivere in un ambiente o in un clima inadatto o
costringerle in spazi ristretti;
dato che il balcone e il giardino nascono e si completano quasi su auto-suggerimento, volere invece a
tutti i costi creare il cosiddetto effetto;
arredare e costruire il proprio eden per gli altri; quello che dovrebbe essere un esercizio personale...
molto intimo, non diventi vetrina!
Troppi sognano un grande giardino, pochi lo possiedono, tutti vorrebbero un terrazzo, parecchi si
accontentano di un piccolo balcone e anche di un davanzale, e poich il misterioso fenomeno biologico
che ci spinge a cercar vita rinnovata sappaga anche d'un pizzico di semi in un vaso di terracotta, partite
comunque (e qui comincia l'avventura...) armandovi per di molta calma, perch in un errore iniziale pu
esserci una felicissima conclusione; chiedete consigli senza vergogna, entro certi limiti sbagliando da
soli, ma scegliendo sempre una linea, un pensiero molto semplice.

Quattro suggerimenti per il balcone e il terrazzo

Se il piccolo spazio non una limitazione, se la produzione, la misura e l'equilibrio valgono nella fisica
come su un terrazzo, se la cifra da spendere, le difficolt e la fatica saranno una realt sopportabile,
realizzate questo benedetto angolo verde, costi quello che costi, con chiarezza di idee.
1 Voglio tante piante acquatiche nella tinozza!
Non indispensabile disporre di un laghetto o di una vasca grande per poter godere della presenza di
piante acquatiche ornamentali; una vecchia tinozza o una mezza botte davanti alla porta-finestra
creeranno un angolo palustre con Ninfee, Menta acquatica, Sagittaria e cos via; tutte piante che
sembrano fragili, delicate e inconsistenti, ma che sono calme, riposanti, decorative, affascinanti.
2 Voglio un albero, uno solo, ma un po diverso, sul mio piccolo balcone!
Un albero in vaso sembra quasi indispensabile per uno spazio ridotto, per una golosit impossibile da
riempire, per lorgoglio e la gioia di poter servire in tavola frutta del mio balcone. Per esempio un Fico
robustissimo e che sopporta il caldo, il freddo e la sete; un Cotogno, che pianta di piccole dimensioni
ma con una bellissima fioritura; un Caco dalle sette virt: la prima la lunga vita, la seconda la grande
ombra, la terza che non vi sono nidi, la quarta che non vi sono tarli, la quinta che puoi divertirti
giocando con le sue foglie indurite dal ghiaccio, la sesta il suo frutto eccellente, la settima che le sue
foglie danno un bel fuoco. Otto piantine di Ribes rosso o nero poi, basteranno a sfamare la famiglia pi

3 Voglio lallegria di tanti vasi appesi!
A parte i vasi fatti da voi (il bricolage ormai diventato pi che una moda una necessit), le vecchie
pentole, i sottovasi di terracotta, i cestino di vimini (e qui la fantasia e il buon gusto non hanno freni), la
tentazione dappendere qualcosa vi ha toccato spontanea almeno una volta: eleganti, decorative,
spontanee, le piantine ricadenti vi lasceranno anche spazio per un tavolino in pi o per una comoda
4 Voglio un orto e una farmacia sul mio balcone!
Se il fascino dei profumi, o la golosit dun cuoco mancato, o la curiosit dun botanico dilettante vi
torturano, in fondo non ci vuol molto a realizzare un raccolto fatto in casa. Se il vostro appartamento
dispone soltanto di finestre con un ampio davanzale o al massimo di un balconcino, limitatevi a erbe
aromatiche e insalatine da taglio: le une e le altre richiedono cassette basse e relativamente poca terra.
Ma se avete un terrazzo di almeno tre metri per quattro potrete fare molto di pi: coltivare ogni tipo
dortaggio, far crescere in capaci contenitori piante rampicanti, che tra laltro sono anche
sorprendentemente decorative, come zucche, zucchine, fagioli, pomodori; e in scalette ordinate seminare
aromi, carote e... primizie.

E quattro suggerimenti per il giardino

Nei canti lieti del papiro egizio Harris sta scritto:
Son per te come un giardino dove ho piantato i miei fiori, e ogni sorta di erbe odorose.
Anticamente per ogni cosa si prendeva la natura come modello, ma c stato un lungo periodo in cui la
nostra schizzinosa cultura si distaccata dalla natura e quindi dalla sua coscienza in maniera totale, o
quasi, e quel periodo per alcuni dura ancora. Pizzetti lo chiama il momento della cartolina illustrata. Ma
se non pi lora della facile comprensione dei moduli esoterici per il vostro piccolo giardino, o per
riconoscere istintivamente lalbero capo e lalbero mistico in ogni frutteto, molto si pu ancora fare per
capire il significato degli antichi messaggi della natura perch, come diceva Leopardi: Luomo che si
allontana dalla natura si allontana dalla felicit.
1 Voglio il giardino natura!
Nel codice Della vaghezza del giardino sta scritto: La natura fa giornalmente comparire dei
cambiamenti e la novit dei cambiamenti ha una sua grande attrazione. Lartista giardiniere cercher
quindi anche nelle piante una continua variazione... Il contrasto lanima del giardino... Osservate la
natura e vi accorgerete che questa si abbandona a una specie di sentita negligenza; si tormenta a metter
ovunque ineguaglianze. Fino a poco tempo fa il modo pi comune di trattare lambiente naturale
domestico voleva limpiego di coperture erbose intensive, ordinati spazi di piante annuali e arbusti
drasticamente potati; un giardino naturale sceglie, invece, di essere ancora una specie quasi selvatica,
spontanea, mentre quello che sar durevole sono solo i materiali permanenti, per esempio i sentieri di
sasso o tronco e le pavimentazioni morbide di ghiaia. Il giardino diventer il prodotto di una stretta
collaborazione fra voi e la natura, inserendosi armoniosamente in una precisa situazione ambientale. I
risultati saranno pi naturali e spontanei, e soprattutto pi... rilassanti. Si dice che quando una pianta
muore non si deve guardare solo al terreno, alla mancanza dacqua o ad altri aspetti della vita del
giardino ma, come diceva il famoso filosofo Masoero: Guardate luomo perch , forse, lunico
involontario responsabile della morte vegetale.
2 Voglio uno spazio riservato ai pi piccoli!
I bambini, anche se sono gli abitanti ideali dun giardino, con gli altri gnomi e le fatine, vengono sempre
dimenticati nella progettazione di uno spazio verde. Invece sono coloro che lo utilizzeranno di pi;
ricordatevi che avrebbero bisogno di una superficie pavimentata libera da ostacoli per trascinare un
giocattolo o la bicicletta, di uno spazio movimentato per il gioco avventuroso, di unaltalena, di una vasca
con la sabbia e di una con lacqua e di una zona per i pi grandicelli, dove con una piccola aiuola o pochi
vasi possono imparare a coltivare e osservare.
3 Voglio tanti profumi sotto la finestra!
Che cosa c di pi sognante che aprire la finestra, nelle calde serate estive, ed essere inondati dai
profumi. Una rosa rampicante coma la Queen Elisabeth, una Lavanda profumatissima, un Lill e tanti

Garofanini vivacizzeranno laspetto esterno della vostra casa, e sistemati nella fascia perimetrale ai piedi
del muro lasceranno pi spazio ad altre soluzioni nella scarsit di spazio di un piccolo giardino.
4 Voglio un giardino selvatico di graminacee ornamentali!
Da qualche tempo le graminacee ornamentali stanno incontrando sempre maggiori favori presso i
progettisti di giardini naturali per la loro facilit di coltivazione e laffidabilit di fioritura. Lerba la
chioma della madre terra. I giardinieri lhanno sempre considerata solo nella sua condizione di prato ben
tosato, ma vi sono erbe dal colore del bronzo, verdi-azzurre, azzurrognole, blu acciaio, con bande dorate,
con aculei; erbe che fioriscono a fine inverno, in primavera o in estate o in autunno con una bellezza
bizzarra e indimenticabile. Potete farne un giardino, magari leggendovi prima il libro Erbe e Felci per il
giardino (Muzzio, Padova) del pi grande esperto europeo, Karl Foerster. Date comunque uno spazio
progettuale anche a loro, ricordandovi che gli antichi nei loro orti-giardino avevano sempre unaiuola
dortiche che veniva chiamata il letto degli angeli, e che il nostro maestro giardiniere Masoero diceva nel
primo Ottocento: Il giardiniere ha la funzione del buon genitore. E tutte le piante sono sue figlie.

(Giovanna Nova, Il Giornale della natura Illustrato n.21 dicembre 1993)


Piante in terrazzo e sul balcone

Anche sul balcone e sul terrazzo possibile operare in un modo pi vicino alla natura, cercando, dove possibile, di usare qualche specie
autoctona, tenuto conto che nel contesto urbano possibile usare anche delle specie esotiche. Infatti qui non c un paesaggio naturale
originario da rispettare.
importante anche qui non usare prodotti chimici e disporre le piante, compatibilmente con la dimensione dei contenitori e con lo spazio
a disposizione, secondo lo schema: arbusti alti, medi, bassi, tappezzanti e ricadenti. Diamo un elenco delle specie pi interessanti e facili
da coltivare.

(A) Piante autoctone

(S) Piante che preferiscono unesposizione molto soleggiata.
(O) Piante che preferiscono unesposizione di ombra o mezzombra.
Le piante senza indicazioni hanno esigenze intermedie.

1) Arbusti alti (2/8 metri)

Corniolo (Cornus mas) (A), Biancospino (Crataegus monogyna) (A), Tasso (Taxus baccata) (A) (O), Agrifoglio (Ilex aquifolium) (A) (O),
Albero di Giuda (Cercis siliquastrum) (A) (S), Maggiociondolo (Laburnum anagyroides) (A), Piracanta (Pyracantha coccinea) (A) (S),
Nocciolo (Corylus avellana) (A), Laurus nobilis (A) (S)

2) Arbusti medi (1/2 metri)

Forsythia, Chaenomeles, Weigela (S), Buddleja (S), Fiordangelo (Philadelphus), Cappello del prete (Euonimus europaeus) (A) (O),
Lentaggine (Viburnum tinus) (A), Lantana (Viburnum lantana) (A), Rosa canina (Cotoneaster salicifolia), (A) (S)

3) Arbusti bassi (0.80/1.00)

Bosso (Buxus sempervirens) (A), Lavanda (Lavandula spica) (A) (S), Pungitopo (Ruscus aculeatus) (A) (O), Mahonia aquifolium,
Spiraea bumalda, Cotoneaster horizontalis

4) Arbusti striscianti o ricadenti

Edera comune (Hedera helix) (A) (O), Cotoneaster salicifolia repena

5) Piante tappezzanti
Hypericum calicinum, Lamium galeobdolon (A) (O), Felce maschio (Dryopteris filix mas) (A) (O)

6) Erbacee perenni ricadenti

Alyssum saxatile (S), Cerastium (S), Iberis (S), Thimus (S), Plumbago (Ceratostigma plumbaginoidea)

7) Bulbose e rizomatose permanenti

Crocus, Narcisi, Muscari, Scilla campanulata (O), Iris germanica (S), Mughetti (Convallaria majalis) (A) (O).

Nota bene: le altezze delle piante sono indicative perch, ovviamente, il loro sviluppo dipende dalle dimensioni del contenitore usato.
molto importante, per avere buoni risultati, coprire bene tutta la terra e i bordi delle fioriere con piante basse, tappezzanti e ricadenti.


Il giardino al naturale
Nella propria abitazione si pu mettere un tocco di verde. Ma importante scegliere e disporre bene le
piante, per creare un piccolo ecosistema. Vediamo come

La superficie del nostro pianeta pu essere suddivisa, come dice lecologo statunitense Barry Commoner,
in Tecnosfera, dove prevalgono gli interventi umani, e cio suolo urbanizzato e verde agricolo, ed
Ecosfera, cio tutti gli altri ambienti dove invece prevalgono i processi e gli equilibri naturali. Il dramma
che la tecnosfera si sta letteralmente mangiando lecosfera, che si frantuma, si riduce e si nasconde
sempre di pi, inseguita dalle attivit delluomo.
Ormai nelle zone pi urbanizzate della terra la natura ridotta a un arcipelago di isole sempre pi
piccole, sempre pi lontane fra loro e sempre pi insidiate. Ad esempio, nella pianura padana, ormai
quasi totalmente occupata dalla tecnosfera sotto forma di edifici, strade, colture cerealicole e pioppeti, le
ultime aree a verde naturale si possono riscontrare solo lungo alcuni fiumi e nelle superstiti e sempre pi
rare siepi campestri spontanee. Risulta evidente che, soprattutto le aree pi piccole, a causa del loro
isolamento, sono ben presto destinate a impoverire la loro variet biologica fin quasi al punto di perderla
Come rallentare questo processo? Come collegare fra loro queste superstiti isole di ecosfera nel mare
della tecnosfera che rischia di sommergerle?
La via pi sicura, e anche la pi ovvia, consiste nella ricostituzione di una fitta maglia di piccoli boschi e
siepi campestri e nellampia diffusione dellagricoltura biologica. Parallelamente importante inventare
un modo diverso di costruire il verde urbano, sia pubblico che privato, portandolo pi vicino alle regole
della ecosfera, perch si comporti da ponte di collegamento fra le aree a verde naturale.
Tutti ben conoscono lo squallore di certi giardini pubblici, o anche privati, zeppi di essenze esotiche, con
molte piante potate o meglio mutilate, quasi privi di arbusti, senza il pi piccolo specchio dacqua, e con
prati spesso spelacchiati, dove oltre a essere rari gli uccelli, sono rare persino le specie di insetti.
Tutto ci costituisce un inammissibile spreco di ambiente, perch, allo stato attuale delle cose, anche il
minimo lembo di verde deve essere sistemato in modo da poter far rendere al massimo il proprio capitale
potenziale di natura.
Vediamo le indicazioni fondamentali per arrivarci.

Fare largo uso di essenze autoctone

che, al di fuori degli ambienti urbanizzati, vanno utilizzate al cento per cento, anche per rispetto del
paesaggio originario circostante.
In ambiente urbano, invece, possibile utilizzarle mescolate con criterio alle essenze esotiche.
Le specie autoctone (o spontanee), essendosi evolute in loco in centinaia di migliaia di anni assieme a
determinate specie animali e vegetali, sono alla base di innumerevoli catene alimentari, e costituiscono
perci una parte fondamentale dellecosistema in cui si trovano.
Basti pensare alla Farnia (Quercus robur), pianta tipica della pianura padana: da sola aiuta la vita di ben
trecento specie diverse di animali e vegetali. Per lindividuazione delle specie adatte al proprio ambiente,
essendo il loro numero vastissimo, rimandiamo alla lettura di manuali botanici o alla consultazione di
esperti di associazioni naturalistiche.
Ci limitiamo, a titolo di esempio, a indicare le principali essenze autoctone adatte alla pianura padana:
Salice bianco, Pioppo bianco, Farnia, Carpino bianco, Ontano nero, Ciliegio a grappolo (Prunus padus),
Acero campestre, Biancospino, Rosa canina, Ligustro selvatico, Sambuco nero, Edera.

Disporre le piante come in natura

Mentre il giardino si presenta piuttosto vuoto (vedi fig. A), il giardino naturale risulta molto pi pieno
di vegetazione (vedi fig. B) perch vengono occupati con piante tutti gli spazi di sottobosco che altrimenti
resterebbero inutilizzati. Si tratta di copiare la natura: nelle siepi e nei boschi non governati dalluomo la
vegetazione si dispone su diversi piani, alberi, arbusti medi e bassi, erbe e piante striscianti. Ripetendo
questo schema avremo molta flora e fauna in pi, in un giardino molto pi gradevole e ricco di vita.

Potare e falciare il meno possibile:

lasciare tutti i rami bassi ad alberi e arbusti, che manterranno perci un aspetto molto pi naturale e
ospiteranno pi facilmente gli uccelli.
Rinunciare a volere tutto il prato come una moquette verde. Lasciandolo crescere liberamente almeno in
alcuni punti meno frequentati si riempir delle cosiddette erbacce (il cui numero andr controllato
manualmente), ma anche di fiori selvatici che attireranno api, bombi e farfalle.

Creare uno specchio dacqua

Lacqua un elemento fondamentale per ricreare certi ambienti sempre pi rari in natura e per dare un
aspetto pi completo al giardino che si vuole sia naturale.
sicuramente un grosso piacere sentire gracidare qualche rana, vedere gli uccelli che si posano a bere in
unestate siccitosa, o scorgere un pesciolino che cattura una zanzara che si posata sullacqua.
possibile inserire un piccolo stagno anche in un giardino piccolissimo: nel mio giardino di 60 mq ho
inserito una vasca di neanche 2 mq.
La cosa pi importante sistemarlo in un punto soleggiato e lontano dagli alberi (evitare che le foglie,
cadano in acqua dove marciscono e inquinano organicamente, creando eutrofizzazione).
Si possono usare vasche prefabbricate in fibra di vetro oppure, per specchi dacqua maggiori di 3 mq, teli
impermeabili di Pvc.
fondamentale, per creare un ecosistema acquatico autonomo, introdurre le piante sommerse ossigenanti
(ad esempio Elodea, Millefoglie), per depurare e ossigenare lacqua mantenendola limpida.
Per eliminare completamente le larve acquatiche di zanzara eccezionale il pesciolino del genere
La manutenzione di un piccolo stagno molto pi facile di quel che si creda: occorre aggiungere ogni
tanto in estate dellacqua per compensare levaporazione, e allontanare in autunno-inverno le parti
vegetali morte, per evitare che marciscano in acqua (inquinandola organicamente).
Le piante pi facili da coltivare in acqua sono le Ninfee, le Tife, le Iris dacqua e il Giunco fiorito
(Butomus umbellatus); basta piantarle in vasi da immergere ad almeno 20 cm di profondit per le Ninfee,
e ad almeno 10 cm per le altre specie.

Installare nidi artificiali e mangiatoie per gli uccelli

Il sistema migliore per attirare lavifauna offrire a essa vitto e alloggio. Se sono stati piantati arbusti con
bacche e frutti selvatici in buona variet, si vedranno sempre pi spesso uccelli vari intenti a nutrirsene
(soprattutto merli) ma, dato che queste piccole aree a verde naturale hanno anche una funzione di
supporto per lavifauna che abita la tecnosfera circostante, c il rischio che le bacche si esauriscano gi
in pieno inverno, quando gli uccelli necessitano maggiormente di cibo.
In tardo autunno bene allora installare delle mangiatoie (in vendita presso le associazioni
protezionistiche) in un punto tranquillo del giardino ben visibile da casa; basta mettere un po di burro e
di semi di girasole non sgusciati: la prima a venire sar la cinciallegra, che far sentire ogni tanto il suo
canto fino a primavera. Poi, se il posto tranquillo, potranno arrivare anche altre specie (come il
Nei punti pi appartati del giardino bene installare sugli alberi alcuni nidi artificiali: anche qui la prima
ad arrivare sar la cinciallegra che, come tutti gli altri uccelli, trova in natura sempre meno luoghi adatti a

Non usare prodotti chimici

In unarea a verde che si vuol far diventare naturale occorre mettere al bando ogni tipo di sostanza
chimica, che sia concime, diserbante o antiparassitario.
Costruendo un ambiente sano si riformeranno vecchi equilibri naturali e torneranno anche i predatori a
controllare gli insetti nocivi: ad esempio, gli afidi saranno mangiati sia dalle ben note coccinelle che dalla
cinciallegra, la quale caccer anche certi bruchi molto dannosi agli alberi, come la Iphantrya americana
(gatta pelosa).
Un terreno sano e naturale, ricco di humus, di microflora e di microfauna aiuter anche a nutrire meglio
le piante e a renderle pi resistenti alle malattie e ai parassiti. Se poi ci si accorge che una pianta continua
a rimanere sempre gracile e malaticcia bene non insistere; vuol dire che quellambiente non il suo e
va sostituita con unaltra specie.
Per rendere il terreno sempre pi sano e ricco di vita, importante accumulare le foglie secche assieme
ad altri resti vegetali sotto alla chioma di alberi e arbusti. In un area privata possibile aggiungere anche i
resti vegetali della tavola; in tal caso meglio prima trasformarli dentro le apposite concimaie che si
trovano in commercio.

Fenaroli, Gli alberi dItalia, Ed. Giunti-Martello; A.A.V.V., Alberi e arbusti in Italia, Selezione dal Readers Digest;
Reinhard Witt, Cespugli e arbusti selvatici, Muzzio ed.; Violet Stevenson, Il giardino naturale, Centro Botanico-
Milano; Alessandro Chiusoli, Il giardino nella natura, Edagricole; Lo Stagno, Touring Club Italiano; Andrew Booth-
Moores, Costruire fontane, laghetti e specchi dacqua, Edagricole; Wwf Italia, La siepe; Wwf Svizzera, Panda
Giugno 80, Giardino naturale

(Vincenzo Caminada, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.3 marzo 1992)

Consigli utili:
Nei giardini in campagna vanno usate specie vegetali tipiche del luogo, che richiamano farfalle e
uccelli insettivori (per esempio la farnia aiuta la vita di trecento specie di animali e vegetali)

Sistemate il giardino copiando la natura: alberi non potati, arbusti, erbe, vicini fra loro,
rendono il giardino vario e piacevole

Tagliate il meno possibile lerba: arriveranno anche fiori spontanei. Le erbacce potrete
toglierle manualmente, facendo anche dellottimo esercizio fisico.

Create un piccolo specchio dacqua, con piane ossigenanti: la manutenzione poca (togliere le
foglie, che vi marcirebbero), molta la soddisfazione nel vederlo pieno di vita.

Ambienti di lavoro:

Un ufficio al naturale
Si pu vivere ecologicamente anche in ufficio? Vediamo insieme alcuni piccoli accorgimenti

Parlare di ufficio ecologico pu sembrare piuttosto utopistico; primo fra tutti il problema del mettersi
daccordo, allinterno dellufficio, per intraprendere misure che coinvolgano un po tutti (come ad
esempio la raccolta della carta da destinare al riciclaggio) o che implicano un seppur minimo
investimento in denaro (come sostituire i bianchetti tradizionali con quelli atossici).
Chiss per che non si possa dare il buon esempio iniziando ad adottare nel proprio piccolo qualche
misura verde, sperando quindi di coinvolgere colleghi e vicini di scrivania. Eccovi alcune indicazioni
pratiche su come tutelare la propria salute e rispettare lambiente durante il lavoro in ufficio.

La carta
Regola numero 1: usate carta riciclata! la cosa pi importante, in quanto, per la legge della domanda
e dellofferta, la raccolta differenziata pu avere successo solo se bilanciata da una sufficiente richiesta
sul mercato di carta riciclata. Esiste anche dellottima carta riciclata da fotocopie; accertatevi per che la
vostra fotocopiatrice sia adatta a usarla (tutti i modelli pi recenti dovrebbero esserlo). Ottimi anche i
moduli continui da stampante in carta riciclata.
Limitate al massimo il consumo di carta facendo fotocopie e stampe fronte-retro. Informatevi presso
lazienda che si occupa della raccolta dei rifiuti nella vostra citt, e accordatevi con loro perch passino a
raccogliere la carta periodicamente. Organizzatevi con i colleghi per la raccolta differenziata: esistono
dei comodi e simpatici bidoni di cartone (prodotti dal WWF) che, una volta riempiti, vengono raccolti
cos come sono, senza dover travasare la carta dai cestini in scatoloni o simili. Attenzione: al momento di
acquistare la carta riciclata, accertatevi che sia del tipo ecologico, ovvero non sbiancata con cloro. Nel
caso non sappiate dove acquistarla, telefonate alla pi vicina sede del WWF, della Lega Ambiente o di

altre associazioni ambientaliste: dovrebbero essere in grado di indicarvi il nome di qualche rivenditore.

Penne, evidenziatori, correttori...

Usate evidenziatori a matita: sono fatti di legno non trattato, e la mina composta di sostanze
assolutamente atossiche. Si temperano come una normale matita, e durano il doppio o il triplo dei comuni
evidenziatori in plastica pur costando meno. A differenza degli evidenziatori tradizionali non contengono
solventi o altre sostanze tossiche.
Evitate di usare le penne a sfera (le cosiddette biro): sostituitele quando possibile con comuni matite a
mina morbida. Quando sia indispensabile scrivere a penna, usate stilografiche ricaricabili, meglio se a
stantuffo, che sono anche pi eleganti e piacevoli da usare delle antiestetiche biro.
Usate colle liquide atossiche, tipo gomma arabica oppure colle autarchiche a base di acqua e zucchero
o di amido.
I migliori correttori sono quelli a foglietto: qualora sia indispensabile un correttore liquido, sceglietelo
ecologico, ovvero privo di solventi e atossico. Asciuga pi lentamente, ma importante ricordare che i
comuni correttori liquidi asciugano cos in fretta proprio perch sono un concentrato di solventi
altamente tossici.

I mobili in legno massello sono preferibili: a differenza di quelli in compensato o truciolato, non
emettono vapori di formaldeide (tossica e cancerogena).
La moquette andrebbe evitata, in quanto raccoglie e trasmette troppa elettricit statica; inoltre il
ricettacolo ideale per la polvere e per i minuscoli insetti che ci vivono (acari della polvere), che sono
spesso causa di affezioni di tipo asmatico.
No al condizionatore: crea vortici che sollevano la polvere, con grave danno per le vie respiratorie
(irritazioni, asma...): inoltre lo sbalzo di temperatura interno-esterno favorisce raffreddori e influenze.

Il computer
Procuratevi prima di tutto degli occhiali con lenti riposanti antiriflesso: cercate di usare il computer per
periodi non troppo lunghi (mezzora) intervallati da brevi periodi di riposo (5-10 minuti): questa non
una perdita di tempo, anzi migliora lattenzione e consente di essere pi efficienti e produttivi.

(Francesca Marotta, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.12 febbraio 1993)


Architettura e colore

La scomparsa del colore

Nel mondo attuale si assiste a un curioso fenomeno: lappiattimento nelluso del colore, che, sia
nellarchitettura che nella moda, ci ha regalato una dimensione fredda dellesistenza. Se ci guardiamo
intorno, ecco che ci circondano costruzioni grigie, biancastre o terree, e voli di fantasia
nellabbigliamento quali il nero, il grigio e il marrone, con labominevole tendenza a nascondere la
sporcizia (polvere, smog) con colori che sono sporchi loro stessi.

Nellarredamento il bianco e nero dominano ancora, malgrado le ultime tendenze della moda. Per contro,
in contrasto con il desiderio di sobriet, urla un mai assente rosso paonazzo.
Cosa ne successo di tutti gli altri colori? Che cosa ci ha portato a dimenticare che esistono splendide
sfumature, fantasmagorici abbinamenti, accostamenti delicati e, allopposto, vibranti e intensi?
Se pensiamo che ben l80% delle nostre informazioni sensoriali sono di natura visiva, e che il colore
agisce sulla parte meno critica della nostra psiche, capiremo che esso un fattore di primaria importanza
che condiziona il nostro umore pi di quanto non crediamo. Di questa grande influenza si sono per ben
accorti i pubblicitari, i quali da sempre usano i colori furbescamente e scientificamente per indurci ad
acquistare i vari prodotti.
Alla visione partecipa tutto il corpo, come ben sanno gli esperti di cromoterapia: alla trasformazione che
subiscono le cellule retiniche durante la visione, corrispondono processi simili nei vari organi, ad
esempio nel fegato vengono prodotti alcuni enzimi e vitamina A, i quali permettono la ripetizione del
processo visivo fornendo ai fotoricettori nuovo pigmento.
Locchio collegato allipotalamo, quella parte del cervello che controlla lipofisi, una ghiandola che
produce ormoni; inoltre questa parte del cervello controlla varie funzioni vitali, come lappetito, la veglia
e il sonno, la paura, lira, le pulsioni sessuali.
Ogni colore scatena in noi significati, ricordi, sensazioni, e funzioni diversi, strettamente legati alla nostra
vita di tutti i giorni e al sano funzionamento della nostra psiche e, quindi, del nostro corpo.
Il colore diviene, come la musica, il linguaggio che esprime i nostri sentimenti, al punto che si pu dire
che i colori sono sentimenti visualizzati.
Ma oggi releghiamo il mondo dei colori al mondo artistico, a quei pochi eletti, che consideriamo anche
un po fuori di testa, fuori dalla realt. Abbiamo una concezione della realt molto pratica, noi non
abbiamo tempo per pensare a certe cose, dobbiamo lavorare, guadagnare, consumare e gettar via, il tutto
molto in fretta. Cosa importa se la nostra casa grigiastra, cosa importa se ci vestiamo solo di marrone,
tanto in casa ci viviamo cos poco, il vestito ci deve solo coprire e nascondere in mezzo a una folla nella
quale non vogliamo certo spiccare.
La scelta di colori sobri come il grigio e il marrone, pare sia dettata da queste ragioni pratiche, ma se
guardiamo pi nel profondo, non denota soltanto una mancanza di fantasia, un desiderio di scrollarsi di
dosso il peso di una scelta e di un ragionamento, e quindi pigrizia mentale.
Altro colore molto usato, soprattutto negli interni, il bianco che rappresenta la neutralit: anche qui non
vogliamo fare scelte, il bianco va bene su tutto. Ma il significato positivo del bianco, la luce, ha un suo
opposto negativo: vogliamo dimenticarci che abbiamo bisogno anche degli altri colori, pi emotivi, che ci
accompagnano nel mondo delle sensazioni, dei sentimenti, dei simboli che toccano le corde pi profonde
del nostro essere.
Il nuovo idealismo, lecologia, ci ha riavvicinato alla natura, almeno teoricamente, ma non deve fermarsi
a un saggio uso delle risorse, alle tecnologie di riciclo, all'impiego di materiali naturali, non tossici:
l'ecologia deve essere anche mentale, quindi anche le forme e i colori che scegliamo, e che ci
circondano ogni giorno devono essere di nuovo armoniosi, equilibrati, per ridarci quella gioia di vivere
che lentamente le abitudini imposteci dalla vita moderna, dalle mode, e dall'architettura tecnologica e
razionale, ci hanno rubato.

Gli antichi significati dei colori

Proviamo ad addentrarci nei veri significati, i pi profondi, dei colori.
Nell'antichit il colore veniva usato molto, in quanto aveva un suo codice e un suo simbolismo stabilito e

diverso a secondo del tipo di societ, indicava caste sociali, miti religiosi.
Gli antichi templi Egiziani e Greci, Mesopotamici solo per citare le societ a noi pi vicine, erano
colorati in ogni loro parte, come testimoniano i ritrovamenti archeologici, e non incolori, come credevano
i neoclassici, che esaltavano la diafana bianchezza dei marmi Greci, e a questa illusione si ispiravano per
le loro architetture.
Nel periodo illuminista gli antichi significati dei colori vennero rifiutati, cancellati. Nel nome della
scienza anche i loro poteri magici venero negati. Oggi i colori hanno per noi significati simbolici
semplificati e impoveriti, certi ed evidenti, indotti dai mezzi di comunicazione.
L'uomo primitivo se ne serviva per scopi rituali, le antiche pitture rupestri sono colorate, pare che i nostri
antichissimi progenitori si dipingessero il corpo per impossessarsi dei poteri dei colori.
Ricerche antropologiche svolte da Berlin e Kay su ben 98 lingue, hanno evidenziato che nella
terminologia pi antica ed elementare vi erano nomi solo per l'oscurit e la luce, quindi per il bianco e il
nero. Bianco e nero intesi come giorno, momento dell'attivit, e notte, momento del riposo, dell'inattivit,
in cui l'uomo preistorico cercava rifugio dai pericoli da cui non poteva difendersi, perch non poteva
La vista stato da sempre per l'uomo il senso pi importante, infatti l'olfatto e l'udito sono poco
sviluppati, a differenza degli animali. Per questo la notte, il buio, e quindi il nero hanno avuto da sempre
significati terrificanti, angoscianti, e alle dee notturne sono stati sempre attribuite potenzialit ambigue,
poteri benefici e malefici.
Il terzo colore che compare in queste lingue il rosso, accompagnato dal suo complementare, il verde.
Questi due colori rappresentano le due fonti principali di sostentamento: il rosso rappresenta la caccia (il
coraggio del cacciatore, il sangue degli animali uccisi), il verde la raccolta dei vegetali, a cui si sostitu la
pratica agricola, che segue il fluire delle stagioni ed quindi un'attivit pi contemplativa, calma,
ritmata, tranquilla come il verde.
Vennero poi coniati gradatamente gli altri termini.
Per l'uomo preistorico, il giallo era la luce rassicurante del sole, che divenne poi in tutte le religioni il dio
pi importante. Il giallo oro il sole, il re, il padre.
Il blu della notte, derivata dal buio nero, ma senza connotazioni terrificanti, il cielo, il regno dove
abitano gli dei e le anime dei defunti, l'infinito, ma anche la dea-madre, che pu generare all'infinito.
La magia si rif ancora oggi ai tre colori primevi, il nero, il bianco, il rosso, i colori pi potenti.
L'aspetto pi puro del potere dei colori era rappresentato dalle pietre preziose, con esse venivano
fabbricati talismani, si riteneva che le gemme fossero luce materializzata. a ogni pianeta era abbinato un
colore, e l'astrologia era diffusa e considerata.
In Egitto il colore aveva un significato assai profondo, infatti rappresentava l'essenza delle cose, e non
l'aspetto, tanto vero che la parola usata significava anche essere.
Dall'epoca minoica al tardo ellenismo, ogni suppellettile, abitazione, abito, tempio nave erano
coloratissimi, anche le sculture erano stuccate e colorate a imitazione del corpo umano. Disegni floreali,
uccelli, figure umane, stelle, animali vari, erano raffigurati sulle pareti delle abitazioni in grande
profusione. Ritrovamenti Fenici, Etruschi, Romani testimoniano della variet e raffinatezza di queste
Mentre nel Mediterraneo venivano usati colori assai vivi, nell'Inghilterra romanizzata si trovano colori
pi sobri: il clima ha sempre influenzato il gusto delle popolazioni.
I colori rappresentavano le forze della natura, e si ammantavano delle stesse virt. Erano considerati un
anello di congiunzione tra la terra e il cielo, tra gli Dei e gli uomini, e l'arcobaleno (il messaggero degli
dei = angelos) era il simbolo del patto di alleanza che gli Dei stringevano con l'umanit, dopo l'infuriare
degli elementi: era la dea Iris (il suo nome significa giuramento degli dei), nata dall'ondina Elettra
(colore - elettricit).
Questo era il significato dell'arcobaleno per i Greci, mentre per i Normanni era il ponte che portava gli
eroi caduti in guerra nel Valhalla, e in Groenlandia era l'orlo del mantello di Dio.
Oggi per noi l'arcobaleno rappresentato dalla scomposizione della luce in sette colori realizzata da
Newton, ma questa un'altra storia...

(Isabella Romanello, Il Giornale della Natura n.96 settembre 1996)


I materiali

Ma dove trovo i mattoni ecologici?

Uno dei maggiori problemi per chi vuole seguire i canoni della bioarchitettura: la reperibilit dei

Per affrontare il problema dei materiali necessari alla realizzazione di edifici o interventi di
ristrutturazione o di manutenzione ordinaria e straordinaria in chiave bioecologica, bisogna, nell'attuale
situazione in Italia, decidere quanto si disposti a pagare per la propria coerenza ambientalista.
I materiali scelti devono rispondere a certe esigenze: evitare nocivit durante il ciclo produttivo e la tossi
cit durante l'uso da parte dell'utente finale; inoltre, devono essere biodegradabili nella fase di
smaltimento dei rifiuti.
Non solo, ma i materiali devono essere reperibili il pi possibile in loco; deve essere possibile rinnovare
le risorse da cui vengono prelevati; le scorte disponibili non devono essere rare; infine, ma non meno
importante, va fatta un'accurata valutazione dei costi energetici necessari a effettuare il trasporto.
La qualit, quindi, pu essere valutata da chiunque anche intuitivamente durante la scelta, pensando alla
quantit di energia immessa nella fase di costruzione o in quella di trasformazione di un edificio; quanto
costa, quindi, in termini energetici, estrarli, lavorarli, trasportarli, produrli, utilizzarli e smaltirli.
Non bisogna infatti mai dimenticare che la societ ecologica una societ lenta, tendenzialmente sempre
pi lenta.
necessario quindi prestare attenzione a non farsi ingannare dai dpliant multicolori che forniscono
indicazioni sui materiali secondo logiche dettate solo dal profitto.

In Italia la bioarchitettura in ritardo...

In alcuni Paesi europei c' richiesta di una nuova qualit dello sviluppo: in questi ultimi decenni anche i
settori industriali hanno gi operato una riconversione produttiva e riqualificato le loro gamme
merceologiche secondo i criteri della cosiddetta Qualit Globale.
In Italia le cose stanno in ben altro modo.
L'imprenditoria illuminata assente, la richiesta di progettazione in chiave bioecologica o
ambientalmente responsabile bassissima, l'utenza disorganizzata.
La questione dei materiali va quindi inquadrata all'interno di questa situazione.
Al di l di alcuni piccoli gruppi, che cercano di autorganizzarsi, il mondo della produzione, in generale,
sembra ignorare la Qualit Globale, il come e il che cosa produrre pi che il quanto produrre, la qualit
ecologica, in altre parole, sia del processo produttivo che dei singoli prodotti necessari alle costruzioni.
Vengono inoltre ignorati i desideri del consumatore, che non considerato come interlocutore principale
delle strategie aziendali, anche se bisogna ammettere che nel richiedere prodotti puliti l'utente si
esprime spesso in forma disordinata.
Le industrie che producono componenti per l'edilizia e per l'arredamento tendono quindi a nascondere,
come avviene per l'agricoltura biologica, i limiti e le mancanze dei propri prodotti.
Cos facendo si finisce per favorire le aziende straniere, che infatti stanno gi predisponendo le strategie
di penetrazione sul nostro mercato.
Nell'Italia settentrionale si incontrano infatti sempre pi spesso autoveicoli carichi di mattoni che
arrivano dai Paesi con i quali confiniamo a nord.
Anche nei punti vendita delle grandi citt che si occupano di bricolage sempre pi facile trovare
prodotti per il fai da te ecologico, che sono importati.
Ancora poco impegnato il settore dell'edilizia, anche se quotidianamente accusato dalla stampa per gli
alti livelli di inquinamento indoor, dovuto ai prodotti molto spesso derivati dal settore petrolchimico
(circa il 70 per cento). Questo inquinamento incide per di pi moltissimo sui costi che tutti dobbiamo
pagare per la salute pubblica.
Diversamente accade in Svizzera, Austria, Germania, dove lo stesso settore gi da anni in grado di
fornire prodotti di reale qualit ecologica.
Il problema molto grave anche perch, secondo una ricerca promossa dall'Organizzazione Mondiale
della Sanit, solo il cinque per cento dei prodotti usati in edilizia risulta innocuo.

In questo quadro l'ANAB, l'Associazione Nazionale per l'Architettura Bioecologica, cerca di sviluppare
programmi di ricerca e promozione sui materiali e l'applicazione esemplare di nuovi prodotti con aziende
che lo ritengano strategico per il proprio sviluppo.

... eppure qualcosa si muove

Ma tornando ai problemi del rapporto con l'utenza, che necessita di informazioni sul come, sul che cosa,
su dove comprare materiali idonei agli interventi in bioedilizia, l'ANAB sta cercando di organizzare un
servizio di informazione per i soci secondo una distribuzione geografica delle proprie rappresentanze sul
territorio nazionale.
Va detto che comunque molto difficile, da parte dell'associazione, fornire informazioni di base, anche
perch risulta impossibile garantire nel tempo la conformit degli stessi alla bioedilizia, non avendo a
disposizione da parte dei produttori la biografia completa dei prodotti.
Ci sono comunque, al di l di alcuni importatori localizzati in Italia settentrionale, alcuni soggetti su cui
si pu fare affidamento, in linea di massima.
Sono i produttori che lavorano con metodi artigianali, sopravvissuti al processo di industrializzazione
forzata avvenuta negli ultimi 40 anni nell'edilizia.
Ci sono poi alcune industrie che, al di l dei propri orientamenti filosofici, annoverano, tra le loro
gamme, prodotti semilavorati o finiti, commercialmente interessanti per gli scopi che ci prefissiamo.
C' inoltre da un po' di tempo anche un altro settore che si sta organizzando sul mercato: quello del
recupero di vecchi componenti dell'edilizia (coppi, mattoni, travi in legno), a cui ci si pu rivolgere,
specialmente per i lavori di manutenzione ordinaria e straordinaria.
Comunque, necessario, a chi vuole concretamente intervenire in chiave bioecologica, avere a
disposizione oltre ai materiali anche gli artigiani che conoscano come applicarli o usarli opportunamente.
Come ugualmente credo sia necessario rivolgersi a dei tecnici responsabili che siano in grado di guidare
l'utente attraverso questo percorso non facile, a partire dall'organizzazione del progetto e dalla gestione
delle maestranze nel cantiere, per giungere serenamente alla realizzazione del proprio desiderio
ecologico: abitare in maniera sana.

(Severpaolo Tagliasacchi, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.8 settembre 1992)

Questo legno, diffidate dalle imitazioni

Per definire ecologici i mobili di casa essi devono avere alcuni requisiti di base. Vediamo quali,
dall'esperienza di un artigiano che opera utilizzando materiali ecocompatibili

La prima esigenza che spinge verso i mobili ecologici la salute di chi li produce e di chi poi li mette in
casa propria. Il contatto quotidiano con i materiali e le sostanze tossiche usate mette a grave rischio la
salute dei lavoratori del settore, soprattutto nel lungo periodo. Essi presentano sempre pi spesso
fenomeni di sensibilizzazione a varie sostanze chimiche, soprattutto i solventi; sono sintomi della
saturazione dei sistemi immunitari delle persone.
L'impiego di materiali esenti da sostanze tossiche e nocive rende meno pericolosi, quindi, gli ambienti di
lavoro e quelli domestici, gi gravati da mille altri fattori di microinquinamento.
importantissima anche la scelta del legno, che non deve essere trattato con antiparassitari, deve
provenire da coltivazioni arboree nazionali o europee (Francia, ex-Jugoslavia) e in ogni caso non dalle
foreste pluviali tropicali (Africa, Sud America, Sud Est asiatico), per non incrementare il disboscamento
quasi sempre indiscriminato. Normalmente invece viene usato il truciolare (vedi box).
Per comprendere meglio il rapporto qualit-prezzo, basti dire che il truciolare nobilitato, la soluzione pi
usata nella produzione industriale di arredamenti, costa per metro quadro dieci volte meno
dell'equivalente in lamellare di faggio.

Il legno giusto
Le essenze adatte alla produzione di mobili sono diverse.

Le resinose (conifere) comprendono abete, pino di Svezia e di Carelia, larice, pino cembro (cirmolo).
Sono legni teneri, molto profumati, usati soprattutto nel Nord Europa e nelle valli alpine. Sono poco
adatti per arredamenti di citt perch creano, se nodosi, uno stucchevole effetto baita di montagna.
Sono da preferire le latifoglie (faggio, acero, quercia, frassino, noce) perch i loro legni sono pi
resistenti e durevoli.
Il faggio e il noce sono i due estremi da prendere in considerazione: il faggio crudo di colore chiaro e
quello evaporato di colore bruno-rosato hanno un legno decisamente robusto, di aspetto sempre piacevole
e dal costo pi basso.
Il noce nazionale da sempre il legno pi usato per mobili pregiati, data l'alta qualit e la bellezza delle
sue venature. A causa del costo pi elevato si pu usare per mobili di piccole dimensioni ma pregevoli.
Anche gli alberi da frutto sono una categoria di essenze utili per i mobili: melo, ciliegio e pero.
Il pi usato dei tre il ciliegio, perch se ne ricava legname di maggiori dimensioni.
Il legno di pero selvatico, di colore rosato, dalla tessitura finissima, bellissimo ma difficile da trovare, e
ha dimensioni ridotte.

Il massello
Il legno da lavorazione massiccio o massello, in tavole, accanto ai pregi ha notevoli problemi di
lavorazione: lunga stagionatura ed essiccazione, notevole scarto di materiale dovuto a fessurazioni,
imbarcamenti (avvitamento della tavola), marciume e nodi non utilizzabili. Per rendere pi sicuro
l'assemblaggio dei mobili necessario ridurre al minimo la larghezza delle tavole incollate. Tutto ci
rende il legno massello molto costoso e poco affidabile per la costruzione di mobili di grandi dimensioni
come gli armadi.
Viene in aiuto per risolvere tutti questi problemi il legno massello lamellare. Questo nasce come
recupero di scarti di lavorazione, utilizzando listelli di piccole dimensioni che vengono poi assemblati
con incastri a pettine e colle non tossiche. Se ne ricavano pannelli di grande formato, di notevole
robustezza e affidabilit, con i quali possibile costruire mobili di ogni dimensione, dagli armadi alle
librerie, dalle cucine agli arredamenti per negozi.
Nella realizzazione di mobili sani ed ecocompatibili, a queste indubbie qualit del legno va abbinato un
disegno essenziale che, mirando alla funzionalit dell'oggetto, esprima qualit estetiche non
superficiali, fruibili nel tempo. Equilibrio non facile da raggiungere, ma ugualmente da perseguire.
Insomma, i mobili in legno vero, con prodotti non tossici, vernici e cere biologiche, costano di pi anche
perch non possono essere fatti che da artigiani. Daltro canto, la produzione ecologica, che
personalizzata e su misura, garantisce la salute, una migliore funzionalit e una messa a fuoco dei gusti e
delle esigenze del consumatore.

(Franco Bevilacqua, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.15 maggio 1993)


I materiali per i mobili

No Si
Formaldeide Colle viniliche
un antifermentativo presente nelle colle termoindurenti Non sono naturali, ma se rispettano certe formulazioni (assenza
ureiche. Ha funzione antimuffa e accelera l'indurimento della di formaldeide, di solventi e metalli pesanti) non sono tossiche,
colla a caldo. Riduce quindi i costi di produzione ma non danno risultati buoni e durevoli. Il costo solo leggermente
essenziale; contenuto nel compensato di pioppo o faggio, nel superiore.
compensato listellare e nel truciolare (o truciolato). La
formaldeide viene rilasciata nell'ambiente e la sua presenza
rivelata dall'olfatto: ha un odore acre e pungente; in gran
quantit provoca lacrimazione. A lungo periodo cancerogeno.
Per questo, a differenza che in Italia, all'estero queste colle
devono contenere dei preparati che ne limitano l'emissione nel

Vernici biologiche prive di solventi

Solventi usati nelle vernici poliuretaniche. Le vernici biologiche usano solo prodotti naturali come olio di
I solventi e le vernici poliuretaniche a due componenti sono lino, olio di tung, colofonia, dammar, essenza e olio di pino e
prodotti di sintesi derivati dal petrolio e possono contenere xilolo solventi estratti dagli agrumi.
e toluolo (cancerogeni). Hanno tempi di abbattimento molto

Dura di pi, pi resistente e affidabile, pi caldo e piacevole
Truciolare al tatto e permette effetti cromatici
Il pannello truciolare (o truciolato) fatto con frammenti di legno
(non sempre di qualit), impastati con un legante a base di
resine sintetiche e pressati (a volte questo nobilitato, ovvero
rivestito sulle due facce da uno strato plastico di carta
melaminica che imita un legno pregiato).
Contiene tanta pi formaldeide quanto pi spesso.

Gli elettrodomestici

Con una potenza che si aggira intorno ai 2500 W, la lavatrice fra gli elettrodomestici che consumano di
pi; un maggiore o minore consumo energetico dipende per in larga parte dalle temperature di lavaggio
e dai criteri di utilizzo. Ecco perch cos importante saper usare correttamente la propria lavatrice. Lo
stesso principio vale per la lavastoviglie; sceglietene comunque una energeticamente efficiente e con
programmi di lavaggio economici. Se avete lo scaldabagno a gas, installate lavatrice e lavastoviglie in
modo che carichino l'acqua gi riscaldata dallo scaldabagno, senza che debba essere riscaldata dalle

Consigli per l'uso

scegliete una lavatrice con il selezionatore di temperatura separato dal selezionatore di programma
pretrattate le macchie ostinate inumidendole e strofinandole con sapone di Marsiglia o con
fate il bucato solo a pieno carico
lavate a una temperatura massima di 60 gradi: a temperature troppo elevate i tessuti si rovinano pi
tenete la serpentina disincrostata facendo periodicamente un lavaggio a vuoto con un litro di aceto
pulite periodicamente il filtro (ogni quattro-cinque lavaggi)
non fate il prelavaggio, ma piuttosto fate l'ammollo in lavatrice spegnendola per qualche ora a met

l'elettrodomestico pi diffuso; incide fortemente sulla nostra bolletta anche perch rimane
costantemente acceso. Il maggiore o minore consumo dipende in larga parte dalle dimensioni e dai criteri
di utilizzo.

Consigli per l'uso:

acquistatene uno di piccole dimensioni, adeguato alle vostre reali necessit
installatelo lontano dalla cucina e dal termosifone, e dove non possa essere colpito dai raggi del sole
regolatelo al minimo o poco pi: otterrete cos la temperatura ideale per la maggior parte dei cibi
apritelo il meno possibile e sempre per tempi brevissimi
controllate periodicamente le guarnizioni di gomma che garantiscono la chiusura ermetica del frigo, e
sostituitele se necessario
lasciate raffreddare a temperatura ambiente i cibi molto caldi prima di metterli nel frigorifero
verificate frequentemente che sulle pareti interne non si formi del ghiaccio; eventualmente sbrinate.

Fornelli e forno
Valgono qui le stesse considerazioni fatte per il riscaldamento dell'acqua: se avete una cucina o un forno
elettrico, sostituiteli al pi presto con quelli a gas. Ammortizzerete la spesa in breve tempo, considerando,
ad esempio, che in termini di bolletta il forno e le piastre elettriche fanno spendere pi del doppio di
quelli a gas. Inoltre il sistema a gas consente un controllo preciso e immediato delle temperature di
cottura, non si perde tempo a preriscaldare forno e fornelli e non si rischia di ustionarsi mettendo la mano
su una piastra che sembra fredda.

Consigli per l'uso della cucina elettrica:

preriscaldate il forno solo quando davvero indispensabile (ad esempio per dolci che debbano
spegnete sempre forno e piastre un po' prima della fine della cottura: i cibi continueranno a cuocere
procuratevi un fornetto a cupola, di quelli che si mettono sui fornelli (costa dalle 30 alle 40.000 lire) e
usatelo tutte le volte che dovete cuocere piccole quantit di cibo. Questo consiglio vale anche per le
cucine a gas.
non aprite lo sportello del forno mentre acceso, ma controllate la cottura attraverso il vetro, che deve
essere tenuto sempre ben pulito.

Boiler e acqua calda

Il boiler elettrico ad accumulo forse il peggior nemico del risparmio energetico: durante la doppia
trasformazione dell'energia (da calore a elettricit nelle centrali; da elettricit a calore in casa) si disperde
pi del 65 per cento dell'energia inizialmente immessa nel sistema. Cercate di sostituirlo al pi presto con
lo scaldabagno a gas, soprattutto se nella vostra zona arriva il metano. Ne otterrete oltretutto un grande
vantaggio economico e pratico: lo scaldabagno a gas riscalda l'acqua istantaneamente al momento del
bisogno, e non si rischia di rimanere improvvisamente senza acqua calda.

Consigli per l'uso del boiler elettrico:

sostituitelo appena possibile con uno scaldabagno a gas
regolatelo in modo da ottenere acqua a una temperatura massima di 50-60 gradi
tenetelo acceso solo di notte; ricordate di spegnerlo quando si va in vacanza e nei fine settimana
fate eseguire una manutenzione periodica ogni due-tre anni per mantenere la serpentina libera da
assicuratevi della perfetta tenuta dei rubinetti dell'acqua calda.

(Clotilde Masi, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.14 aprile1993)


Consigli per luso del boiler elettrico

Il pi pratico? Sicuramente il robot, un elettrodomestico che spreme, centrifuga, trita e frulla. Ha un motore piuttosto potente ed
progettato e prodotto in modo da garantire l'assoluta sicurezza.
Esistono anche elettrodomestici pi semplici: centrifughe e frullatori, che si differenziano tra di loro in quanto la centrifuga estrae molto
pi succo dai frutti; spremiagrumi, i cui vantaggi di praticit rispetto a quello manuale sono pressoch inesistenti; grattugie; sbattitori.
Sono tutti apparecchi che richiedono un'accurata manutenzione: il contenitore, le eventuali lamine e i filtri vanno lavati con il normale
detersivo per i piatti. Il motore, invece, va pulito quando necessario con un telo pulito e asciutto.
C' chi sostiene che il calore elevato prodotto dall'elettrodomestico mentre tritura, spreme o centrifuga, rovina le propriet nutritive
dell'alimento. Certo che alcuni elettrodomestici, come la centrifuga, ci permettono di ottenere succhi di frutta o di verdura in tempi
minimi. Inoltre, per quanto il calore possa rovinare il prodotto finale, si tratta pur sempre di un frutto o di una verdura freschi, quindi con
delle sue caratteristiche che l'elettrodomestico non potr rovinare totalmente.
Sono da evitare, invece, quei piccoli elettrodomestici che non presentano svantaggi e si limitano a consumare energia.
Ben diverso invece il discorso per la friggitrice. Riempita di olio, si procede alla filtratura e all'aggiunta di nuovo olio ogni volta che viene
utilizzata. L'olio inoltre si cambia interamente ogni otto-dieci volte, a seconda degli alimenti che sono stati fritti. sicuramente pi salutare
togliersi la soddisfazione di un piatto fritto friggendo l'alimento in padella, con dell'olio che verr utilizzato una sola volta e poi gettato,
senza i rischi in cui si pu incorrere con un olio riciclato.


Come si risparmia energia in casa

Il consumo d'energia eccessivo: cominciamo con ridurre i consumi superflui in casa nostra.
Ecco i consigli per salvare insieme l'ambiente e il portafoglio

Il consumo di energia che avviene all'interno delle nostre abitazioni rappresenta il 23 per cento del
consumo energetico totale in Italia (1989). Questo dato gi ci fa capire come intervenire per ridurre
questa porzione pu influire in misura non indifferente sull'intero bilancio energetico.
Ma se la riduzione del consumo domestico andasse al di l degli interventi di carattere tecnico,
coinvolgendo il comportamento dell'utente, il risultato sarebbe ben superiore. Uno stile di vita meno
consumistico si riflette, infatti, sull'intero sistema socio-economico, ovvero sul ciclo produttivo di beni e
servizi, e, quindi, su tutti i flussi energetici che ne fanno parte. Occorrerebbe meno energia per
l'estrazione delle materie prime, per la produzione, il trasporto, la distribuzione e l'uso dei prodotti e
Sono due i fattori determinanti sui quali agire; la quantit e la qualit, ovvero ridurre la quantit di
energia e di materiali usati e impiegare energia e materiali pi efficienti, che rendano lo stesso servizio
impiegando meno risorse e determinando meno rifiuti.
Ridurre la quantit significa usare meno, cio risparmiare, evitare gli sprechi ma, soprattutto,
rinunciare. E qui pare crollino i miti del benessere! Invece, proprio il significato di quest'ultimo
termine che dovr essere rivisto. Rinunciare, nell'ottica di uno sviluppo ambientalmente sostenibile,
non significa fare a meno di tutti i privilegi che l'uomo ha realizzato, ma distinguere fra beni e servizi che
migliorano effettivamente la qualit della vita e beni che, invece, in definitiva la peggiorano, rendendo
soddisfazioni perlopi apparenti e limitate.
Questi ultimi sono caratterizzati da alto consumo specifico di energia e risorse.
Allora il nostro stile di vita potrebbe orientarsi verso un modo che potremmo definire pi semplice ma
pi gustoso, pi sano, espressione di culture e saggezza da recuperare. Non c' infatti da inventare nulla di
complicato o avveniristico, ma vanno semplicemente accolte e assimilate le abitudini della vita legata
alla natura che l'uomo ha praticato durante quasi tutta la sua storia, fino a pochi decenni fa.
Non ritornare ai tempi passati, ma fare tesoro della cultura passata per vivere meglio il nostro tempo e
preparare un futuro migliore.
Oggi le possibilit di uso e di gestione dell'energia in casa sono enormemente pi numerose rispetto al
Gli usi di energia nella casa possono essere suddivisi in termini (calore per il riscaldamento, produzione
di acqua calda, cucina) ed elettrici obbligati (energia elettrica per l'illuminazione o il funzionamento di

elettrodomestici). Con tecnologie innovative e accorgimenti tecnici possibile risparmiare anche il 40

per cento fin dal primo anno, a parit di comfort, ma ancora di pi si pu fare con la modifica dei nostri

(Maurizio Bacci, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.8 aprile 1993)


Diciannove regole per il risparmio ecologico

Fate un'analisi della situazione energetica nella vostra abitazione: fonti energetiche, tipi di
apparecchiature e di impianti, modo d'uso, e verificate le relative spese di acqua, gas, elettricit ed
elaborate un adeguato programma di intervento.
Non producete calore pi del necessario: meglio un maglione in pi che un grado di troppo!
Evitate l'uso di energia elettrica dove pu essere sostituita da altre fonti.
Se abitate sotto-tetto provvedete all'isolamento del tetto o sottotetto dal quale si disperde buona
parte del calore.
Installate doppi vetri e guarnizioni agli infissi.
Se possibile, installate un impianto solare che pu soddisfare il fabbisogno familiare di acqua
Provvedete all'adeguata manutenzione delle apparecchiature per il riscaldamento e l'acqua sanitaria.
Usate l'acqua con cura, nella giusta misura e temperatura, ad esempio: una doccia di tre minuti
impiega il 60 per cento in meno di energia di un bagno.
Installate nei rubinetti i diffusori del getto che, miscelando l'acqua all'aria, ne riducono l'uscita.
Per ogni apparecchio che acquistate, verificatene la bont in termini di consumo di energia e altre
risorse, di affidabilit, assistenza e durata nel tempo (che rappresenta anch'essa, oltre a un vantaggio
economico, un minor impatto ambientale provocato dalla fabbricazione e dal rifiuto del prodotto
Il congelatore e la lavastoviglie non sono elettrodomestici indispensabili: valutate attentamente la
sua utilit prima di acquistarli.
Sconsigliamo vivamente l'utilizzo di forni e fornelli elettrici a favore del gas: almeno doppiamente
conveniente sia dal lato energetico che economico.
Un primo modo di risparmiare energia, anche in questo caso, quello di scegliere un prodotto pi
economo. Tra diversi modelli ci possono essere dei risparmi fino al 30 per cento.
Usate lampade compatte a risparmio energetico nei locali (cucina) ove avviene un uso prolungato,
in quanto frequenti accensioni ne riducono la vita.
Adattate l'illuminazione alle vostre attivit. Se possibile, preferitela localizzata piuttosto che
diffusa su tutta la stanza.
Possibilmente, fate a meno del condizionatore d'aria.
Acquistate prodotti durevoli, facili da riparare e per i quali fabbricazione e trasporto hanno richiesto
meno energia.
Cercate di prolungare il pi possibile la vita dei prodotti, dopodich provate a ripararli o usarli per
altri scopi.
Riducete il consumo di carne: occorre circa 10 volte pi energia per produrre in carne un
equivalente di calorie di origine vegetale, per non parlare dei gravi danni alla salute umana determinati
dall'eccessivo consumo di grassi.

Gli impianti

Stufe & termosifonie bioedilizia

possibile installare sistemi di riscaldamento sani e con un basso consumo energetico, progettando
anzitutto gli edifici in modo razionale e con un corretto isolamento termico.

Termosifoni, termoconvettori, stufe in ghisa e in ceramica, caminetti, piastre radianti, riscaldamento a

battiscopa, a pavimento, a parete... tutti sistemi da impiegare nelle nostre case per poterci riscaldare nei
mesi freddi. Non abbiamo che limbarazzo della scelta! In passato non era cos. Alcune decine danni fa,
ci si riscaldava con una stufa a legna o carbone e magari solamente nella cucina, mentre nelle altre stanze
non vi era riscaldamento. Ancora prima, esistevano unicamente camini aperti in alcune stanze. Questi
sono solo ricordi e, ai nostri giorni, siamo nella situazione opposta: le case sono spesso eccessivamente
riscaldate. La bioedilizia si accorta di questa situazione e ne segnala gli inconvenienti per la nostra
salute, prendendo in considerazione i diversi tipi di riscaldamento ambientale, i quali, non sempre,
garantiscono un sano clima abitativo. Un sano clima abitativo determinato da un buon progetto
costruttivo della casa, dai materiali che ci circondano e, nella stagione fredda, dal sistema di
riscaldamento adottato. Latmosfera abitativa adatta, non si ottiene con i soli parametri di temperatura e
umidit; vi sono altri fattori che interagiscono nel formare un ambiente sano e confortevole: tipo di calore
e sua provenienza, temperatura e ionizzazione dellaria, polveri, campi di disturbo magnetici ed
elettromagnetici... Parlando di calore, dobbiamo inizialmente pensare ad un buon isolamento termico che
consenta di ottenere un comfort abitativo adeguato, limitando le dispersioni, che diminuiscono il
rendimento di un qualunque sistema di riscaldamento adottato.

Lenergia solare
Il riscaldamento degli edifici si pu effettuare impiegando lenergia solare usando prevalentemente due
sistemi: attivo e passivo. I sistemi attivi prevedono dei collettori da montare prevalentemente sui tetti
degli edifici e un accumulatore termico separato (serbatoio dacqua, letto di sassi). Pompata attraverso il
collettore, lacqua (o laria) assorbe il calore e lo trasporta nellaccumulatore e da qui viene portato ai
locali da riscaldare mediante un impianto di distribuzione meccanico. I sistemi passivi accumulano e
trasportano il calore usando dinamiche naturali come lirraggiamento, la conduzione, la convezione. la
costruzione stessa che deve essere progettata in funzione di questo scopo tenendo conto delle particolari
caratteristiche ambientali e climatiche. sempre prevista unampia parete vetrata a sud per captare i
raggi del sole (effetto serra) e una massa termica (muro in mattoni cotti o crudi, pietra o acqua) per
lassorbimento, laccumulo e la distribuzione del calore. In estate vengono previste apposite schermature
per limitare lassorbimento dei raggi solari. I sistemi di riscaldamento solare passivi offrono un buon
risparmio energetico e dei costi di manutenzione relativamente bassi perch non usano pompe, ventole,
compressori, radiatori, tubazioni... soggetti ad un deterioramento inevitabile. Inoltre promuovono un
clima abitativo confortevole grazie al loro sistema di propagazione del calore per irraggiamento e per
convezione naturale. Uno dei difetti principali di questi sistemi la difficolt di regolazione dovuta alla
gran capacit daccumulo e quindi dinerzia termica del sistema che non riesce a rispondere rapidamente
alle variazioni di temperatura. Valutando poi che il riscaldamento solare funziona se il sole c, e
considerando che, al nord, il freddo e cielo coperto sono pi frequenti che non con il sole, sarebbe
opportuna unintegrazione con un riscaldamento ausiliario.

I combustibili per limpianto di riscaldamento

Considerando, quindi, la necessit di disporre di un sistema di riscaldamento, si preveda o no lintervento
del sole, possiamo passare in rassegna quali dovrebbero essere le sue caratteristiche peculiari atte a
rendere il clima abitativo sano e piacevole.
Se non si preleva energia direttamente dal sole, ogni produzione di calore sempre inquinante; la
combustione, infatti, che sia gas, gasolio, cherosene, legna o carbone, d inevitabilmente origine ad una
certa emissione di sostanze nocive come ossido dazoto e di carbonio oltre a vari composti chimico-

organici. I combustibili per gli impianti di riscaldamento maggiormente diffusi attualmente sono il
metano, il gas liquido, il gasolio, la legna ed il carbone. Dal punto di vista dellinquinamento, la
combustione del gas metano certamente la pi pulita, producendo solamente anidride carbonica ed
acqua. Il benessere termico coinvolge totalmente lorganismo umano rendendolo pi attivo e resistente
alle malattie. Lattuale tipo di vita che conduciamo, protetti da ogni sbalzo termico allinterno degli
edifici e delle automobili, ci ha resi pi vulnerabili alle variazioni di temperatura. Gli sbalzi termici sono
necessari per il nostro organismo al fine di poter mantenersi in salute; un tempo, luomo era abituato agli
sbalzi di temperatura; oggi basta un soffio di vento e subito ci ritroviamo con tosse e mal di gola.
Labitudine di vivere in ambienti con temperature artificiali elevate non consigliabile: mal di testa,
stanchezza, irritabilit, disturbi circolatori, sono i primi malesseri che compaiono. Lavori intellettuali
richiedono ambienti non troppo caldi per essere svolti nel modo migliore, perci conviene indossare un
maglione in pi e respirare aria fresca; durante la notte, laria non dovrebbe essere troppo riscaldata.
Mantenere tutti gli ambienti alla medesima temperatura, come si usa attualmente, non opportuno;
piccole differenze di 2/3 C tra i diversi locali sono un ottimo stimolo per lorganismo.
Gli effetti del riscaldamento sul benessere fisico sono legati a diversi parametri relativi allaria
dellambiente riscaldato e cio: temperatura, umidit relativa, velocit, ionizzazione e presenza
dinquinanti e polvere. La convinzione attuale ed errata di riscaldare laria per riscaldare lambiente ha
portato a prediligere sistemi termici a convezione. Questo comporta che negli ambienti laria sia troppo
calda, secca, con molta polvere in sospensione e quindi poco salubre.

Conduzione, convezione e irraggiamento

Il calore, ci insegna la fisica, si pu propagare in tre modi diversi, che a volte possono coesistere:
conduzione, convezione e irraggiamento.
la conduzione avviene quando i corpi sono a contatto diretto e la velocit di trasmissione dipende dalla
conducibilit termica del materiale stesso. il caso, ad esempio, del passaggio di calore attraverso un
muro con le sue due facce a temperature diverse;
la convezione avviene con trasporto di materia, e cio con movimento di molecole; questa trasmissione
quindi solamente possibile nei fluidi (liquidi o gas). Se mettiamo su di una fiamma una pentola dacqua
a riscaldare, non sono le molecole che trasmettono il calore alle vicine, ma sono le stesse molecole calde
che si muovono in modo ascensionale creando delle correnti chiamate convettive. La spiegazione del
fenomeno immediata: lacqua sul fondo si riscalda, perci diventa meno densa e sale alla superficie per
la spinta archimedea, lasciando il posto alla fredda pi densa che discende lateralmente. Anche nei gas, e
quindi nellaria, la propagazione del calore avviene per convezione: basta osservare un oggetto posto di l
di un calorifero acceso per scorgere un tremolio dellatmosfera che rivela lesistenza dei moti convettivi
dellaria calda;
lirraggiamento la trasmissione di calore sotto forma di raggi, analoghi ai raggi luminosi, ma che
vengono chiamati raggi calorifici o raggi infrarossi. Il calore solare non pu giungere alla Terra, n per
convezione, n per conduzione perch il nostro pianeta si trova isolato nel vuoto e mancano molecole che
trasportino il calore del Sole. Il calore solare giunge alla Terra nello stesso modo della luce, sotto forma
donde elettromagnetiche cio per mezzo di raggi che si propagano anche nel vuoto. Prerogativa di questi
raggi calorifici, che attraversano laria senza effetti riscaldanti su di essa e solamente incontrando un
corpo solido trasformano la loro energia in calore. Riprendendo le nostre considerazioni, il comfort
ambientale dipende dalla temperatura dellaria del locale e dalle superfici che lo circondano. Pi sono
calde le pareti perimetrali e pi laria pu essere mantenuta fresca a parit di comfort. In effetti, il calore
radiante delle pareti pi importante, ai fini del benessere, della temperatura dellaria nel locale a
conferma dei benefici dellirraggiamento come riscaldamento. Il comfort dipende anche dai movimenti
dellaria. Pi laria in movimento e pi assorbe calore allorganismo, per cui, anche se laria calda, si
ha la sensazione che lambiente sia pi freddo di quello che in realt. Il riscaldamento a convezione, a
termoconvettori o a termosifoni lavora prevalentemente riscaldando laria. Siccome laria calda risulta
pi leggera, sale verso lalto, creando delle correnti convettive spiacevoli che sottraggono calore al corpo
oltre che sprecare notevoli energie. Laria, anche se calda, non riesce ad elevare la temperatura dei muri
circostanti e, se questa rimane fredda e inferiore di 4/5 C alla temperatura dellaria, per non sentire
freddo, dovremo innalzare ancora di qualche grado la temperatura con il risultato davere aria troppo

calda, polverosa, deionizzata e superfici perimetrali comunque fredde.

Per questi importanti motivi la bioedilizia propone nei sistemi di riscaldamento per irraggiamento,
piuttosto che nei sistemi convettivi, il modo migliore per ottenere un sano e piacevole benessere termico.
Un corpo che irradia calore crea inevitabilmente dei leggeri moti convettivi dovuti al riscaldamento
dellaria a contatto delle sue superfici calde. Questo comunque un bene perch stato dimostrato che il
benessere maggiore si ottiene con un minimo di moti convettivi, che non sollevano polvere e non
asciugano laria, ma la riscaldano quel minimo indispensabile da renderla piacevole: anche in natura il
sole ci riscalda per irraggiamento, ma riscalda anche il suolo che a sua volta trasmette calore allaria che
lo lambisce e che si riscalda, creando a sua volta leggeri moti convettivi.

Il clima di un edificio
Il clima interno di un edificio non dovrebbe essere troppo umido. Leccessiva umidit rende il caldo
afoso, rallenta il metabolismo, provoca stanchezza e fa proliferare funghi e muffe. Purtroppo nelle case
doggi, grazie ai materiali impiegati non adatti ed alle moderne tecniche costruttive, i muri non traspirano
e succede che le stanze siano a volte grondanti dacqua per relativa condensa nelle zone pi fredde
(piastrelle, vetri, ponti termici), oppure troppo secche a causa di uno scorretto uso del riscaldamento. La
scelta, quindi, di un sistema di riscaldamento deve orientarsi su quelli che si comportano il pi possibile
come la radiazione solare, che riscaldino cio prevalentemente per irraggiamento, riscaldando il corpo e
non laria, senza circolazione di polveri n sgradevoli correnti daria. Il calore radiante penetra nel corpo
in modo pi profondo che non quello trasmesso dallaria e, studi nel campo naturopatico, lo hanno
paragonato allelioterapia in quanto ai benefici che se ne possono ricavare per la salute; questo ancora
pi valido se il calore radiante proviene da superfici in terra, pietra o ceramica. Questi materiali naturali
non si caricano elettrostaticamente ed hanno un effetto riduttivo sui moti convettivi dellaria e, quando si
riscaldano, le loro molecole vibrano con una frequenza particolare che noi percepiamo diversa e pi
anche importante che il sistema di riscaldamento adottato non emani, per quanto possibile, sostanze
inquinanti, non provochi la deionizzazione dellaria, non consumi troppo ossigeno e troppa energia. Lo
stesso calore radiante non tutto uguale; il calore ottenuto con acqua calda solo caldo, mentre il calore
della fiamma diretta, o del sole, ci dona un benessere diverso, che non spiegabile a livello fisico, ma
che sappiamo ci congeniale, parte di quellenergia ancestrale che in sintonia con il nostro essere.

(Massimo Sanino, Il Giornale della Natura n.137 ottobre 2000)

Le caratteristiche peculiari che un buon sistema di riscaldamento

deve possedere

trasmissione del calore principalmente per irraggiamento;

superfici radianti in materiali naturali come pietra e ceramica;

il calore dovrebbe provenire da una fiamma direttamente e non con acqua riscaldata;

non avere acqua circolante in tubazioni, in modo particolare nei pavimenti;

non distorcere il campo magnetico naturale;

non generare campi elettromagnetici;

inquinare il meno possibile;

avere un elevato rendimento termico allinterno dellabitato;

poca manutenzione e bassi costi di esercizio

Aria, luce, gas: la casa pulita


Gli impianti tecnologici in bioedilizia sono perfezionati e adattati alle nostre necessit fisiologiche

L'uomo, nel rispetto istintivo dell'equilibrio naturale, ha edificato da sempre i suoi rifugi utilizzando
tecnologie e materiali che non incidevano negativamente sulla sua salute e sull'ambiente; solamente nella
seconda met di questo secolo esso ha modificato, stravolgendoli, i canoni generali che permettono la
vita sul pianeta.
Oggi c' la tendenza a soffocare i sintomi con rimedi di facciata, mentre l'architettura bioecologica, oltre
a non fermarsi alla semplice denuncia o presa di coscienza dei problemi, tesa alla loro propositiva
invalsa la tendenza a usare in edilizia impianti artificiali sempre pi computerizzati e complessi, la cui
bioecologicit dubbia; inoltre, in generale, sono prese in considerazione principalmente le esigenze
estetico-funzionali e di mercato e non quelle rispondenti alle reali necessit psicofisiche dell'uomo.
Non tutto il progresso negativo; infatti l'attuale mercato ci fornisce alcune tecnologie per impianti che si
sono dimostrate senz'altro positive.

Gli effetti sulla salute

Gli impianti influenzano direttamente la percezione e la qualit del benessere abitativo. Questo in
stretta relazione con i due parametri: quello personale, riguardante il dispendio energetico e l'isolamento
termico dell'abbigliamento, e quello ambientale che considera la temperatura, l'umidit, la carica
elettrostatica e cos via.
Il comfort abitativo si realizza quando c' equilibrio tra tutte le componenti dei due parametri
sopramenzionati, come avviene da sempre in natura.
Negli attuali edifici tecnologici a volte troviamo un clima interno molto diverso da quello naturale.
Ad esempio, gli impianti di condizionamento centralizzati generalmente si dimostrano inadeguati se non
addirittura, in certi casi, nocivi alla salute. Molto spesso mancano di manutenzione periodica, sono tarati
senza considerare le reali esigenze dell'abitante, influenzano negativamente la qualit microbiologica
dell'aria con alterazioni dell'equilibrio ionico, movimenti convettivi d'aria, e cos via.
La qualit scadente dell'aria negli ambienti pu provocare problemi fisiologici, che spaziano dalle
patologie dell'apparato respiratorio all'insorgere di febbri.
Temperature troppo elevate possono provocare calo della concentrazione, stanchezza precoce, nausea.
Gli spostamenti d'aria degli impianti ad aria calda sono responsabili di dolori nevralgici, articolari e di
patologie dell'apparato respiratorio.
L'umidit eccessiva provoca stanchezza, asme, allergie e reumatismi.
Per quanto concerne gli impianti elettrici, quelli non protetti possono produrre influenze negative sul
sistema nervoso e circolatorio.
La legislazione italiana in questo settore carente. A volte vengono indicate molte caratteristiche
tecniche del prodotto, ma non si fa menzione del grado di bioecocompatibilit con l'uomo; non si indica
la quantit di energia utilizzata per la produzione e per il trasporto n il tipo di processo produttivo;
inoltre si ignorano la qualit e la provenienza delle materie prime usate.
Infine, non vengono prese in considerazione la possibilit di un futuro riciclaggio n l'eventuale tossicit.

Principi generali
Un edificio si pu definire sano non solo se le sue parti strutturali e di finitura lo sono, ma anche se gli
impianti rispondono a requisiti di bioecologicit.
Una casa bioecologica deve essere concepita e progettata anche con criteri legati al contenimento del
consumo energetico. Si adotteranno tutti quegli accorgimenti che consentono di utilizzare la sana ed
economica energia solare; inoltre un appropriato isolamento e un parco utilizzo delle fonti energetiche da
combustibili fossili, oltre a consentire un risparmio in termini economici, permettono di limitare
drasticamente l'inquinamento atmosferico.
Le costruzioni bioecologiche costruite con questi principi hanno generalmente i muri con spessori
generosi, ampie finestrature a sud, serre addossate e cos via.
Gli impianti termici distribuiscono calore per irraggiamento, come avviene ad esempio per i radiatori a
battiscopa; in tal modo vengono ridotti i movimenti d'aria e il conseguente spostamento di polveri e

batteri, cosa che avviene normalmente con i classici radiatori dei termosifoni.
Gli impianti elettrici devono essere schermati e provvisti di apparecchiature per limitare l'effetto dei
campi elettromagnetici perturbatori.
Ci si doter in generale di impianti a tecnologia semplice e affidabile.
Questa impostazione permette di produrre all'interno degli ambienti microclimi sempre equilibrati e
omogenei, s da ottenere il benessere psicofisico di chi vi abita.

Il mercato e i costi
In Italia possiamo trovare, anche se non diffusamente, materiali per assemblare impianti biologici di
buonissima qualit. Il loro costo a volte superiore, ma viene ripagato abbondantemente sia dall'ottima
resa sia dalla durata, ma soprattutto dalla tranquillit che determina nel fruitore la percezione di essere
immerso in un clima fisiologicamente salubre
L'importazione di alcuni prodotti, soprattutto dai Paesi d'oltralpe, offre a volte maggiori possibilit e
garanzie, ma le percorrenze su lunghe distanze e i vari passaggi intermedi dal produttore all'utilizzatore
generalmente inducono, soprattutto per motivi etici ed ecologici, a rivolgere l'attenzione verso il mercato
Se prendiamo in considerazione le prestazioni dell'edificio nel tempo, notiamo una notevole riduzione
dell'impegno finanziario per i minori costi di conduzione e manutenzione. Da non dimenticare
l'abbattimento dei costi sociali sanitari dovuto alla sensibile riduzione delle patologie determinata dalle
migliori qualit del clima abitativo.
Un notevole risparmio, anche sui costi iniziali, si pu ottenere installando impianti semplificati nella loro
estensione e distribuzione.
In conclusione, gli impianti degli edifici in genere, siano essi abitazione, luogo di lavoro, ambiente di
svago, devono generare un clima salubre ed essere progettati e costruiti senza essere condizionati dai
dettami della moda.
Essi infatti devono contribuire a rendere l'involucro abitativo permeabile, quasi un continuum
dell'ambiente esterno naturale in cui l'individuo trova istintivamente piacevole soggiornare.

(Enrico Micelli, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.10 novembre 1992)

Fra quattro calde pareti

Gli impianti di riscaldamento possono essere pi sani, gi in fase di progettazione.
I migliori sono quelli a irraggiamento

Gli impianti bioecocompatibili concorrono a modificare il microclima degli ambienti confinati, ovvero
chiusi come quelli casalinghi migliorando le condizioni abitative.
Naturalmente, ci sono anche altri parametri che contribuiscono a crearle: tra quelli personali si possono
citare il dispendio energetico dovuto all'attivit svolta e il tipo di isolamento termico indotto
dall'abbigliamento; fra i parametri ambientali si fa riferimento a grandezze fisiche quali temperatura,
velocit e composizione chimica dell'aria (gas, polveri e particelle in sospensione), umidit, temperatura
superficiale, gradiente termico, asimmetria termica radiante, carica elettrostatica, contaminazione
dell'aria e dell'ambiente antropico (batteri e radiazioni), ionizzazione dell'aria.
L'equilibrio di questi fattori che in natura sono generalmente biocompatibili, consente il comfort
abitativo, cio il corretto rapporto tra elemento umano e il sistema che lo circonda.
La casa a dimensione d'uomo
Ma troppo spesso questi fattori non vengono considerati, nell'edilizia: gli ambienti sono a volte progettati
prendendo principalmente in considerazione le esigenze estetico-funzionali e di mercato e non quelle
rispondenti alle reali necessit psicofisiche dell'uomo; inoltre si sta accentuando l'utilizzo di impianti
termici altamente sofisticati e artificiali in luogo di quelli naturali.
Attualmente, gli impianti di condizionamento si dimostrano inadeguati se non addirittura nocivi alla

I maggiori problemi provengono dai sistemi centralizzati, anche perch molto spesso la manutenzione
non appropriata e la regolazione impossibile su parametri standard (dovrebbe essere invece adeguata
alle esigenze dei singoli ambienti e dei loro fruitori). Tutto ci determina un microclima equilibrato,
notevole gradiente (variazione) di temperatura, grado di umidit casuale, alterazione dell'equilibrio
ionico, movimento convettivo d'aria con diffusione di polveri e batteri tra i quali si possono annoverare
l'Aspergillus e la Legionella Pneumophila che s'annidano e proliferano nei circuiti di climatizzazione.
L'impianto termico bioecologico
Gli edifici bioecologici devono essere progettati secondo i dettami della climatizzazione solare passiva. Il
calore viene distribuito per irraggiamento, cos si riducono i movimenti d'aria e di conseguenza gli
spostamenti di polveri e batteri. Questi impianti consentono l'accumulo di calore negli elementi strutturali
e di arredo, determinando un clima interno di benessere a temperatura limitata.
Anche gli edifici bioecologici sono identificabili per la presenza di notevole massa strutturale (murature
di generose dimensioni) e per l'utilizzo dell'effetto serra (ovvero le finestre rivolte a sud).
Gli elementi strutturali e di arredo devono sostituire un adeguato volano termoigrometrico.
Sono tutti sistemi che utilizzano integralmente e unitariamente l'edificio in modo da non separare tra loro
le funzioni strutturali, di isolamento e di finitura.
Si adottano caldaie a bassa temperatura pressurizzate e possibilmente a condensazione, funzionanti con
combustibili gassosi (metano, biogas e cos via).
Tra i sistemi di riscaldamento in bioedilizia si possono citare quelli a battiscopa, le stufe a grande inerzia
termica, gli impianti a pareti o corpo centrale caldi.
La scelta di un impianto devessere condotta sulla base di principi che prendono in considerazione non
solo il momento dell'utilizzo, ma anche quello relativo alla sua produzione e all'esaurimento delle sue
funzioni, l'inquinamento che pu essere provocato e quindi allo smaltimento. Questo per limitare il pi
possibile; da considerare fin dall'inizio la necessit di riciclare i materiali degli impianti esausti.
Tutto ci risulta di difficile attuazione in un paese come il nostro, privo com di normative, di leggi di
tutela e di reali controlli.
Inoltre il reperimento dei materiali componenti pone non lievi difficolt, anche se negli ultimi anni si sta
assistendo ad un impegno da parte di industriali lungimiranti e attenti ai problemi ecologici.
Con un po' di buona volont si in grado di reperire quanto serve.
Indubbiamente, alcuni prodotti sono molto cari, ma necessario considerare che successivamente
diminuiscono le spese sanitarie e anche quelle di manutenzione e conduzione.

Riscaldamento bioecocompatibile
Sono da privilegiarsi impianti molto semplificati ottimizzati nei consumi-prestazioni, che non formino
anelli chiusi; devono essere schermati, opportunamente isolati in modo tale da non generare vibrazioni
meccaniche e campi elettromagnetici patogeni, soprattutto nelle zone di soggiorno e di riposo.
L'impianto a battiscopa analogo strutturalmente a quello a radiatori: l'unica differenza sta nel fatto che i
corpi scaldanti, posti in corrispondenza del battiscopa, seguono l'andamento delle pareti perimetrali
esterne, riscaldandole.
Queste a loro volta reimmettono calore esclusivamente per irraggiamento, determinando un clima
abitativo confortevole; inoltre le murature lambite contengono una minore percentuale di umidit e
risultano quindi pi salubri e pi coibenti.
Le stufe a grande inerzia termica non si possono considerare dei veri e propri impianti termici, pur se in
alcuni casi esse vengono utilizzate anche per riscaldare l'acqua.
Possono essere costituite da semplice argilla, da pietre dotate di grande inerzia termica, da materiale
refrattario che pu essere rivestito da piastrelle in maiolica, e cos via.
Il calore irraggiato viene accumulato negli elementi strutturali e di arredo, il che evita asimmetrie
radianti. Inoltre, non avendo apparati di combustione e controllo pilotati da componenti elettrici o
elettronici e non possedendo masse metalliche, questo sistema non modifica il clima magnetico ed
elettrico dei locali.
L'impianto a pareti calde ha funzionamento esclusivamente radiante. Si pu riscaldare l'interno dei muri
con l'acqua che con l'aria circolanti in condotte. La simmetria radiante possibile con una corretta

Nell'impianto a corpo centrale caldo, un volume centrale a riscaldare l'edificio per irraggiamento. In
pratica si tratta di una stufa a irraggiamento che si sviluppa su pi piani e che permette di ottenere un
clima termico molto buono. La fonte di calore vera e propria pu essere sia un normale focolare sia un
locala sauna posto al piano pi basso dell'edificio.
Gli ultimi due sistemi trovano in Italia scarsa applicazione sia per la difficolt di reperire gli elementi
costruttivi sia per mancanza di personale preparato ed esperto. Questi impianti sono comuni
prevalentemente nei Paesi d'Oltralpe.
Una raccomandazione: consigliabile munire l'edificio di un numero sufficiente di canne fumarie per
poter utilizzare stufe a combustibili a basso impatto in caso di mancanza prolungata dei rifornimenti o
dell'erogazione delle usuali fonti energetiche quali gasolio, metano o gas-petroli-liquefatti.

(Enrico Micelli, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato n.11 dicembre 1992)

Consigli utili
Anche chi non ha una casa costruita secondo i canoni della bioarchitettura pu ottimizzare il microclima dell'abitazione e l'uso del
riscaldamento sia per risparmiare energia sia perch la casa sia sana.

Curate l'isolamento termico (coibentazione) della casa, che consente di dimunuire l'uso di carburante (e, in estate, ripara dalla calura).
Per i condomini, l'ideale sarebbe che l'intero condominio lo facesse.

Chiudete le tapparelle quando fa buio: come un secondo vetro.

Mettete dei pannelli isolanti o della stagnola sulla parete dietro il calorifero: diffonder meglio il calore nell'ambiente riflettendolo.

Il metano meno inquinante (non contiene zolfo) e pi conveniente; basta sostituire il solo bruciatore e non l'intera caldaia.

Controllate l'efficienza della caldaia almeno una volta l'anno.

Isolate le tubature.

Installate un termoregolatore su ogni termosifone, per mantenere una temperatura costante.

Negli impianti autonomi ottimo il termostato con orologio incorporato, che consente di riscaldare gli ambienti solo quando e quanto

Sostituite l'impianto di riscaldamento elettrico con quello a metano.

Nei climi temperati e nelle seconde case, va benissimo la tradizionale stufa di ghisa a legna: si riscalda e raffredda velocemente.

No alle stufe elettriche, nemiche dell'ambiente e del risparmio, se non in casi d'emergenza.

Impianto elettrico bioecocompatibile

Premessa sulle scelte energetiche
Lo stato di salute psicofisica dell'uomo collegato agli effetti energetici dovuti alla natura in cui siamo
immersi, ma anche a quelli indotti dalle energie artificiali prodotte dall'attuale tecnologia industriale.
Gli impianti elettrici e tutte le apparecchiature connesse concorrono a modificare il microclima degli
ambienti confinati in funzione al loro grado di ecocompatibilit.

Conduttori, elettrodomestici, anche se non utilizzati ma collegati alla rete elettrica, possono influenzare la
qualit del benessere abitativo e la sua percezione.
L'equilibrio dei fattori ambientali, quali carica elettrostatica, ionizzazione dell'aria e cos via, che in
natura sono generalmente biocompatibili, consente un corretto rapporto tra elemento umano e sistema
che lo circonda; si determina cio il comfort abitativo.
Per ottenere un microclima sicuramente favorevole necessario utilizzare impianti e apparecchi elettrici
di provata innocuit, sperimentata nel tempo.
importante attenersi ai succitati principi in quanto l'uomo vive per gran parte del suo tempo negli
ambienti confinati, che costituiscono una netta separazione con l'ambiente naturale; ci consente di
evitare le patologie connesse.
Queste indicazioni derivano da studi condotti da medici, studiosi, scienziati e ricercatori, sia in
laboratorio, sia considerando la coincidenza della casistica clinica. La bibliografia su tali argomenti
vasta, basti solo pensare alle circostanziate pubblicazioni dell'Oms (Organizzazione Mondiale della
Sanit). I soggetti a rischio sono generalmente gli anziani, i bambini e i malati.
Gli impianti sono in stretta relazione con i parametri del clima nel quale siamo immersi. I campi elettrici
ed elettromagnetici perturbatori insistono sia all'interno (impianti elettrici sia domestici che industriali)
che all'esterno (elettrodotti ad alta intensit, radar, emittenti e cos via).
Ad esempio, gli elettrodotti sono in grado di influenzare negativamente le condizioni di vita nell'area di
loro influenza (note Oms).
Ma vediamo ora che cosa succede con gli impianti domestici.

Tendenza corrente
Le apparecchiature elettriche sono a volte progettate considerando unicamente le esigenze di sicurezza,
estetico-funzionali e di mercato e non quelle rispondenti alle reali necessit psicofisiche dell'uomo;
inoltre si sta accentuando l'utilizzo di impianti elettrici ed elettrodomestici altamente sofisticati.
Invece la scelta di un impianto dev'essere fatta considerando l'inquinamento che pu provocare.
Ci di difficile attuazione perch attualmente non vi sono normative a cui fare riferimento n leggi che
ci tutelino prevedendo controlli efficaci.
Di contro, il reperimento dei materiali componenti non pone difficolt, perch negli ultimi anni si sta
assistendo a un impegno in tal senso da parte di industriali lungimiranti e attenti ai problemi ecologici.

Indicazioni di carattere generale sugli impianti elettrici domestici

L'impianto elettrico, oltre a dover ottemperare alle normative vigenti, dovr essere realizzato senza che
esso causi perturbazioni elettromagnetiche. Tale presupposto si ottiene utilizzando vari accorgimenti:
sono da privilegiarsi impianti molto semplificati, ottimizzati nel rapporto tra consumi e prestazioni;
la rete di distribuzione deve realizzare circuiti aperti non costituenti anelli o dipoli per non perturbare
gli ambienti con un comportamento assimilabile ad antenne;
uno o pi disgiuntori bipolari automatici assicurano, in mancanza di utilizzo, assenza di tensione nei
circuiti da essi serviti. Questi funzionano con corrente continua a bassa tensione (4-6 volt) livellata, non
pulsante, per evitare campi elettromagnetici indotti;
i conduttori che alimentano gli utilizzatori non disinseribili quali frigoriferi, congelatori, centrali
termiche, luci d'emergenza, sono schermati mediante guaina metallica collegata all'impianto di messa a
terra; analoghi conduttori devono servire le zone di sosta prolungata e riposo;
l'impianto di messa a terra deve realizzare valori di resistenza molto bassi, non superiori ai 5 ohm, e
avere i dispersori posti in zone non perturbate;
preferibile che il contatore venga installato fuori dal perimetro dell'edificio o nella zona pi a sud e
lontano dalle aree di sosta prolungata;
tutti gli elementi metallici devono essere collegati tra loro mediante conduttori messi a terra per
assicurare equipotenzialit (come previsto anche dalle norme Cee);
l'inserimento di opportuni filtri assicura l'eliminazione di disturbi prodotti sia dagli elettrodomestici sia
da impianti esterni.
Una nota particolare meritano gli impianti a bassa tensione e a corrente continua. Essi sono i pi
ecologici sia perch non generano campi disturbatori patogeni sia per la possibilit di venir alimentati

con sorgenti alternative quali celle fotovoltaiche, microcentrali idrauliche ed eoliche, permettendo in tal
modo all'utente di scegliere se usufruire della rete di distribuzione pubblica o no.

La meta cui tendiamo la realizzazione di un microclima equilibrato affinch nella correlazione uomo -
costruito (in questo caso impianto e apparecchiature elettriche) - natura ci sia una concreta armonia.
Quest'armonia deve ricalcare le orme di quella esistente ormai da millenni sulla Terra.

(Enrico Micelli, Il Giornale della Natura Illustrato N.12 febbraio 1993)



Gli effetti nocivi di geopatie ed elettrosmog:possiamo difenderci senza

cambiare casa.
Lesperienza del domoterapeuta
Senza energia elettrica la nostra civilt avrebbe i giorni contati per cui pontentissimi elettrodotti, veri e
propri fiumi di corrente elettrica, irradiano la vitale energia elettrica in ogni dove del territorio, a
qualsiasi latitudine e longitudine.
Il risultato che tutta la natura e luomo sono costantemente permeati da campi elettrici e magnetici
agenti in ogni direzione e in continua, indiscriminata espansione: cos nella o sulla terra, cos nel cielo e
nello spazio.
In tal modo lintera struttura fisica, psicologica ed emotiva delluomo moderno messa a dura prova da
sempre pi gravi e minacciose realt.
Oggi si parla di inquinamento invisibile da elettrosmog. Inquinamento invisibile perch non
immediatamente percepibile come al contrario accade per la presenza di un gas nellaria, o di detersivi
In rapporto allessere umano e alla vita biologica, possibile affermare che le apparecchiature
tecnologiche emettono uno spettro energetico che comprende un valore energetico associato al campo
elettrico (Ee), un valore energetico associato al campo magnetico (Em) e un valore energetico globale
associato ai precedenti di natura squisitamente biologica (Eb).
Questultima componente la pi importante in quanto quella parte energetica che opera come fattore
tuttaltro che trascurabile nel bilancio energetico finale di un essere vivente.
opportuno altres tenere conto che la componente biologica inoltre potenziata dalle radianze
geobiologiche, i cosiddetti raggi tellurici, che sono una caratteristica naturale del pianeta terra e che sono
presenti ovunque.
Quando tali radianze si sommano ai valori biologici dellelettrosmog, la risultante finale che si ottiene
estremamente pericolosa per gli esseri viventi.
Chiaramente soprattutto nelle citt che linquinamento da elettrosmog si assomma al potenziale rischio
di un inquinamento da campi energetici geopatici.
Da quanto sopra detto, risulta evidente che nei controlli dei siti abitativi e degli ambienti sia indoor che
outdoor, dove ci sia reso necessario, per renderli energeticamente neutri con unopportuna ed efficiente
schermatura duratura nel tempo, interessa soprattutto la valutazione della componente energetica
questa infatti la componente che soprattutto necessario valutare correttamente per capire come un
campo elettrico e magnetico agisce sulla vita.
Per il rilevamento e la quantificazione di questultima e la conseguente valutazione dei suoi effetti
sullessere vivente, solo lessere vivente stesso, cio luomo, che funzionando da strumento pu
quanto dovrebbe essere un buon sensitivo, cio un buon radiestesista e un buon rabdomante.
La componente energetica biologica interferisce con lenergia vitale dellessere vivente il quale subisce
una diminuzione del suo stato energetico ottimale che generalmente possiamo identificare come uno stato
di stress che pu comportare mal di testa, spossatezza, irritabilit, depressione, a livello fisico, psichico e
Sono i primi segnali di uno stato anormale, perdurando il quale, i molteplici processi fisiologici che
presiedono alla usuale vita di ogni sistema organico e cellulare entrano in crisi con conseguente
manifestazione dello stato di malattia.
pertanto molto importante fare controllare labitazione con particolare attenzione alle zone pi a
rischio, cio quelle dove si dorme e dove si passa una buona parte di tempo, per avere unesatta
valutazione delle energie dinamicamente presenti e operanti, con le quali dobbiamo comunque convivere
con il minor danno possibile.
Non assolutamente vero che data una realt energeticamente compromessa, nulla possiamo fare per

Come gi detto precedentemente con una opportuna ed efficace schermatura duratura nel tempo si
annullano e si neutralizzano queste energie dannose, innalzando il livello energetico globale
dellabitazione ai 5900/6000 e oltre Bovis.
In tal modo predisponiamo un ambiente energeticamente sano ed esente da interferenze geobiologiche e
di elettrosmog di qualsiasi natura.
Onestamente, in base alla mia esperienza di radiestesista, posso serenamente affermare che possibile
schermare impiegando unampia gamma di correttori energetici che spazia dalle foglie della pianta della
menta piperita ai cristalli di quarzo ialino alle acque sante.
Ma con uguale serenit e sincerit, confortato dalle testimonianze anche scritte di altri ricercatori e
sperimentatori sia italiani che stranieri impegnati professionalmente nella terapia degli ambienti
energeticamente compromessi, posso altres affermare che gli unici sistemi di schermatura validi e
costanti nel tempo sono quelli in cui vengono correttamente impiegati dei generatori energetici (non delle
batterie!) funzionanti sul principio dei circuiti oscillanti di Lakovsky e dei risultati della ricerca di W.
Reich sullenergia orgonica.
E comunque non ha alcun senso e non garanzia di un sonno tranquillo e sano il solo atto di acquistare
un costoso letto realizzato secondo i sacri dettami dellarredamento ecologico se ci non associato ad
unanalisi di quali energie invisibili ma reali sono presenti sotto e intorno al letto medesimo e ad un
eventuale successivo intervento di schermatura.

(Adriano Guantieri, Il Giornale della Natura n.139 febbraio 2000)



click on the links below for full .pdf documentation

What is the AETHER and why it is needed.

Some impossible things to believe.
A SIMPLIFIED EXPLANATION OF THE ATVE (Aether Theory of Velocity Effects).
In 1905 Albert Einstein killed off the Aether by postulating that it did not exist. But his resultant
theory, the Special Theory of Relativity (STR), creates far more problems than it solves. Further
more it does not work.The Aether Theory of Velocity Effects (ATVE) requires no new postulates
but predicts the observed effects of length contraction,time dilation and mass increase.
The ATVE gives a complete explanation of the famous Twins Paradox, where all others have
Einstein's theory of gravity, the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is based on a false principle,
the Strong Equivalence Principle and has other serious problems. The Aether Theory of Gravity
(ATG) shows that gravitational acceleration is due to refraction in the Aether. The ATG correctly
predicts non-Euclidean Space, the bending of light and the perihelion shift of Mercury.
The Big Bang Theory (BB) (by Gamow, Friedmann and others) of Cosmic Expansion is entirely
unbelievable for many reasons. For example, the BB requires a rate of expansion of the universe
up to 3x1041 times the speed of light. Some velocity ! The true cause of Cosmic Expansion
(ATCE) is the creation of a new Aether at a constant rate over time and place.
The Nature of Time. There is no seperate Time dimension. What we call Time is merely the
distance travelled by a light ray through the Aether. Space has only three dimensions.

I have found that in general, the academic community will not

entertain criticism of Einstein or the possibility of an Aether and neither
will journals publish papers on the subject, hence the reasons for this
website, which I hope will initiate more debate on the subject.

I welcome comments and questions and will reply if time allows.

Email :

I also give lectures on my theories if conditions are acceptable.

All three theories (ATVE September 2000, ATG June 2004, and
ATCE December 1999) are the original work of R.F.Norgan who
edits and owns this web site.

Un piccolo robot vegetale

che metter radici su Marte

Il robot plantoide
FIRENZE - Sar il primo plantoide della storia. E se tutto andr bene, metter radici su Marte per
esplorarlo come nessuno ha mai fatto prima, ovvero da fermo. Dopo aver scoperto che le piante hanno se
non un'anima, qualcosa di molto simile alle cellule neuronali umane, il professor Stefano Mancuso della
facolt di agraria dell'universit di Firenze sta mettendo a punto un "robot plantoide, cio una macchina
che si ispira al mondo vegetale. Finora sono stati costruiti robot umanoidi, insettoidi, animaloidi, ma mai
nessuno che utilizzasse i principi delle piante", spiega Mancuso. Un peccato, perch a quanto pare
potrebbero risultare utili anche per le esplorazioni spaziali.

Ma andiamo per gradi: perch prendere esempio proprio dalla flora? Perch due anni fa il professore ha
messo a segno una scoperta che ha dell'incredibile. Negli apici radicali delle piante - le punte delle radici
- si trovano delle cellule capaci di funzionare come neurotrasmettitori, cio in maniera analoga alle
sinapsi del nostro cervello. Questo gli permette non solo di allevare figli e provvedere al proprio
sostentamento, ma anche di comunicare con sorelle della stessa specie, inscenando manifestazioni di
intolleranza verso quelle di altre razze, con la possibilit di trasmettere segnali di allarme se minacciate, e
minacciare a loro volta.

"A che serve studiare tutto questo? Prima di tutto a risolvere una questione etica: il Laboratorio
internazionale di neurobiologia vegetale di Firenze con cui collaboro per questo progetto il primo che
applica le ricerche sulle neuroscienze alla botanica. Se la cosa si diffondesse, si potrebbero usare le
piante al posto degli animali", chiosa il professore di agraria. "In secondo luogo il mondo botanico
composto da organismi pionieri per eccellenza: dopo una colata lavica ad esempio, la prima forma
vivente che si manifesta quella vegetale. Studiando i suoi mezzi di sopravvivenza, e riproponendoli in
un plantoide, realizziamo una macchina che ha molte pi possibilit di attecchire e resistere in ambienti
apparentemente ostili".

Il che, traslato sul suolo marziano, vuol dire innanzi tutto un robot che ha un costo di qualche "decina di
milioni di dollari", contro le centinaia di Spirit e Opportunity secondo i calcoli di Mancuso e della Scuola
Superiore di Sant'Anna che lo coadiuva. Robottini che peraltro si muovono con grande lentezza,
impiegando giorni per spostarsi su Marte. Il plantoide invece non avrebbe alcun bisogno di muoversi. Il
progetto infatti prevede che una navicella rilasci una serie di plantoidi nell'atmosfera marziana. Grandi
poco pi di dieci centimetri, i robot si spargerebbero sul pianeta rosso aprendosi all'istante e innestando le
loro radici - provviste di cellule simili a quelle delle piante - a terra. Con quelle esplorerebbero il
sottosuolo, mentre una serie di simil-foglie si occuperebbero della superficie, alimentando all'infinito il
robot grazie alle cellule fotovoltaiche di cui sono ricoperte.

Per esplorare il pianeta non ci sarebbe bisogno di muoversi, perch verrebbero spediti diverse centinaia di

esemplari, tutti in grado di comunicare tra loro i dati rilevati che solo due, i pi costosi, si
incaricherebbero di inviare sulla Terra. Il primo lancio? "E' ancora presto: abbiamo qualche
finanziamento dall'Esa (l'agenzia spaziale europea), ma non basta. Quando avremo reso noti tutti i
possibili impieghi dei plantoidi, forse arriveranno", conclude il professore. Qualche esempio lo fa gi,
indicandoli per attacchi terroristici di tipo batteriologico, e zone sottoposte ad inquinamenti radioattivi o
chimici: rileverebbero il livello di contaminazione, tenendoci aggiornati sulla propagazione degli agenti
patogeni. E sarebbero utili anche per fare una mappatura dei campi minati: le piante hanno sensori
sensibili all'ossido d'azoto, un gas sprigionato dalle mine. Nell'universit si pensa gi al prossimo step,
ovvero utilizzare cellule vegetali per comandare i plantoidi, ma questa un'altra storia.
(9 aprile 2006)

Disintegratore Magnetico Rotante

Questo il sistema di disintegrazione molecolare a campi magnetici rotanti (vorticosi) che con soli 15
KW in grado di frantumare e sminuzzare 5 tonnellate di roccia; pi dura e pi aumenta lefficienza
con un solo passaggio.
18 quintali di bobine di rame per generare campi dintensit incredibile a frequenze predeterminate a
seconda del materiale introdotto.
Aspettiamo che Andrea Rampado trovi maggiori informazioni su questo apparecchio.