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Applicazioni ferroviarie

NORMA Prove per laccettazione delle caratteristiche di marcia UNI EN 14363


EUROPEA dei veicoli ferroviari
Prove di comportamento dinamico e statico

SETTEMBRE 2005

Railway applications
Testing for the acceptance of running characteristics of railway
vehicles
Testing of running behaviour and stationary tests

La norma regola le prove per laccettazione delle caratteristiche


di marcia dei veicoli ferroviari. Le prove sulle caratteristiche di
marcia si applicano principalmente a tutti i veicoli impiegati nel
trasporto pubblico che operano senza limitazioni su binari a scar-
tamento normalizzato.

TESTO INGLESE

La presente norma la versione ufciale in lingua inglese della


norma europea EN 14363 (edizione giugno 2005).

ICS 45.060.01

UNI UNI
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Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. Nessuna parte del presente documento
di Unicazione pu essere riprodotta o diffusa con un mezzo qualsiasi, fotocopie, microlm o altro, senza
Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B il consenso scritto dellUNI.
20133 Milano, Italia www.uni.com

UNI EN 14363:2005 Pagina I


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PREMESSA NAZIONALE
La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, del-
la norma europea EN 14363 (edizione giugno 2005), che assume
cos lo status di norma nazionale italiana.

La presente norma stata elaborata sotto la competenza dellente


federato allUNI
UNIFER - Ente di Unicazione del Materiale Ferrotranviario

La presente norma stata raticata dal Presidente dellUNI ed entrata


a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 26 settembre 2005.

Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti
interessate e di conciliare ogni aspetto conittuale, per rappresentare il reale stato
dellarte della materia ed il necessario grado di consenso.
Chiunque ritenesse, a seguito dellapplicazione di questa norma, di poter fornire sug-
gerimenti per un suo miglioramento o per un suo adeguamento ad uno stato dellarte
in evoluzione pregato di inviare i propri contributi allUNI, Ente Nazionale Italiano di
Unicazione, che li terr in considerazione per leventuale revisione della norma stessa.

Le norme UNI sono revisionate, quando necessario, con la pubblicazione di nuove edizioni o
di aggiornamenti.
importante pertanto che gli utilizzatori delle stesse si accertino di essere in possesso
dellultima edizione e degli eventuali aggiornamenti.
Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a vericare lesistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle
norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.
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UNI EN 14363:2005 UNI Pagina II


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 14363
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM June 2005

ICS 45.060.01

English version

Railway applications - Testing for the acceptance of running


characteristics of railway vehicles - Testing of running behaviour
and stationary tests

Applications ferroviaires - Essais en vue de l'homologation Bahnanwendungen - Fahrtechnische Prfung fr die


du comportement dynamique des vhicules ferroviaires - fahrtechnische Zulassung von Eisenbahnfahrzeugen -
Essais en ligne et poste fixe Prfung des Fahrverhaltens und stationre Versuche

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 March 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official
versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

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EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14363:2005: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Contents Page

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Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................4
1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................5
2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................6
3 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................6
4 Stationary tests .................................................................................................................................12
4.1 Safety against derailment for railway vehicles running on twisted track.....................................12
4.2 Safety against derailment under longitudinal forces in S-shaped curves....................................27
4.3 Sway characteristics.........................................................................................................................28
4.4 Rotational resistance........................................................................................................................32
4.5 Measurement of static wheel force..................................................................................................34
5 'On-track' tests ..................................................................................................................................36
5.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................36
5.2 Type of on-track test and measuring method.................................................................................36
5.3 Assessment, limit and measuring values .......................................................................................44
5.4 Performing 'on-track' tests...............................................................................................................52
5.5 Test evaluation..................................................................................................................................64
5.6 Documentation of results .................................................................................................................69
Annex A (informative) Information on safety against derailment .............................................................71
Annex B (normative) Computer simulations designed to examine whether the vehicle has an
acceptable resistance to flange climbing derailment at low speed ..............................................95
Annex C (normative) Actual geometry of test tracks .................................................................................97
Annex D (normative) Co-ordinate system for measured quantities........................................................102
Annex E (normative) Statistical evaluation...............................................................................................103
Annex F (informative) Symbols .................................................................................................................106
Annex G (normative) Operational parameters..........................................................................................109
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the Interoperability of the
trans-European high-speed rail system ........................................................................................110
Bibliography.................................................................................................................................................113

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 14363:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 Railway
Applications, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

NOTE WG10 have recently been reactivated and have defined their future workload. Following this, it was
considered necessary to complement EN 14363 by further parts.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn
at the latest by December 2005.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the
European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

Council Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the Interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail
system1).

For relationship with EU Directive, see informative Annex ZA which is an integral part of this document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
and the United Kingdom.

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1) Official Journal of the European Communities No L 235/6 of 17.09.96

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Introduction
This document covers the testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of railway vehicles. It was
established by Working Group 10 Vehicle/Track Interaction of CEN Technical Committee 256 Railway
Applications.

The establishment of this document was based on existing rules, practices and procedures. The following
principles were applied:

1) The railway system requires comprehensive technical rules in order to ensure an acceptable
interaction of vehicle and track.

2) Due to the numerous national and international regulations new railway vehicles had to be tested and
homologated before putting them into service. In addition, existing acceptance had to be checked
when operating conditions were extended.

3) In view of the increasing significance of international traffic, in particular of high speed traffic, the
standardisation of existing regulations is required. In some cases, additional rules are required as
well. An update of existing regulations is also needed due to the considerable progress achieved in
the field of railway-specific methods for measuring, evaluation and data processing.

4) It is of particular importance that the existing level of safety and reliability is not compromised even
when changes in design and operating practices are demanded, e.g. by the introduction of higher
speeds, higher wheel forces, etc.

This document takes account of the present state of the art which is generally applicable for test procedures
and the evaluation of stationary and 'on-track' tests.

This document is derived in essential parts from UIC 518 which has not yet been fully validated by experience.
In addition, the regulations about running characteristics of freight wagons of UIC 432 will be implemented
after the discrepancies between UIC 432 and UIC 518 are solved by the expert group of UIC. The Working
Group is aware that the combination of the test conditions is not always achievable. In some cases, the
existing regulations may require exceptions for which justification will be provided to the acceptance body. In
this event, the conditions which are not fulfilled will be identified.

This also concerns the future inclusion of turnout runs in switches with R 190 m in the normal and simplified
measurement method. The assessment will be done based on the stresses in critical sections (e.g. switch
blade) of a switch. The test conditions will be fixed after further investigations.

The group expects that existing shortcomings will be recognized in further investigations and during frequent
application of the rules.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

1 Scope
This document regulates the testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of railway vehicles (hereafter
called vehicles). The testing of the running characteristics applies principally to all vehicles used in public
transport which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks (1 435 mm).

NOTE 1 The testing of the running characteristics of:


railways with different track layout, e.g. tramways, metros and underground railways;
railways with non-standard gauge tracks
can be conducted by analogy with this document.

The testing of running characteristics is part of the type testing of vehicles which

are newly developed,


have had relevant design modifications, or
have changes in their operating regimes.

The testing and acceptance of running characteristics refers to the complete vehicle including the running
gear. If a running gear, which has already been tested and accepted, is to be used under a vehicle body of
another design, this is considered to be a design modification. The procedure as described in 5.2 is used.

NOTE 2 In addition to the testing of running characteristics for the acceptance of vehicles, the regulations can be
generally applied in other technical tasks, e.g.:
the checking for compliance against development contracts;
the optimisation of components, vehicles or running gear;
the testing of influences, influencing parameters and relationships of dependence;
the monitoring of track or vehicles in operational use.

Testing of running characteristics consists of preliminary approval tests (mainly stationary tests) and tests of
running behaviour (on-track tests).

The application of the full method and the stated limit values reflect (unrestricted) international operation.

Variations from the conditions specified in this document are allowed as specified by the article 7.1 of directive
91/440 of EC.

Testing for acceptance of vehicles is based on some reference conditions of track. If these are not respected
on certain lines, appropriate measures will be taken (speed modifications, additional tests, etc.).

For national or multinational operations the infrastructure managers concerned may authorize variations to the
defined conditions. Permissible deviations are indicated in this document.

It is allowed to deviate from the rules laid down if evidence can be furnished that safety is at least the
equivalent to that ensured by complying with these rules.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13674-1, Railway applications; Track Rail Part 1: Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above

prEN 13715, Railway applications Wheelsets and bogies Wheels Tread profile

EN 13848-1, Railway applications -Track Track geometry quality Part 1: Characterisation of track
geometry

WI 00256129, Railway applications Method for determining the equivalent conicity

UIC 432:2002, Wagons Running speeds Technical conditions techniques to be observed2)

UIC 505-1:2003, Railway transport stock Rolling stock construction gauge2)

UIC 505-4:1977, Effects of the application of the kinematic gauges defined in the 505 series of leaflets on the
positioning of structures in relation to the tracks and of the tracks in relation to each other2)

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UIC 505-5:1977, Basis conditions common to leaflets 505-1 to 505-4 Notes on the preparation and
provisions of these leaflets2)

UIC 518:2003, Testing and approval of railway vehicles from the point of view of their dynamic behaviour
Safety Track fatigue; Ride quality2)

UIC 530-2:1997, Wagons Running safety2)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
testing for acceptance of running behaviour
obtaining numerical values of evaluation variables which describe the running and ride characteristics. The
evaluation variables together with limit values are used in the acceptance process of the vehicle

The purpose of testing running characteristics is either

testing of vehicles which are newly developed, or


extending the scope for an already proven vehicle (e.g. relevant design modification of the vehicle or
alteration of the operation conditions)

3.2
test elements
related regulations for the

measurement of parameters (accelerations, forces, displacements, on the vehicle) and evaluation of


variables which characterise the performance of the vehicle;

2) May be purchased from: Railway Technical Publications (ETF) 16 rue Jean Rey, F-75015 Paris

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

collection of the relevant conditions of the track, operation and environment;


description of test procedures, measurement and evaluation methods;
assessment of conditions for acceptance

NOTE Figure 1 shows the structure of the test elements.


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Figure 1 Structure of test elements

3.3
vehicle parameters relevant to running characteristics
technical data of a vehicle relevant to running characteristics, e.g.:

planned maximum permissible speed of the vehicle;


planned permissible cant deficiency;
smallest curve radius that shall be negotiated;
wheel arrangement;
wheel-base and distance between bogie centres;
centre of gravity height;
weight of the vehicle;
wheel force and axle force distribution;
unsprung mass;
primary suspended mass;
secondary suspended mass;
moments of inertia of vehicle body (around z-axis);

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torsional stiffness of vehicle body;


torsional stiffness of bogie frame;
tractive effort;
dimensions of wheel and wheelset;
wheel profiles;
characteristics of primary vertical suspension;
characteristics of secondary vertical suspension;
characteristics of axle guiding;
characteristics of secondary lateral suspension;
rotational torque of bogie;
moment of inertia of bogie (around z-axis).
These parameters are defined and comply with the relevant construction and maintenance requirements.
Compliance will be confirmed prior to the testing of running characteristics.

3.4
preliminary approval tests
testing of vehicles capability to operate under geometrical limit conditions of track layout

NOTE Preliminary approval tests are generally static and/or quasistatic. They mainly include the measurement of
forces and displacements between the different components of a vehicle. They should be carried out before commencing
the 'on-track' testing.

3.4.1
measurement of static wheel force
test to determine the individual vertical forces per wheel

3.4.2
bogie rotational resistance
test to evaluate the torque required to rotate a bogie while supporting a vehicle

3.4.3
safety against derailment on twisted track
test to evaluate the safety against derailment of a vehicle during negotiating track with limit conditions of twist

3.4.4
safety against derailment under longitudinal forces in S-shaped curves
test to evaluate safety against derailment of a vehicle under longitudinal forces in S-shaped curves

3.4.5
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sway characteristics
test to measure the lateral and roll displacements of a vehicle when subjected to cant excess or deficiency

3.5
running behaviour
characteristics of a vehicle or running gear with regard to the interaction between vehicle and track. Running
behaviour is a general term covering the following specific terms:

running safety,
track loading, and
ride characteristics.

The following parameters are used for the assessment:

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forces between wheel and rail, or


lateral forces between wheelset and axle-box (lateral axle-box forces), and/or
accelerations.

The testing is based on 'on-track' tests.

3.6
on-track' tests
tests taking place on selected, relatively short sections of test track with specific characteristics of track layout.
'On-track' tests are used for the assessment of running behaviour within the planned range of speed and cant
deficiency of the vehicle.

Depending on the test conditions 'on-track' tests may be:

complete on-track tests;


partial on-track test

3.6.1
complete 'on-track' test
test of running behaviour in the full defined test range

3.6.2
partial 'on-track' test
test of running behaviour used for an extension of acceptance (see explanation in Clause 1) which allows a
reduced extent of test

3.7
measuring method
type and number of measuring quantities used during on-track test. Depending on the characteristics of the
vehicle and the purpose of test

normal measuring method, or


simplified measuring method

is used

3.7.1
'on-track' test with normal measuring method
test of running behaviour for the assessment of

running safety,
track loading and
ride characteristics of the vehicle

with direct measured forces between wheel and rail and accelerations in running gear and in the vehicle body

3.7.2
'on-track' test with simplified measuring method
test of running behaviour for the assessment of

running safety and


ride characteristics of the vehicle

with measured lateral axle-box forces and/or accelerations at the bogie frame and in the vehicle body

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3.8
extent of tests
fixed number of test variants during on-track test. The amount of tests is defined by:

test zones, given by track layout;


loading conditions of the test vehicle;
degraded suspension conditions;
rail inclination of test tracks

3.9
test track
selected section of the track for the 'on-track' test. It is chosen depending on:

track layout;
track geometry;
rail inclination;
wheel-rail contact geometry;
type and number of the evaluation sections

corresponding to the planned operational area

3.10
test vehicle
vehicle representative of the production vehicles and which respects:

the vehicle parameters relevant to running characteristics;


construction and maintenance status

of the vehicle series.

3.10.1
conventional-technology vehicle
vehicles which

are operated under normal operating conditions and

correspond completely or in those construction parts which are relevant to the running behaviour to the
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3.10.2
special vehicle
vehicles which are either unique or found in low numbers, belonging to either of the following types

track maintenance vehicles (including rerailing vehicles);


vehicles for special transport.

3.10.3
new-technology vehicle
all vehicles which are not categorized as conventional-technology vehicles or special vehicles

10

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3.10.4
equivalent conicity tan e
parameter for characterization of the wheel-rail contact. For a given wheelset running on given track it equals
the tangent of the taper angle of a tapered profile wheelset whose transverse movement has the same
wavelength of kinematic yaw as the wheelset under consideration. To determine the numerical values of the
equivalent conicity, the wheel profiles are combined with track with the parameters

rail profile,
installed inclination of rails and
track gauge

and then the function tan e = f (y) is calculated, then evaluated for an amplitude 3 mm

NOTE An extensive evaluation of the curve of the calculated function tan e = f (y), for example for the range
1 mm y 8 mm, may be necessary to clarify any questions relating to the running behaviour.

Calculation of equivalent conicity should be done respecting the regulations in WI 00256129.

11
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EN 14363:2005 (E)

4 Stationary tests

4.1 Safety against derailment for railway vehicles running on twisted track

4.1.1 General

The tests described in this clause are intended to ensure that vehicles can run safely on twisted tracks. The
existence of track twist in railway tracks is fundamental. They are a result of transition layout between levelled
track and canted track as well as cross level deviations (maintenance limits).

This test shall be done for initial acceptance of all vehicles. For the extension of acceptance (see NOTE in
5.2.1) the test shall be repeated if the variation of parameters increases the risk of derailment. The most
important factors influencing the safety against derailment are given in A.1.

The limit value (Y/Q)lim for initiating flange climbing is influenced by:

the flange angle;


the friction forces between flange and rail. These forces are determined by the characteristic of the
surface of wheel and rail at the contact point and by the angle of attack between wheel and rail.

If there is a tested reference vehicle with a validated calculation of safety against derailment according to the
test conditions, tests may be dispended if the new calculation results are lower than a reduced limit value
(Y/Q)lim = 0,9 * 1,2 = 1,08 (safety margin of 10 % to the limit value).

4.1.2 Test conditions

4.1.2.1 General

The risk of flange climbing is described by the ratio between horizontal guiding force Y and vertical wheel

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force Q.

The evaluation considers the quasistatic guiding force of the outer leading wheel negotiating a curve of
R = 150 m.

Reduction of vertical wheel force includes the following effects:

twist on bogie wheel base (see 4.1.2.2.3);


twist on bogie centre distance or axle distance for non bogied vehicles (see 4.1.2.2.3);
torsional hysteresis during the twisting;
eccentricity of centre of gravity and twist of the bogie and vehicle body as a result of tolerances;
eccentricity of the centre of gravity due to cant excess or deficiency - this influence is eliminated in the
test;
roll torque of the lateral axle-box forces.

So, the influence of cant excess is not considered. It is assumed that the reduction in the guiding forces in
larger curve radii have a stronger influence on the safety against derailment than the higher offloading of the
guiding wheel due to the higher allowed cant excess in these radii.

12

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4.1.2.2 Track conditions

4.1.2.2.1 General

In practice it is possible to anticipate a combination of all of the worst condition which could occur. The
simultaneous application of these conditions would result in an unrealistic situation, which experience has
shown is not necessary.

Information about the relations that have led to the definition of the test conditions for European mainline
railways can be found in the reports of B 55 and C 138. In the present document no information about different
track layout can be given.

NOTE These test conditions have been developed by ERRI and are documented in several reports of B 55 and
C 138. They have been applied since 1983 in Europe and have resulted in the safe operation of vehicles.

4.1.2.2.2 Track twist limit

The track twist limit, including design twist and the cross level deterioration before maintenance, which is used
in European railways is:

20
g lim = min(7,0 ; + 3,0)
2a

with 2a as longitudinal base in m and glim in . The validity of the formula is limited to 2a 20 m. 3)

4.1.2.2.3 Vehicle test twist

Recognising the above remarks the condition to be used for vehicle test is

for bogie test twist:

+
glim =7 if 2a+ 4 m and

+ 20
glim = + 2,0 if 2a+ > 4 m
2a +
with 2a+ as the bogie wheel base in m and glim+ in .

for vehicle body test twist:

*
glim =7 if 2a 4 m and

* 20
glim = + 2,0 if 4 m < 2a 20 m
2a
*
glim =3 if 20 m < 2a 30 m

3) Several measurements were made on the tracks of DB, NS, BB, PKP and SNCF which lead to a limit for track twist
in relation of the longitudinal basis. The analysis of the measurements was carried over a range of 1,8 m to
19,8 m.

13

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* 90
glim = if 2a > 30 m
2a

with 2a as the longitudinal dimension of twist in m (for single cars the longitudinal dimension of twist equals
2a*, the distance between center pivots for bogied single cars or the distance of the axles for non bogied
vehicles) and g*lim in .

For bogied vehicles the twist due to the bogie wheel base 2a+ and the twist due to the bogie center distance
2a* shall be combined as shown in Figure 2.

Key
1 vertical displacement
2 bogie test twist
3 vehicle body test twist

Figure 2 Combination of bogie and vehicle body test twist

The given vehicle test twist values are only valid up to a longitudinal basis 2a* of 20 m. For values of 2a*
*
greater than 20 m a vehicle test twist value of glim = 3 will be used. Figure 3 shows the test twist values
depending on length dimensions 2a+ and 2a*. The maximum vertical height difference from twist shall be
90 mm which corresponds to a twist value of 3 at 30 m. For lengths greater than 30 m the vertical height
difference from twist shall be 90 mm.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Key
1 twist height h
2 twist length 2a

Figure 3 Test twist values

4.1.2.2.4 Curve radius for determination of guiding force

The track shall contain a curve of R = 150 m.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The evaluation considers the quasistatic guiding force of the outer leading wheel.

4.1.2.2.5 Rail conditions

Tests shall be done under dry conditions in order to consider high friction forces between wheel and rail.

Information used in the determination of the rail conditions shall be gathered when measuring

Yi and Qi on the inner leading wheel,


angle of attack , and
average wheel force of the leading axle

and evaluated as described below.

During tests the friction coefficient is to be at least 80 % of the value expected for dry rails. Therefore, the
condition
(Y/Q)i 0,8 dry +
as a function of the angle of attack shall be respected. In the above formula the contact angle of the tread
shall be inserted. For example as
= 0,025
for wheel profile S1002 according to prEN 13715.

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The friction coefficient dry represents the ratio of the lateral friction force and the vertical force. Figure 4 shows
this relationship for different wheel forces. Explanations and the corresponding equation are given in A.3.

If during the tests a friction coefficient higher than 100 % of dry occurred, the tests may be repeated.

Key
1 ratio lateral friction force vertical force dry
2 angle of attack [rad]

Figure 4 Ratio of lateral friction force to vertical force for dry friction conditions

To determine friction during tests, the measurement of the angle of attack is necessary.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The method is not appropriate if the angle of attack is very small (e.g. below 0,0015 rad). In the case of bogies
with a low angle of attack determination of the friction conditions is to be done by measuring on a leading axle
of a vehicle which generates a higher angle of attack.

4.1.2.3 Vehicle conditions

4.1.2.3.1 General

Taking the vehicle design and the load distribution in the vehicle into consideration, the effects of the running
direction and the direction of curvature shall be analyzed. The test conditions and the wheelsets to be tested
are to be determined as a result of this analysis (for one-unit vehicles with two wheelsets or bogies, the two
outer wheelsets, the leading ones, are to be analyzed).

4.1.2.3.2 Load condition

The test vehicle shall be in its normal operating condition. With respect to loading, passenger or freight
vehicles are to be tested in the empty condition.

If the suspension is non-linear, safety against derailment shall be tested in the worst combination of load and
stiffness (e.g. this will occur for a two-rate spring at the smallest loading point above the application point of

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the second stiffness where at full vehicle test twist the relieved second stiffness just remains in
contact/operation).

4.1.2.3.3 Conditions for vehicles with air springs

Safety against derailment shall be tested with inflated and deflated air springs.

With inflated air spring wheel load distribution may be changed by the response time of the levelling system.
The type of the levelling system has an important influence (e.g. 4-point levelling, 3-point levelling, 2-point
levelling), Annex A gives some additional information.

The effect of the levelling systems response time shall be investigated. During the test the effects of the
levelling system shall be measured by including breaks in the test procedure to enable the system to stabilize.

4.1.2.3.4 Conditions for vehicles with active systems in suspension

Several additional effects have to be considered in planning the tests including:

systems response time;


tolerances on systems position and force measurements;
credible failure modes.

4.1.2.3.5 Conditions for bogied vehicles with more than two axles per bogie

Vehicle test twist for a bogie is related to the extreme wheel base of the bogie. Twist displacements of
intermediate wheelsets are to be interpolated.

4.1.2.3.6 Conditions for articulated vehicles

In the case of articulated vehicles where adjacent vehicle-bodies are suspended on a common running gear
or articulation, the influence of inter-vehicle constraints shall be analyzed in order to determine their
significance. The test conditions and the wheelsets to be tested shall be determined as a result of this analysis.
Intermediate running gears or bogies shall also be tested. It could be necessary to test more than one vehicle
body at the same time.

A.5 gives some additional information and examples.

4.1.2.3.7 Conditions for vehicles with more than two suspension levels

The word suspension is used to indicate freedom between adjacent bodies which may or may not include
springs or dampers. A.6 shows two examples of such arrangements, many other different types exist.

The relevant vehicle test twist for the individual suspension levels have to be defined by analogy to the rules
given for bogied vehicles in 4.1.2.2.3. A.6 gives examples for the vehicles illustrated.

4.1.2.3.8 Conditions for vehicles with steered wheelsets

For vehicles including mechanisms which steer the wheelsets, the track conditions (e.g. S-curves) may lead to
angles of attack which are larger than those obtained on the test track. That shall be considered in the test.
The worst conditions occurring in operation with regard to the angle of attack shall be determined. Normally, in
full curves the angles of attack and therefore the guiding forces are low. However, in transitions or reverse
curves the steering mechanism may generate adverse angles of attack.

In order to get the highest guiding forces during the test, these additional angles of attack shall be simulated
by suitable methods (e.g. by removing the steering mechanism and fixing the wheelsets to this angle of
attack).

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For vehicles with self steering wheelsets or other running gears which show a major influence of wheel-rail
contact geometry, on the steering effect and the resulting angle of attack, appropriate investigations (e.g.
forced angle of attack, variation of wheel-rail geometry) shall be carried out.

4.1.3 Test methods

4.1.3.1 General

For universal application there are two methods to prove the safety against derailment:

1) Twisted test track


Measurement of the safety against derailment by running through a twisted test track.

2) Twist test rig and flat test track


Measurement of the minimum wheel force Qa,min on a vehicle test rig;
measurement of the guiding force Ya on an appropriate test track;
calculation of the ratio (Y/Q)a.

A third method is also possible, but this shall only be applied under the specific conditions defined in 4.1.3.4.1.
This method is as follows:

3) Twist test rig and yaw test rig


Measurement of the minimum wheel force Qa,min on a vehicle test rig;
measurement of wheel forces and the torque required to rotate (yaw) the bogie in a small radius
curve.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Test methods 1 and 2 require the direct measurement of forces between wheel and rail.

4.1.3.2 Method 1: Test on twisted test track

4.1.3.2.1 General

The evaluation of safety against derailment is carried out by measuring vertical and lateral forces when
running through a twisted test track.

4.1.3.2.2 Test conditions

4.1.3.2.2.1 Track conditions

Tests shall be done on a specific test track with the following characteristics:

curve radius R = 150 m;


section of twisted track with constant curvature and twist of 3 ;
the twist is realised by varying the height of the outer rail;
test track shall reflect the normal condition of typical track considering the rail profile, track gauge and
state of maintenance.
Figure 5 contains an example for installing such a test track.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Key
1 curvature
2 cant
3 running direction

Figure 5 General layout of test track

Test conditions as described 4.1.2.2.5 (dry rail conditions) shall be fulfilled.

The influence of longitudinal forces in the trainset shall be minimized. The vehicle shall not be braked. The
speed shall be constant and not exceed 10 km/h.

Tests shall be done a minimum of 3 times.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4.1.3.2.2.2 Vehicle conditions

If the vehicle test twist is greater the 3 the additional twist is included within the vehicle e.g. by packing the
springs with shims in an appropriate way. A.7 contains suggestions for calculating the thickness of the shims
and precise their location.

The test shall be planned to ensure that the direction of running and track curvature are in such a way that the
wheel with the lowest wheel load is tested in the leading position running on the outer rail of the curve (this
may include additional packing of the suspensions).

The influence of longitudinal forces in the train set shall be minimized. The vehicle shall not be braked. The
speed shall be constant and not exceed 10 km/h.

4.1.3.2.3 Measured values, measuring positions and processing of measurements

The following values shall be measured:

guiding forces on the inner and outer wheel of the tested wheelset Yi, Ya ;

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vertical wheel forces on the inner and outer wheel of the tested wheelset Qi, Qa ;
angle of attack of a leading wheelset (see 4.1.2.2.5);
wheel lift of the guiding wheel of the tested wheelset z in the whole curve.

Forces may be measured by

appropriate devices on the rails, or


appropriate devices on the vehicles.

In the case of rail measurements the measuring positions have to fulfill the following conditions as shown in
Figure 6:

measuring positions shall be within the twisted part of the track;


in zone 2 where the track twist first influences the whole vehicle the distance between two measuring
sections shall not be greater than 1,5 m;
in the other areas of the twisted track the distance between two measuring sections shall not be greater
than 3 m.

Key
1 running direction 4 zone 1
2 cant 5 zone 3
3 measuring positions

Figure 6 Track based measuring positions to be used in method 1

For each measuring section the value of (Y/Q)a of the leading wheelset shall be recorded. Wheel lift of the
outer wheel of the leading wheelset z shall be recorded continuously.

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To determine the friction conditions (Y/Q)i and have to be evaluated as mean values of all measuring
sections or of a continuous recorded signal.

If vehicle based measurement is used processing of measuring signals shall be done by analogy to the above
conditions.

4.1.3.2.4 Assessment values

Assessment is done with the maximum value of all measuring sections (Y/Q)a,max and the maximum value
zmax of wheel lift of the outer wheel of the tested wheelset.

4.1.3.2.5 Limit values

A vehicle is considered to be safe against derailment if the condition

(Y/Q)a,max (Y/Q)lim

is fulfilled on each test.

Following investigations by European railway administrations4) the limit value for (Y/Q)lim was defined as 1,2
for a flange angle of 70 (this corresponds to = 0,36 from A.2). For different flange angles, the limit value is
calculated by

Y tan 0,36
= .
Q 1 + 0,36 tan

A.2 gives some background information for the evaluation parameter (Y/Q) and the limit value.

If the limit value (Y/Q)lim is exceeded the performance of the vehicle may be reviewed by considering if the
condition

zmax zlim = 5 mm

is respected (that means the vehicle is actually not derailed). In this case the vehicle may be accepted if the
following conditions are fulfilled:

the flange angle exceeds 70 in no position of the profile (the wheel profile shall be recorded and added
to the test report),
it can be documented that the flange of the outer rail is considered to be dry and no residual lubrication is
present, and
the test was executed at least 3 times and under no circumstances the condition zmax zlim = 5 mm
failed.

4.1.3.3 ethod 2: Test on twist test rig and flat test track

In Method 2 the calculation of the ratio (Y/Q)a is based on measurements Qa of the vertical wheel force
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

reduction on a test rig which simulates twisted track and measurement of the guiding force Ya on an
appropriate test track.

4) The investigations are documented in several reports of ERRI B55, see [4] in the Bibliography.

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4.1.3.3.1 Test conditions for measurement of minimum vertical wheel force on twist test rig

The vehicle test twist limit conditions in 4.1.2.2.3 are used as a basis of this test, in practice a wheel lift up to
5 mm is permissible according to 4.1.3.2.5. Consequently, the effective twist for the vehicle is reduced.

Following values shall be used on the twist test rig:

for bogie test twist:

+ 5
glim =7 if 2a+ < 4 m
2a +

+ 15
glim = + 2,0 if 2a+ 4 m
2a +

with 2a+ as the bogie wheel base in m and g+lim in .

for vehicle body test twist

* 5
glim =7 if 2a* < 4 m and
2a *

* 15
glim = + 2,0 if 4 m 2a* 20 m
2a *

* 5
glim = 3 if 20 m < 2a* 30 m
2a *

* 85
glim = if 2a* > 30 m.
2a *

with 2a* as the longitudinal dimension of the vehicle (distance between centre pivots for bogied single vehicles
or axles for non bogied vehicles) in m and g*lim in .

For bogied vehicles the twist on the bogie wheel base 2a+ and the twist on the bogie center distance 2a* shall
be combined as shown in Figure 2.

An appropriate test rig shall be used on which at least the supports of the two wheelset of one bogie may be
lifted and lowered. With this the twist of the track on bogie wheel base as well as on bogie center distance can
be simulated.

4.1.3.3.2 Measured values, measuring positions and processing of measurements for minimum
vertical wheel force on twist test rig

The displacements zjk of the wheels shall be measured continuously during the twist test. Additionally the
wheel forces Qjk of all wheels shall be measured by suitable devices.

By testing the vehicle on the test rig the following vehicle parameters are evaluated:

Q0,j average wheel force for each wheelset for level track (twist g = 0);

Qjk deviation of wheel force from Q0 due to the combined bogie and body twist and eccentricity
of center of gravity including friction and tolerances;

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Qjk,min minimum wheel force due to the combined bogie and body twist and eccentricity of center of
gravity including friction and tolerances.

A.8 and A.9 contain guidelines for testing and evaluating.

4.1.3.3.3 Test conditions for measurements in the flat test track

The test track consists of a tangent and a curve with R = 150 m without transition, twist and cant. The test
track shall reflect the normal condition of typical track considering the rail profile, track gauge and state of
maintenance.

Direction of running and direction of curvature shall be in such a way that the wheel with the lowest wheel load
of the extreme wheelset is in the leading position running on the outer rail of the curve.

Test conditions concerning the state of the rail as described 4.1.2.2.5 (dry rail conditions) shall be fulfilled.

The influence of longitudinal forces in the train set shall be minimized. The vehicle shall not be braked. The
speed shall be constant and not exceed 10 km/h.

Tests shall be done a minimum of 3 times.

4.1.3.3.4 Measured values, measuring positions and processing of measurements in the flat test
track

Forces may be measured by

appropriate devices on the rails, or


appropriate devices on the vehicles.

The following values shall be measured:

guiding forces on the inner and outer wheel of the tested wheelset Yi, Ya ;

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
vertical wheel force on the inner wheel of the tested wheelset Qi ;
angle of attack of a leading wheelset (see 4.1.2.3.6).

In the case of rail measurements the measuring positions shall fulfill the following conditions:

at least 3 measuring positions shall be in zone 1at the beginning of the curve area between 3 m and up to
2a* from the start of the curve (this ensures that the body-bogie yaw is still taking place),
at least 3 measuring positions shall be within in zone 2 in a curve area where the whole vehicle is in the
constant curve.

Figure 7 shows an example of the measuring position in a 150 m curve radii.

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Key
1 curvature
2 measuring positions
3 zone 1
4 zone 2

Figure 7 Track based measuring positions for determination of Y and Q

For each measuring position the values of Ya and Yi of the tested wheelset shall be recorded. Assessment is
done with the mean value Ya,med and Yi,med of the measuring positions separately for zone 1 and zone 2.

For the evaluation of Yi the direction of forces shall be noted (in most cases opposite to Ya).

To determine the friction conditions (Y/Q)i and shall be evaluated as mean values of all measuring positions
or of a continuous recorded signal.

If vehicle based measurement is used the results shall be analyzed equivalently to the above conditions.

4.1.3.3.5 Assessment values

Analysis of safety against derailment shall be done for the tested wheelsets of the vehicle. The following
formula shall be evaluated for each tested wheelset:

Y Y ja, med
( ) ja =
Q Q jk , min + Q jH

where
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Yja,med is the quasistatic guiding force evaluated by the tests described in 4.1.3.3.5;
Qjk,min is the smallest wheel force evaluated by twist test described in 4.1.3.3.3;
QjH is the change of wheel force due to the moment of the sum of guiding forces:

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

h
Q jH = (Y ja + Y ji )
2bA

where

h is the effective height above rail of the primary lateral suspension;


2bA is the lateral distance of wheel/rail contact points (normally 1 500 mm).

A vehicle is considered to be safe against derailment if the conditions

(Y/Q)ja (Y/Q)lim

is fulfilled.

4.1.3.3.6 Limit values

Following investigations by European railway administrations4) the limit value for (Y/Q)lim was defined as 1,2
for a flange angle of 70 (this corresponds to = 0,36 from A.2). For different flange angles the limit value is
calculated by

Y tan 0,36
=
Q 1 + 0,36 tan

A.2 shows some background information for the evaluation parameter (Y/Q) and the limit value.

4.1.3.4 Method 3: Test on twist test rig and yaw test rig

4.1.3.4.1 General

Method 3 combines laboratory based wheel unloading and bogie rotation tests. It may be used under the
following conditions:

Conventional-technology vehicle as defined in 3.10 with


two-axle bogies, two bogies per vehicle,

flange angles of wheels between 68 and 70.

NOTE Method 1 and 2 determine the ratio of lateral to vertical force at the wheel-rail interface. Long experience has
shown that the more indirect assessment used in method 3 is easier to implement.

Where it is not possible to demonstrate an acceptable performance using Method 3, validated computer
simulations according to Annex B may be used. If this fails either method 1 or 2 is to be used.

4.1.3.4.2 Test conditions for measurement of minimum wheel force on twist test rig

The track twist limit conditions in 4.1.2.2.2 are used as a basis of this test.

Following values shall be used on the twist test rig:

for bogies:

+
g lim =7 if 2a+ < 5 m and

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+ 20
g lim = + 3,0 if 2a+ 5 m
2a +

+
with 2a+ as the bogie wheel base in m and g in .
lim

for vehicle bodies

20

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g *lim = + 3,0
2a *

*
with 2a* as the longitudinal dimension of the vehicle (distance between centre pivots) in m and g lim in .

Tests shall be done as a combined body and bogie twist test as described in A.9.3. This type of test is
identical with test used in method 2 but with different twist conditions.

A test rig shall be used on which at least the supports of the two wheelset of one bogie may be lifted and
lowered. With this the twist of the track on bogie wheel base as well as on bogie center distance can be
simulated.

4.1.3.4.3 Measured values, measuring positions and processing of measurements for minimum
vertical wheel force on twist test rig

The displacements zjk of the wheels shall be measured continuously during the twist test. Additionally the
wheel forces Qjk of the wheels seeing the greatest percentage off-loading shall be measured by suitable
devices.

4.1.3.4.4 Test conditions for measurement of bogie rotational resistance

The test conditions described in 4.4.2 shall be respected.

4.1.3.4.5 Measured values, measuring positions and processing of measurements for bogie
rotational resistance

This is described in 4.4.3.

4.1.3.4.6 Assessment values

Analysis of track twist performance shall be done for the leading wheelset using the wheel unloading factor
Q
and the bogie rotational resistance factor X,
Q0

where

Q0 is the average wheel force for the tested wheelset on level track (twist g0 = 0);

Q is the deviation from Q0 at maximum twist condition.

Based on the results of the measurement of bogie rotational resistance in small radius curves (see 4.4.2), the
bogie X-factor shall be computed from the formula

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

M z,Rmin
X=
2a + 2Q0

where

Mz,Rmin is the torque required to rotate the bogie relative to the body, evaluated at = a * / Rmin

The test is described in 4.4.

4.1.3.4.7 Limit values

The following criteria's shall be respected:

Q
0,6
Q0

X 0,1 for passenger vehicles and locomotives,


for freight vehicles it shall be below the limits shown in Figure 8.

Both criteria shall be respected simultaneously.

Key
1 'X' Factor
2 axle load 2Q0 in kN
3 unacceptable
4 acceptable
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 8 Maximum permissible factor X for freight vehicles

4.2 Safety against derailment under longitudinal forces in S-shaped curves

It is recognized that longitudinal forces within trains have the potential to increase the risk of derailment when
negotiating S-shaped curves. For conventional trains (except for freight) this risk is regarded as low. However,
this risk should be considered when non-conventional configurations are developed. In the case of freight
vehicles the procedure defined in UIC 530-2 shall be used.

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4.3 Sway characteristics

4.3.1 General

The test described in this subclause is intended to evaluate the vehicle bodies displacement in the transverse
and roll direction caused by a lateral acceleration (acting in track plane). The test may be necessary to

validate vehicle data used for determination of its kinematic envelope, and
determine the transverse movement of the pantograph (for a powered vehicle with overhead lines) to
confirm that the risk of loss of contact between pantograph and contact wire is low.

NOTE Applying the test may be also useful to confirm that the displacements of the vehicle in roll and the
characteristics for the installed suspension components are within the design limits.

Two methods are used to determine the characteristics of the vehicle:

1) Test on special test rig


Measurement of roll angle and transverse movement on a test rig which simulates canted track and
subsequent analysis of roll coefficient.

2) On-track test
Measurement of lateral accelerations in vehicle body and cant deficiency in curves and analysis
of roll coefficient, or
measurement of roll angles in the suspension levels and analysis of roll coefficient.

Method 1 allows determination of the sway characteristics (i.e. roll and transverse movements), method 2 is
limited to determination of the roll characteristics and shall be completed for certain vehicles by measurement
and analysis of lateral movement between bogie and body.

The test method chosen shall be consistent with the gauge clearance method to be used.

4.3.2 Test conditions

4.3.2.1 General vehicle conditions

In general the test shall be done for a single vehicle. In the case of articulated vehicles where adjacent vehicle
bodies are suspended on a common bogie the influence of inter-vehicle constraints shall be analyzed in order
to determine their significance. Test conditions shall be determined as a result of this analysis and it may be
necessary to test more than one vehicle synchronously.

It may be desirable to disconnect dampers to reduce hysteresis in the system.

4.3.2.2 Load condition

The test vehicle shall have the usual operating equipment. With respect to occupancy with passengers or
freight load

multiple units,
passenger coaches, and
freight wagons

are to be investigated empty and loaded.

Any simulation of the loaded condition shall include the simulation of the height of centre of gravity of the
loaded vehicle body.

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4.3.2.3 Conditions for vehicles with air springs

The effect of the levelling systems response time shall be investigated. If the response time may not be
neglected, compared to a passive system, tests using method 1 (test rig) shall be done without the influence
of the levelling system. The levelling valves shall be disconnected.

Using method 2 the levelling system cannot be disconnected, here the influence of the response time is
included as experienced in service.

4.3.2.4 Conditions for vehicles with active systems in suspension

Several additional effects have to be considered in planning the tests including:

systems response time;


tolerances on positions and forces;
credible failure modes.

4.3.2.5 Conditions for test rig

Using method 1 test shall be done on a specialized site consisting of calibrated, initially flat track. The plane of
the rails shall be able to be canted in both directions under all wheelsets of the vehicle.

The test cant shall be sufficient to include the forces arising from steady state cant deficiency / excess and
dynamic effects.

The inclination of the rails shall be applied in steps to a maximum value applicable to the vehicle. The load
path through the suspension shall at all times be consistent with that seen when on the track. Tests shall be
done for positive and negative cant. A closed hysteresis loop shall be achieved. To enable unambiguous
evaluation of the roll coefficient, cant shall be 10 % to 20 % higher than the specified test cant.

4.3.3 Measured values and assessment values

4.3.3.1 Method 1: Test on special test rig

Vertical and horizontal deflections on marked points of vehicle body and one axle shall be measured by an
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

adequate equipment in such a way that it is possible to derive

* vehicle roll angle relative to the rotational axis of the wheelsets;


hP the height above the running plane of a defined point P in the longitudinal centre plane
of the vehicle;
yP lateral movement of the vehicle body at a defined point P relative to the
perpendicular axis of the wheelsets;
y* lateral movement in the secondary suspension at the height of the secondary
bump stops (necessary for the analysis of roll centre);
+ bogie roll angle relative to the rotational axis of the wheelsets;
ybog lateral movement of the bogie at a defined point relative to the perpendicular axis of the
wheelset;
0 roll angle of the wheelsets relative to the un-canted track plane (cant angle).

Figure 9 shows the situation on the test rig. At each value of cant from maximum negative to maximum
positive value measured values and derived values shall be measured and evaluated.

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Figure 9 Standing vehicle on canted track

Diagrams shall be produced showing *= f (0) and yP= f(0).


Figure 10 shows an example of a diagram *= f (0). The crosses in the diagram indicate the measured values
at different cant angles. It shows a hysteresis of the measured roll angles which is caused by friction in the
suspension. There is some play in the suspension which leads to discontinuity in the curve. If the behaviour is
linear, roll coefficient shall be calculated by fitting to a straight line.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 10 Example of roll angle diagram

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4.3.3.2 Method 2 - On-track test

Determination of vehicle roll characteristics during on-track tests is possible by measurement of

y&& * lateral acceleration in vehicle body,

y&& lateral acceleration of the wheelsets (lateral acceleration on track level)

or by measurement of

* roll angle difference between vehicle body and bogie frame for bogied vehicles or
between vehicle body and wheelset for non-bogied vehicles,
+ roll angle difference between bogie frame and wheelset for bogied vehicles, and
y&& lateral acceleration of the wheelsets (lateral acceleration on track level).

Analysis is to be done using the mean values in track sections of curved track. Processing of the measuring
signals is to be done as described in 5.5. At least 25 track sections shall be used.

4.3.4 Assessment values

4.3.4.1 General

Analysis may be done using different approaches:

1) Sway of specific locations on the vehicle body including pantograph


From *=f(0) and y*=f(0) it is possible to determine the sway of the vehicle in general.

2) Roll coefficient sR and roll centre height hC.

3) Roll coefficient sR.

The approaches using roll coefficient assume approximate linear behaviour. In the case of relevant non-
linearities (e.g. side bearer clearances, lateral suspensions with progressive rigidity), a more detailed analysis
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

shall be carried out.

Analysis 2) and 3) relate to the method for vehicle gauging defined in UIC 505.

4.3.4.2 Method 1 Test on test rig

When measured on a test rig, the roll coefficient is derived as

*
sR =
0

Roll center height may be calculated as

y P y *
hC = hP
*

4.3.4.3 Method 2 On-track test

Analysis based on on-track tests is limited to determination of the roll coefficient. It can be derived from

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+ + *
sR = g for on-track test and measurement of roll angle differences
&y&
in primary and secondary suspension, or

&y&*
sR = 1 for on-track test and measurement of vehicle body accelerations.
&y&

The approach using roll coefficient assumes approximate linear behaviour. In the case of relevant non-
linearities (e.g. side bearer clearances) a more detailed analysis shall be carried out.

4.3.5 Limit values

If appropriate the displacement values shall be compared to values specified for the vehicles kinematic
envelope or for vehicle gauging analysis defined in UIC 505.

For a pantograph vehicle the lateral displacement of the pantograph (which can be derived from the measured
values) shall be compared to the specified value.

4.4 Rotational resistance

4.4.1 General

The test described in this clause is intended to evaluate body-to-bogie yaw torque. One application is the
measurement of yaw torque which is generated by the passage of the vehicle through curves, switches and
crossings etc. It may be carried out for the proof of the safety against derailment according to Method 3
(see 4.1.3.4).

4.4.2 Test conditions


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.4.2.1 General

Tests shall be carried out in both directions up to a body/bogie yaw angle of

a* 0,020
* = +
Rmin 2a +

This reflects the yaw angle which is achieved in the minimum curve radius Rmin specified for the vehicle and
includes the effect of wheel-rail clearances.

The test shall be continued beyond the zero yaw angle to enable the hysteresis loop to be closed.

Yaw velocity shall be constant at 1 degree/s over at least 75 % of the yaw angle amplitude.

NOTE It is possible to achieve higher yaw velocities than this figure. This will occur at smaller yaw angles. A
combination of the maximum yaw angle and velocity is considered as unrealistic.

4.4.2.2 Vehicle conditions

The test vehicle shall have the usual operating equipment. With respect to occupancy with passengers or
freight load,

multiple units,
passenger coaches, and

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freight wagons

are to be investigated empty and loaded. The simulated load status should correspond to the planned
permissible occupancy or freight load.

The bogie shall be located under the vehicle body with all of the connections between body and bogie
correctly attached.

For vehicles with air springs tests shall be done in an inflated and deflated condition.

4.4.2.3 Test rig

The test rig shall be capable of determining the torque required to rotate the bogie up to at least the maximum
body-bogie yaw angle. The characteristics of the test rig including its friction behaviour should be considered.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4.4.3 Measured values and evaluation

Body-bogie yaw angle *and torque Mz required to rotate the bogie shall be measured continuously and
recorded in a diagram Mz = f(*). Figure 11 shows an example of a bogie-rotation diagram.

Figure 11 Bogie-rotation diagram

MR is the hysteresis magnitude and results from friction and damping in the system.

The mean slope

c 1 + c 2
c =
2
is the rotational stiffness of the secondary suspension. If rotation is achieved by sliding of friction faces
between body and bogie then c becomes zero.

The series stiffness cR of the friction or damping element may be essential for the understanding of the
dynamic behaviour of a vehicle.

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The feature a in the Figure may be caused by characteristics of the test rig including inertia of turntable and
bogie and is to be neglected.

The rotational resistance Mz,max in the smallest curve radius Rmin of the vehicle, without the gauge clearance
a*
eval
*
= considered, is essential for Method 3 for the proof of the safety against derailment (see
Rmin
4.1.3.4).

4.5 Measurement of static wheel force


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.5.1 General

The test described in this subclause is intended to evaluate the vehicles mass and the distribution of the
wheel forces (wheel loads).

This includes tests for the following parameters:

vehicle mass;
vertical force per axle;
vertical force per wheel.

4.5.2 Test conditions

4.5.2.1 Vehicle conditions

The test vehicle shall have the usual operating equipment and fluids. With respect to occupancy with
passengers or freight load,

multiple units,
passenger coaches, and
freight wagons

may be tested empty or loaded.

Tests may be preceded by adjustment of the suspension, carried out by means which, in principle do not
require the measurements of forces but only checks of a dimensional character.

The effect of hysteresis (e.g. influence of friction within the vehicle) in the suspension should be minimized
(e.g. by disconnecting dampers or friction elements). As an example this can be done by the following
procedure:

EXAMPLE The vehicle will be run at reduced speed on to the test rig after it has been run over a section of track
with level differences in order to activate the suspension system. After passing over this section of track and during
weighing, no alteration or adjustment will be made to the vehicle.
At the moment of measurement the vehicle will be free from external forces. Brakes shall be released, the wheelsets will
not be externally restrained and all inter-vehicle connections will be disconnected if possible.
Four successive and complete weighing operations will be carried out, the vehicle being run twice in both directions.

4.5.2.2 Test rig

The test arrangement shall be capable of determining the wheel forces.

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Preferably the vertical wheel forces under all wheels of the vehicle or one bogie should be measured at the
same time. It is permissible to use equipment which is capable of measuring the wheel forces of one wheelset
at a time and each wheelset being positioned sequentially on the test rig.

Test rig and the adjacent track shall be plain, straight and untwisted. The following geometrical characteristics
shall be respected:

cross level, vertical measuring direction: Difference of cant between any two wheelsets shall not exceed 1
mm at the time of measuring;
alignment, lateral measuring direction: Maximum difference from straight line shall be less than 5 mm.

4.5.3 Measured values and evaluation

The wheel forces Qjk of all wheels shall be measured. Evaluation shall be done using the arithmetic mean of
the values on one wheel noted during the weighing operations.

4.5.4 Assessment values

For assessment the following formulas are to be used:

(Q j1 + Qj2 )
j =1
Overall mass of the vehicle: mveh =
g

mveh g
Mean axle load of the vehicle: 2Q0, mean =
n

Axle load per wheelset: 2Q0, j = Q j1 + Q j 2

Maximum axle load of the vehicle: 2Q0, max = max(Q j1 + Q j 2 ) for j=1,n

Q j1 Q j 2
Ratio of wheel load difference per axle: q j =
2Q0, j

Ratio of difference between maximum axle load and mean axle load:

2Q0, max 2Q0, mean


2q0, max =
2Q0, mean

Ratio of difference between one side (1 or 2) of the vehicle to the mean of the sides:

(Q j1 Qj2 )
j =1
qside =
mveh g

where

n is the number of wheelsets in the vehicle.


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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4.5.5 Limit values

Limit values should be agreed between the relevant parties.

5 'On-track' tests

5.1 General

All new or modified vehicles shall be checked with regard to their dynamic characteristics. This clause
indicates:

the type of on-track tests to be performed: complete, partial or none;


the type of measuring method to be used: normal or simplified;
the values to be considered: assessment values and their limit values;
the conditions relative to the tested vehicle;
the conditions relative to the test tracks;
the requirements concerning the (usually four) test zones and the corresponding conditions of radius,
speed and cant deficiency;
the way to divide each test zone into track sections;
the conditions of recording and filtering of dynamic data;
the rules applied for statistical processing of these data which include:
determination of the relevant (mean or maximum) value of each assessment value on each track
section;
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

determination of the statistically (mean or maximum) estimated value of each assessment value on
each test zone, based upon the individual values obtained on all the track sections of the test zone;
comparison of these estimated values with the corresponding limit values.

5.2 Type of on-track test and measuring method

5.2.1 Choice of on-track test type

Testing of running characteristics uses two different types of on-track tests:

complete on-track tests;


partial on-track tests.

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Figure 12 shows the conditions of application and the extent of the two types of tests.

Figure 12 Characteristics of 'on-track' tests

Complete on-track tests require testing in the full test range (as defined in 5.4.7). Partial on-track tests allows
a reduced extent of test under selected test conditions.

The choice of the applicable type of on-track test is made by using the flowchart in Figure 13.

Figure 13 Selection of the prescribed on-track test

37

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The complete on-track test is to be used for the initial acceptance. For the extension of acceptance of a
vehicle with conventional design the complete on-track test is to be used if the conditions for application of
the partial type in Table 1 are not fulfilled.

Vehicles with maximum permissible speeds Vadm 60 km/h are granted dispensation from 'on-track' tests.

For extension of the acceptance state it is possible to dispense with 'on-track' tests, if

the initial acceptance tests have been done using normal measuring method or if the base conditions for
the use of the simplified measuring method are respected,
the condition for the safety factor 1,1 (see 5.5.5) has been respected during initial acceptance, and
the variation range of vehicle parameters is within the range shown in Table 1.

NOTE An extension of the acceptance is necessary if


the design parameters of the vehicle or running gear change, or if
the operation parameters of the vehicle (e.g. maximum permissible speed or the maximum permissible cant
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

deficiency) change, or if
the running gear from an already accepted vehicle is used under a new vehicle body.

The partial on-track test may be applied for the extension of the validity of the acceptance of an already
accepted vehicle if the variation range of vehicle parameters is within the range shown in Table 1.

X final X initial
Modification range is defined as in percent.
X initial

If parameters that can influence the running behaviour are changed and are not included in Tables 1, 3 and 12
it shall be demonstrated (by calculations or other means) that the influence is favourable or insignificant,
otherwise on-track tests shall be carried out.

If the initial acceptance has not been done with the method of this document it may be necessary to estimate
the safety factor (see 5.5.5) and apply the conditions of 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 for the choice of 'on-track' test type
and measuring method.

The original acceptance tests shall comply in principle to the relevant requirements of this document and it
shall be demonstrated that there is a sufficient margin of safety (safety factor) compared to the limits defined
in this document.

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Table 1 Conditions for dispense of tests and application of partial on-track tests (see Figure 13) in
case of 1,1
Dispensation from on-track Application of partial 'on-
test track' test
Modified parameter Locomotives Freight stock Locomotives Freight stock
multiple units multiple units
passenger coach passenger coach
Operational parameters
Increase of maximum permissible vehicle speed ---b --- b 0 km/h to 0 km/h to +
+20 km/h 20 km/h
Vehicle parameters
Distance between bogie centres -5 % to +20 % -15 % to +A a -10 % to +A a -30 % to +A a
for 2a 9 m e
* for 2a* 9 m
-5 % to +A a -10 % to +A a
*
for 2a < 9 m e
* for 2a < 9 m
Vehicle wheel base (2-axle vehicle) not applicable -15 % to +A a not applicable -30 % to +A a
x
for 2a 8 m e for 2a 8 m
x

-5 % to +A a -10 % to +A a
for 2ax < 8 m e for 2ax < 8 m
Centre of gravity height empty vehicle -20 % to +10 % -100 % to +20 % -40 % to +40 % -100 % to A a
Centre of gravity height loaded vehicle -20 % to +10 % -100 % to +50 % -40 % to +40 % -100 % to A a
Unsprung mass -5 % to +5 % not applicable -10 % to +10 % not applicable

Primary suspended mass (total mass if vehicle has no -5 % to +5 % not applicable -10 % to +10 % not applicable
secondary suspension level)
Secondary suspended mass -10 % to +10 % not applicable -10 % to +10 % not applicable
Moment of inertia of vehicle body (around z-axis) -10 % to +10 % -100 % to +10 % -10 % to +10 % -100 % to
d +20 % d
Torsional stiffness coefficient ctx 3 x 1010 kNmm2/rad e not applicable -66 % to +200 % not applicable -66 % to
+200 %
Torsional stiffness coefficient ct > 3 x 10 kNmm /rad e
x 10 2 not applicable -50 % to +Aa not applicable -50 % to +A a
Vehicle tare for vehicles with tare mass 12 t (non-bogied not applicable -15 % to +Aa not applicable -30 % to +A a
wagons) or 16 t (bogied wagons) f
Maximum static wheel force (vehicles with 2Q0 225 kN) f not applicable -100 % to +5 % not applicable -100 % to
+10 %
Bogie parameters
Bogie wheel base 0 % to 5 % 0 % to +10 % -5 % to +20 % -10 % to +20 %
Nominal wheel diameter -10 % to +15 % -10 % to +15 % -10 % to +15 % -10 % to +15 %
Stiffness of primary vertical suspension (vehicles with two -20 % to +20 % 0 % to +25 % -40 % to +40 % 0 % to +25 %
suspension levels)
Stiffness of secondary vertical suspension (total stiffness -10 % to +10 % 0 % to +25 % -40 % to +40 % 0 % to +25 %
at vehicles with one suspension level)
Lower transitional loads not applicable -5 % to 0 % not applicable -5 % to 0 %
Axle guiding: Stiffness 0 % to 10 % --- b -10 to 10 % ---c
Axle guiding: Damping, clearances, etc. -10 % to +10 % --- b -10 to +10 % --- c
Rotational torque of bogie -10 % to +10 % -20 % to +20 % -20 to +20 % -20 % to +20 %
Moment of inertia of whole bogie (around z-axis) -100 % to +5 % -100 % to +10 % -100 to +10 % -100 % to
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

+20 %
Secondary lateral suspension (stiffness, damping, -10 % to +10 % --- b -10 to +10 % --- c
clearances, etc.)
a No limitation from this document, there may be restrictions from other regulations
b No dispensation from on-track tests
c Complete on-track tests necessary
d Only non-bogied vehicles
e initial value
f final value

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5.2.2 Choice of measuring method

5.2.2.1 General

Complete and partial on-track tests can use the two different measuring methods:

normal measuring method;


simplified measuring method.

Figure 14 gives an overview of the assessment values used in both measuring


methods.

Figure 14 Measuring methods and assessment values

NOTE Assessment of accelerations using normal measuring method is needed for further simplified measurements.

'On-track' test with normal measuring method includes the assessment of

running safety,
track loading,
ride characteristics of the vehicle

with direct measured forces between wheel and rail and accelerations in running gear and in the vehicle body.

'On-track' tests with simplified measuring method includes the assessment of

running safety, and


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ride characteristics of the vehicle

with measured lateral forces between wheelset and axle-box, accelerations at the bogie frame and
accelerations in the vehicle body.

The measuring method shall be determined from the flowchart of Figure 15.

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Figure 15 Selection of measuring method

5.2.2.2 Base conditions for the use of simplified measuring method and measurement of axle-box
forces

In general, the simplified measuring method may be applied, if all of the following four conditions are fulfilled
together with the flowchart of Figure 15:

a) static axle load (for normal load) 2Q0


1) traction units, passenger coaches and freight wagons 2Q0 200 kN
2) special vehicles 2Q0 225 kN

b) maximum permissible speed of the vehicle Vadm


1) locomotives and power cars with bogies Vadm 160 km/h

41

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2) locomotives with single wheelsets Vadm 100 km/h


3) multiple units with bogie mass m+ > 10 t Vadm 160 km/h
4) multiple units with bogie mass 10 t Vadm 200 km/h
5) passenger coaches (4-axled bogied vehicles) Vadm 200 km/h
6) passenger coaches with single wheelsets Vadm 120 km/h
7) freight wagons, special vehicles Vadm 120 km/h

c) admissible cant deficiency cdadm


1) locomotives, power cars, multiple units, passenger coaches cdadm 150 mm
2) freight wagons, special vehicles cdadm 130 mm
3) multiple units with special features
(e.g. low centre of gravity, low axle forces)
and Vadm 160 km/h cdadm 165 mm

d) running gear type


1) single wheelsets
2) bogies with two wheelsets
3) bogies with three wheelsets

Additionally measurement of lateral axle-box forces H is obligatory under the conditions of Table 2.

Table 2 Base conditions under which lateral axle-box forces H have to be measured

Vehicle category Design characteristics Permissible maximum


vehicle speed
Locomotives Bogies with two wheelsets 120 km/h < Vadm 160 km/h

Bogies with three wheelsets Vadm 160 km/h


+
Multiple units Bogie mass m > 10 t 120 km/h < Vadm 160 km/h

Freight stock Bogies with three wheelsets Vadm 120 km/h

Special vehicles Bogies with more than three wheelsets Vadm 120 km/h

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
For the testing

the desired maximum permissible speed of the vehicle Vadm and


the permissible cant deficiency cdadm

are relevant for the assessment of the conditions.

5.2.2.3 Extended conditions for the use of simplified measuring method and measurement of axle-
box forces

For partial on-track test (for extension of acceptance) extended conditions for the use of the simplified
measuring method may be used together with the flowchart of Figure 15.

Dependent on the modified parameters of the vehicle Table 3 shows

the conditions for the use of the simplified measuring method, and
conditions under which measurement of lateral axle-box forces H is mandatory.

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Table 3 Extended conditions for use of simplified measuring method and measurement of axle box
forces during partial on-track test (see Figure 15)
Application of simplified Measurement of axle box
measuring method forces
Locomotives
Locomotives
multiple units
Modified parameter Freight stock multiple units Freight stock
passenger
passenger coach
coach
Operational parameters
Increase of permissible maximum vehicle speed 0 km/h to 0 km/h to + 10 km/h to +10 km/h to
+20 km/h +20 km/h +20 km/h +20 km/h
Vehicle parameters
-10 % to +A a -30 % to +A a
* d
for 2a 9 m
Distance between bogie centres a
-10 % to +A
* d
for 2a < 9 m
not applicable -30 % to +Aa
* d
for 2a 8 m
Vehicle wheel base (2-axle vehicle) a
-10 % to +A
* d
for 2a < 8 m
Centre of gravity height empty vehicle -40 % to +40 % -100 % to A a
Centre of gravity height loaded vehicle -40 % to +40 % -100 % to A a
Unsprung mass -10 % to +10 % not applicable
Primary suspended mass (total mass if vehicle has no -10 % to +10 % not applicable
secondary suspension level)
Secondary suspended mass -10 % to +10 % not applicable
Moment of inertia of vehicle body (around z-axis) c -10 % to +10 % -100 % to +20 % +10 % to +20 %

Torsional stiffness coefficient ct 3 x 10 kNmm /rad d


* 10 2
not applicable -66 % to +200 %

Torsional stiffness coefficient ct > 3 x 10 kNmm /rad d -50 % to + A a


* 10 2
not applicable
a
Vehicle tare for vehicles with tare mass 12 t (non- not applicable -30 % to + A
bogied wagons) or 16 t (bogied wagons) e
e
Maximum axle load (vehicles with 2Q0 225 kN) not applicable -100 % to +10 % +5 % to +10 %
Bogie parameters
Bogie wheel base -5 % to +20 % -10 % to +20 % +5 % to +20 %
Nominal wheel diameter -10 % to +15 % -10 % to +15 %
Stiffness of primary vertical suspension (vehicles with -40 % to +40 % 0 % to +25 %
two suspension levels)
Stiffness of secondary vertical suspension (total -40 % to +40 % 0 % to +25 %
stiffness at vehicles with one suspension level)
Lower transitional loads not applicable -5 % to 0 %

Axle guiding: Stiffness -10 % to 10 % --- b


Axle guiding: Damping, clearances, etc. -10 % to +10 % --- b
Rotational torque of bogie -20 % to +20 % -20 % to +20 % +10 % to +20 %
Moment of inertia of whole bogie (around z-axis) -100 % to +10 % -100 % to +20 %
Secondary lateral suspension (stiffness, damping, -10 % to +10 % --- b
clearances, etc.)
a
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

No limitation from this document, there may be restrictions from other regulations
b Use of simplified measuring method is not allowed
c Only non-bogied vehicles
d initial value
e final value

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5.3 Assessment, limit and measuring values

5.3.1 Assessment values

5.3.1.1 General

Assessment values for running behaviour are either measured directly or derived from other parameters
measured. They are used in assessing the interaction between vehicle and track and mainly describe the
wheel/rail system or are closely related to it.

The following assessment values are generally used for the testing of running characteristics:

a) forces between wheel and rail:


1) guiding force Y, lateral measuring direction;
2) wheel force Q, vertical measuring direction;
3) sum of guiding forces Y of a wheelset;
4) quotient Y/Q of guiding force/wheel force;

b) forces at the bogie:


1) sum of the lateral axle-box forces H;

c) accelerations:
1) accelerations at axles y&& , lateral measuring direction, for non-bogie vehicles;
2) accelerations at bogie y&& + , lateral measuring direction;
3) accelerations in the vehicle body y&& * and z&&* , lateral and vertical measuring directions.

Details of the measured values and measuring points are given in Table 6.

NOTE The conditions of:


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

vehicle;
track;
operation;
environment;
measuring and assessment procedure
have an effect on the assessment values. The random occurrence of certain influences or conditions characterises the
assessment values as stochastic variables.

5.3.1.2 Assessment values of running safety

The derived values Y and Y/Q are the criteria for running safety. They are considered as safety-critical
assessment values. The value Y is used for assessing compliance with regard to the safety against track
shifting. The quotient Y/Q of the leading wheel is the criterion for safety against derailment resulting from the
climbing of the wheel flange onto the rail.

Under certain conditions the use of the sum of lateral axle box forces H is allowed instead of the sum of
guiding forces Y of a wheelset to simplify the assessment of the running safety (simplified measuring
method).

Accelerations at the bogie y&& + allow an assessment of running safety on a simplified basis. Furthermore they
allow the monitoring of the running behaviour of vehicles. The running characteristics of the vehicles of a test
train, for example, can be monitored if the vehicles are not equipped for the measurement of forces between
wheel and rail.

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* *
Accelerations in the vehicle body &y&S and &z&S (index S indicates the specific filtering for the assessment of
running safety) are used for the simplified assessment of running safety.

Instability of the vehicle is assessed on basis of a moving rms value of sum of guiding forces Y, sum of
lateral axle box forces H, lateral accelerations at the bogie y&& + or lateral accelerations on axles y&& .

5.3.1.3 Assessment values of track loading

The guiding force Y and the wheel force Q form the basis for the assessment of lateral and vertical track
loading.

5.3.1.4 Assessment values of ride characteristics

Accelerations in the vehicle body y&& * and z&&* are used for assessing ride characteristics of the vehicle. The
assessment of accelerations includes maximum and rms values.

5.3.2 Limit values

5.3.2.1 General

The given limit values have different significance as regards safety issues.

The limit values in 5.3.2.2 are running safety relevant limits which shall be used restrictively. These limit
values can only be changed nationally and/or multi-nationally if the track and operating conditions differ
from the basis conditions used by UIC for the definition of limit values.

The limit values in 5.3.2.3 are no running safety-relevant limits but are to be considered in relation to the
load/mechanical strength and the wear of the international, multinational or national design of the
superstructure.

The limit values in 5.3.2.4 are no running safety-relevant limits but are to be considered and/or adapted
with regard to the vibrational load on passengers, freight and vehicle components.

The given values reflect international operation and are derived from UIC (see Clause 1). For national or
multinational operation these limits may be varied.

NOTE Differing limit values may be possible or necessary because of track conditions different from those used by
UIC as basis. Examples are systems with slab track, systems with stronger rails or special conditions on mountain lines.
Also track geometry deviations different from those defined in Annex C can necessitate differing limit values.

5.3.2.2 Limit values of running safety

Depending on the defined measurements the corresponding limit values are to be applied.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The following limit values are to be used:

Y, Y/Q for normal measuring method and

*
H, &y&S , &z&S for simplified measuring method with measurement of lateral axle-box forces
( &y&S is only to be used for non bogied vehicles)

* *
+, &y&S , &z&S for simplified measuring method on bogie vehicles
without measurement of lateral axle-box forces

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* *
y&&S , &y&S , &z&S , for simplified measuring method on non-bogied vehicles

a) Sum of guiding forces Ymax:

The safety-critical limit for track shifting

Ymax,lim = k1 (10 + 2Q0/3) in kN

Factor k1

1) k1 = 1,0: locomotives, power cars, multiple units and passenger coaches;

2) k1 = 0,85: freight wagons.

NOTE 1 The factor k1 takes account of the minimum guiding force values of a wheelset which a track is still able to
withstand without any permanent lateral displacement. The limit Ymax,lim refers to
ballasted track;
track with timber sleepers, with a distance between sleepers 0,65 m; and
rails with a weight per metre 46 kg,
where the track bed has been recently tamped.

NOTE 2 To take account of greater variations in geometrical dimensions and of the state of maintenance, a smaller
factor k1 is assumed for freight wagons. Exceptions are permissible in well-founded individual cases.

NOTE 3 For vehicles with very short axle spacing the influence of the adjacent axles increase the limit value Y a track
is able to endure without displacement. It is allowed to use extended calculation methods which take this fact into
consideration.

b) Quotient of guiding force and wheel force (Y/Q)max:

the safety-critical limit for the quotient of a leading wheel

(Y/Q)max,lim = 0,8 Scope: curved track with radius of R 250 m

NOTE 4 According to previous investigations, it was only possible to verify the limit (Y/Q)max,lim for constant track
curves (without transition curves and ramps) with radii R 300 m (see ERRI C138) and in some loading conditions. On
the other hand, evidence of the suitability for curves R < 300 m has so far not been provided. Until reliable results are
available, it is recommended that the limit value (Y/Q)max,lim = 0,8 is also used for curves 250 m R < 300 m.

In transition curves it is recognized that higher values than 0,8 may be encountered. The maximum limit value
of 1,2 (for flange angle of 70) applied for the quasistatic testing according 4.1 shall be respected. Actually in
transition curves no specific limit can be specified, however it shall not exceed 1,2 and in the case where 0,8
is exceeded each case shall be investigated and justified.

c) Sum of lateral axle-box forces Hmax:

This limit value is only used in the simplified measuring method when measurement of lateral axle box
forces is not carried out.

Hmax,lim = k2 (10 + 2Q0/3) in kN

Factor k2

1) k2 = 0,90: locomotives, power cars, multiple units and passenger coaches, special vehicles;

2) k2 = 0,75: freight wagons empty;

46

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3) k2 = 0,80: freight wagons loaded.

NOTE 5 The factor k2 takes account of the dynamic behaviour of the wheelset in lateral direction. To take account of
greater variations in geometrical dimensions and of the state of maintenance, smaller factor k2 is assumed for freight
wagons. Exceptions are permissible in well-founded individual cases.

+
d) Maximum acceleration at the bogie &y&max :

The application of this assessment variable is only used in the simplified measuring method when
measurement of lateral axle box forces is not carried out. Depending on the mass m+ of the complete
+
bogie (including wheelsets) the following limit values &y&max,lim are to be applied:

+ m+
&y&max, lim = 12
5

where m+ is the mass in t.

+
&&max,
For partial on-track tests with the simplified measuring method a reduced limit value of y lim, simp shall
be calculated at a third of the remaining margin between the highest estimated maximum value of this
assessment value and its limit value

+
y&&max,lim max ( Y ( PA ) max,normal )
y&& + max,lim,simp = max (Y (PA) max,normal ) +
3
with max(Y(PA)max,normal) as the highest estimated maximum value of all test conditions during the initial
complete on-track test.

* *
e) Maximum accelerations in the vehicle body &y&S max , &z&S max

*
The limit value &y&S max, lim is only used in the simplified measuring method when measurement of lateral
axle box forces is not carried out.

Table 4 shows the necessary limit values.

47

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Table 4 Limit values for maximum accelerations in vehicle body


Vehicle, test conditions Limit values for accelerations in vehicle
body in m/s2

&y&S* max,lim &z&S* max,lim


Locomotives, power Single suspension level or deflated air spring condition 5
cars, multiple units
and passenger Double suspension level 3
coaches
Test zones 1 and 2 3
straight track, large radius curves

Test zone 3 2,8


small radius curves

Test zones 4 2,6


very small radius curves

Freight wagons, loaded and special vehicles 5

Freight wagons, empty 5b

Freight wagons, special vehicles with bogies 3


Freight wagons, special 2Q0 < 60 kN 4
vehicles without bogies
60 kN 2Q0 200 kN 4,43-2Q0/140 a
2Q0 > 200 kN 3
a static axle force 2Q0 in kN
b This limit value is known to be a problem for empty freight vehicles in test zone 1 and 2.
It is currently being reviewed by UIC. Deviations from this limit value may be allowed under mutual agreement.

*
For partial 'on-track' tests with the simplified measuring method a reduced limit value of &y&S, max shall be
calculated at a third of the remaining margin between the highest estimated maximum value of this
assessment value and its limit value

&y&S*, max,lim max(Y(PA ) max, normal )


&y&*S, max,lim,simp = max(Y(PA ) max, normal ) +
3
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

with max(Y(PA)max,normal) as the highest estimated maximum value of all test conditions during the initial
complete on-track test.

f) Instability criterion:

Depending on the applied measuring method and the vehicle type the following limit values shall be used:

1) Non-bogied vehicles:

a) Normal measuring method:

Y max,lim
Sum of guiding forces: Yrms, lim =
2

b) Simplified measuring method and measurement of lateral axle box forces:

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H max,lim
Sum of lateral axle box forces: H rms, lim =
2

c) Simplified measuring method without measurement of lateral axle box forces:

Accelerations on axle: &y&rms, lim = 5 m/s preliminary

2) Bogied vehicles:

a) Normal measuring method:

Y max,lim
Sum of guiding forces with Yrms, lim =
2

b) Simplified measuring method and measurement of lateral axle box forces:

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
H max,lim
Sum of lateral axle box forces: H rms, lim =
2

c) Simplified measuring method without measurement of lateral axle box forces:

&y&+
+ max,lim
Accelerations at bogie frame: &y& =
rms,lim 2

5.3.2.3 Track loading limit values (for normal measuring method)

The given values are applicable to vehicles up to a maximum static wheel force of 112,5 kN. For operation of
heavier vehicles on selected tracks the limit values may be increased.

a) Quasi-static guiding force Yqst:

Yqst,lim = 60 kN Scope: Test zones 2, 3 and 4 excluding transition sections

NOTE 1 This limit value is known to be a problem for vehicles in test zone 4. It is currently being reviewed by UIC.
Deviations from this limit value may be allowed under certain conditions.

b) Quasi-static wheel force Qqst:

Qqst,lim = 145 kN Scope: Test zones 2, 3 and 4 excluding transition sections

c) Maximum wheel force Qmax:

Qmax,lim = 90 + Q0 in kN

Limited to the following value depending on the permissible maximum speed of the vehicle Vadm:

Vadm 160 km/h: Qmax,lim 200 kN

160 km/h < Vadm 200 km/h: Qmax,lim 190 kN

200 km/h < Vadm 250 km/h: Qmax,lim 180 kN

250 km/h < Vadm 300 km/h: Qmax,lim 170 kN

Vadm > 300 km/h: Qmax,lim 160 kN

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NOTE 2 The track loading limit values take account of rails with a weight per metre 46 kg and the minimum value of
2
rail strength of 700 N/mm .

5.3.2.4 Limit values of ride characteristics

For the assessment of the vehicle's ride characteristics the following accelerations are used:

*
a) quasistatic accelerations in the vehicle body &y&qst

* *
b) maximum accelerations in the vehicle body &y&max , &z&max

* *
c) root mean square of accelerations in vehicle body &y&rms , &z&rms

Table 5 shows the values for good ride characteristics. If higher values occur, the influence on passengers or
loading safety and the strength of the vehicle and its mounted parts shall be regarded. Number and duration
of the incidents as well as the service concept shall be considered.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 5 Limit values for ride characteristics

Assessment, Limit values for


vehicle, test conditions accelerations in vehicle body m/s2
* * * * *
Ride characteristics &y&qst , lim
a &y&max, lim
&z&max, lim
&y&rms , lim
&z&rms , lim

Locomotives,
1,5 2,5 2,5 0,5 1,0
power cars
Multiple units,
1,5 2,5 2,5 0,5 0,75
passenger coaches
Freight wagons, special vehicles
1,3 3,0 5,0 1,3 2,0
with bogies
Freight wagons, special vehicles
1,3 4,0 5,0 1,5 2,0
without bogies
a Applicable only in test zones 2, 3 and 4 (curves)

NOTE For degraded suspension conditions (see 5.4.3.4) running safety will be respected according to the limits of
5.3.2.2. Passenger safety will be demonstrated.

5.3.3 Measured values and measuring points

Measured values and assessment values are characterized by their direction in the system of vehicle
coordinates according to Figure D.1.

Table 6 shows all measured parameters and measuring points used for on-track tests.

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Table 6 Measuring values and measuring points a


Reference point of Direction Symbol Unit Remarks
measurement
Forces between wheel and rail
Guiding force Y
Wheelset 1 or 2, right wheel lateral Y11, Y21 kN
Wheelset 1 or 2, left wheel lateral Y12, Y22 kN
Wheelset 3 or 4, right wheel lateral Y31, Y41 kN
Wheelset 3 or 4, left wheel lateral Y32, Y42 kN
Wheel force Q
Wheelset 1 or 2, right wheel vertical Q11, Q21 kN
Wheelset 1 or 2, left wheel vertical Q12, Q22 kN
Wheelset 3 or 4, right wheel vertical Q31, Q41 kN
Wheelset 3 or 4, left wheel vertical Q32, Q42 kN
Forces at bogie
lateral axle-box force H
Wheelset 1 or 2, right suspension lateral H11, H21 kN lateral axle-box forces may be
Wheelset 1 or 2, left suspension lateral H12, H22 kN measured for each side or as
Sum of Wheelset 1 or 2 lateral H1, H2 kN sum per wheelset

Accelerations
Accelerations at axles
2
Axle box wheel 11 (or 12) lateral y&& m/s
11 used for non-bogie vehicles if
Axle box wheel 21 (or 22) lateral y&& m/s
2 no forces are measured
21

Accelerations at bogie frame +


Bogie frame, above wheel 11 lateral y&& + m/s
2
11

Bogie frame, above wheel 21 lateral y&& + m/s


2
21

Accelerations in vehicle body *, z&&* b

* 2
Centre of vehicle body lateral y&&M m/s
Vehicle body, above bogie I lateral y&&*I m/s
2
Measuring points b:
Vehicle body, above bogie II lateral && *
y II m/s
2
vehicle body above running
*
y&&FI 2 gear
Drivers cab FI lateral m/s
Drivers cab FII lateral *
y&& FII m/s
2 drivers cab in operating
position (only for
Centre of vehicle body vertical &&*
zM m/s
2
assessment values of ride
z&&I*
2
Vehicle body, above bogie I vertical m/s characteristics, see 5.2.2.3)
centre of vehicle body on
z&&II*
2
Vehicle body, above bogie II vertical m/s
multiple units and
* 2
Drivers cab FI vertical z&&FI m/s passenger coaches
* 2
Drivers cab FII vertical z&&FII m/s

Influencing quantities
Speed - V km/h application dependent on
Cant deficiency - cd mm track layout
a On vehicles with differing wheelset arrangements the designation of measuring points shall be adapted
accordingly.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

b For assessment of running safety use measuring points above bogies.

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For on-track test employing the normal measuring method the direct measurement of

guiding force Y and wheel force Q,

accelerations at the bogie y&& + in the case of bogie vehicles and

accelerations y&& * and z&&* in the vehicle body

are necessary.

For on-track test employing the simplified measuring method the measurement of lateral axle box forces H are
to be determined using

a) Table 2 (complete on-track test), or

b) Table 2 (partial on-track test) and used together with


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

accelerations at axle boxes y&& in the case of non-bogie vehicles;

accelerations at the bogie y&& + in the case of bogie vehicles and

accelerations y&& * or z&&* in the vehicle body.

Forces at wheel/rail contact and axle-box forces shall be measured on at least the two outer axles of the
vehicle or one bogie, depending on whether the vehicle is fitted with axles or bogies.

Measuring points for accelerations in the vehicle body are situated on the vehicle floor. The reference point for
coaches and wagons is above the bogie centre and for traction units it is the driver's cab. On multiple units
and passenger coaches, accelerations shall additionally be measured at the centre of the vehicle body
according to Table 6.

Measuring points for accelerations at bogie frames are at one bogie frame above the two outer wheelsets.

In the case of vehicles with special bogies, multiple transport units or multiple units, the scope of
measurement shall be adapted to the requirements.

In addition to the measured parameters, the following influencing parameters shall be measured:

speed V, and
cant deficiency cd.

5.4 Performing 'on-track' tests

5.4.1 Test conditions

The fixed test conditions for

test vehicle,
track,
operation, and
measuring and evaluation method

shall be complied with in on-track testing of running characteristics.

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Figure 16 gives an overview of the totality of test conditions, details are described in 5.4.2 to 5.4.7.

Figure 16 Formation of test conditions

Effects of aerodynamic forces are outside the scope of this document and shall not have a significant
influence on the tests.

5.4.2 Test zones

On-track tests for the testing of running characteristics are carried out in four different test zones. In each test
zone, the test conditions for

track, and
operation

differ with regard to the ranges of values to be examined for

track layout,
speed, and
cant deficiency.

Figure 17 gives an overview of the test zones, the ranges of values for track layout, the objective of testing
and anticipated vehicle characteristics.

53

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--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure 17 Test zones

The given values of R = 400 m and R = 250 m as limit values for test zones reflect international operation. For
operation on track with differing layout (see clause 1) the range of curve radii for test zone 3 and 4 may be
varied.

In some cases (rather low maximum speed) zone 2 may cover the range of radii of zone 3. In these cases
evaluation on zone 3 is not necessary.

Track maintenance vehicles shall be tested in test zones 1 and 2.

5.4.3 Test vehicle

5.4.3.1 Selection of test vehicle

In principle, the test vehicle can be selected from a design type

according to the principle of random selection from identical stock, or


by taking account of specific vehicle or running gear characteristics.

NOTE 1 An attempt should be made to use the principle of random selection for the testing of running characteristics.

NOTE 2 The test vehicle is regarded as the reference vehicle of the design series or type to be assessed.

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5.4.3.2 Actual status of the test vehicle

The test vehicle shall be representative of the series production. The results of testing of running behaviour
refer to the actual status of the test vehicle during the test. The status of the test vehicle shall be determined
and shall correspond to the desired status of the design series to be tested with respect to

the vehicle parameters relevant to running characteristics as well as


the construction and maintenance status.

In this context, evidence shall be provided to show whether the values of the most important vehicle
parameters for running characteristics and vibration are within the construction and maintenance tolerances.

5.4.3.3 Wheel profile

In principle 'on-track' tests shall be done with wheel profile providing a high equivalent conicity.

NOTE These wheel profiles will be identified as profiles, which

result from operation of the vehicle, or


profiles, machined for the on-track test.

In the case of new developed vehicles the evolution of worn wheel profiles is not known, therefore on-track
tests may be done at first using a new wheel profile or a worn wheel profile of a similar vehicle.

The validity of the acceptance is subject to suitable studies which demonstrate that the highest value of
equivalent conicity in service does not exceed the test value by more than 50 % or 0,05 whichever is the
smaller. To test changes of equivalent conicity wheel profiles shall be measured.

If the condition is not fulfilled, stability (see 5.3.2.2f) shall be proven by appropriate investigations (e.g. tests,
simulations). In the case of on-track tests they may be reduced to test zone 1 and 2:
using any measuring method;
with wheels in the worn condition;
in empty condition;
on the rail inclination with the higher equivalent conicity.

When using a worn wheel profile, conicity shall not be lower than the value of the design (new) wheel profile.

The actual status of the wheel profiles of all wheels of the test vehicle shall be determined. For checking
purposes, the numerical values of the following evaluation variables shall be determined:

wheel dimensions and wheelset dimensions; and


equivalent conicity tan e (see definition in 3.10.4).

The wheel profiles shall be checked prior to the 'on-track' tests. All the wheel profiles of the test vehicle shall
be measured. This measurement shall be done with the wheelset installed in the vehicle in order to include
the effect of loading.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The equivalent conicity shall be calculated using wheel profile and design rail profile according to
EN 13674-1 at design inclination and design gauge.

Wheel and wheelset dimensions as well as the equivalent conicity and the results of the evaluation are part of
the documentation of results.

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5.4.3.4 Failure conditions

Failure conditions that enable the vehicle to run safely shall be investigated by appropriate tests (deflated air
springs, failure of yaw dampers, etc.).

5.4.3.5 Loading conditions

During the 'on-track' tests, the test vehicle shall have the usual operating equipment. With respect to
passenger or freight load,

multiple units,
passenger coaches, and
freight wagons

are to be tested in the empty and loaded conditions. The simulated load status should correspond to the
planned permissible passenger or freight load. The planned permissible passenger load is expected to vary
according to the use. Some operations anticipate seats occupied only, others have large areas for standing
passengers. These different circumstances shall be considered when planning the tests.

In principle, it shall be determined whether the partially occupied or partially loaded vehicle with unsymmetrical
distribution is the most unfavourable condition. If a partial load condition is found to be unfavourable, tests
shall also be undertaken in this condition.

5.4.3.6 Other test conditions

In principle, the test vehicle shall be positioned in the test train in its usual position. Non-powered test vehicles
should, if possible, be placed with loose couplings at the end of the test train.

For multiple units, the individual vehicles may have different parameters (e.g. forces, stiffness). In this case,
one vehicle may be used as reference vehicle. All other vehicles are regarded as vehicles with extension of
acceptance due to changes of vehicle parameters. Therefore, the differences in vehicle parameters determine
according to 5.2 the extent of measurements and tests.

The magnitude of tractive and braking effort applied may influence the track forces. The significance of this
effect should be considered when planning the tests.

5.4.4 Test tracks

5.4.4.1 Choice of test tracks

Test tracks shall be selected from the planned area of operation of the vehicle design to be tested by taking
account of the following essential track conditions:

track layout;
track geometry and quality;
rail profile and track gauge influencing equivalent conicity;
inclination of rails.

5.4.4.2 Actual status of the test tracks

The test tracks should correspond to usual service tracks and exhibit the standard of tracks with comparable
permissible local speed.

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All conditions of the track shall be taken into account in the assessment of the results of the testing of running
characteristics. Therefore, the description of the track and relevant data of the test tracks shall be included
with the documentation of results. Track data relevant to running characteristics shall be enclosed.

Track data shall be gathered close to the time of the on-track tests.

5.4.4.3 Track layout

With respect to the track layout the test conditions for the test zones (see 5.4.2)

straight track and curves with very large radius (cd 40 mm),
curves with large radius,
curves with small radius (400 m R 600 m),
curves with very small radius (250 m R < 400 m)

and the track sections (see 5.4.5) shall be respected.

For national or multinational operation on track with differing layout (see clause 1) the range of curve radii for
test zone 3 and 4 may be varied.

5.4.4.4 Inclination of rails

Rail inclination is one important parameter for wheel rail contact geometry. Tests shall reflect the in service
conditions of rail inclination. For unrestricted international operation, test conditions shall cover the range of
rail inclination 1:20 to 1:40. This may be done by tests on different tracks or by relevant adjustment of wheel
profile to simulate the range of contact geometry.

For special vehicles, tests may be done only on one rail inclination if all estimated maximum values for
running safety are less than 85 % of the limit values.

5.4.4.5 Rail profiles

In the case of unstable behaviour (hunting) of vehicles on individual track sections of test zone

straight track, or
curve with wide radius,

equivalent conicity shall be additionally checked on the basis of the combination of measured rail and real
wheel profile. Stability is analyzed by a rms-value over 100 m track length. If the mean values of equivalent
conicity tan e over 100 m exceed the values in Table 7, this track section shall not be taken into account in
the evaluation.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 7 Values of equivalent conicity of test vehicle on track to be respected

locally permissible speed equivalent conicity tan e


V 140 km/h 0,5

140 km/h < V 200 km/h 0,4

200 km/h < V 230 km/h 0,35

230 km/h < V 250 km/h 0,3

250 km/h < V 280 km/h 0,25

280 km/h < V 350 km/h 0,15

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The given values reflect international operation. For national and multinational restricted operation different
values may be defined.

5.4.4.6 Track geometry

Test tracks shall fulfill assigned conditions of track geometry. Evaluation is done using

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
measured track geometry deviations, and
track geometry quality levels.

Detailed requirements for actual geometry of test tracks are contained in Annex C.

5.4.4.7 Rail status

Tests should generally be conducted in dry weather. Other climatic conditions should be examined where
appropriate.

5.4.5 Track sections

5.4.5.1 General characteristics

Test zones are divided into track sections. A track section forms part of a test track with designated

track layout, and


length Lts

which is passed through with fixed value ranges (described in 5.4.6) of

speed V, and
cant deficiency cd.

NOTE The division of the test tracks into track sections is the prerequisite for the processing of the measuring signals
according to Table 12, the evaluation of track geometry according to Annex C and of the statistical evaluation according to
Annex E.

Track sections shall relate to the specific characteristics of the test track such as:

type of track structure;


track layout;
maintenance status.

Apart from track curve radius and cant in the transition curve, a defined characteristic shall remain the same
over the entire length of a track section. Special track features and structures should be included.

Track sections can be sequential or not, however, they may not overlap and have to fulfill the geometric
requirements. The combination of several parts to form one track section is not permissible.

5.4.5.2 Track sections in test zone straight track and curves with very large radius

Track section in straight track are used for testing the vehicle in the range of its maximum permissible speed.

Some track section with curves of very large radius should be included.

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Key
1 measuring value
2 track sections

Figure 18 Track sections in straight track

Figure 18 shows a typical arrangement of track section on straight track. Table 8 reflects the test conditions to
be used.

Table 8 Test conditions for track sections in straight track and very large curves

Test characteristic Test zone 1


Straight track and very large curves (cd 40 mm)
Length of track section Lts a

a) V 220 km/h 250 m


b) V > 220 km/h 500 m

Minimal number of track sections nts,min 25

Minimal length of the sum of all track sections Lts,min 10 km


a Tolerance for the length of the individual track section: 10 %

5.4.5.3 Track sections in test zones of curved track


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

In track curves separated track sections shall be defined for

the arc, and


the transition curve.

Figure 19 shows a typical arrangement of track sections on curved track.

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Key
1 curvature diagram
2 measuring value
3 track sections, separated in arc and transition curve

Figure 19 Track sections in test zones for curved track

Table 9 summarizes the test conditions for track sections in curves. The values apply approximately also for
transition curves.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 9 Test conditions for track sections in curves

Test characteristic Test zone

2 3 4
400 m R 600 m 250 m R < 400 m

Length of track section Lts a 100 m 70 m

a) V 140 km/h 100 m

b) 140 km/h < V 220 km/h 250 m

c) V > 220 km/h 500 m

Minimal number of track sections nts,min 25 50 25

Minimal total length of track sections Lts,min 10 km

500 m 300 m
Mean value of curve radius of all track sections Rmwa b
50 m + 50 m, - 20 m
a Tolerance for the length of the individual track section: 20 %.
b For national and multinational restricted operation the range of curve radius for test zone 3 and 4 may be varied (see 5.4.2). In this
case the mean value Rmwa has to be adopted to the mean curvature of the two limits.

The track sections shall include the overall range of values of the associated curve radii.

To ensure the necessary distribution of curve radii in the test zones of small and medium-radius curves, the
defined mean value of curve radius Rmwa shall be met.

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5.4.6 Test operation

5.4.6.1 General

The speed V and the cant deficiency cd shall be defined for the test runs by taking account of:

the applicable legal regulations;


the planned operational parameters of the vehicle;
the permissible local speeds of the test tracks or the speeds approved for test operation;
the requirements of the test zone.

NOTE Table G.1 gives an overview of currently used operating parameters for different types of trains and vehicles.

5.4.6.2 Speed

For test runs in test zone 1 with straight track and 2 with wide-radius curves, the speed V shall be specified as
test parameter. The relevant speed is the desired permissible maximum speed of the vehicle Vadm.

During the test runs the speed shall be in the range shown in Table 10.

NOTE The maximum value of speed Vmax = 1,1 Vadm is defined as an allowance for uncertainties due to the
system. This regulation also applies to the cant deficiency cd.

Table 10 Test conditions for speed and cant deficiency

Test conditions Test zone

1 2 3 4
Straight track and very large large radius curves small radius curves very small radius curves
curves (cd 40 mm) 400 R < 600 m 250 R < 400 m

Speed V V = max(1,1 Vadm , Vadm + 10 Vadm V 1,1 Vadm (V 1,1 Vadm)


km/h)

Cant deficiency cd cd 40 mm 0,75 x cd adm cd 1,1 cd adm

Tolerance 5 km/h 5 km/h, 0,05 0,05 cdadm


cdadm

Track sections should be run through at approximately constant speed. Speed deviations of more than
V = 5 km/h are not permitted in one track section. These track sections are not to be taken into account in
the evaluation.

To ensure that meaningful and clear results are obtained, data shall be gathered under largely constant test
conditions. Therefore, constant speeds should be aimed for in the track sections.

5.4.6.3 Cant deficiency

For test runs in curves (test zones 2, 3 and 4), the cant deficiency cd shall be specified as test parameter. In
the arc of the curves cant deficiency shall be in the range of values shown in Table 10.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table G.1 gives the permissible cant deficiencies of different vehicle types.

NOTE For vehicles with special equipment for the negotiation of curves, e.g. tilting trains, the permissible cant
deficiencies will be defined separately for the individual cases.

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5.4.6.4 Additional test conditions for test zones in curves

Depending on the applied statistical analysis method as described in Annex E, the following additional test
conditions shall be respected.

If one-dimensional statistical analysis is used more than 20 % of all track sections have to be at a cant
deficiency of 1,10 cdadm with a tolerance band of 0,05 cdadm.

For two-dimensional statistical analysis this condition shall be fulfilled for (20 5) % of all track sections.

5.4.6.5 Multiple use of track-sections for two-dimensional statistical analysis

The multiple use of the same track section is allowed if the cant deficiency between two test runs changes by
more than 0,05 cdadm.

5.4.7 Extent of tests

5.4.7.1 Complete on-track test

For complete on-track tests (e.g. for initial acceptance) and vehicles for international operation all
combinations of the test conditions.

Test zones (see 5.4.2):


straight track;
large radius curves;
curves 400 m R 600 m;
curves 250 m R < 400 m;
rail inclination (see 5.4.4.4):
tracks with 1:40;
tracks with 1:20;
loading condition (see 5.4.3.5):
empty;
loaded

are to be reviewed, the critical combinations are to be identified and included in the test programme.

For national or multinational operation a similar procedure is to be observed.

The on-track tests shall be completed by on-track tests in failure conditions where appropriate (see 5.4.3.4).
The extent of these tests shall be defined after an analysis of the critical conditions.

Vehicles to be used on high-speed lines with Vadm 250 km/h shall be tested additionally on conventional
lines. The conditions for speed in 5.4.6.2 are used, Vadm is replaced by the local permissible speed Vline,adm.
Also on high-speed lines combinations of test conditions in test zone 1 straight track and 2 large radius
curves shall be reviewed, the critical combinations are to be identified and included in the test programme.

5.4.7.2 Partial on-track test

Partial on-track tests for extension of acceptance can be applied if the conditions of 5.2.1 are fulfilled, the
extent of tests can be reduced to the combinations shown in Table 11. Tests need to be done only on track of
one rail inclination.

62

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Table 11 Extent of tests for partial on-track tests


Modified parameter Range of modification Test zone
Locomotives Freight stock Straight track Large Small
multiple units and very large radius radius
Operational parameters
passenger coach radius curves curves curves
(cd 40 mm)
(2) (3,4)
(1)
Increase of permissible maximum speed 0 km/h to +10 km/h --- empty empty ---
+10 km/h to 0 km/h to empty empty ---
+20 km/h +20 km/h loaded loaded
Vehicle parameters
Distance between bogie centres -10 to +A a -30 % to -15% empty --- ---
for 2a 9 m c
*

-10 % to -5 %
for 2a* < 9 m c
Vehicle wheel base (2-axle vehicle) not applicable -30 % to -15 % empty --- ---
for 2a 8 m c
*

-10 % to -5 %
for 2a* < 8 m c
Centre of gravity height empty vehicle -40 % to +40 % +20 % to +Aa empty empty ---
loaded loaded
Centre of gravity height loaded vehicle -40 % to +40 % +50 % to +Aa empty empty
loaded loaded
Unsprung mass -10 % to +10 % not applicable empty empty ---
loaded loaded
Primary suspended mass (total mass if vehicle has no -10 % to +10 % not applicable empty empty ---
secondary suspension level) loaded loaded
Secondary suspended mass --- b not applicable --- --- ---
e
Moment of inertia of vehicle body (around z-axis) --- b +10 % to +20 % empty --- ---
Torsional stiffness coefficient ct* 3 x 1010 kNmm2/rad c not applicable --- b --- --- ---
Torsional stiffness coefficient ct* > 3 x 1010 kNmm2/rad c not applicable --- b --- --- ---
Vehicle tare for vehicles with tare mass 12 t (non- not applicable -30 % to -15 % empty --- ---
bogied wagons) or 16 t (bogied wagons) d
Maximum axle load, vehicles with 2Q0 225 kN d not applicable +5 % to +10 % --- --- loaded
Bogie parameters
Bogie wheel base -5 % to 0 % -10 % to 0 % empty empty ---
+5 % to +20 % +10 % to +20 % --- --- loaded
Nominal wheel diameter --- b --- b --- --- ---
Stiffness of primary vertical suspension (vehicles with -40 % to +40 % --- b empty empty ---
two suspension levels)
Stiffness of secondary vertical suspension (total -40 % to +40 % --- b empty empty ---
stiffness at vehicles with one suspension level)
Lower transitional loads not applicable --- b --- --- ---
Axle guiding: Stiffness -10 % to 0 % --- b empty empty ---
Axle guiding: Damping, clearances, etc. --- b --- b
Rotational torque of bogie -20 % to -10 % --- b empty empty ---
+10 % to +20 % --- b --- --- loaded
Moment of inertia of whole bogie (around z-axis) +5 % to +10 % +10 % to +20 % empty empty ---
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Secondary lateral suspension (stiffness, damping, --- b --- b --- --- ---
clearances, etc.)
a No limitation from this document, there may be restrictions from other regulations
b No application of partial on-track tests
c Initial value
d Final value
e Only for non-bogied vehicles

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5.5 Test evaluation

5.5.1 Recording the measuring signals

In principle, the measuring signals of all measured parameters and influencing parameters intended for
subsequent evaluation shall be recorded using machine-readable data carriers.

For the recording of the measuring signals, a low-pass filter shall be used. The cut-off value of the frequency
depends on the type of recording and of the type of parameter:

a) 40 Hz for data carriers or

b) graphical representation:
lateral parameters: 10 Hz;
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

vertical parameters: 20 Hz.

5.5.2 Processing the measuring signals

As a prerequisite for the statistical evaluation, the

measuring signal shall be filtered,


sliding mean shall be determined, and
selected characteristic values of the frequency distribution shall be determined.

Table 12 gives the conditions that apply to the processing of measuring signals.

Table 12 Conditions for the processing of the measuring signals


Assessment Sym- Unit Filtering for Method of Characteristi Grouping and Conversion
value bol evaluation classification c values d
Test zone 1 Test zones 2,3,4

Track loading
Guiding force Yqst kN Low-pass Random sampling h0 = 50,0 % Per wheelset group
wheelset 1, 2 filter external wheels
method b
yj1(h0) (left-hc e)
20 Hz a
and
yj2(h0)*(-1) (right-hc)
Wheel force Qqst Per bogie group
wheels 11, 12, external wheels
yj1(h0) (left-hc) and
21, 22
yj2(h0) (right-hc)
Qmax h2 = 99,85 % Per bogie Per bogie group
group all external wheels
wheels yjk(h2) yj1(h2) (left-hc) and
yj2(h2) (right-hc)

Running Safety
Sum of Ymax kN Low-pass filter Sliding mean method h1 = 0,15 % Per wheelset Per wheelset
guiding forces 20 Hz a with h2 = 99,85 % group group
- window length 2,0 m yj(h1) * (-1) and yj(h2) (left-hc) and
wheelset 1, 2
- step length 0,5 m yj(h2) yj(h1) * (-1) (right-
hc)
Quotient (Y/Q)max - For leading
leading wheelset group
external wheels
wheelset
y11(h2) (left-hc) and
y12(h1) * (-1) (right-
hc)

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Table 12 (concluded)

Assessment Sym- Unit Filtering for Method of Characteristi Grouping and Conversion
value bol evaluation classification c values d
Test zone 1 Test zones 2,3,4

Sum of lateral Hmax kN Per wheelset Per wheelset group


axle-box group yj(h2) (left-hc) and
yj(h1) * (-1) and yj(h1) * (-1) (right-
forces
yj(h2) hc)
wheelset 1, 2

+
Acceleration at max m/s2 Low-pass filter Random sampling
bogie 10 Hz a method b
wheelset 1,2

*
Acceleration in Smax Low-pass filter Per end
vehicle body 6 Hz a group
yj(h1) * (-1) and
end I, II
yj(h2)

&z&S* max Band-pass Per end


filter group
0,4 Hz to yj(h1) * (-1) and
4 Hz a yj(h2)
Instability Yrms kN Band-pass Sliding rms method with max-values Per wheelset Per wheelset
criterion
Hrms kN filter a - window length 100m
f0 c 2 Hz - step length 10 m
+ 2
rms m/s
rms m/s2

Ride characteristics
*
Acceleration in qst Low-pass Random sampling h0 = 50,0 % Per end group
vehicle body filter method b external wheels
end I, II e.g. 20 Hz a yj1(h0) (left-hc) and
yj2(h0) *(-1) (right-
2 hc)
m/s

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
*
max Band-pass h1 = 0,15 % Per end group
*
z&& max filter h2 = 99,85 % yj(h2) and yj(h1) * (-1)
* 0,4 Hz to
rms rms-values
z&&
*
rms
10 Hz a

Influencing parameters
Speed V km/h Low-pass Random sampling method h0 = 50,0 %
filter b
Cant cd
mm 4 Hz
deficiency
a Filter with cut-off frequency at 3 dB, gradient 24 dB/octave, tolerance 0,5 dB up to the cut-off frequency, 1 dB beyond that
value
b Sampling frequency at least 200 Hz
c f0 is the instability frequency. It is defined as the dominant frequency in the case of unstable behaviour. It has to be determined
before evaluation of test results
d See definition in 5.5.3
e Means right hand curve

Conditions effective during the processing of measuring signals,

filtering for recording and evaluation,


method of classification,
numerical values of the cumulative curve,
effect the characteristic values of frequency distribution and consequently all the dependent results. Therefore,
conditions once defined shall not be altered without good reason:

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to prevent systematic deviations;


for reasons of comparability.

Method of classification is taken to mean a specific method for the acquisition of random vibrations. Applied
methods of classification include the following:

Sampling method
At specified intervals, the instantaneous value of the variable is determined and counted according to
classes.
Sliding mean method
First, the arithmetic mean is determined from a specific number of instantaneous values over the window
length. This mean shall be classified. A new mean, displaced by the sampling step, shall be created and
also classified.
Sliding rms method
The rms-value is calculated from a specific number of instaneous values (window length), a new rms-
value shall be calculated displaced by the sampling step length.

5.5.3 Calculation of frequency values, rms-values and max-values for each track section

From the measuring signals, which were processed in accordance with Table 12 the frequency values y(hj)
according to Figure 20 shall be from the cumulative curve:

y(h1), frequency of cumulative curve h1 = 0,15 %;


y(h0), frequency of cumulative curve h0 = 50,0 %;
y(h2), frequency of cumulative curve h2 = 99,85 %.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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a) Classified instantaneous values or sliding means b) Cumulative curve

Key

1 Class j

Figure 20 Frequency values y(hj) of a frequency distribution

For the accelerations in the vehicle body in addition to the frequency values the rms-values shall be evaluated.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

For the instability criterion the max-values of the applicable assessment value shall be evaluated.

NOTE The frequency values y(hj) as well as the rms-values obtained are used in the statistical evaluation as entry
values yi for a evaluation parameter y.

5.5.4 Calculation of estimated maximum values and rms-values for each test zone

The evaluation parameters y for statistical evaluation are the assessment values Y, Q, Y, Y/Q, H, +, * and
z&&* .

The assessment of an evaluation parameter y is limited to selected test zones. In general the following three
types are used

maximum values ymax,I ,

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mean values ymed,i and


rms-values yrms,i. .

Maximum values ymax,i and mean values ymed,i are calculated from the frequency values y(hj) depending on
the track layout.

NOTE 1 Table 12 gives the relations for the conversion and the grouping of frequency values.

For each evaluation function the estimated maximum value of the sample Y(PA)max is calculated assuming a
statistical method

one-dimensional, or
two-dimensional (allowed for test zones 2, 3 and 4).

NOTE 2 Estimated maximum value is defined as upper limit of a distribution for a certain random sample which
resulted from

a certain estimation function, and


application of the corresponding confidence limit PA
Estimated quasistatic value is defined as upper value of the regression line.

Calculation methods, conditions of application and use of the confidence coefficient are defined in Annex E.

When the two-dimensional method is used, the estimated maximum value is given by the upper value of the
confidence interval which corresponds to the upper limit of the interval variable:

Y(PA)max = max(Y(PA, x )max


with
0,75 x cd adm x 1,1 x cd adm

Estimated quasistatic values (Y, Q, y&& * ) shall be calculated by the two-dimensional method.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5.5.5 Calculation of safety factors

For the complete on-track test the safety factors of the assessment values for running safety are to be
calculated as follows:

ylim
=
Y (PA ) max

This shall be done for the assessment values

Y, Y/Q for normal measuring method and

H, +, &y&S* and &z&S* for simplified measuring method.

NOTE The application of the safety factors for the selection of the on-track tests is described in 5.2.

The calculation shall be done for all samples. The lowest safety factor min of all assessment values for
running safety is used in the final assessment.

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5.5.6 Verification of stability

Verification of stability is done using the assessment value for the instability criterion. Depending on the
applied measuring method the appropriate assessment value Yrms, Hrms, +rms or rms is used. The filtering
and classification method as described in Table 12 is applied. Stability is verified if all maximum values in

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
all track sections of test zone 1 straight track and 2 large radius curves are lower than the limit value.

5.5.7 Evaluation of test results in transition curves

Maximum values ymax,i are to be calculated from the frequency values y(hj) for each track section depending
on the track layout.

For each parameter (test zone, vehicle test condition, etc.) the maximum values shall be compared to the limit
values.

5.6 Documentation of results

The results of the 'on-track' tests shall be included in a report. The report shall include all the information
required for a full description of

evaluation of test conditions;


assessment of results; and
testing of conditions of acceptance.

The information on

test vehicle;
test tracks;
test procedure;
measurement methods used including tolerances (where appropriate) and uncertainties;
climatic conditions and their influence;
other test conditions; and
special circumstances associated with the conduction of tests

shall be sufficiently detailed so that the execution of the 'on-track' test is comprehensible and that special
occurrences can be identified.

The actual status of the test vehicle shall be recorded in the form of descriptions, drawings, test results, etc.
and be included in the documentation of results.

For all assessment values according to Table 12 , the results of the statistical evaluation shall be shown.
For this purpose, the estimated maximum expected values Y(PA)max of all evaluation variables are
represented for the one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally evaluated random sample distributions in a table
or in graphical form.

Comparison shall be done between

the maximum expected value Y(PA)max, and


the limit value ylim

of every:

assessment variable;

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test condition;
test zone.

For track sections in transition curves the maximum frequency values y(h2)max shall be compared with the limit
values.

For each test zone and test condition the maximum estimated values Y(PA)max of all assessment variables are
presented in a Table and a Figure as a ratio of the limit value.

For the instability criterion comparison shall be done between

maximum value of all track sections, and


the limit value ylim

of every

test condition, and


test zone 1 and 2.

For the complete on-track test the documentation of results shall be completed with the calculated safety
factor of the evaluation values for running safety.

The lowest safety factor min of all assessment values for running safety, test zones and test conditions shall
be indicated.

A summary of the frequency values or rms-values as well as the influencing parameters (speed, radius, cant
deficiency, track geometry quality) shall be enclosed in tabular or graphical form at least for cases in which
estimated maximum values exceed the limit values.

If individual frequency values of assessment values for running safety exceed the limit value, this shall be
indicated in the test report. A summary of the values shall be given.

NOTE The estimated maximum value Y(PA)max is calculated with the confidence limit PA. Therefore a number of
individual values yi may be located above the estimated maximum value.

A typical graphical representation in the time domain of each assessment value shall be included in the report.

70

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex A
(informative)

Information on safety against derailment

A.1 Factors influencing derailment of vehicles running on twisted track

The existence of track twist in railway tracks is fundamental. They are a result of transition layout between
leveled track and canted track as well as cross level deviations.

The coincident appearance of a horizontal force with a wheel unloading at the leading wheel in a curve may
result to a derailment, if both effects are present over a sufficient distance.

The test of safety against derailment is carried out under the influence of a vehicle test twist and a curve of a
radius of R = 150 m.

A.1.1 Wheel unloading influences

Vehicle based influences are:

torsional stiffness of the vehicle-body combined with the torsional stiffness of the suspension;
torsional stiffness of the bogie frame combined with the torsional stiffness of the primary suspension;
eccentricity of the vehicle centre of gravity;
torsional hysteresis during twisting.

Track based influences are:

track twist due to transition;


additional track twist due to cross level errors;
cant excess; and
deficiency.

A.1.2 Guiding force influences

Vehicle based influences are:

bogie wheel base for bogie vehicles or axle centre distance in the car for non bogied vehicles;
rotational resistance of the bogie;
longitudinal stiffness of the primary suspension.

Track based influences are:

curve radii as a result of the track layout;


track alignment deviations.

Friction condition of wheel/rail contact surfaces are influenced by:

71

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weather conditions;
lubrication and contamination in the wheel/rail contact patch.

Guiding forces are also influenced by wheel-rail contact geometry which depends on:

wheel profiles;
rail profiles;
rail inclination; and
track-wheelset gauge clearance.

A.2 Evaluation and limit value for safety against derailment


The maximum single wheel lateral to vertical force ratio (Y/Q) is used as measure of proximity to a flange
climb derailment situation. The ratio of lateral to vertical force ratio (Y/Q) was first suggested by Nadal in 1908
and has been used extensively ever since by many railroads throughout the world.

The criterion is based on the equilibrium of forces on the inclined plane of contact between wheel and rail.
Derailment occurs if the sum of the vertical components of the normal and tangential forces is sufficient to
support the vertical force on the wheel. It assumes that there is downward sliding on a flange contact point.
Furthermore it is assumed that the tangential (friction) force across the flange is equal to the coefficient of
friction on the flange fl multiplied by the normal force on the flange N.

Figure A.1 shows the system of forces acting on the flange contact point.

Key

1 flange angle

Figure A.1 Flange forces at incipient derailment

A lateral force Y and a vertical force Q are exerted on the wheel. Forces in the contact zone are the normal
force N and the friction force N. Equating forces in the lateral and vertical directions give the following
equations:
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Y = N sin N cos
Q = N cos + N sin

Nadals equation for limiting (Y/Q) is then obtained:

Y tan
=
Q  + tan

The limiting (Y/Q) is a function of the flange angle and the flange coefficient of friction . Values for practical
ranges of flange angles and friction coefficients are shown in Figure A.2.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Key

1 limiting Y/Q
2 flange angle [degrees]

Figure A.2 Limiting (Y/Q) for variations in flange angle and friction coefficient

Nadals equation determines the minimum (Y/Q) ratio at which flange climb can occur. Particularly for small
and negative angles of attack it is very conservative. The reason is that Nadals equation is only valid for pure
downward sliding of the flange. If there is longitudinal creep at flange contact, longitudinal creep forces exist
and the lateral creep force will be less than N. This permits higher values of (Y/Q) than those obtained by
Nadals equation.

A.3 Friction conditions during test on special track


Tests shall be done under dry conditions in order to consider high friction forces between wheel and rail. To
describe these dry conditions the following background information is used.

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A simplifying assumption is made that only lateral slip is considered. Then Figure A.3 shows the forces
present on the inner wheel when negotiating a curve.

Figure A.3 Forces on the inner wheel

By the equilibrium of forces in the contact point (Y/Q)i can be written as

(Y/Q)i = tan( + )
and transformed to
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

tan + tan
(Y / Q) i =
1 tan tan

since tan is small then (Y/Q) can be approximated to

(Y / Q) i tan + tan

The angle of contact zone tan can be assumed to be 0,025.

tan() represents the relationship between lateral creep force and normal force which is termed friction
coefficient and depends on the angle of attack (lateral creepage) and wheel force. It is not to be confused
with Coulombs friction value , which is the maximum value of . Using

= tan()

leads to

(Y/Q)i = + 0,025

The friction coefficient dry for dry rail conditions has been determined by ERRI C9. Results are documented in
UIC 510-2.

For pure lateral creepage it can be described as follows (as determined with 1 m wheel diameter and a
minimum static wheel force of 40 kN):

n n n

=  + 
dry b x
a

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where

Q 02 242,5Q 0 + 57150
a=
100000
2
Q 242,5Q 0 + 21950
b= 0 ( corresponds to the maximum value of dry )
10 2
n = 0,005Q 0 + 2,2

angle of attack in rad and static wheel force Q0 in kN.

The equation for the parameter a is only valid for static wheel forces Q0 > 40 kN.

If the angle of attack is replaced with the total creepage (lateral and longitudinal creepage), this equation
describes the friction-coefficient/creepage diagram for dry track.

The approximation equation for the parameter a applies to static wheel forces greater than 40 kN.

A.4 Special conditions for vehicles with air springs

A.4.1 General

There are many different types of leveling systems, therefore the examples given is not a complete list, but the
factors discussed below may be relevant to other configurations. Figure A.4 and A.5 show some examples.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Key
1 air spring
2 levelling valve
3 pressure difference regulator

Figure A.4 Example of 4-point (left) and 3-point levelling system (right)

Tests on the test rig shall be done as quickly as practical to reflect the dynamic behaviour of the levelling
system. Breaks at maximum twist shall be included into the test procedure to enable the system to stabilize.

If anti-roll bars are situated away from the bogie centre in longitudinal direction there might be a different
wheel force change on the two wheelsets. This shall be taken into account in carrying out test and subsequent
evaluation.

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A.4.2 4-point levelling systems

For limitation of wheel force changes caused by twisted track, pressure difference regulators between both air
springs of one bogie are used. Normally, displacements from twist may be high enough to cause the pressure
difference regulators to work.

A.4.3 3-point levelling system with longitudinal connection

In case of 3-point levelling systems with longitudinal connection a connection between the two air springs on
one side of the vehicle is used. The two other air springs are not connected. If the load from vehicle body on
the bogie differs it may be necessary to include a pressure intensifier valve in the connection.

This levelling system uses only three levelling valves, at their position the distance between bogie and vehicle
body will be nearly constant if there is enough time for stabilization of the system. After sufficient time
therefore the whole displacement caused by the twist will occur on the air spring remote from the levelling
valve. In the event of contact with the emergency spring the wheel forces may be affected.

A.4.4 2-point levelling systems

2-point leveling systems use one leveling valve per bogie which is situated near the cenret of the bogie. Roll
stabilization is done by anti-roll bars.

Figure A.5 Example of 2-point levelling system

A.5 Test twist conditions for articulated vehicles


In the case of articulated vehicles where adjacent vehicle bodies are supported by a common bogie and/or a
joint articulation, the connection of the vehicle bodies has a decisive influence on the safety against derailment.

If there are no significant inter-vehicle constraints, especially torsional moments around longitudinal axis, the
articulated vehicles act as individual vehicles.

The following cases shall be considered:

Testing of an end bogie: Test twist due to the bogie wheel base 2a+ combined with a test twist due to the
bogie centre distance 2a*1j to 2a*1n (case 1 in Figure A.6).

Testing of intermediate bogies: Test twist due to the bogie wheelbase 2a+ combined with a test twist due
* *
to the bogie centre distance 2a 1j to 2a 1n (case 2 in Figure A.6).

The whole train-set will have to be placed according to the test twist conditions described in 4.1.2.2.3. The
calculation of the twist condition is to be based on the distances 2ai between the respective running gear and
the running gear to be tested. The corresponding twist heights are demonstrated in Figure A.6b and A.6c with
the running gear to be tested being positioned at 0.

76

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For bogie vehicles, the bogie twist (base of length 2a+) shall be superimposed by the twist of the train-set
analogous to Figure 2.

If method 2 is used, the admissible wheel climb of 5 mm shall be considered for the wheelset to be tested.

Using method 1 the effect from vehicle roll is eliminated by the given track layout. Using method 2 the roll
moment compensation shall be achieved by applying the twist heights such that the sum of the real cant of all
running gears including the running gear tested amounts to zero within the distance of 30 m (tilting of the
whole arrangement around the longitudinal axis).

The tests are to be carried out for at least one end running gear and one intermediate running gear that are
likely to lead to the most unfavourable conditions. If it is not possible to determine the running gear of the most
unfavourable conditions by means of its design features, several running gears shall be tested.

EXAMPLE Figure A.6 demonstrates the test of running gear 1 and running gear 2 of a five-unit articulated train.

Figure A.6a Configuration of five-unit articulated train

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Key
1 twist height
2 distance from the running gear tested
test twist of the train
test twist of the bogie
course according to 4.1.3.3.2

Figure A.6b Test twist for an end running gear of a coupled articulated train on the twist test rig

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Key
1 twist height
2 distance from the running gear tested
test twist of the train
test twist of the bogie
course according to 4.1.3.3.2

Figure A.6c Test twist for a center running gear of a coupled articulated train on the twist test rig

Figure A.6 Testing of an articulated vehicle

Testing of the end running gear 1:

The twist heights for the test rig twist (Method 2) as well as the shims for the testing in the twisted
measurement curve (Method 1) are calculated first as shown in Table A.1. The required twist heights are
calculated on the basis of the wheelbases, on the longitudinal distances of the bogies from the respective

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
running gear tested and on the test twist, with the admissible wheel climb of 5 mm being considered for the
twist test rig. In addition, the influence of the roll moment on the wheel unloading will be compensated in this
method.

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Table A.1 Example of twist height and shim height calculation for testing the end bogie of an
articulated train

bogie I II III IV V VI
wheelset 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 10
+
2a m 2,400 2,600 2,600 2,600 2,600 2,400
2a1i m 0,000 10,000 19,000 28,000 37,000 47,000
Method 2
Test twist on twist test rig
+ 0 +
g /00 7-5/2a = 4,92
* 0
g /00 reference 2 + 15/2a1i =
2 + 15/2a1i = 3,50 3-5/2a1i = 2,82 85/2a1i = 2,30 85/2a1i = 1,81
2,79
Calculation of twist heights used on test rig
+ + +
h =g 2a mm 11,8
* *
h = g 2a1i mm 0 35 53 79 85 85
*
h mean(30m) mm 41,8
h*corr = h* - h*mean(30 m) mm -41,8 -6,8 11,3 37,3 43,3 43,3
+ *
h (h ,h ) mm -47,7 -35,9 -6,8 -6,8 11,3 11,3 37,3 37,3 43,3 43,3 43,3 43,3
Method 1

Test twist used on test track


+ 0
g /00 7 = 7,00
* 0
g /00 2 + 20/2a1i =
2 + 20/2a1i = 4,00 3 = 3,00 90/2a1i = 2,43 90/2a1i = 1,91
3,05
Calculation of twist heights used on test track
+ + +
h =g 2a mm 16,8
* *
h = href + g 2a1i mm href = -45 -5 13 39 45 45
Calculation of shim heights
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

+
2b m 2,1 1,8 1,8 1,8 1,8 2,1
*
2b m 1,9 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 1,9
2bA m 1,5
0
g0 /00 3
h0 = href + g0 .2a1i for mm -45 -15 12 39 45 45
2a1i 30
h0 = href + 90 for 2a1i > 30
da+ = (g+ - g0)
2a+/2
mm
+ 0,0 6,7
2b /2bA
+ + +
di = (g - g0) 2a /2 mm
+ 6,7 0,0
2b /2bA
* * * *
d a mm (h - h0)/2 2b /2bA (h - h0) 0,0 0,0 0,0
0,0 = 2b*/2bA =
6,3 1,3
* * *
di mm (h - h0)/2 2b /2bA 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
= 0,0
6,3

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The difference between the calculated twist height and the twist height given by the geometry of the test track
twisted by 3 requires the installation of shims in the suspension system in method 1. For the bogie tested,
the difference between the bogie twist and the measurement track twist shall additionally be generated by
shims in the primary suspension system. The thickness of the shims results from the calculated spring base
by taking the requested distribution into consideration (here bogie twist by a diagonal packing of the springs
with shims in the primary suspension system and vehicle body twist by a one-sided packing of the springs with
shims in the intermediate car or a diagonal packing of the springs with shims in the end car in the secondary
suspension system).

Using method 2 the running gear 1 to be tested will be positioned at the continuously height-adjustable force
measuring points. After the calculation of the twist condition according to Table A.1, the whole vehicle will first
be lifted such that the required lowering at wheelset 1 can be realized. Force measuring devices may also be
positioned under the other wheelsets. In the level condition, the first measurement of the wheel loads will be
carried out. Subsequently, the wheels of one vehicle side of the wheelsets 3 to n are lifted up to the calculated
level. In that condition, the wheel loads are again measured. When the wheels of the wheelsets 1 and 2,
which are located on the height-adjustable rails, are lowered down to the calculated level of the twist of the
train, the wheel force alteration is continuously measured and presented via the lowering path. Finally, the
bogie test twist is applied by means of an additional lowering process at wheelset 1 and a lifting process at
wheelset 2. Subsequently, the process is reversed using the same steps until the train is again level. Finally,
the process described is repeated on the opposite side of the vehicle.

Testing of the intermediate running gear 2

The twist heights for the test rig twist (Method 2) as well as the shims for the testing in the twisted
measurement curve (Method 1) are calculated first as shown in Table A.2.

Table A.2 Example of twist height and shim height calculation for testing of intermediate bogie of
an articulated train
bogie I II III IV V VI
wheelset 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 10
+
2a m 2,400 2,600 2,600 2,600 2,600 2,400
2a2i m -10,000 0,000 9,000 18,000 27,000 37,000

Method 2

Test twist on twist test rig


+ 0 +
g /00 7 - 5/2a = 5,08
* 0
g /00 0 reference 2 + 15/2a2i = 2 + 15/2a2i = 3 - 5/2a2i = 2,81 85/2a2i = 2,30
3,67 2,83
Calculation of twist heights used on test rig
+ + +
h =g 2a mm 13,2
* *
h = g 2a1i mm 0 0 33 51 76 85
*
h mean (30 m) mm 40,0
* * *
h corr = h - h mean(30 m) mm -40,0 -40,0 -7,0 11,0 36,0 45,0
+ * * +
h (h ,h ) = h corr h /2 mm -40,0 -40,0 -46,6 -33,4 -7,0 -7,0 11,0 11,0 36,0 36,0 45,0 45,0
Method 1

Test twist used on test track


+ 0
g /00 7 = 7,00
* 0
g /00 2+20/2a2i = 2+20/2a2i = 3 = 3,00 90/2a2i = 2,43
4,22 3,11
Calculation of twist heights used on test track
+ + +
h =g 2a mm 18,2
* *
h = href + g 2a1i mm -45 href = -45 -7 11 36 45
Calculation of shim heights

80
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Table A.2 (concluded)


+
2b m 2,1 1,8 1,8 1,8 1,8 2,1

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
*
2b m 1,9 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 1,9
2bA m 1,5
0 0
g /00 3
0
h0 = href + g 2a1i for mm -45 -45 -18 9 36 45
2a1i 30
h0 = href + 90 for
2a1i > 30
bogie I II III IV V VI
wheelset 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 10
+ + 0 +
d = (g - g )
a 2a /2 mm 0,0 6,2
+
2b /2bA
+ + 0 +
di = (g - g ) 2a /2 mm 6,2 0,0
+
2b /2bA
* *
da mm 0,0 0,0 (h - h0) 2,7 0,0 0,0
2b*/2bA
= 14,7
* * *
di mm (h - h0)/2 (h - h0)/2 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
* *
2b /2bA 2b /2bA
= 0,0 = 0,0

Using method 2 the running gear 2 to be tested will be positioned at the continuously height-adjustable force
measuring points. After the calculation of the twist condition according to Figure A.6c, the whole vehicle will
first be lifted such that the required lowering at wheelset 2 can be realized. Force measuring devices may also
be positioned under the other wheelsets. In the level condition, the first measurement of the wheel loads will
be carried out. Subsequently, the wheels of one vehicle side of the wheelsets 1 and 2 as well as 5 to n are
lifted up to the calculated level. In that condition, the wheel loads are again measured (alternatively the level of
the wheelsets 5 and 6 may also be adjusted at the wheelsets 3 and 4). When the wheels of the wheelsets 3
and 4, which are located on the height-adjustable rails, are lowered down to the calculated level of the twist of
the train, the wheel force alteration is continuously measured and presented via the lowering path. Finally, the
bogie test twist is applied by means of an additional lowering process at wheelset 3 and a lifting process at
wheelset 4. Subsequently, the process is reversed using the same steps until the train is again level. Finally,
the process described is repeated on the opposite side of the vehicle.

A.6 Test twist conditions for vehicles with more than two levels suspension

The vehicle test twist conditions in 4.1.2.2.3 are used as a basis for the tests. The synchronous twist of bogie
wheel base and twist of the different suspension levels shall be applied.

Test twist shall be calculated according to 4.1.2.2.3 with

+
glim (2a + ) for bogie twist with 2a+ as the bogie wheel base
n*
glim (2a n * ) th
for inter-level twist of the n level with 2an* as the longitudinal distance between
suspension centres
#
glim (a # ) #
for body twist with a as distance between one body pivot centre and the opposite
centre of the first suspension level. See Figure A.7.

Tests shall be done to examine two cases:

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Test twist of the different suspension levels is calculated starting with the level after the primary
# #
suspension. Test twist on vehicle body level is calculated so that glim (a ) is respected (case 1 in Figure
A.7). This is combined with bogie test twist.

This case leads to extreme unloading if the inter-level suspensions are rather stiff against twist.
# #
Body twist glim (a ) is used for all suspension levels and is combined with bogie test twist (case 2 in
Figure A.7).This case leads to extreme unloading if the body has an high twist stiffness.

Key
A case 1 3 vertical displacement
B case 2 4 carbody test twist (according to a#)
1 suspension inter-level 5 inter-level test twist (according to 2a*)
2 bogie 6 bogie test twist

Figure A.7 Testing of vehicles with more than two levels suspension
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A.7 Calculation of the shim sizes (test method 1)


Test method 1 (twisted test track) uses an installed track twist of 3 . The vehicle test twist condition which is
greater than 3 shall be installed within the vehicle by packing with shims. In general this is achieved by
packing under the springs and anti-roll bar seats where applicable.

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Additional vertical heights required to simulate the additional twist in the vehicle are calculated as

h + = ( g + g o ) 2a + for bogie test twist

h * = ( g * g o ) 2a * for body test twist

These additional vertical heights are achieved by installing shims under the springs, generally in diagonally
opposite corners (see Figure A.8). For calculation of shim sizes the lateral spacing of springs and wheel/rail
contact points shall be considered. Shim size calculates as

h + 2b +
d+ = for bogie test twist
2 2b A

h * 2b *
d* = for vehicle test twist
2 2b A

where
+
g is the bogie test twist;

g* is the vehicle test twist;

go is the installed track twist (normally 3 );

2b+ is the lateral spacing of primary suspension;

2b* is the lateral spacing of secondary suspension;

2bA is the lateral spacing of rail-wheel contract points.


--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Key
Shims for bogie twist
Shims for body twist

Figure A.8 Positioning of shims

If packing of secondary springs is not possible (e.g. freight bogies) the vertical heights for vehicle test twist
shall be included into the calculation of shim sizes for primary springs.

A.8 Performing and evaluating a twist test for a two-axle vehicle

A.8.1 General

To evaluate safety against derailment, it is necessary to know the minimal wheel force during negotiation of
twisted track. This may be determined on an appropriate test rig which is able to simulate the track twist.

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For evaluation of safety against derailment knowledge of minimal wheel force Qmin is required.

If a more detailed analysis of results is required it is necessary to determine the different factors affecting
wheel unloading. By evaluating the twist diagrams the different factors affecting wheel unloading arising from

torsional stiffness of the vehicle,


torsional hysteresis,
vehicle twist vehicle, and
eccentricity of vehicle centre of gravity

can be determined.

A.8.2 Required test rig

For evaluating the vehicle specific data a test rig should be used on which at least the supports of one
wheelset are lifted and lowered. With this the twist of the track can be simulated.

To simplify the description it is assumed, that the wheels 11 and 12 of wheelset 1 are situated on such a twist
device and wheelset 2 remains on horizontal track.

The displacements zjk of the wheels 11 and 12 shall be measured continuously during the twist test.
Additionally the wheels forces Qjk of all wheels 11, 12, 21 and 22 shall be measured by suitable devices.

All measurements shall reflect the contact points of wheel and rail. If it is not possible to measure directly at
the contact points it is necessary to convert the measured values (displacements and forces) to equivalent
values in the contact zone.

A similar process is to be followed if simplified measurements are carried out by lifting and lowering one
wheelset using lifting devices under axle boxes.

A.8.3 Performing the twist test

Initially all four wheels shall be on a horizontal plane.

By lifting and lowering of one or more support points a closed hysteresis loop (displacement force) is created.
At the beginning of the test the position of the starting point within the hysteresis loop is not known. Therefore
the hysteresis loop shall be closed to enable evaluation for positive and negative twists.

To enable unambiguous evaluation of the gradient of force-displacement lines in the range of the maximum
twist, test twist shall be 10 % to 20 % higher than specified vehicle test twist.

Actual twist is calculated as:

z11 z12 z 21 + z 22
g* =
2a *

where

zjk is the displacements contact points jk in mm;


*
2a is the vehicle wheel base in m;
*
g is the vehicle twist in .

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If only one wheelset is moved the inclination of the vehicle body causes additional wheel force changes (which
shall be taken into account). As shown in Figure A.9 at the lifted or lowered wheelset wheel force changes due
to twist and inclination subtract, at the remote wheelset the wheel force changes are additive.

Figure A.9 Wheel force changes from twist and lateral shift of centre of gravity

A.8.4 Evaluation of twist diagrams

Figure A.10 shows twist diagrams of a 2-axle vehicle.

Wheel forces on level track are calculated as:

Q0, jk , min + Q0, jk , max


Q0, jk =
2

where
Q0,jk, min is the minimum wheel force at g* = 0 within hysteresis loop;
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

*
Q0,jk, maxis the maximum wheel force at g = 0 within hysteresis loop.

Wheel force change Qjk is evaluated from the diagram at twist g* (see Figure A.10).

Minimum wheel forces are calculated by:

Q jk , min = Q0, jk Q jk

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Key
1 wheel force Q a wheel 12
2 vehicle twist b wheel 11
3 test twist c wheel 21
d wheel 22

Figure A.10 Twist diagram for two-axle vehicle

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

A.9 Performing and evaluation of a twist test for a vehicle with two bogies with two-
axles

A.9.1 General

To evaluate safety against derailment, it is necessary to know the minimal wheel force during negotiation of
twisted track. This may be determined on an appropriate test rig which is able to simulate the track twist. It is
necessary that the simultaneous occurrence of twist on bogie wheel base as well as twist on bogie centre
distance can be simulated.

For evaluation of safety against derailment knowledge of minimal wheel Qmin is required.

If a more detailed analysis of results is required it is necessary to determine the different factors affecting
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

wheel unloading. By evaluating the twist diagrams the different factors of wheel unloading arising from:

torsional stiffness of vehicle body and suspension;

torsional stiffness of bogie frame and primary suspension;

torsional hysteresis;

twist of the body and the bogie frame as a result of construction tolerances;

eccentricity of vehicle centre of gravity

can be determined.

A.9.2 Required test rig

For evaluating the vehicle specific data a test rig should be used on which at least the supports of the two
wheelsets of one bogie may be lifted and lowered. With this the twist of the track on bogie wheel base as well
as on bogie centre distance can be simulated.

To simplify the description it is assumed, that the wheelsets 1 and 2 of bogie I are situated on such a twist
device and wheelsets 3 and 4 of bogie II remain on horizontal track.

The displacements zjk of the wheels 11, 12, 21 and 22 shall be measured continuously during the twist test.
Additionally the wheels forces Qjk of all wheels (11, 12, 21 22, 31, 32, 41 and 42) shall be measured by
suitable devices.

All measurements shall reflect the contact points of wheel and rail. If it is not possible to measure directly at
the contact points it is necessary to convert the measured values (displacements and forces) to equivalent
values in the contact zone.

A similar process is to be followed if simplified measurements are carried out by lifting and lowering the
wheelsets using lifting devices under axle boxes and measuring forces in the lifting devices.

A.9.3 Performing and evaluating a combined body and bogie twist test

A combined body and bogie twist test consists of twist on bogie distance base 2a* combined with twist on
bogie wheel base 2a+. This test allows a direct determination of the relevant minimal wheel force Qmin.

In the following example in Figure A.11 it is assumed that the wheelsets of one bogie are moved and body
twist and bogie twist are applied in steps. Initially all eight wheels of the vehicle shall be on a horizontal plane.
First the twist on bogie distance base 2a* is applied by synchronous lifting of wheels 11 and 21 and
simultaneous lowering of wheels 12 and 22 up to the vehicle test twist g*. Then a bogie wheel base twist is
applied on bogie I by simultaneously lifting wheels 11 and 22 and lowering wheels 12 and 21 up to the vehicle

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test twist g+ with an extra of 10 % to 20 %. Using this sequence the minimal wheel force Qmin occurs on wheel
12.
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure A.11 Example for sequence of the combined bogie and body twist test

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To get a closed hysteresis loop wheel base twist is reduced to 0, then bogie base twist is reduced to 0.

Using the sequence as described in this example the results obtained for wheelset 2 will not be valid because
of reversal of forces.

Determination of minimal wheel force on wheel 11 is done by analogy.

Wheel force on level track for the tested wheels are calculated as:

Q0, jk , min + Q0, jk , max


Q0, jk =
2

where

Q0,jk,min is the minimum wheel force at g* = 0 and g+ = 0 within hysteresis loop;


Q0,jk,max is the maximum wheel force at g* = 0 and g+ = 0 within hysteresis loop.

Mean wheel force for the tested wheelset is calculated as:

Q0, j1 + Q0, j2
Q0, j =
2

Wheel force change Qjk due to tested effects is evaluated from the diagram at twist (g*+g+).

Minimum wheel forces are calculated by:

Q jk , min = Q0, jk Q jk

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Using the combined twist the minimal wheel force results from overlaying twist on base 2a* and base 2a+. This
shall be done in such a way that the wheel unloading effects of both twists are additive.

In the case of vehicles with hysteresis (e.g. leaf springs, friction dampers, spherical centre pivots) the
sequence of test steps shall be carried out in such a way that there is no reversal of forces in the hysteresis.

NOTE See last paragraph in A.8.3 (effect of lateral shift of centre of gravity).

A.9.4 Performing separate twist tests on bogie centre distance 2a* and bogie wheel base 2a+

A.9.4.1 General

An alternative approach to the evaluation of the vehicle is to carry out separate tests considering the effect of
body twist and bogie twist. The results of these tests can then be combined to produce an overall result.

A.9.4.2 Performing and evaluating a body twist test

Initially all eight wheels of the vehicle have to be on a horizontal plane. The four wheels of bogie I are situated
on the moveable supports incorporating wheel force measuring devices. In this example it is assumed that the
four wheels of bogie II remain level on wheel force measuring devices.

By synchronous lifting and lowering of wheels 11/21 and wheels 12/22 of bogie I according to Figure A.12
closed hysteresis loops (displacement-force) are created.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure A.12 Example for sequence of twist test (bogie centre distance 2a*)

The hysteresis loops shall have a evaluable branch for both - positive and negative - twists. At the beginning
of the test the position of the starting point within the hysteresis loop is not known, therefore the first part of the
twist test shall be repeated at the end of the test.

To enable unambiguous evaluation of the gradient of force-displacement lines in the range of the maximum
twist, test twist shall be 10 % to 20 % higher than specified vehicle test twist.

Actual twist is calculated as:

z11 + z 21 z12 + z 22

g* = 2 2
2a *

where

z12 = -z11

z21 = z11

z22 = -z11

z31 = 0

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

z32 = 0

z41 = 0

z42 = 0

Wheel force change due to torsional hysteresis is equal to the half width of the hysteresis loop at twist g* = 0.

NOTE It will be taken into account that if only one bogie is moved the inclination of the vehicle body causes additional
wheel force changes. At the lifted or lowered wheelsets wheel force changes due to twist and inclination subtract, at the
remote wheelsets the wheel force changes are additive.

*
Force displacement lines are analyzed to determine the torsional stiffness ctAij for each wheel. This is done by
linearization between the zero twist value and test twist value using the section of hysteresis loop leading from
zero twist to the extreme values of twist.

Torsional stiffness is calculated for the moved and the remote bogie:

4 2 2 2
x x
c
j = 3 k =1
tA , jk c
j =1 k =1
tA , jk
* *
ctA ,r = , ctA ,m =
4 4
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Torsional stiffness of vehicle body calculates as mean:

* *
* ctA , r + c tA , m
ctA =
2

Wheel force change due to inclination of vehicle body during twist test:

* * *
Qg ctA , r c tA , m
=
g* 2

Wheel force change due to lateral eccentricity of centre of gravity and from construction tolerances of the
vehicle body are calculated as:

Q0,11 Q0,12 + Q0, 21 Q0, 22


(Qto* + Qebo ) I = for bogie I
4

Q0,31 Q0,32 + Q0, 41 Q0, 42


(Qto* + Qebo ) II = for bogie II
4

Twist gG is defined as average twist g* which is possible within the sidebearer clearances. It exists in general
only in freight wagons with a spherical centre pivot.

NOTE In this case the position within the sidebearer clearance is not defined within the width of the hysteresis loop.
Therefore a secure result from a twist diagram of a twist on bogie distance base 2a* is not possible (within the width of
hysteresis loop). In such cases results about the maximum torsional hysteresis can be found only by a twist test on bogie
wheel base 2a+.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

A.9.4.3 Performing and evaluating the twist test on bogie wheel base 2a+

Starting from a horizontal position of all four wheels of bogie I twist on bogie wheel base 2a+ is applied by
synchronous lifting of wheels 11 and 22 and lowering of wheel 12 and 21. Figure A.13 shows the test
sequence.

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
+
Figure A.13 Example for sequence of bogie twist test (bogie wheel base 2a )

Actual twist is calculated as

z11 z12 z 21 + z 22
g+ =
2a +

where

z12 = -z11
z21 = -z11
z22 = z11

NOTE 1 If twist on bogie wheel base 2a+ is simulated by lifting and lowering of only one wheelset (wheel 11 and 12 or
wheel 21 and 22) result is falsified by a resulting additional twist of the vehicle body.
If twist on bogie wheel base 2a+ is simulated by lifting and lowering of only one bogie side (wheel 11 and 21 or wheel 12
and 22) result may be falsified by forces in the body-bogie connections (e.g. friction in a spherical pivot, anti-roll bar).

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NOTE 2 If anti roll bars are arranged unsymmetrical, their influence on wheel force distribution will be taken into
account.

Wheel force on level track is calculated as:

Q0, jk , min + Q0, jk , max


Q0, jk =
2
where

Q0,jk,min is the minimum wheel force at g+ = 0 within hysteresis loop;


Q0,jk,max is the maximum wheel force at g+ = 0 within hysteresis loop.

Mean wheel force for the tested wheelset is calculated as:

Q0, j1 + Q0, j2
Q0, j =
2

Wheel force change due to torsional hysteresis Q is equal to the half width of the hysteresis loop at twist
g+ = 0 and calculated as

Q0, jk , min Q0, jk , max


Q , jk =
2

Q , j1 + Q , j2
Q , j =
2
Torsional stiffness ctAi+ for each wheelset is determined from the gradient of the hysteresis loops of both
wheels. Linearization is done between the zero twist value and test twist value using the section of hysteresis
loop leading from zero twist to the extreme values of twist.

2
+

+
c tA , jk
c = k =1
tA , j 2

Wheel force change due to twist arising from construction tolerances of the bogies is given by:

Q0,11 + Q0,12 + Q0, 21 Q0, 22


Qto+ , I = for bogie I
4

Q0,31 + Q0,32 + Q0, 41 Q0, 42


Qto+ , II = for bogie II
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A separate determination of wheel force changes due to twist arising from construction tolerances of the
vehicle body and wheel force changes due to lateral eccentricity of center of gravity is not possible by analysis
of the twist diagrams of twist on bogie wheel base.

A.9.4.4 Calculation of minimum wheel force

The minimum wheel force can be calculated from the results of the two tests as follows:

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Q j, min = Q0, j Q0, j Qt+, j Qt* Q , j

where

Q0,j is the average wheel force evaluated by the twist test on bogie wheel base 2a+

Q0,j is the deviation from Q0 on level track (twist g = 0)

Q0, j = (Qto* + Qebo ) I + Qto+ ,I


where

Qto* is the from twist of the vehicle body as a result of tolerances


Qebo is the due to eccentricity of centre of gravity
--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Qto+ is the from twist of the bogie frame as a result of tolerances


Qt+, j deviation of wheel force due to the twist on bogie wheel base 2a+
Qtj+ = g + .ctAj
+

Qt* deviation of wheel force due to the body twist on bogie centre distance 2a*
Qt* = g *.ctA
*

if the vehicle is able to reduce of twist in vertical sidebearer clearances:


Qt* = ( g * gg ).ctA
*

Q,j Wheel force change due to torsional hysteresis

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex B
(normative)

Computer simulations designed to examine whether the vehicle has an


acceptable resistance to flange climbing derailment at low speed

B.1 General requirement


A computer simulation which has been validated by suitable tests and/or practical experience shall be used to
predict the behaviour of a vehicle running over the track geometry described below. The vehicle configurations
covered by the simulation shall be such as to allow all significant representative conditions to be assessed.
The speed shall be sufficiently low to allow the effect of full cant excess to be examined. Prior to this
simulation, appropriate practical tests (normally laboratory-based) shall be carried out on the assembled
vehicle and/or on components so as to ensure that the wheel unloading behaviour on twisted track and, where
relevant, the bogie rotation behaviour are well understood, and that the parameters of the vehicle model to be
used in the simulation have been adjusted to reflect the measured behaviour.

A wheel/rail coefficient of friction of 0,32 shall be used.

B.2 Computer output


The simulation shall be capable of generating a time history of Y/Q ratio at the most unfavourable wheel. The
Y/Q ratio shall be computed using a sliding mean over a 2 m length of track.

B.3 Track input


The nature of the tack input used for the computer simulation shall be as follows:

a) It shall consist of a length of straight track, a run-on transition, a constant curvature section with cant, a
run-off transition and a length of straight track.

A range of track curvatures sufficient to identify the worst case condition shall be investigated. The limits
on cant associated with curves of different radii shall be assumed to be as follows:

R 200 m 150 mm maximum cant


200 m > R 150 m 100 mm maximum cant
150 m > R 100 m 50 mm maximum cant

b) The run-on and run-off transition gradients shall be 1/300.

c) The track geometry shall be assumed to be perfect except that the high rail of the run-off transition shall
have a 20 mm dip in it which is triangular in form and has a semi-span of 6 m. The lowest point of the
twisted track (the dip) shall be positioned so as to create the most unfavourable situation

NOTE The high rail dip will normally give worst case behaviour when it is positioned so as to increase the effective
twist on the vehicle (i.e. on the run-off transition). By placing it towards the top of the run-off transition, it will be negotiated
by the leading bogie, which is the one generally most susceptible to derailment, whilst the vehicle is seeing maximum cant
and curvature, but with little twist contribution from the transition. As the dip is moved down the run-off transition, twist
increases whereas cant decreases, as does the curvature seen by the leading bogie. Some experience of the predicted
behaviour will therefore be necessary in order to ascertain the likely worst case position for the dip, as this will be a
function of the sensitivity of the vehicle to cant, twist and curvature.

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For situations where the run-off transition is long compared with the vehicle, the worst case situation may occur when the
dip is positioned such that the leading wheelset of the leading bogie is negotiating it just as the trailing wheelset is leaving
the constant radius section. At this point the vehicle sees maximum cant excess and twist, whilst the leading bogie still
sees significant curvature. Where the vehicle and run-off transition are of comparable length, or where the vehicle is
longer (which may well be the case for the short transitions corresponding to low values of cant), the leading bogie will see
little or no curvature as it negotiates the dip if the dip is positioned as suggested above. Here the worst case situation may
well be with the dip close to the beginning of the run-off transition.

d) The constant radius portion of the back shall be gauge widened as a function of radius R, according to the
following criteria.

R > 200 m zero gauge widening


200 m to 176 m 6 mm gauge widening
175 m to 151 m 9 mm gauge widening
150 m to 126 m 13 mm gauge widening
125 m to 101 m 16 mm gauge widening
R 100 m 19 mm gauge widening

The transitions shall be considered to be gauge widened on a progressive basis so that there are no
discontinuities of gauge. If the computer algorithm does not permit variation in the wheel/rail contact geometry
along the length of track, sufficient simulations at different distinct wheel/rail geometries shall be performed so
that the behaviour on the stated geometry can be understood.

B.4 Body-bogie yaw torque

Whilst no plan view irregularity is specified, it shall be assumed that there is such an irregularity, at the most
unfavourable position on the track, sufficient to ensure that the direction of rotation of the bogie during the
critical period where flange climb may be induced is such that the velocity dependent part of the body-bogie
yaw torque (i.e., that induced by viscous or frictional effects) acts in a sense which increases the Y/Q value at
the critical wheel. It shall be assumed that the corresponding instantaneous body/bogie yaw velocity is 1 per
second. It shall be sufficient to model the effect of this irregularity by application to the bogie concerned of a
steady state external torque In the appropriate sense, or to modify the body/bogie yaw torque characteristics
in a suitable manner, such that the net effort is to apply a torque to the bogie in a direction which promotes
derailment at the critical wheel. There is no requirement to put the irregularity into the plan view track profile.

B.5 Performance requirement


The computed Y/Q value shall nowhere exceed 1,2 for wheel profiles with flange angles equal to or greater
than 68. For vehicles with smaller flange angles the appropriate limiting value shall be determined on the
basis of Nadals criterion (below), but taking into account any previous service experience which indicates that
the angle increases rapidly as the profile wears, as has been found to be the case for the former BR P5 profile.

Nadals formula indicates that the limiting value of Y/Q above which derailment will occur is given by:

Y tan
=
Q 1+ tan

where is the flange angle and is the coefficient of wheel/rail friction (in this case 0,32).

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex C
(normative)

Actual geometry of test tracks

C.1 Terms and regulations

In addition to requirements such as:

--``,,`,````,````,,,````````,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
type of track structure;
rail inclination;
track layout, etc.

the test track shall fulfill certain conditions with regard to the actual track geometry. To assess actual track
geometry,

track geometry deviations, and


track geometry quality levels

are considered.

NOTE 5.4.4 contains further information on the selection of test tracks and evaluation sections.

Track geometry deviations are characterized by their orientation in the system of co-ordinates. Evaluation
variables of track geometry deviation are:

a) alignment, lateral measuring direction

1) absolute maximum value ymax0


2) standard deviation y

b) longitudinal level, vertical measuring direction


1) absolute maximum value zmax0
2) standard deviation z0

Track geometry quality is based on track maintenance criteria which are:

a) quality level QN 1:
necessitates observing a track section or taking maintenance measures within the frame of normal
operations scheduling,

b) quality level QN 2:
necessitates taking short-term maintenance measures,

c) quality level QN 3:
characterises track sections which do not exhibit the usual track geometry quality. Quality level QN 3,
however, does not represent the most adverse but still tolerable maintenance status.

Table C.1 contains the values of track geometry quality which shall be respected for the selection of track
sections. They were developed by UIC SC 7 G Working Group 'Geometric Parameters' and reflect
international operation. For national and multinational operation the values may be varied. Impacts on
achievable limit values of running behaviour shall be taken into account.

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NOTE The term track geometry quality refers to the actual status of a track, taking account of track geometry
deviations. The quality level of actual track geometry is defined in accordance with track maintenance aspects. The basis
is derived from tracks of representative lines maintained according to the state of the art and good practice.

Table C.1 Track geometry quality values to be respected

Alignment Longitudinal level


Permissible local
speed in km/h Values of quality level in mm
QN 1 QN 2 QN 1 QN 2
0
Absolute maximum value y max and z0max (mean to peak)
< V 80 km/h 12 14 12 16
80 km/h < V 120 km/h 8 10 8 12
120 km/h < V 160 km/h 6 8 6 10
160 km/h < V 200 km/h 5 7 5 9
200 km/h < V 300 km/h 4 6 4 8

Standard deviation y0 and z0


< V 80 km/h 1,5 1,8 2,3 2,6
80 km/h < V 120 km/h 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1
120 km/h < V 160 km/h 1,0 1,3 1,4 1,7
160 km/h < V 200 km/h 0,8 1,1 1,2 1,5
200 km/h < V 300 km/h 0,7 1,0 1,0 1,3

For absolute maximum values y0max and z0max QN 3 is defined as:

QN 3 = 1,3 x QN 2.

The reference speed for application of Table C.1shall be determined in the following way:
Vadm + 10 km/h for test zone 1 and 2;
80 < V 120 km/h for test zone 3 and 4.

C.2 Evaluating track geometry deviations

The basis for the evaluation shall be the measured signals of track geometry deviation which the railways
have obtained using normal track measuring methods with computerised recording and storage according to
EN 13848-1.

In order to compare the results obtained from the different track measuring methods, the signals shall be
corrected and filtered so that the resulting values correspond to absolute measured signals. The filter shall
have the following characteristics:
4-pole Butterworth filter;
lower cut-off wavelength Ll = 3,0 m; and
upper cut-off wavelength Lh = 25,0 m.

The filter shall have an accuracy of 1 dB within the defined band width. Outside the band width, a gradient of
24 dB/octave is required down to an attenuation of - 60 dB.

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The upper cut-off wavelength is valid for speeds up to 200 km/h. At higher speeds also track geometry
deviations with wavelengths higher than 25 m shall be considered. The correspondent values have not yet
been determined.

The track quality values in Table C.1 have been derived by UIC SC 7 G Working Group 'Geometric
Parameters' using the NS measuring system. In order to obtain comparable measurements from other
measuring systems with different transfer functions the measuring signals or the track quality values shall be
adjusted.

This may be done by the factors k from Table C.2. The values of track quality level QN 1, QN 2 and QN 3 in
Table C.1 shall then be multiplied by the factors k of Table C.2.

Table C.2 Factors for the simplified correction of actual track geometry

Railway Special features Factor k


Longitudinal level Alignment
BR 1,14 1,20
CD 1,00 1,00
CFF 0,91 1,47
CFF Long measuring vehicle 1,25 -
CFR 1,40 1,95
DB 1,24 1,47
FS 1,33 1,72
NS 1,00 1,00
BB 1,00 1,00
PKP 0,73 0,71
RENFE 0,91 1,47
SNCF 0,91 1,47

NOTE This simplified correction method was developed by UIC SC 7 G Working Group 'Geometric Parameters' and
allows an approximate comparison of the results of the different track measuring methods. The correction method is based
on comparison studies of track measuring methods used by the European Railways in 1982. The values may be revised
as a result of new developments.

As an alternative the transfer function of the measuring system may be used to obtain absolute values of
measured track geometry. Here the measured signals are corrected using the transfer function and are
compared with the uncorrected quality valued QN 1, QN 2 and QN 3 of Table C.1.

For the evaluation of track geometry deviations, the track sections selected for the testing of running
characteristics shall be used without modification.

Ideally, each section of track used for the evaluation of track geometry should start and end at the same point
as the section of track used in the on-track tests. If it is not possible to respect these conditions, the following
criteria shall be applied:

Sections of track used for geometry evaluation shall include all track sections used for on-track testing.
The central P of sections which serve to estimate the geometric quality shall coincide with the centre of
sections used during line tests.
The additional total length of sections used for geometry evaluation shall not exceed the total length of
sections used for on-track tests by more than 50 %.

The track geometry deviation of both rails shall be evaluated for each track section, separated according to
left-hand and right-hand rail. The following values are obtained:
a) alignment

99

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1) absolute peak value ymax,i0


2) standard deviation y,i0

b) longitudinal level

1) absolute peak value zmax,i0


2) standard deviation z,i0

In the case of standard deviations, the higher value (among those of the two rails) for both alignment and
longitudinal level shall be used for the assessment of track geometry quality. With regard to evaluation
sections in curves with a radius R 600 m, however, the standard deviation y0 of the outer rail shall be used
for alignment.

C.3 Assessing track geometry quality


In order to satisfy the basic requirements concerning actual geometry of test tracks, a selection of evaluation
sections shall be made first. The peak values ymax0 and zmax0 are decisive for the inclusion of an evaluation
section into the testing of running characteristics. If one of these values exceeds the quality level QN 3, the
evaluation section in question shall be excluded from further evaluation.

Track geometry quality is assessed on the basis of the indicative values of standard deviations for quality
levels QN 1 and QN 2, separated according to alignment and longitudinal level. The standard deviations
should exhibit the following percentages for each test zone:

c) 50 %: track geometry quality QN 1


d) 40 %: track geometry quality > QN 1 ... QN 2
e) 10 %: track geometry quality > QN 2

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For the documentation of results, the standard deviations

y0 of alignment and
z0 of longitudinal level

for the track sections involved shall be grouped into classes. To this end, two frequency distributions,
separated according to alignment and longitudinal level, will be formed for each test zone. The number of
classes and the class widths shall be selected on the basis of the results. The values of quality levels QN 1
and QN 2 should be included as class limits. The cumulative curves characterise the composition of
evaluation sections and permit an assessment of the representative character of the composition of evaluation
sections and permit an assessment of the representative character of the actual test track geometry to be
made.

The assessment of actual track geometry shall be included in the documentation of results (see Figure C.1).

EXAMPLE Assessment of track geometry quality for alignment

Evaluation variable: standard deviation ys0


Test zone 1: straight track
Number of evaluation sections selected: 27
Permissible local speed: V = 200 km/h
Class widths: a) 0 ... QN 1: 0,2 mm
b) > QN 1 ... QN 2: 0,1 mm
c) > QN 2 ... open
Track quality values from Table C.1: a) QN 1 = 0,8 mm
b) QN 2 = 1,1 mm

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a) Grouping into classes b) Cumulative curve

Standard deviation y0s,i


Class Occupation figure
Class Frequency of
cumulative
n Value Sum
limits in mm curve in %

1 0 ... < 0,2 1 1 3,7


2 0,2 ... < 0,4 3 4 14,8
3 0,4 ... < 0,6 6 10 37,0
4 0,6 ... < QN 1 8 18 66,7
5 QN 1 ... < 0,9 2 20 74,1
6 0,9 ... < 1,0 1 21 77,8
7 1,0 ... < QN 2 4 25 92,6
8 QN 2 ... 2 27 100,0

Figure C.1 Documentation of results for actual track geometry

C.4 Twist and gauge


Twist and gauge are not reflected in the definition of track quality standards used for the characterisation of
the track sections. However some requirements should be met for both quantities during on-track tests.

The limit of track twist shall be in accordance with

20
glim = + 3,0 7,0 in
2a
where 2a is the longitudinal base m
1,3 m 2a 20,0 m

Gauge: Test zone 1 straight track shall include tracks featuring a mean track gauge value, measured over
100 m which is less than the values shown in Table C.3.
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Table C.3 Maximum track gauge for some track sections of test zone 1 straight track

permissible speed Vadm track gauge in mm


V 140 km/h 1 432

140 km/h < V 200 km/h 1 433

200 km/h < V 300 km/h 1 434

V > 300 km/h 1 435

Curves shall include tracks with track gauge up to a minimum of 1 455 mm.

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex D
(normative)

Co-ordinate system for measured quantities

Measured quantities and assessment values are identified in the system of vehicle co-ordinates according to
Figure D.1.

Figure D.1 System of vehicle co-ordinates


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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex E
(normative)

Statistical evaluation

E.1 Objectives and principles of statistical analysis

The objective of this statistical evaluation is to obtain a consistent approach to generate reliable results for
assessment values and thus create the prerequisites for testing conditions of acceptance.

If the values of the essential influencing parameters (independent variables) xi have a small deviation, the
overall distribution of a evaluation parameter y can initially be considered as a one-dimensional distribution.
This allows simplified statistical evaluations to be based on

normally distributed populations and


one-dimensional distribution of random samples.

If one random sample distribution indicates a greater dispersion, this has probably been caused by significant
influences of parameters, despite restrictions imposed under test conditions. This is expected in test zone 2 to
4, where tests are done in curves within some range of cant deficiency. In this case and under defined
conditions cant deficiency cd shall be included as influencing parameters xi in the statistical evaluation.

NOTE 1 In theory, a target parameter y is linearly dependent on the variable xi, here under the defined test conditions
cant deficiency cd. For many assessment variables a physical relationship to cant deficiency can be shown.

NOTE 2 The shown calculations assume a normal distribution of the frequency values. When it is clear that this
condition is not fulfilled, the use of a suitable statistical analysis method is recommended and should be set out in the test
report.

NOTE 3 Under the defined conditions the residuals between frequency values y(hj)i and regression value y(xi) are
considered to be normally distributed.

The following confidence level always applies when calculating statistical characteristic values:

PA = 95,0 %

However, when calculating estimated maximum values max Y(PA) for safety-relevant parameters Y, Y/Q, H,
*
+, S* and z&&S , it is necessary to use the increased confidence level

PA = 99,0 %

NOTE 4 The confidence level is used to limit both sides of the random sample distribution.

E.2 Preparation of the random samples


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Statistical evaluation is to be carried out separately for every random sample. For this purpose, random
samples are to be taken according to the following features with reference to specific procedure and to
characteristic values:

test zone;
assessment value;

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

measuring point; and


target function.

For test zones 2 to 4, an additional subdivision into random samples with the following features is required:

arc; and
transition curve.

The frequency values y(hj) shall be determined for each frequency distribution, from the cumulative curve:

y(h1), frequency of cumulative curve h1 = 0,15 %;


y(h0), frequency of cumulative curve h0 = 50,0 %;
y(h2), frequency of cumulative curve h2 = 99,85 %.

For acceleration in the vehicle body y&& * and z&&* the rms-values shall be determined.

Afterwards the maximum values ymax,i and average values ymed,i shall be calculated from the frequency values
y(hj) as described in Table 12.

The complete sample consists of N values y(xi)i and the associated values of the influencing parameters xi.
For test zone 1 - straight track no influencing parameters xi are used.

E.3 Calculation of statistical quantities of a random sample


For each sample the following statistical quantities shall be calculated:

N N
Auxiliary sums: Sx = xi , Sy = yi ,
i =1 i =1
N N N
x i2 , y i2 ,

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S xx = S yy = S xy = xi x yi
i =1 i =1 i =1

Sx Sy
Mean values: x= , y =
N N

Sum of squares of deviations:


S x2 S y2
Q xx = S xx , Q yy = S yy ,
N N
Sx Sy
Q xy = S xy
N

Q xx Q yy
Variances: s x2 = , s y2 =
N 1 N 1

Q xy
Covariance: s xy =
N 1

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

E.4 One-dimensional analysis


The estimated maximum value is calculated from mean value and standard deviation:

Y ( PA )max = y + k s y

Depending on the type of assessment variable the following factors:

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k = 3,0 for assessment values of running safety,
k = 2,2 for assessment of track loading and ride characteristics

are to be used.

E.5 Two-dimensional analysis


Regression analysis which may be used in test zones 2 to 4 assumes a linear relationship between
influencing parameter xi (here cant deficiency cd) and target parameter y (assessment value).

Regression line: y ( x ) = b0 + b1 x

Q xy
Coefficients: b1 = , b0 = y b1 x
Q xx

2
Q yy Q xy
Residual variance: s2 = 1
N 2 Q xx Q yy

The upper limit of predicted area at position x is calculated as

Y ( PA, x )max = y ( x ) + t ( PA, f ) s B

with regression line y ( x ) and

1 ( x x )2
B = B( x ) = 1 + +
N Q xx

Threshold values t(PA, f) of the bilateral t-distribution are indicated in Table E.1. Their value is to be
determined depending on the degree of freedom f = N - 2 and the confidence coefficient PA

corresponding to 99 % for assessment values of running safety, and


corresponding to 95 % for assessment values of track loading and ride characteristics.

For quasistatic values assessment is done with the regression line.

Table E.1 Threshold values t(PA, f) of the t-distribution for limits on two sides

Degree of freedom f 25 30 40 50 60 80 100


Confidence 95 % 2,060 2,042 2,021 2,009 2,000 1,990 1,984 1,960
level PA 99 % 2,787 2,750 2,704 2,678 2,660 2,639 2,626 2,576

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex F
(informative)

Symbols

The Table F.1 contains a summary of the symbols of the quantities and characteristic Figures for testing of the
running behaviour and stationary tests as well as supplementary information and terms.

NOTE The notation of the symbols was simplified and adapted to the requirements of data processing; other
notations with indices and exponents are permissible.

Table F.1 Symbols

Symbol Significance Symbol Significance

Reference system on vehicle


Direction of co-ordinates j - wheelset
X - longitudinal J - running gear
Y - lateral F - driver's cab
Z - vertical M - centre of vehicle body
- roll angle (around x-axis) k - vehicle side, general (1 right, 2 left)
- yaw angle (around z-axis) Curve
- angle of attack (wheel-rail around z-axis) a - outside in curve
Reference points i - inside in curve
Jk - wheel
General symbols (represented using the example of the quantity y)
o
y Partial system, track ymin Minimum value
y Partial system, wheelset ymax Maximum value
+
y Partial system, bogie yqst Quasi-static value
x
y Partial system, vehicle body yrms rms-value
y Difference yadm Permissible value
ylim Limit value
Assessment values stationary tests
Safety against derailment (stationary test) Measurement of static wheel force
Y/Q - quotient of guiding force/wheel force mveh - overall mass of vehicle
Q/Q0 - wheel unloading factor 2jk - wheel load of wheel k of wheelset j
z - wheel lift 2Qj - axle load of wheelset j
X - bogie rotational resistance factor 2Q0,min - mean axle load of the vehicle
Sway characteristics 2Q0,max - maximum axle load of the vehicle
sR - roll coefficient qj - Ratio of wheel load difference per axle to axle
load
hC - roll centre height 2q0,max - Ratio of difference between maximum axle load
and mean axle load to mean axle load
Rotational resistance qside - Ratio of wheel load difference between one side
of the vehicle to the mean of the sides
Mz,Rmin - torque required to rotate the bogie relative to the
body for a curve with radius Rmin

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Table F.1 (continued)


Symbol Significance Symbol Significance

Assessment values on-track tests


Forces between wheel and rail Accelerations
Y - guiding force, lateral measuring direction y&& - on wheelset, lateral measuring direction
+
Q - wheel force, vertical measuring direction - on running gear, lateral measuring direction
*
Y - sum of guiding forces of one wheelset - in vehicle body, lateral measuring direction
Y/Q - quotient of guiding force/wheel force z&&* - in vehicle body, vertical measuring direction
Lateral axle box forces S - index indicating filtering and assessing running
safety
Hjk - lateral axle box force on wheel jk
Hj - sum of lateral axle box force on wheelset j

Other quantities
Vehicle Contact geometry
+
m - mass of bogie (including all parts, wheelsets etc.) Tan e - equivalent conicity
N - number of wheelsets Y - wheelset amplitude y
2 + - bogie wheel base - profile angle in wheel rail contact point
2 - distance between bogie centres or distance of the Operation
axles for non-bogied vehicles
H - effective height above rail of the primary lateral V - speed
suspension
2bA - lateral distance of wheel/rail contact points Cd - cant deficiency
Track Track sections
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R - track curve radius Lts - length of track section


S - track gauge nts,min - minimal number of track sections
U - cant Rmwa - mean value of curve radius of track sections
G - twist Limit values
2a - longitudinal base for twist - safety factor
Actual track geometry K1 - factor for limit value of sum of guiding forces
o
y max - maximum value of alignment K2 - factor for limit value of sum of lateral axle box
forces
o
z max - maximum value of vertical level
o
y s - standard deviation for alignment initial - parameter value during initial acceptance tests
o
z s - standard deviation for vertical level final - parameter value for extension of acceptance
QN k - quality level simp - simplified measuring method
normal - normal measuring method

Quantities for rotational resistance test


Rmin minimum curve radius specified for the vehicle eval bogie yaw angle relative to vehicle body for
evaluation of rotational resistance torque
c rotational stiffness of the secondary suspension MR hysteresis magnitude of rotational resistance
Quantities for sway characteristics test
* +
y lateral movement in the secondary suspension at the roll angle difference between bogie frame and
height of the secondary bump stops used for analysis wheelset for bogied vehicles
of roll centre height
ybog lateral movement of the bogie at a defined point hP height above rails of a defined point P in the
relative to the perpendicular axis of the wheelset longitudinal centre plane of the vehicle
* roll angle difference between vehicle body and bogie
frame for bogied vehicles or between vehicle body
and wheelset for non-bogied vehicles

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Table F.1 (concluded)

Symbol Significance Symbol Significance

Quantities for safety against derailment


General * - torsional stiffness, calculated for each wheel
c tAij
H - twist height *
c tA ,r
*
, c tA ,m
- torsional stiffness of the moved and the remote
bogie
D - shim size used for test method 1 * - torsional stiffness of the vehicle
ctA
Rail conditions * - wheel force change due to inclination of vehicle
Qg/g
body during twist test
dry - ratio of lateral friction force and vertical wheel force * - wheel force change due to lateral eccentricity of
Qto
centre of gravity
Limit value + - wheel force change from twist of the bogie frame
Qto
as a result of tolerances
- coefficient of friction at flange - wheel force change due to eccentricity of centre of
Qebo
gravity
- flange angle Q,jk - wheel force change due to torsional hysteresis
Evaluation of twist tests + - torsional stiffness, calculated for each wheelset
c tA ,j

z - vertical displacement of contact point during twist Qt+, j - deviation of wheel force due to the twist on bogie
+
test wheel base 2a
* + *
Q0,jk,min - minimum wheel force at g = 0 and g = 0 within Qt - wheel force change due to the body twist on bogie
x
hysteresis loop centre distance 2a
* +
Q0,jk,max - maximum wheel force at g = 0 and g = 0 within Q,j - wheel force change due to torsional hysteresis

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hysteresis loop
Q0,j - mean wheel force for the tested wheelset QjH - change of wheel force due to the moment of the
sum of guiding forces
Qjk - wheel force change during twist test

Quantities for statistical evaluation


Number of data sets Dispersion quantities
N - random sample size Qxx - sum of squares of deviations x
Sums Qyy - sum of squares of deviations y
Sy - values yi, evaluation parameter y Qxy - - product deviations
Sx - values xi, influencing parameter x sy - standard deviation y
Syy - squares yi, evaluation parameter y sx - standard deviation x
Sxx - squares xi, influencing parameter x sxy - covariance
Sxy - products of influencing and target parameters Maximum expected value Y
Position quantities Y(PA)max - estimated value
y - arithmetic mean y t(PA, f) - threshold value of t-distribution
x - arithmetic mean x F - degree of freedom
Regression factors Maximum expected value, distribution
b0 - zero offset Y(PA, - upper limit of the confidence interval
x)max
bi - slope t(PA, f) - threshold value of t-distribution
y ( x ) - regression coefficient F - degree of freedom
Dispersion and compound quantities B - auxiliary variable
s - residual variance Y(PA)max - estimated value

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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex G
(normative)

Operational parameters

The UIC Sub-Committee 12 has recommended specific operational parameters for application during the
testing of running behaviour for international traffic. Thus, the permissible cant deficiencies cdadm shall be
imposed according to Table G.1 for the indicated

train types;
vehicles;
track conditions, and
maximum permissible speeds of the vehicle Vadm.

Table G.1 Recommended operational parameters

Maximum permissible Permissible cant


Type of Vehicles 1) Infrastructure speed of the vehicle Vadm deficiency
train in km/h cdadm in mm

Freight Conventional freight wagons Conventional


120
train infrastructure
Suitable conventional freight 130
120 ... 140
wagons
Specific freight wagons
140 ... 160
Passenger Conventional passenger coaches 150
230
train and motor coaches
Specific motor coaches and
160 165
multiple units

160 ... 250


150
Upgraded high-
200 ... 250
speed line
130
High-speed slab 250 ... 300
150
track line
Vehicles with special equipment for the According to specific
300
negotiation of curves definition
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EN 14363:2005 (E)

Annex ZA
(informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU


Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the Interoperability of the trans-European high-
speed rail system

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission to
provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the New Approach Directive

Council Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the Interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail
system1)

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has
been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the clauses of this
standard given in table ZA confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity
with the corresponding Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.
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EN 14363:2005 (E)

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Table ZA Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive (Add the reference and title of the Directive)

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Sections//annexes of this European Chapter//points and annexes of the TSI Rolling Corresponding text, articles//annexes of the Comments
Standard Stock & TSI Infrastructure Directive 96/48/EC

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STI Rolling Stock

4.1 Basic parameters of the rolling stock


subsystem

4.1.1 Maximum track forces


Section 4 - Stationary tests
a) Dynamic load
4.1 Safety against derailment for Specifics sections have been
railway vehicles running on twisted b) Transverse track forces underlined in the first column of the
track table. Nevertheless, the whole
4.3 Sway characteristics 4.1.2 Axle load standards including all its annexes
present a great interest as a support
4.5 Measurement of static wheel 4.2 Rolling stock subsystem interfaces for the implementation of the
force Chapter II Technical specification for Directive 96/48/EC for the
4.2.10 Wheel/rail contact interoperability assessment of the running
Section 5 - On-track tests behaviour of the railway vehicles
4.2.17 Suspension coefficient Article 5 - 3-a, 3-b, 3-e submitted to testing for acceptance
and, mainly, for the evaluation of the
Annex E Table 2 - Assessment of the rolling Annex I 3 wheel/ rail interaction and the
Annex A Information on safety stock subsystem maximum track loading.
against derailment (informative)
Annex II 3 - Maximum track stressing
STI Infrastructure
Annex C Actual geometry of test

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- Axle loading
tracks (normative) 4.1 Basic parameters of the Infrastructure
subsystem

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Annex III Essential requirements

4.1.4 Maximum track stressing

4.2 Infrastructure subsystem interfaces 1- General requirement

Point 4.2.2 1.1 Safety Points 1.1.2 and 1.1.3

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4.3 Specified performance 1.5 Technical compatibility

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4.3.3 Specifications applicable to the
elements to achieve the intended
performances level 2 Requirements specific to each subsystems

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Point 4.3.3.9 Equivalent conicity 2.4 Rolling stock

Point 4.3.3.16 Resistance of the track 2.4.3 Technical compatibility


switches and crossings to the vertical loads

Point 4.3.3.17 Resistance of the track


switches and crossings to transversal loads

Point 4.3.3.18 Track geometry quality

Annex B - Table B.7 Superstructure (plain track

WARNING Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of this standard.

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Bibliography

[1] 91/440/EEC, Council Directive of 29 July 1991 on the development of the Community's railways 5)

[2] ENV 13803-1, Railway applications Track alignment design parameters Track gauges 1435 mm
and wider Part 1: Plain line

[3] prEN 14033-1, Railway applications Track Railbound construction and maintenance machines
Part 1: Technical requirements for running

[4] ORE - Question B 55, Report No. 8 (Final report)


Conditions for negotiating track twists
- Recommended values for the track twist and cant
- Calculation and measurement of the relevant vehicle parameters
- Vehicle testing
Utrecht, April 1983

[5] ORE - Question C 116, Report No. 3


Interaction between vehicle and tracks. Methods of measurement and analysis
Utrecht, October 1973

[6] ORE - Question C 138, Report No. 9 (Final report)


Permissible Maximum Values for the Y- and Q-Forces and Derailment Criteria
Utrecht, September 1986

[7] UIC SC 7 G Working Group Geometry Parameters


Guide-Lines for the Execution and Application of Approval Test of Running Characteristics:
Definition of Geometry Parameters for Vehicle Approval
Report No. 1; January 1995

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[8] GRAF/HENNING/STANGE
Formeln und Tabellen der mathematischen Statistik
Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, 1966

[9] UIC 510-2:2004, Trailing stock; wheels and wheelsets Conditions concerning the use of wheels of
various diameters

5) Official Journal of the European Communities No L 237 of 24.08.91

113

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UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.
di Unicazione
Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B
20133 Milano, Italia

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