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u d a r a (k o n s u m s iu a r a ) a n k o n s u m s i
,

te n a g a y a i tB d ib e r ik a n k e s e m u a n ya m e m e g a q B p e ra n a n a n s a n a t
, y g g
p e n ti n g B a h k B n p a d a s a a t s e k a ra n g in i m tu k m e d t
n a p a ca nl h a s il
,

s i i
flo ta y a n g o p t m u m te la h dip a k a i x ra y H iıo re s c e n l s p e c triD m e te rs
,
" "

d a n m in i k o m p u te r A la t k o n tro lte rs e b u t d ip a k a l s e b w i p e n g g a n ti
o p e ra to r w rg te r la tih y a n g b ia s a n y a h a n a m e n
y g Bu n a lca n m a ta d a s
pe ra s a a s u l血 出 ti
s e a p p ro s e & P e r kc m b a n g a n d u i p a d a m o d e l m o d e l

m a te m a tik a te la h m e m u n s k in k a n u n tu k m e ra m a lk a n
p e n g a ru h
p e n g a ru h d a r i b e rb a g a i v a r ia b e l d i d a ta m
p ro s e s O le h k a r e n a itu
m o d e l m o d e l te r s e b u t d a p a l d ig u n a k a n u n h ı ]c p ro s e s o p tim a s id a n
k o n tr o l d a ta m m e n c a p a ip e r o ı e h a n d a r i m in e r a l s e tin g g i m u n kin
g
d łu r ju g a s e c e p a tn y a p r o s e s n o ta s i s e r ta p e r B c ra k a n d a n in le ra k s i
a n ta ra g c le m b u n g d a n p a r tik e l U n lu k in i d ip e r lu }ca n ju a e r s a m a a n
g p
d a s a r k in e tik a fı o ta s id a n tu jm h id r o d in a m ik a fı o ta s i
D is a m p in g k e m a ju a n di a ta s u n tu k d e k a d e te ra k h ir in i te la h
, ,

d ik e m b a n g k a n s e c a ra m u ta k h ir te k n o lo g i JTo lc 【s ip n e u m a l lc a n
y g
d in a m a k a n C o lo u m F {o la tlo lï y a n g d ik h u s u s k a n u n tu k n o ta s i
b a lu b a ra d a n P h e n e u m o r ic F to la lio n E k o l7o t T e k n o ı o gi ya n g
te r a kh ir in i d ig u n a k a n lc r u ta m a u n tu k m e m u rT ıik a n a ir s e h in
gga
b u tir a n b u tira n d a la m b e n tu k k o ı o id a ta u p u n s u s p e n d e d s o lid d a a t
p
te r a m b il P e r k e m b a n g a n le r a k h ir d a ı am n o ta s i y a it u
dip e tk e m \k a n n y a F ı a s h F lo ta tio n m a g n e to jlo ta tio n d a n J a m e s ó n

c e ll

1・乡
e A e II

Þı
EKA Nı
SHE DAN PR ı
N S IP
D A S A R F L O TA S ı

k a n is m e flo ta s i d id a s a r k a n a d a e ı b h
e
/, I ı
, I p g ja a a w a
I= b l
lı ıe b e ra p a w r tik e l m u ? h d ib a s a h i h id ro iıik ?
( p ) n
V t la in n y a s u lit d ib a sa h i (h id ro p o bik ) P a r tik e l p a rtik e l
y a n g b a s a h tid a k m e n g a p u n g d a n c e n d e n m g te la p b e ra d a da la m fa sa
a ir D i p ih a k ı a in p a r tik e l p a r tik e l h i? o o b ik tid a k d ib
p ( a s a h i)
m e n e m p e lp a d a g e le m b u n g n a ik k e p e r m u k a a n m e m b
, , e n tu k b u ih

y a n g m c n g a n d u n g p a r tik e ı ,
d a n d p is a h k a n
M e k a n is m e d a r i p e n g u m p u la n m in e ra la ? 】 a h p r o b le m u ta m a

p a d a te o r i flo ta s i L a n g k a h p e rta m a d a ta m p e m e c a h a n p r o b le m
,

a d a la h b a g a im a n a u n tu k m e ru b a h s e b a g ia n d a r i a n ta r fa sa d
p a a t
c a ir o ı e h a n ta r fa s a p a d a t g a s ? n g a n m e n
g g u n a k a n r e a g e n flo ta s i
K e te ra p u n g a n (flo a ta b iı ity ) d a r i s u a tu p a r tik e l m in e ra l
? te n tu k a n o ı e h k e c e n d e n m g a n n y a u n tu k m e n e m
p e l p a d a p e rm u k a a n
ge ı e m b u n g u d a r a d a n in i te r u ta m a te r a n tu n
, g g p a d a s ifa t s ifa t
p e r m u k a a n p a r tik e l M a s s a je n s
i d if
a n s a t s ifa t fis ik a ı a in n y a
m e m e g a n g p e ra n a n y a n g k e c il
P e r b e d a a n s ifa t p e r m u k a a n p a r tik e l a a k a h d a a t d ib
p p asahi
a ta u tid a k a k a n s e m a k in b e sa r de n a n m e n a m b a h k a n b e r b
g a g a im a c a m
r e a g e n flo ta s is e h in g g a p r o s e s fıo ta s ib is a b e r la n g s u n d e n a n le b ih
g g
b a ik P e n g g u n a a n re a g e n fı o ta s i in i tid a k d im a k s u d ka n u n tu k
m e n g u b a h s ifa t s ifa t k im ia p a r tike ı te rs e b u t te ttıp ih a n y a m e n u b a h
g
if k
s a p e rm u a a n d e n g a n m e n e ra (a d s o r s i re a e n fl t it
t )
y p p g o a s e rs e bu t
S e c a ra g a r is b e s a m y a p e m is a h a n m in e ra ld c n a n c a ra fıo la s i
g
d ila k u k a n d a ta m d u a ta h a p y a itu ta h a c o n d itio n in d iu ı ła h a
, p g p
p e n g a p u n g a n m in e r a 】(flo ta s i) P a ? ta h a p c o n d irio n in g be r n iju a n
u n tu k m e m b u a t s u a tu m in e r a l te r te n tu b rs if
e a t h id ro p o b ik ? n
m e m p e r ta h a n k a n m in e ra ı ı
a in b e rs ität h i? o p ilik
da ı a m p d p ? m a s tı
p a d a la h a p u litio n in
co ı g in i k e ld ca iı
d l i m
ga n a da n y g
ıo n n
b c b c m p a r e a g e n n o ta s i M a c o n r

1 T c tc in ta ı in g h m g a n p a d a p H t e r i m ya itu d e n g a n m e n
p H re g u ıa lo r
2 5 1tm e c o o n n g d a p a t d iı e p a s ka n d e n g a n m e n d i Ęp e r s a n
3 M en g e n ? p k a n io n io n p e
4 M en g u s a h a k a n m in e ra lm n c ra l y a n g ti? k d iin g in lca n te ta p
d ib a s a h i D e n g a n
.
b a h k a n d tp -
m e nam
5 M e n g u s a h a k a n a g a r k o le k to r itu bekca le b ih e fe k tif d a n e fis in
d c n ga n m e n a m b a h k a n a 】 a iv a to r
6 M e n g u s a h a lca n lin g k im g an y a n g d a p a t m m g h a s 出(a n g e l an b u n g
y a n g s ta b il d e n g a n m e n a m b a h k a n fıo lh e r
,

K e b e r h a s ila n f】 l h k e te p a ta n d a n
o ta s i a k a n b a n y a k d ite n tu k a n o e

k e c e rm a ta n ? la m p e n a m b a h a n re a g e n n o ta s i S e ? n g k a n p a d a
ta h a flo ta s ia ta u ta h a a e ï a s i a d a la h ta h a p p e n g a lira n u d a r a k e
p p
? la rııp lu p s e c a ra m e ka n is b a ik m c la lu i a g ita s im au p u n in je k s i
u d a r a G e le m b u n g u d a ra d a F a t tim b u l k a re n a a ? n y a p u ta r a n
p A k ib a t p u ta r a n ım p e le r
im p e te r d a r i s e ll fïo ta s i d i d a ta m p u ı
m a lca te k a n a n u ? ra d i ? ı a m p u lp d i s e k ita r im p e te r m e n ja d i

r e n 山山 P a d a s a a t a e ra s i a tira r u d a r a y a n g m e m p u n y a i te k a n a n
,

le b ih b e s a r a k a n g a lir k e d a ı
m en a m p u lp k a re n a te k a n a n u d a ra

d i? la Jn p u lp le b ih r e n d a h sebaai a k ib a t p u la ra n im p e te r A k ib a t
a ? n y a s ifa t p e r m @ m a ka ・
n n lh i? o p o b ūc a k a n m m e m 【 el

l h
p a ? g e le m b u n g u d a r a G e le )w g u r a y a n g te a te r te m p e li
'
?
o ı
eh m in e r a ı
h i? p o b ik a k a r ıc r a p u n g o i z ta s p e rm u L a iu r u d a ra
o

da n pu ı p P a r tik e l te r s e b u t ? p t ? p m g k a n w a la u p u n b e ra tje n is
p a r tik e l le b ih b e sa r ? r ip a d ì b e a t je n is a ir d e n g a n a d a n y a
b a n tu a n u d a ra Yan g a k a n o lj ic z r a k a n d ıb a w ah in i a d a la h
pe n ga ru h d a ri re a g e n fı
o ta (k o le k to r ,
m o d ifie r fr o h e r )
,

fe n o m e n a ĺ te rm u ka a n ,
? n M d ro jjn a m ū«a fı
o la s ip a d a m eł
M sm e
n o ta s i

Z 1 R e a g e n n o ta s i
K e b e r h a s ila n p r o s e s p e m is a h a n m in e ra l s e c a r a flo ta s i
d ite n tu k a n n ie h k e te p a ta n p e n e n tu a n re a g e n k im ia y a n g

II 2
dig u n a k a n S e c a ra s a r is b e s a m y a rc a ge n ya n s d ig u n a k a n d iba g i
m e n jıd itig a k e lo m p o k Y a itu : k o jc k to r m o d ifie r d a n fro the r
. , ,

2 I 1 K
, oı
e k to r

K oı
e k to r a 山山由 z a l o r 吕an ik d a lo m b e n lu k a so m a ta u

b a sa a la u B a r a m d im o n a d a p a l m c n d a h u lu i m c n g a d s o rp s
,

te r h a d a p ty p e k h u s u s da r i p c rm u k a a n p a r tik e ld id a ta m a ir d a n
d e n g a n d e m ik ia n s e b a s ia n d a r l p e rm
k a a n p a r tik e l te rs e b u t
u

c u k u p p o b i a ir A la u d a p a t ju g a d ik a la k a n k o lc k to r ád a la h ,

s e n y a w a o r g a n ik y a n g d ita m b a h k a n k c d a ta m p u lp u n tu k
m c n g u b a h p c r m u k o a n m in e r a l d o r i h id r o p ilik m e n ja d i

h id ro p o b ik d e n s a n p ro s e s p n y e r a p a h (a d s o rp s i)
P a d a n o la s l d ıM e n s ıa l k c a d a a n in id id a p a t m e la lu is e r i
la n g k a h ı a n g k a h c r Jlld lllo m lı R s c h in g g a s c b a g ia n m in c r a ı
e p a s ka n
m e ı la r ik a n n c k to r s e d a n g ı
y a tc r h a d a p k o ı a in n y a

m e n ja d i Ic b ih k u a t F c n o m e n a ın ı a k a n d ib ic a r a k a n p a d a

m c k a n ıs m e r n g g u m p a la n d im a n a a L a n d ijc ı
a s ka n ı
n c la ı
u ic le c

In c u t d o u b lť lu w r d ĺm a «ls o rp s r U n tu k m c n g h w ilk a n c fis ie n s ı

y a n g lln 8 g i d a r ı11o la s ı d ı
N r lu ka n m em ilih k o lc kto r y a n g s c s u a i
u n lu k s u a lu m n c ra ı
ı ıe r lc n lu E fis ı
c n s i in i ll} W n lin g po da su dut
k o n la k a n ta r a lig a fu s a y a ilu p a d a t c a ir d a n
,
u da ra

2 1 ı1 M o le k u ık o le k to r

M o le k u ık o ı
e k to r ï c rd ir i a ta s
吕ru p g r u p h id r o k a r b o n
K óı e klo r m c ru pa k a n s e n a w a h c tc ro p o ı
a r y ßıtu s ċ n y a w a k im ia

y a n g m o lc k u ln y a lc r d ir i d a r i ( G a m b a r 2 I )
g
r u p po l ar (an o r ga n i k) , k t ils c c a r a ki mi a, ar ut dc n g a n ba ık
a ı

d a ta m a ir (te r io n is a s i) d a n b e rs ifa t h id r o p ilik


g
r u p no n pu l ar (or ga n i k) , i 出 出 ak l irsc c a r a ki m i li 出 出 lar u t
da ı
am a ir d a n b e rs ifa t h id ro p o b ik

II 3
lľ i I l I

- a °°r 斗 poı
a・ I
I蠱驪鐵
G am ba r 2 1 G a m ba r 2 2

M o le k u ı e k to r n
ko ı L a p is a n a d s o r p s i a n io n m oı e ku l
pa da pe r m u ka a n m in e r a ı
lj

B ila p e r m u ka a n s u a tu m in e r a l m
e n y e r a p k o le k to r m
a ka
b a g ia n y a n g n o n p o la r a k a n m e n ja u h i p e r m u k a a n p e n e m p e la n,

g e le m b u n g u d a r a te r ja d i p a d a b a g ia n y a n g p o la r te r s e b
ut
se b a g a im y a n g d itu n ju kk a n o le h G a m b a r 2 2
an a

Pen b a h a n k o le k to r p a d a p e r m u k a a n m in e r a l a k a n
am

m ę n y e b a b k a n te r ja d i p e r u b a h a n o r ie n la s i g r u p h id r o k a r b o n
p o la r
d a n n o n p o la r s e h in gg a p e r m u k a a n m in e r a l m e n ja d i h id r o p o b ik d a n
m en e m p e l p a d a g e le m b u n g u d a r a P e n a m b a h a n in i m en g a k ib a tk a n
m o le k u l m o le }c u ık o ie k to r a k a n m e m b e n tu k la p is a n a d s o rp s i a da
p
pe rm ka a n in e r a l M o le ku l m o le k u l in i a k a n te
p a da
u m rs u s u n

p e r m u k a a n m in e ra l d a ta m s u a tu ik a ta n d e n g a n k a tio n /a n io n p a da
k is i m in e r a l
2 ı1 2 K la s ilık a s i k o ı
. . e k to r
l
M o e k u l y a o g te r io n is a s i d ik la s ifilca s ik a n gN ıs ifa t
se s u a i de n
io n n y Ą y a itu a n io n d a n k a tio n s e b a g a im ana y a n s d tu n ju k k a s
i
G a m bar 2 3

c o u e e to ıı
ï ・
N o n iu n is in g to n is in g

Liqun ıx x ı p o la r h ydk o c ır b o n s
w h ic h ? n ot d is s o c ia te in w a le


O ?c y h M ı S łıl向 (b y ı
B a se d o o w n ic a n d B ıi e d o ııb iv a ı ts uı
e sı ph u r
su lp h o ac id p o u ps

C a rbo w lic S u lp h a te s Su te s Xantha D ith io p h o s Fra h te s

G a ın ba r 23
K la s s ifık a s i K o le k to a
r )

2 1 ] 2 Į K o le k to r A n io n ik
U m um n k o le k to r d a r i g o lo n g ¢
ya łn in i d ip a k a i p a d a p e k e d a a n

fid a
fro ta s i s u ı te ta p i in iju g a m e m u n g k in k a n u s tu k d ip a k a i p a ?
flo ta s i m in e r a l n o n su lfid a K o le k to r A n io n ik m e ru p a k a n g o lo n g a n
org a n ik y a n g a s a m n y a d a p a t d ib a g i a ta s d u a k a te g o r i
1 A s a m h id r o g e n (p e n u n ju k a s a m ) a ta u lo g a m e k iv a le n n ya di
h u b lın g k a n k e r a n ta iH m e la lu i a to m o k s ig e n d im a n a su s u n a n

o k s id r iıs e p e r ti k a r b o k s ila Ļ a s id a lk il s u lfa t 山u ıs u lfo n a t


2 A sa m h id r o g e n (p e n u n ju k a sa m ) a ta u lo g a rq e k iv a le n n y a
d ih u b u n g k a n k e r a n ta i H C m e la lu i a to m b e le r a n g s e p e r ti m e r
,

ca p ta n tio k a rb a m
,
a t, x a n th a te ,
tio u r e a s , da n se ba g a in ya

U 5
R k im ia d a r i k o ıc k to r a n io n
ik te rs e b u t d a p a t d ilihat
um us

p a d a T ä b e l 2 1 D ida ia m p ra k te L je n s
i k o le k to r y a n g se r in g d ip a k a i
a d a la h t e te n ıta m a u n tu k flo ta s im in e ra
l m in e r a l s u lfi? O ı
- eh
,

k a r e n a tid a k /k u r a n g s ta b iln y a a s a m x a n th a e t m a k a a to m H n ya
d ig a n tik a n o le h lo g a m a lk a li s e p e r t p i o ta s s i u m d a n s o d iu m

U m u m n y a . x a n th a te d ib u a t d a r i m o n o h y d r ic a tc o h o t y a n g je n u h
s e p e r tie til, b u til a ta u a m il a lk o h o ı d e n g a n k a r b o n d is u lfid a (C S , )
d a n a lk a li h i? o k s i?
ROH + CS
,
+ KOH > ROCS( + 40 (2 I)
de n w R a d a la h g u g u ia n a ı k il
I
D id a la m p e r d a g a n g a n x a n th a te ? p a t d iju m p a i? la m b e n tu k g a r a iīı
,

a lk a li s e p e r ti p a d a T a b e l 2 2
,

A \ u n k a ra k te ń s tik d a r i x a n th a te a d a la h
a S e le k tifita s y a n g tin g g i d e n g a n te n d e n s i s e le k tiv ita s y a n g
,

m e n in g k a t p a d iıra n ta iH C (h id ro k a rb o tı )y a n g m e m a n ja n g
'
b K o le k to r x a n th a te b e k e d a b a ik b a g i m in e ra l m in e ra l s u lfid a
k a r e ıia k o le k to r x a n th a te a k a n m e n g h a s ilk a n d a y a te m p e lp a r tik e l
p a d a g e le m b u n g u d a ra s a n g a t b e sa r D a y a te m p e l p a r tik e l p a d a
g e le m b u n g u ? ra a k a n b e ń a m b a h d e n g a n b e r ta m b a h n y a ju m ı ah

t
a om C (a o m a r o ) a r
t k b n d i r a n ta i k a r b o n x a n th a te ,
k a r e n a ra n tai

k a r b o n a k a n m m e n tu k a n s u d u t k o n ta k W a r k d a n C o x 3)
te la h
m e la k u ka n p e n y e ı id ik a n m e n g e rm ih u b u n g a n ju m ta h a to tn k a rb o n ñ

d e n g a n s u d u t k o n ta k P a d a G a m b a r 2 20 D a p a t d ilih a t b a h w a *

b ū a ju m la h a to m k a r b o n b e r ta m b a h b s a r m a k a s u d u t k o n ta k a k a n
,

b e r ta m b a h b e s a r p u la d a n s e b a lik n y a

U 6
T a b e ı2 1
N am a da n ru m u s k m ia b e b e r a p a k o le k to
i r a n io n ik ıj

R um us K im ia R um us K im ia

a s id a lk il s u lfa t R o s o

f
fo n a t
Su ı

b G o lo n g a n s u l? ifil
m e r c a p ta n t

x an th a te

> c S H

R N

tio r e a s

/ S T H

tio fo s fa t S

18 7
c K o le k to r x an d a h la r u t d a ta m a ir s e h in g g a a k
th a te m u
a
m e m u d a h k a n p e m a k a ia n n y a
k a r e n a re a k s i a k a n le b ih c e a t
, p da
k o n s u m s ip e m a k a ia n le b ih īe n d a h d a n d e n g a n m m a m b w .
a to m e p a d a g u g u s a n H C
k e la n rta im y a d a la m a ir m e n u r u n sa in
,
pe
p iı n th a te (K E X )ı
a t k a li in ib e ra r ti o ta s s iu m e t x a e b ih b
em p , a n ya
d i
la r u t a r p a d a p o ta s s ium am il x a n th a te (K A X )

T a b e ı2 2
M a c am m acam x an th a te 4 )

P o ta s s iu m A m iıX an th a te (K A X ) C sH r rO C S2K

K se c am v l X C sH I IO C S2K Z 5 !
I
K he x yl X
IW r3 0 C S2K
i ıT
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y g
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g p a d a la tt ic e d a r i p e n n u k a a n
p a r tik e l m e m b e n tu k p e r s e n y a w a a n d e n a n lo a m
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e ja d i a k a n m e m u d a hka n
,

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h X a n th a te u m u m n a k if
y a t pa da pH 7 12 jik a p u lp le bih b a sa,
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n 8
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h a s il p e r c o b a a n m e n u n u k k a n b a h w a
j
h id r o p o b is ite t y a n g d itim b u l k a n o le h a n io n ik k o le k to r a d a k e la s
p
y a n g s a m a a k a n le b ih b e s a r d e n g a n ı e b ih p a n ia n g n y a ra n ta i H C
H id r o p o b is ite t d a r i k o ï e k to r s o a p a d a la h le b ih k e c il d a r i k o le k to r
x a n th a te p a d a r a n ta i H C y a n g s a m a
panang Is o p ro p il x a n th a te
a 出山出 le b ih e fe k tif d a r i e tila ta u m e til x a n th a te s e b a b l h d n
o e a a ya ,

tig a g u g u s a n m e til y a n g d e k a t d e n g a n e r m u k a a n m in e r a ıA d a n a
p y
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p y g
b a ik d a ń p a d a s a tu r a n ta i/ta n g a n m e til In i b e r a r tik o le k to r d e n a n
g
m e m p u n y a i r a n ta i b e r c a b a n g a k a n m e m b e r ik a n h a s il a n l b ih
y g e
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y p tıra n d a r i b e r b a g a i
tip e d a r i k o le k to r m is a ln y a x a n th a te d a n d ith io o s fa t a ta u c a m u ra n
p p
e til d a n m e til x a n th a te m e n g h a s ilk a n p e r o le h a n e b ih e Ř k lif
, ya n g ı
p a d a flo ta s i s u lfid a H a ıin i d is e b a b k a n o le h k e h e te r o e n a n d a r i
g
p e rm u k a a n m in e r a l y a n g d a p a t d ia d s o r p s i o le h je n is k o le k to r y a n g
le b ih s e s u a i (le b ih a k tif)

2 1 1 2 2 K e k to r
o ı k a tio n ik
K e b a n y a k a n d a r i k o le k to r k a tio n ik d ip a k a ip a d a flo ta s i m in
e ra la s a m s e p e r ti k w a r s a fe ls p a ' m ik a k a o lin d a n h a lid a h a lid a
, l , ,

U m u m y a k o le k to r k a tio n ik a d a la h a
n l?ıin e ,
d e n g a n ta n d a g u g u s a n
NH A m in e in i tu r u n a n d a r i N H (a m o n ia ) d e n g a n m e n g g a n tik a n
2 3
a to m h id r o g e n d e n g a n s u a tu g u g u s a n o r g a n ik V a r ia s i s tr u k tu m a
y
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e h T iı b e l 2 3 D e n g a n , R a d a la h g u g u s a n a lk il a r il
,

a ta u a lk il a r il G a ra m g a ra m am in o tc r d ir i a ta s k ı
o r it fo s fa t s u lfit
, ,

dan su lfa t B ia s a n y a g a r a m g a r a m k lo r it le b ih m u d a h la r u t d a ta m
a ir d a r i g a ra m g a r a m la in n y a K e la r u ta n a m in e a d a la h k e c il p a d a
la r u ta n a sa m da n m e n in
g k a t s e c a r a c e p a t d ia ta s p H 8 h in g g a ,

m e n c a p a i io n is a s i m k
a s im u m p a d a p H 9 A m in e d e n g a n r a n ta i
=

p e n d e k a g a k la r u t d a ta m a ir s e d a n g k a n ra n ta i y a n g le b ih p a n ja n g
k e la l u ta n n y a a k a n te rb a ta s K o n s ta n ta io n is a s id a r i b e b e ra p a a m in e
te rc a n tu m p a d a T a b e 1 2 4 U m u m n y a a m in e d ip a k a i p a d a in d u s tr i

ya n g m en g o la h s ilik a t s e c a r a flo ta s i H a s il p e m is a h a n y a n g b a ik
a ka n m e n
g h a s ilk a n a n ta r a m in e r a la s a m (s ilik a t)d a n m in e ra lb a sa
(o s a a r b o n a t)
k id k

II 9
T a b e ı2 3
4)
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V a r ia s i S tr u k tu r m

A in e
Ľ s tr u }ctw Ľ m

pńm er am in e

S e k u n de r am in e

T e rs ie r a m in e

Q lıa r le n a ry am in e

T a b e ı2 4

K o n s ta n ta io n is a s ia m in e d i d a ta m a ir 3 )

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S e c a r a fis ik k e b a n y a k a n d a r i k o le k to r y a n
g n on p o la r a d a la h
h id r o k a r b o n cai y a n g d id a p a t d a r i m in y a k a ta u b a tu b a r a se ba ga i
h a s il ta m b a h a n s tr u k tu r d a n k o m p o s is in y a m e ru p a ka n M d ro ka r bo n

ya n g m e n in g g a lk a n lm e le pa ska n g u g u s a n p o la r B e b e r a p a c o n to h da ri
k o le k to r ya n g n o n p o la r in i d a p a t d ilih a t p a d a T a b e l 2 5

T a b e ı2 5

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em

a d a la h s e c a r a a d s o r p s i fis ik a J ik a p e r m u k a a n m in e r a l s e d ik it

d ib a s a h i o le h a ir p e n e m p e la n k o le k to r a k a n le b ih b a ik M in e ra l
,

m irıe r a ly a n g s e c a r a a la m ia h m em p u n y a is ifa t m e n o la k a ir in i a ? la h
b a tu b a r a g r a fit b e le r a n g d a n in ta n
, ,

ll 1 1
2 1 1 2 4 K o n s e n tr a s i k o ı
e k to r
h tik a n m e n g e n a i ju m la h
D a ta mp e m a k a ia n , h a r u s d ip e r a
k o le k to r K o le k to r y a n g d ig u n a k a n b ila te r la lu s e d ik it tid a k d a p a t
m e n g a p u n g k a n m in e ra l s e c a ra se le k ti£ s e d a n g k a n b ila te r la lu b a n y a k

a k a n m e n g h a s ilk a n fo rm a s im ic e tte d a n h a s il flo ta s ju g a t d a k b a ik


i i
D e n g a n b e r ta m b a h n y a k o n s e n tra s i k o le k to r m a k a k e ra p a ta n
a d s o r p s iju g a a k a n m e m b e s a r s e h in g g a a k a n m e m b e n tu k la p is a n

te r a d s o r p s i p a d a a n ta r m u k a (h e m im ic e lle ) P a d a s u a tu s a a t b ila
s e to n d ita m b a hk a n le r u s a k a n te r c a p a ik o n s e n tr a s i m ic e lle y a n g

k r itis (C M C C r itic a lM ic e lle C o n c e n tr a tio n )d a ta m la r u lm CM C


d a r ib e b e ra p a a m in e d ip e r lih a tk a n p a d a T a b e l 2 6

ħ b e l2 6
C r it ic a ım ic e lle co n cen tr a t io n d a r ibe b e r a p a a m in 4
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,
× 10 m o l月
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,
× 10 m o l月

K o n s e n tr a s i d a r i k o le k to r y a n g d ita m b a h k a n h a ru s le b ih k e c il d a r i
C M C k a r e n a b ila k o le k to r te ru s d ita m b a hk a n m a k a s e la n ju tn y a a k a n
,

te r b e n tu k fo r m a sim
ic e ı le F o r m a s i m ic e lle in i tid a k d ik e h e n d a k i
d a ta m f i
p r o s e s ıo ta s y a n g m e n g in g in k a n p e r m u k a a n m e n ja d i
h id r o p o b ik Ilu s tr a s i d i a la s d itu n ju k k a n p a d a G a m b a r 2 4
P o ta d a r i k o le k to r k a lio n ik y a n g te r s e r a p d ip e r lih a tk a n
G am b a r 2 5 A k itta t a d a n y a g a y a e le k tr o s ta tik m a k a k a tio n d a r i

k o le k to r a k a n m e n e m p e l p a d a p e rm u k a a n m in e r a ly a n g d ila p is io le h
k o le k to r ju g a s e d k it a k ib a tn y a d a y a a p tu rg m in e ra l r e n d íıh (G a m b a r
,

2 5 b ) S e ja la n d e n g a n b e r ta m b a h s y a k o le k to r a n d i a k a i ju m la h
y g p
p e r m u k a a n m in e l
æ y g a n m e n ja d i h id ro p o b ik ju g a b e r ta m b a h H a l
irıi a k a n m e n in g k a tk a n d a y a a p u n g m in e r a l P a d a k o n d is i d im a n a

II 12
k
ju m la h k o le k to r y a n g d ita m b a h k a n b e r ta m b a h b a n y a k a a n
m e n y e b a b k a n te ú a d in y a a d s o r p s ig a n
? A k ib a tn y a in te ra k s ib a g ia n
k o le k to r y a n g n o n p o ı a r d e n g a n g e le m b u n g u ? ra tid a k l »e r la n g s u n g

d e n g a n b a lk , s e h in g g a d a y a a p u n g m in e ra l m e n ja d i r e n d a h

ï l 13
P e n g a r u h k o n s e n tr a s i k o le k to r
a P e n g a r u h k o n s e n t r a s i k o le k to r te r h a d
ap

p e r o le h a n

(ı) «b ) (C )
lo n P lılm l Pu tll u il l K o ic k lo r A n io n i뇨
K H *M Ħ A dıo ¢p i
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b H = ıim io d k k o n ım m d b ih

ı u ıi i
c M ıo r p ıi ı h iı
ııı ıy « p e m bt m k ın m
ı ic e u e

G a m ba r 2 4
A n ta r m u ka m in e ra l }a r u ta n d e n a
g n k o le k t o r an io n ik s »

n 14
P a ? p r o se s n o ta s ip e m a k a ia n k o le k to r a d a la h sa n g a t p e n tin g
M e n m H a g a r i ) k o le k to r x a M h a te h a r u s m e m b e n tu k la p isa n m o n o
Ū

ıa y e r p a ? p e rm u k a a n m in e ra ı ,
lih a t T a b e l2 7 D a rita b e l in ite r ı ih a t
bah w a d e n g a n b e r ta m b a h n ya p o ta s s iu m e til x a n th a te m a k a la p is a n
m o n o la y e r ? n h a r g a p e ro le h a n d a ń g a lc n a ju g a b e r ta m b a h

, 日

■团团区◆四国团团 ı 匹出国团团国 四国国民羽团团国

: o n d o d e c y la m in e
ı :M o ı
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: lo n p e n e n tu p o te n s ia l :ı
o n k lo r it

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b P e m b e n tu k a n h e m i m ic e ı le p a d a k o n s e n tr a s i r e n d a h
c P e m b c n tu k a n m u ltiı
a y e rd

d P e n y e r a p a n b e rs a m a s a m a m o le k u ln e tra l

G a m ba r 2 5
P o ta d a r ip a d a k o le k to s
r ya n g te r s e r a p )

n 15
田肉刑 2 7
H u bu n g a ııa n ta r a p e r o le h a n B a le n a d e n g a n p e r s e n
pem b e n tu k a n m o n o la y e r d e n g a n b e r ta m b a h n a
y
p e ır= u n a a n p o ta s s iu m e t lıx a n t h a t e

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M e n u n rt G d in 3'
p e n a m b a h a n k o le k to f a k a n m e n c a a i titik
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k r itis Y a itu titik d im a n a b il p
a d ila m p a u i ą k a n te
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p e r o le h a n (r e c o v e ry ) P e r o le h a n in id is e b a b k !
a n o le h b e ra a fa k t
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1 M e n u n rt wa r k k a re n a k o n s e n tra i k
3)
s o le lđo r te r la m
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n
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d e n ga n da ya a ds o r s i a g a ra
p y n g s a n g a t tin g g i h a ıin i tid a k d ii
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,

a tpada G a m ba r 2 6
2 M e n u ru t T a
g g a r t ? n A r b e r te ia ) k o n s e n tr a i k l
s o e k to r a n
t in gg ia k a n m e n e b b y g s a n ga t
y a k a n te [ia d in y a ta is a n d
p g a p a da
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y g t i出出 d iin g in k a ır A k ib a t
n y a m in e r a l m
s ifa t h id r o ilik e m p u n ya i
p s e b a g a im a n a d it
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M e n u n n D e a r da n
A m b o z e 3 )k o n s e
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tin g g i a k a n m e n y a n g sa n g aİ
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y p n e s a k a rila is
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e n t u k o le h
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e r

ba hw a b e r d a s a r k a n h a il
s H a s il p e n e litia n y a n g d jw u k a n k o n s e n tra s i
ll 16
k o le k to r y a n g tin g g i a k a n m e n yeb a bk a n p e n y e la p u ta n g e ]e m b u n g
u m r a o le h k o le k to r d a n ju g a m e n e ra n g k a n b a h w a p a d a fa ]a o r in ila h

y a n g p a lin g d o m in a n te ņ a d ib iı
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X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

G a m ba r 2 7

L a p is g a n d a 3)

II 17
b P e n ga ru ū o n s e n tr a s i k o le k to r te r h a d a p te g a
h ı n ga n pe rm u k
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M i A M d a ta m p e n e litia n n y a N e w C o lle c to r fo r S n 0
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k o le k to r te r h a d a p te g a n g a n p e r m u k a a n d a n o p e r a s i flo ta s i 19 9 8
s e b a g a im a n a d iilu s tr a s ik a n p a d a G a m b a r 2 8 d a n G a m b a r 2

M g k a tn y a jm r ıla h k o ı
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8
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s e p e r ti te r lih a t p a d a C a m b a r 2 8 y a itu d e n g a n titik Q

G a m ba r 2 8
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2 1 2 M o d itie r
M o d ifie r a d a la h g e n k im ia y a irg d ip e r lu k a n d a ta m p ro s e s
re a

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p er e u u a tu je n is
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o te r h a d a p p a r tik e l m in
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,

m e m b a n tu p a r tik e l m in e r a l s u p a a te n i
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a k a n d ib ic a r a k a n b e r ik u t in i a d a la h
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a k tiv a to r d e p r e s a n d a n d is p e r s a n
,

2 1 2 1 p H r e g u la to r
S a la h s a tu fa k to r c o n d itio n in
g y a n g p e n ń n g d i d a ta m flo ta s i
a d a la h p H (d e r a ja t k e a s a m a n ) H a r g a p H y a n g s e s u a i a k a n
m e n e n tu k a n in te n s ite t d a n b a n a k n a r e a e n k im i
y y g a y a n g d ip e r lu k a n
d a n in i a k a n m e n e n tu k a n k e c e p a ta n r e a k s i

a m b a r 2.
P e n g a r u h k o n s e n t r a s i p o ta s s iu m e t iıx a n th a te
te r h a d a p te g a n a n e r m u k a a n a d a b e r b
a g a i h a r g a p ll )
9
g p p

n 19
M em aka i k o le k to r y a n g s u d a h s e s u a i u n tu k s e tia p m in e r a l d a ta m
flo ta s i a k a n m e n g h a s ilk a n h a s il flo ta s i y a n g b a ik b ila p H la r u ta n
t l h d id a p a t
(p u lp ) te r le ta k p a d a b a ta s b a la s te r te n tu y a n g e a
d a r i p u lp in i
b e r d a s a r k a n b e b e r a p a \ r c o b a a n P e n g a tu r a n p H
d i k b o n a t s o d iu m
d ila k u k a n d e n g a n p e n a m b a h a n k a p u r s o u m a r
, ,

h id r o k s id a a ta u a m m o n iu m u n tu k m e n a ik a n n y a
k da n de n ga n
,
,

d k
lf ro s a ta u a s a m k lo r i a u n u p e n u r u n a n n y a
l
p e n a m ba ha n s u 1 s u u
h d i d a ta m fa s a
lo n is a s i s u a tu k o le k to r s e p e r ti a s a m e th y l x a n t a te
a q u a d ite n tu k a n o le h h a r g a p
H la r u ta n

C 2H 5 0 C S H = C 2H 5 0 C S + H (2 1)
lı ıı
S S

d e rh a n d a p a t d ib u a t
g a n b e n tu k w
D cn rg s e a

HA = H + A (2 2 )

ı7
K 一 10
ł
o n

I7 =
pH lo g
H
lo g pH 17

D h a r g a p H d i a ta s m e n u n ju k k a n b a h w a h a r g a p H y a n g
a r ih a rg a
i l ? n k o le k to r
re n d a h k o n s e n tra s i d a r i x a n th a te a d a la h m in m a
,

a m k e a da a n a s a m x a n th a te y a n g tid a k te r
b e ra d a d a ı d is o s ia s i B ila

II 2 0
2 1 2 M o d ifi e r
M o d ifie r a d a la h r e a e n k im ia
g y a n g d ip e r lu k a n d a ta m p r o se s
fı o ta s u n tu k m e n g in te n s ifk a n s e l k ifi
i e t ta s d a r i p e k e r àa n k o le k to ri
E fe k y a n g lım u m d ih a s ilk a n a d a la h m n ik k
e a a n d a n m e n u ru n ka n
h id r o p o b is ite t d a r i s u a tu p e r m u k a a n a r tik e l
p te r te n tu S u a tu je n is
m o d ifie r a k a n m e m p e r k tıa t ta r ik a n k l k
o e to r te r h a d a
p p a r tik e l m in
e ra ly a n g a k a n m e n g a p u n
g te ta p i s e b a lik n y a je n is y a n g la in a k a n
,

m e m p e r le m a h ta r ik a r l te r s e b u t a n
y g m e n y e b a b lca n s ifa t k e b a s a h a n
d a r i p e r m u k a lm m in e r a l a k a n m e n in k a t D
g e n g a n k a ta la in a k a n
,
m e m b a n tu p a r tik e l m in e r a l s u a a t
p y e n g g e la m J e n is m o d ifie r y a n g
a k a n d ib ic a r a k a n b e n k u t in i a d a ı a h p H r e u la to r
g (p e n g a tu r p H )
a k tiv a to r d e p r e s a n d a n d is e r s a n
,

, p

2 1 2 1 p H r e g u la to r
S a la h s a t u fa k to r c o n d itio n in
g y a n g p e n tin g d id a ta m flo ta s i
a d a la h p H (d e r a ja t k e a s a m a n ) H a r g a p H y a n s e s u a i a k a n
g
m e n e n tu k a n in te n s ite t d a n b a n a k n
y y a r e a g e n kiria y a n g d ip e r lu k a n
d a n in i a k a n m e n e n tu k a n k ċ c e a ta n r e a k i
p s

G a m ba r 2 9
P en ga ru h ko t r a s i p o ta s s iu
n se n m e til x a n th a te
te r h a d a p te g a n ka d a b e r b a g a i h a r a ll9
ga n pe rm u a n pa g p )

II 1 9
M em aka i k o le k to r y a n g s u 山山 s e s u a i u n tu k s e tia p m in e r a l d a la i
n
flo ta s i a k a n m e n g h a s ilk a n h a s il flo ta s i y a n g b a ik b ila p H la n ıta
n
(p u lp ) te r le ta k p a d a b a la s b a ta s t e r te n tu y a n g te la h d id a p a t
b e rd a sar ka n b e b e r a p a p e rc o b a a n P e n g a tu r a n p H d a r i p u l in i
p
d iıa ku k a n de n ga n pe n a m ba ha n ka p u r d iu m
k a r b o n a t s o d iu
so
, m ,

h id r o k s id a a ta u a m m o n iu m u n tu k m ik k a n n y a d a n d e n a
e rı
a
,
g n ,

p e n a m b a h a n s u 1 s u ļ fiu ıo s a ta u a s a m k lo r id a tu ltu k p e n u r u n a m y a
lo n is a s i s u a tu k o le k to r s e p e r ti a s a m e th y l x a n th a te d i d a ta m fa s
a
a q u a d ite n tu k a n o le h h a r g a p H la r u ta n

C 2H 5 0 C S H = C 2H j 0 C S + H (2 I)
II ıı
S S

U en g a n b e n tu k w g s e d e rh a n a
ı d a p a t d ib u a t

HA = r
Þ + A (2 2 )

1, 7 =
pH lo g
(

lo g pH 1, 7

Da r ih a r g a h a r a
g p H d i a ta s m e n u n ju k k a n b a h w a h a r g a p H y a n g
d a h k o n s e n tr a s i d a r i x a n th
a te a d a la h m in im a l d a n k o le k lo
re n r
,

b e r a d a d a ta m k e a d a a n iB ila
a s a m x a n th a te
y a n g tid a k te r d is o s ia s

U 20
in
p lu ry a ite n d e n s i
m e ra lb e ra d a d i d a ta m fa s a aqu a io n io n n y a m em
,

u n tu k te r h id r o lis a H id r o lis a in i te r a n tu n
g g p a d a h a rg a p H d a n
te m p e r a tu r S e b a g a i c o n to h h id r o lis a m in e r a l a le n a
g

Pb + 2 H 20 P b (O H )2 + 2 W (2 3 )
S + 2 H 20 H 2S + 2 00
F
(2 4 )

P a d a h a rg a p H y a n g re n d a h k s i (2 3 ) a k a n bealan k e k ir i d a n
re a
,

r e a k s i (2 4 ) a k a n k e k a n a n d a k a n te r ja d i s e b a lik n y a b ila k e a d a a n
n a
,

p a d a p H y a n g t in g g i A d a la h s u a t u h a l y a n g p e n tin g u n tu k
m e n d a p a tk a n h ? g a p H d a r i s e tia
p m in e r a l d i d a ta m fa s a a q u a ,

d im a n a m u a ta n p e r m u k a a n n y a a d a ı a h n o l In i b e r a r t i ta n d a

p e r m u k a a n h a r u s d it e t k b
n u a n s e a g a i fu n g s i d a r i H de n g a n
p
p e n g u k u r a n z e ta p o te n s ia l

G a naba r 2 10
H a rga p ll y a n g k r itis v s k o le k to r p a d a n o ta s i s p a le r it
S)

H a rg a p H y a n g k r itis d a ta m flo ta s i s p a le r it (Z n s ) d e n g a n
b e r b a g a im a c a m k o le k to r m e n u n ju k k a n k e la k u a n y a n g b e r b e d a

K e ada a n in i d a p a t je ta s d i lih a t p a d a G a m b a r 2 10 P a d a g a m b a r
in i m j k k a n b a h w a s p a le r it d a p a t d ia p u n g k a n d e n g a n m e m a k a i
en un u

a m il x a n th a te jik a
p H n y a re n d a h P a d a h a rg a p H 8 ,5 d a n =

k o n s e n tr a s i k o le k to r d i d a ta m p u lp 4 0 m g /1 n o ta s i h a n y a m u n g k in
,

II 2 1
b ila m em a k a i k o le k to r d i n b u liıd itliio c a r b a m a le a ta u d i n
a m iı
d ith io ba
m a te H a r g a
ca r H
p y g a n k f itis u n tu k b e b e r a p a m in e r a l
s u lfid a d e n a n b
g e r b a g a i k o le k to r ? n
p a ? te m p e r a tu r k a m a r
d ic a n tu m k a n r d a T a b e l 2 8
p

2 1 2 2 A k tiv a to D
e p r e s a n d a n D ls e m a n

p
U d
ı iv a to r a d a la h s u a tu r e a e n d ip a k a i d i d a ta m fı
g W o ta s i
u n tu k m e n in k a tk a n k
g e r ja d a r i k o le k to r d k
p a a \ r m u a a n p a r tik e l
m in e r a l In i b e r a r ti b h
a w a r e a g e n a k tiv a to r m e m b a n tu
u n tu k
m e n g a p u n k a n m in
g e r a ıp a d a s a a t fl t i D e p r e s a n ju a
p r o s e s o a s
g
r e a g e n k im ia
y a n g d ip a k a i u n tu k m e le m a h k a n k e r ja d a r i k o le k to r
te r h a d a p
p e r m u k a a n p a r tik e l m in e r a l d e n g a n c a f a m e n e lim u ti
, y
p e r m u k a a n p e r tik e l s e h in g g a tid a k m e n e m e l a d a l b
p p \ e m tu rg u d a r a
D e n g a n k a ta la i d e r e s a n d ıh
p a a a re a g e n fl o ta s i u n tu k m e m b a n tu
m e n e n g g e la m k a n
p a r tik e l m in e r a l

T a be l2 8
H a r g a p H y a n g k r itis u n t u k b e b e r a p a m in e r a l s u ı
r« la
pa da be be ra p a v a r ia s i d a r i k o le k to s
r )

K °'" k to r

8
庄 !四国四国

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L 單国国
am iıx a n th a te
l w 5 s
I 12 1
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U m u m n y a a k tiv a to r d e r e
, p s a n d a n d is p e r s a n a d a la h g a r a m
,

gara m in o r g a n ik S e b a g a i c o n to h a k ti
v a to r y a n
,
g d ip a k a i p a ? flo ta s i
s p a le r it a d a la h c o l f J
pp e r s u a t u m la h / b a n a k n a
y y a k tiv a to r y a n g
d ip a k a i p a ? flo ta s i h a r u s d ik o n tro l
s e b a b b ila te r la lu b a n a
n o ta s i a k a n t id a k
,
y L h a s il
\ u a s k a n ( e r o le h d
p a n a n s e le k tiv ita s n y a )
F e n o m e n a in i b ia s a d ik e rıa ı d e n g a n n a m a d e re s is e
p m u U m p a m a n ya
s o d iu m s u lfid a a k a n m e n a k ti i
,

g v r m in e r a l m in e r l k
a o s i? s e e r ti p

II 2 2
m a la s it, a n g e le s it d a n s e r u s it d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a n k o le k to r x a n
th a te T e ta p i b ila k o n s e n tr a s i d a r i s o d iu m s u lfid a te r s e b u t te r la lu
tin g g ia k a n te q a d i se b a 田m y ą d im a n a s o d iu m s u lfiila a k a n b e r fu n s i
g
se ba g a i d e p re s a n B e r ik u t in i a k a n d ije la s k a n k e r jã d a r i a k tiv a to r l
d e p re s a n s ia n id d a n su lfid a

z 1 2 2 1 D e p r e s a m S ia n id
A n io n C N a d a la h d e p r e s a n
y a n g k u a t u n tu k s p a le r it d a n p ir it
B ia s a n y a d ip a k a i p a d a la r u ta n y a n g a lk a lid e n a n x a n th a te s e b a a i
g g
k o le k tQ r u n tu k m e m is a ł ı k a n te m b a g a d a n tim a h M ta m s e b a a i m in
g
e r a l m in e r a l y a n g te r a p u n
g s e d a n g k a n s e n g d a n b e s i s e b a g a i m in
e r a l m in e r a l y a n g te n g g e la m (s e m u a n y a a d a la h m in e r a l m in e r a l
s u ]fid a ) K o n s e n tr a s i d a r i io n C N te r g a n tu n g p a d a t h a r a H b e r a r ti
g p ,

p H in i ju g a h a r u s d ik o n tr o l B ia s a n y a b e n tu k s ia n id y a n g d ip a k a i
s e b a g a i d e p r e s a n a d a la h s o d iu m s ia n id P e n a r u h d a r i H 山
g p m N acn
b e r b a g a im in e ra l s u lfi? d a p a t d ilih a t p a d a G a m b a r 2 1 1 K o n s ta n ta
d is o s ia s i d a T i a s a 】T l h id r o s ia n id p a d a te m °
\ a tu r 1 8 C a d a la h 4 7 x ,
ı
ı
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H CN 二 争
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T abe ļ 2 9 m em b e r ik a n d is tr ib u s i d a r i s ia n id
a n ta r a io n d a n
H C N la r u t p a d a b e rb a g a i p H D a r i T a b e l d i a ta s
m en un j u kk a n
b a h w a p H y a n g r e n d a h k o n s e n tr a s i H C N a d a ]a h tin i U n tu k H
, gg p
y a n g tin g g i k o n s e n tr a s i C N a k a n tin g g i P e n g a tu r a n d a r i p H d a n
,

k o n s e n tra s i C N a ? la h p e r lu u n tu k m e n ? a tk a n h a s il flo ta s i a n
p y g
s e le k tif d a n e fıs ie n C o n to h
p a d a p H 10 d a n k o n s e n tra s i N a C N
,
=

3 0 m g ll d a n p u lp te rd ir i d a r i ir it k a lk o ir it 山m a ı
p , p g e n a m a ka aka n
d d a p a t h a n y a g a le n a y a n g m e n a u n
g p g

U 23
G a m ba r 2 11
P e n g a r u h d a r i N a c n d a n p H p a d a flo ta s i
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p a m in e r q l s u lfid a p a d a 1 0 C d a n 2 5 m g /I K E X
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z 1 2 2 2 D e p re sa n Su ı
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c o n d it io n in g p e r m u k a a n m in e r a l o k s id a a ta u s u lf ıd a J ik a
p e n a m b a h a n su lfid a s e c a r a b e r le b ih a n m a k a s u lfid a te r s e b u t a k a n
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b e r fu n g s i se b a g a i d e p re sa n P a da G am b a r 2 12 m en ţu r uj kka n

II 2 4
h u bu n ga n a n ta ra p H d a n k o n s e n tra s i d a r i s o d iu m s u lfid a d a ta m

flo ta s i b e b e ra p a m in e r a ıs u lfı? H u b u n g a n 】 a itis a n ta r a p H d a n


k o n s e n tr a s i d a r i s o d iu m s u lfid a u n tu k m e n c e g a h tc d a d in y a a d h e s i
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11 2 6
le b ih a k tif (p a d a p e rm u k a a n m in e ra l)d a r i io n x a n th a te P o te n s i r a
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io n H S d a r ip a d a io n O H ) R e a g e n k im ia y a n g b ia s a d ip a k a id a la n ı
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2 1 3 F ro th e r
F r o th e r (p e m b u ih ) a d a la h r e a g e n k im ia y a n g d ip a k a i ? ila m
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u d a ra K e h a d ir a n fr o th e r p a d a fa s a c a ir p a d a la r u ta n flo ta s i
a ir ,

e m b u n g u d a r a d a n m e n o lo n g u n tu k s u \
m e n in g k a t a n k e k u a ta n g e ı
k

g e le m b u n g m e n y e b a r In i b e r a r ti m e m p e r b a ik i k o n dis i p e n e m p e la n
p a r tik e l m in e r a l d a n m e n a ik k a n s ta b ilita s bw a

M o le k u l fr o th e r a d a la h se n ya w a h e te r o p o la r te rd ir i a ta s
,

gu h id r o k s il y a n g m e n a r ik a ir d a n r a n ta i H C s e b a g a i g u g u s a n
g u sa n
n o n p o la r s e b a g a im a n a d itu n ju ld c a n p a d a G a m b a r 2 1 3 R a n ta i
,

ra n ta i h id r o k a r b o n p a d a s e n y a w a in i m e la k u k a n p e n e tr a s i k e d a ta m

fa s a g a s d im a n a g r u p \ p p o la r te ta p b e r a d a p a d a b a g i a n c a ir
d a r i a n ta r m u k a O r ie n ta s i in i m e n y e b a b k a n a d a n y a g a y a v a n d e r
w u u ts a n ta r a g r u p g r u p h id r o k a r b o n n o n p o la r d a n g a y a g a y a d i
p o le a n ta r a g r u p p o la r d a n m o le k u l m o le k u l p e la r u t y a n g b e r s ifa t

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n 27
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G a m ba r 2 13

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II 2 8

p e n g a r u h y a n g la in d a r i * o th e r p a d a p e n e m p e ı
i a n m in e ra l

ik l d e n s i u n tu k m e m b u la tk a n d a n
e m b u n g a d a la h m e m b e r a n e n
ge ı
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b t n s i o rg a n ik
a s u a tu s u s a
ta u le b ih
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l t
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gu \ a n H C ya n g
c k e la ru ta n n y a
tid a k te r la lu b e s a r ? n tid a k te r la lu k e c il (0 2 5 0 , ,

g r /l)
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e b u sa /b u ih a k a n s e g e r a p e c a
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H

y a n g te r d a p a t p a d a la r u ta n flo ta s i a d a la h r e n d a h
h H a r g a y a n g m u ra h

pem a k a ia n fr o th e r p a d a p r o s e s flo ta s i s a n g a t p e n tin g d ilih a t d a r i


fu n g s n y ą y a itu
i
] F r o th e r m e n c e g a h p e r p a d u a n \ le m b u n g u d a r a d a n m e n ja g a
k e s ta b ila n g e le m b u n g u n tu k s e la m a p e r io d e w a k tu y a n g c u k u
p
la m a

2 L a p is a n lr o th e r p a d a k u ľ it g e le m b u n g u d a ra m ena ik k a n k e ta h a n as

g e le m b u n g te r h a d a p b e rm acam m a c am k e k u a ta n d a r i lu a r
3 L a p is a n fro th e r p a d a g e le m b u n g m e n g u ra n i k e c e a ta n e r a k
g p g
\ le m b u n g d i d a ta m p u lp s e h in g g a k o n ta k g e le m b u n g d e n g a n
,

m in e r a l m in e r a la k a n m e n im b u lk a n k o n d is i
y a n g le b ih b a ik y a n g
m en w k
tu n g a n p ro s e s flo ta s i
A p a b ila k o n s e n tra s i fr o th e r tin
g g i a k a n m e n g a k ib a tk a n
m e m b a n tu
p e rp a d u a n \ le m b u n g u d a r a h a l in i tid a k d ik e h e n d a k i
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p
da n a s a m k r e s ilik a lk o h o l s in t ti J
e s u m la h * o th e r a n
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p

11 3 1
2 2 Fen om en a P e rm u ka a n

U n tu k m e m a h a m i m e k a n is m e p e r le k a ta n r e a g e n p a d a
k i
p e r m u k a a n m in e r a l d a n m e a n s m e p e r le k a ta n p a r tik e l p a d a
i k
g e le m b u n g u d a ra m a k a b e r ik u t in a a n
d itin ja u e m r a t ha ] p e n tin p
,

y a itu
1 A d s o rp s i p a d a p e r m u k a a n m in e r a l
2 A n ta r a fa s a m in e r a l a ir
3 K o n ta k tig a fa s a d a n s u d u t k o n ta k

4 P e m b e n tu k a n a n ta r m u k a d a n p e n u r u n an e n e rg i b e b a s

2 2 1 A d so r p s ip a d a p e r m u ka a n m in era l
A d s o r p s ik o le k to r p a d a p e r m u k a a n p a r tik e l m in e r a l m e la lu i

m e k a n is m e d a r i a d s o r p s i p a d a a n ta r fa s a p a d a t c a ir y a itu

h y s i ca l Ad s o r p t ion " ad s o r p s i fisi k) .


P (
"

" h e m i so r p t ion " ad s o r p s i ki mi a) .


(

A d s o r p s i f is ik a d a la h k e m a m p u a n d a r i a d s o r be n l
(p e r m u ka a nin e r a l) u n tu k m e m e g a n g o
m d s o r b a te (g a s c a ir a ta u
,

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lu d
A d s o r p s i k im ia a d a la h a d s o r p s i fis ik y a n g d a ta m d e n g a n s e d ik it
te r ja d i \ ru b a h a n k im ia a ta u p e n ļ b a h a n la tic e p a d a p e r m u k a a n d a r i
su b s ta n s i d a ta m a r ti ik a ta n v a le n s i A d s o r p s i fis ik d is e b a b k a n o le h
ga ya v a n de r Þ va û ts p a d a io n p e n g im b a n g d i d a ta m ta p is g a n d a
e le k tr ik s e d a n g k a n a d s o r p s i k iï iì ;a ; ;is e b a b k a n k a r i n a te 】ia d irlv a

r e a k s i k im ia d a n ik a ta n k im ia a r ī J r a s e n ţ a w a
teradsorp ; d e n g a i
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y g
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p a d a a d s o r p s i fis ik ( 1 0 0 0 0 k a l/ın o i) le b ih k e c il d a r i p a n a s y i n g
d ih a s ilk a n p a d a p e r is tiw a a d s o r p s i k im ia (2 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 k a ļ
m o l) P r o s e s a d s o r p s i f is ik b z r l] n
g s u fıg r e la t if c e p a t d a n
m e n g h a s ila k a n la p is a n r a n k a le u l P r o s e s a d s o r p s i k ip ì ia
k
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b e r ta la n la m b a t Ie b ih s e le k tif d \ 1 la is a n a n te rb e n tu k a d a la h
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B a ik ene rg i a d s o rp s i fis ik m a u p u n e n e r g i k im ia k e d u a d u a n yt ,

te r g a n tu n g p a d a h a r g a H d a r i la ru ta n S b
p e a g a i c o n to h a d s o rp s ,

II 3 2
fis ik d a r i io n e th y l x a n th a te p a d a p e rm u k a a n g a le n a a k a n a ? b ila
h a rg a p H le b ih k l d a ń 6 6 (h Jt ) P o in t o íc ha ig e ) In iju g a b e ra r ti
,

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,
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S e c a ra s k e m d a p a t d ilih a t p a d a g ra fik , G a m b a r 2 ]5
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p a ? p e r m u ka a n
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tin g g i (d i a ta s Z P C ) p e r m u k a a n g a le n a t id a k a k a n d a p a t
,

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m e m u n g k in k a n u n tu k m e n g a p u n g k a n g a le n a p a d a p IıY a n g tin g g i

(h in gg a p H 10 5 ) d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a n e til x a n th a te s e b a g a i
=
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en e

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G am ba r 2 15
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pa d a pe r m u ka a n ga ı
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J ik a h a r g a p H le b ih b e s a r d a r i 10 5 a k a n te ija d i k o m p e tis i
,

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g
P e rm u k a a n m in e r a l a ı ĺ a n d iı
a p is io le h io n io n M ? o k s il A k ib a tn y a
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n 34
G am b a r 2 16
G a m ba ra n ske m a tis l p e n g a r u h p II te r h a d a
p pe ro ı e ha n
g a le n a d e n ga ħm e n gg u n a ka ı ıe til x a n th a te 'e )

2 2 2 A n ta r fa s a m in e r a ıa ir
P a da a n ta r fa s a m
in e r a la ir y a n g p e n tin d ik e ta h u i a l l h
g ia a
1 In te ra k s im o le
k u l a ir d e n g a n p e rm u k a a n m in e r a l
2 T a p is r a n g k a p lis tr ik (E te c tr ic a t D o u b le Ł
a y e r) pe n a ru hn a
g , y
p a d a fl o ta s i
a Ta n da ? n b e s a m y a m u a ta n
p e rm u k w in i d ip e r lu k a n u n tu k
m en ge n d a lik a n a d s o rp s i fis ik d e n a ıır e a e n flo ta s i
g g
b M u a ta np e rm \ık n a ï r y a n g tin g g i d a p a t m e n g h a la n g i a d s o r s i
p
p e r m u k a a n /k im ia d e n g a n k o le k to r
c F [o k u ta s i ( e n
p g g u m p a la n )? n d is p e rs i d a r i s u s p e n s i m in e ra l
d ik e n d a lik a n o le h ta is r a n k a lis t ik
p g p r
d 5 lim e C o a tin d i a s tik a n o le h i
g p n te r a k s i ta p is r a n k a lis tr ik
g p
e T a p is r a n k a
g p lis trik p a d a g e le m b u n g m e m b e r ik a n e fe k a n
y g
b e r a r ti p a ? s is te m m in e r a l a n d
y g a p a t m e n g a p u rıg s e c a r a
a la tn ia h

0 35
2 1 2 1 ıra p ls R
.
a n g ka p E ı e k tr is (E ï e c tr lc a l D o ı
ł b te L tw e p )
ıa p is ra n g k a p lis tr ik a d a la h s is te m
d im a ı】a te r ja d i p e m isa h a
n
m u a ta n lis ū ik p a d a a n ta r fa s a y a ilu la p is a n b e n ılu a la
a da n ya s a tu
n
a p i s e c a ra k e s e lı
p o s itif d a n s a tu la p is a n b e r m u a ta n n e t f te ı
i m ih a n

s is te m te ta p n e tr a l P e r ta m a k a li d ik e m u k a k a n o le h K la s e n d a n

M o u k s a s ) Fo n io n p a d a b e r b a g a i p e rm u k a a n m in e r a l m e m p u fiy a i
te n d e n s iy a n g b e rb e d a b e d a u n h dc m a s u k k e d a la n ı】 a r u ta n B e b e ra a
p
io n d a p a t le p a s d e n g a n ju m la h y a n g b e s a r a p e rm u k a a n m in e ra l
d ń
u n tu k m a s u k kelanï tandbandíngkandenganyanglainny s e hin g ga
a ? te n d e n s i u n tu k n e tr a lisa s i m u a ta n lis tr ik p a d a p e rm u kaa n m in
e ra l
S e tia p m in e r a l te rp o la r is a s i d a ta m a ir a k a n m e m p u n a i
y
m u a ta n A d a n y a m u a ta n in i a k a n m em b e ń k a n b e d a p o te n s ia la n ta ra

m in e ra l d e n g a n io n io n n y a U d u k m e n ja g a k e n e ū a la n m w m a ka

m in e ra l y a n g b e rm u a ta n ta d i a k a n m e n a r ik io n io n c o u n t e d a ta m
h a l in i io n io n k o le k to r D en ga n b e r ta m b a h n y a m u a ta n lis tr ik p a d a

p e rm u kaa n m in e ra l,
m e n y u k a rk a n
a ka n ja la n d a r i io n io n y a n g
b e r la w an an un tu k k k e la r u ta n y a n g b e r a s a l d a r i c ry o ta l la ttic e
m a su

s u a tu m in e ra l S e h in g g a a k ib a m y a a k a n te r ja d i s u a tu k e s e im b a n a n
g
a n ta ra la n rta n d e n g a n p e r m u k a a n z a t p a ? t (m in e r a l) S u a tu d b u b le
ta y e r a k a n te r b e n 加大y a n g te r d ir i a ta s io n io n
y a n g m a s u k k ę ? la m
la r u ta n y a n g d ik o m p e n s ir o le h m u a ta n lis tr ik d a ta m la r u ta n S tr u k tu r
d a r i e le c tr ic a l d o u ble ta y e r s e c a r a s k e m a tis d a a t d ilih a t a d a
p p
G a m b a r 2 17
D a la m g a m b a r a a ta s d iu m p a m a k a n k a tio n a n a k a n m a s u k
y g
k e ? la m la r u ta n d a r i la p is a n te r lu itr d a r i m in e r a t c r s ta t la ttic e M
y
M In ib e ra r ti p e rm u k a a n m in e ra l A A m e n d a a t m u a ta n n e a tif
p g
D a ta m ta p is r a n g k a p lis tr iL a m e r u a k a n b a ta s fis ik a n ta r a m in e r a l
p
d e n g a n + c a ir a n D ilu a r b a ta s in i a d a la h la is a n io n b r ik u M a
p e y
dim a n a p a ? c o n to h te rs e b u t a d i出山 o s itif a n
p y g in a ıııa k a n la p isa n
,

k a tio n K K p a d a k u lit lu a r a ta u c o u n te r io i?
p a ? b id a n g s te n ı ,

d e n g a n k a ta la in d a e ra h te m a t b e r e a k s i i i
p o n o n c o u n te r d e n g a n
p e r m u k a a n m in e r a ld is e b u t b i山u ıg s te m fa b ) io n io n a d a b id a tıg
p ,
in i m e r u p a k a n p o ta a n te r a tu r K t b l i
y g e e a an d ar la p s a n o le h io n
i
o r g a n ik a ? la h kiraira 3 A ° K d
a o n k a tio n p a ? ku ıit lu a r in i

11 3 6
a da la h
ha n y a s e b a g ia n
d a r is e ju ï ııla h lca tio n y a iıg m a s u k k e la n rta n ,

s is a n y a
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In i d in a m a k a n Hydatea C o ı m le r 】 o ııp a d a la p is a n d ifu s i
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G am ba r 2 17
S tr u k tu r a p is
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II 3 7
K e te r a n g p n
M M =
bagan d a ń m in e ra l c p y s ta ıla ttic e

1 1 =
b a to s a ta s a n ta r a la p is a n la ttic e y a n g b e r u b a h d a n
tid a k b e r u b a h
A A = k u lit p a lin g d a ta m d a r i d o u b le ł \ r y a n g te i b e n m
o le h a n io n a ta u d in a m a k a n p o te n t ia l d e te n m in
in g io n s
2 2 =
a = b a ta s fıs ik a n ta r a m in e fa l d a n la n rta n aqu a

K K =
k u lit lu a r da riu b t e ı w e r d e n g a n io n y a n g
b e r la w a n a ta u d is e b u t }drated c o u līte r io n
a tı

(s te r n la y e r )
3 3 = b =
b a ta s a n ta ra b a g ia n te r lu a r d a r i k u lit lu a r d e n g a n
b a g ia n d ifu s i (s tip tin e )
K K b a g ia n y a n g tid a k te r a tu r d a r i d o u b le t\ ・ k u lit
/ / =
c =

lu a r d in a m a k a n la p is a n
,

d ifu s i a ta u la p is a n G o u y
4 4 b a ta s a n a n ta r a la n rta n (b u lk so lu ıio n )d a n k u lit
lu a r d a r i d o u b le la y e r
0 =
p o te n s ia l P e r m u k a a n M in e ra l
ć =
z e ta P o te n s ia l

G a r is 4 4 a d a la h b a ta s a n ta r a la p is a n d ifu s i d ï m c a ira n b u lk
B ila p a r tik e l m in e r a l b e r g e r a k d i d a ta m c a ir a n a ta u b ila c a ir a l
b e r g e r a k s e c a r a r e la tif p a d a p a r tik e l c o u n te r io n d i d a ta m la p is a l
,

K K a k a n b e rg e r a k b e r s a m a m in e ra l ,
se d a n g k a n c o u n te r io n y a n l
b e r a d a p a d a la p is a n d ifu s i K K a k a n ' /
m e n g ik u ti d a r i b e la k a n g

B id a n g s tip (b ) a d a la h b id a n g g e s e r a n ta r a p a r h k e l d e rıg a n c a ir a n
d a n z e ta p o te n s ia l a d a la h b e s a r p o te n s ia l y a n g d i\ r lu k a n u n tu 】
m em ba w a s a tu u n it m u a ta n d a r i la n ıta n ru a N b u lk k e titik d e k a
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b a h w z d a e ra h A m m u n ju k k a n p e m a k a ia n k o le k to r a n io n ik d a n
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2 2 23 T e r b e n tu k n y a M u a ta n P e r m u k a a n
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tid a k a k a n d a p a t d ia p u n g k a n p a ? s u a tu k o n dis i b ila h a r g a e a d a la h ,

n o l S u d u t k o n ta k d e n g a n h a r g a b e b e r a p a d e ra ja t s a ja m e n u n ju k k a n

a d a se d ikit k e m a m p u a n d a r i p a r tik e l m in e r a l u n tu k m e n g a p u n g

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p a d a g e le m b u n g u d a ra y a n g s ta b il a k a n te j di
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s e b a g a im a n a y a n g d itu n ju k k a n G a m b a r 2 2 2

l
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s u s u n a n m o le k u l d ip e r m u k a a n n y a M e s k ip u n d e m ik ia n p a d a a n ta 】
m u ka m in e ra t in i p u n te r ja d i p e r p in d a h a n m o le k u l
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11 4 6
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in i m e n g a k ib a tk a n te d a d in y a p e r u b a h a n ja r a k a n ta r io n H a l in iju g a
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y a n g te r d a p a t d i d a ta m b u ih (u d a r a ) K e d u a p e r is tiw a in i
m en u n u j kka n te r ja d in y a p o la r is a s i p e r m u k a a n k r is ta l p a d a t (m in
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3 A ū ta r m u ka m in e ra l a ir
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G am ba r 2 25
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n 48
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g g p j p
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m u k a a k ib a t p e r u s a k a n in i h a r u s te r a d i a d b id a n
j p a g ya n g sa m a
(d a ta m p e r s a m a a ń d i a ta s I c m ) 2

P e r u b a h a n e n e rg i b e b a s a k ib a t e m b e n tu k a n a n ta r m u k a
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p e r le k a ta n p a r tik e l p a d a g e ]e m b u n g u d a r a d ib e r ik a n o le h D u p r e

Jik a p e rs a m a a n Y o u n g (2 9 )d im a s u k k a n k e d a ta m D
p e rsa m aan u p re
(2 1 4 ) m a k a a k a n d ip e r o le h p e r s a m a a n

AG =
Y.. (c o s e

P e rs a m a an 2 15 s e r ing d ip a k a i u n t u k m e n g a n a lis a
ke m un g k in an b e r la n g s u n g n y a p r o s e s flo ta s i A g a r p r o s e s flo ta s i
b e r la n g s u n g m a k a h a r g a Ą G h a r u s le b ih k e c il d a r i n o l (n e g a tif)
H a l te r s e b u t d ic a p a i h a r g a su d u t k o n ta k (0 ) > 0
M a k in b e s a r d u t k o n ta k (? ) m a k a n ila i Ą G
su j
m e n a d im a k in
n e g a tif H a l in i b e r a r ti p e n g u r a n g a n g teadi m a k in b e s a r
e n e r g iy a n

D en g a n d e m ik ia n p e r le k a ta n p a r tik e l p a d a g e le m b u n g u d a r a m a k in
b e s a r d a n ? y a a p u n g m in e r a l m a k in b e s a r
D a r i h a s il p e n e litia n y a n g te la h d ila k u k a n R e s tu J u r出出 19 9 8
,

d id a p a t h u b u n g a n a n ta r a te g a n g a n p e r m u k a a n d e n g a n p e n u r u n a s
e n e r g i b e b a s d ie k s p r e s ik a n o le h G a m b a r 2 2 5 D a r i g a m b a r te r lih a t

b a h w a d e n g a n s e m a k in b e r k u r a n g te g a n g a n p e r m u k a a n m a k a
pe n u ru n a n e n e rg i b e b a s y a n g te lja d i se m a k in re n da h (s e m a k in

n e g a tif )
囲 璽 球 团 圜製區 召

a mb ar 2. 5
2

H u bu n ga n a n ta r a te g a n g a n k a a n p o ta s s iu
pe rm u m e tiı
xa n ta te d e n g a n p e n u r u n a n e n e rg i b e b a s
h
s e b a g a i fu n g s i d a r i k o n s e n tr a s is )

H u b u n ga n a n ta ra p e n g a ru h k o n s e n tr a s i k o le k to r te r h a d a p p e r o le h a n
d a ta m k a ita n n y a d e n g a n p e n u n i a n e n e r g ib e b a s s is te m d ip e r lih a tk a n
o le h d ia ġ r a m p o ta b e r fik ir p a d a G am ba r 2 26

r
-
ï ~ '
"i

G a m ba r 2 26
H u bu n ga n a n ta r a
p e n g a ' " k o n s e n tr a s i k o le k to r
t' " adap p e r o le h a n
da ı a m ı m ita n n y a d e n g a n

PeuTunan e n e r g i b e b a s s is te m \
s
P

B A B ı
ıı

H ID R O D ı
N A H IK A D A N K ı
N E T IK A F B 0 7A S I

m i d a ta m
H o ta s i a d a d u a k e lu a r a n u ta m a / tu u a n a n
j y g
L ıI d ih a r a p ka n y a itu ; k a d a r y a n g tin g g i d a r i k o n s e n tr a t
,

U d a n p e r o le h a n m a k s im u m u n u k
ţ p a r tik e l p a d a t y a irg
h
b e r a r g a D a ta m m e n c a p a i tu ju a n d i a ta s a n d i r l k
y g p e u a n a d a la h
m e n in g k a tk a n k e c e p a ta n flo ta s i d a n k e m a m
p u a n p r le k a ta n p a r tik e l
e
p a d a g e le m b u n g u d a r a O le h s e b a b itu a 出出山 p e n tin g u n tu k m e n e liti
b a g a im a n a p e n g a r u h k e c e p a ta n flo ta s i te r h a ?
p b e b e r a p a fa k to r
v a r ia b e l s e p e r ti k o le k to r f r o tlie r k
a tiv a to w ww r e s a n
, , , u k u ra n ,

p a r tik e l k e c e p a ta n im p e tle r lk e c e p a ta n p e n g a d u k m a g n e tik ju m la h


,
,

u ? ra y a n g d ip e r lu k a n w a k tu c o n d it io n in
, g s e r ta in te r a k s i p a r tik e l
,

g e le m b u n g s e c a r a h i? o d in a m ik a

3 1 H id r o d in a m ik a F lo ta s i
K r a p u n g a n (Ńo a la b itily ) a r tik e l m in e r a ım e n e n t k
e te
p u an
k e b e r h a s ila n o p e r a s i fıo ta s i D i p ih a k la in k e te r a u n a n m in e r a l
p g
d ite n tu k a n o le h k e m a m p u a n p e r le k a ta n p a r tik e l p a d a g e le m b u n
g
u da ra d e n g a n k a ta la in in te r a k s i p a r tik e l ? n g e le m h u n g u d a r a
a ta u

P a d a s a a l flo ta s i b e r ja la n a ? b e b e r a p a g a y a y a n g tim b u l u n tu k
m e le p a s k a n p a r tik e ım in e r a l d a r i p e n e m p e la n n y a
p a d a g e le m b u n g
u d a ra G y a g a y a in i a d a la h g a y a g e s e k a n g a y a g r a v ita s i d a n
a
,

in e r s ia M e n g e n a i h a l in i a k a n d ib ic a r a k a n p a d a b a g ia n tu ju a n
M d r o d in a m ik a flo ta s i
P e rsa m y a n g m e n e n tu k a n k e k u a ta n p e n e m p e la n
aa n um u m

p a r tik e l p a d a t te r h a d a p g e le m b u n g g a s a ta u u d a r a d ip e r k e n a lk a n ,

◆e h B V K a v a n o v d a n A N F r u m k in

F a tı -
rr a Y u a S in e (3 1)
de n g a n ,

a d ia m e te r d a ria r e a d im a n a g e le m bu n g m en em pe l
pada pe rm u ka a n t
za【 pada t

Ull
Tu a -
te g a n g a n p e rm u k a a n a n ta r m u k a u d a ra a ir

e =
su d u t k o n ta k

Fan -
ga ya pe n em p e la n g e le m b u n g

G a y a h id r o s ta t ik y a n g d ip e r lu k a n u n tu k m en a ikk a n g e le m b u n
d ije ıa s k a n m e n u r u t h u k u m A r c h im e d e s

F h id -
V gp (3 2 )
de n ga n ,

V =
v o lu m e d a r i g e le m b u n g

g -
p e r c e p a ta n g r a v ita s i

p d e n s ita s c a ir a n

F h id g a y a h id r o s ta tik

P e rb e d a a n te kan an pa da c a ir a n da n g a s p a d a da sa r gelembunt
m en a j di

T p h g (3 3 )

de n ga n ,

h tin g g i lo k a s i d a r i g e le m b u n g

B e d a te k a n a n a n ta ra s e b e la h? ı
a m d a n lu a r g e le m b u n g m em b e rik a ni
,

ta m b a h a n g a y a p e le p a s a n p e n e m p e la n In i a d a la h s a m a d e n g a g
p e r k a lia n d a e r a h k o n ta k - A d a n b e d a te k a n a n , s e h in g g a p e r
'


sa m a a n le n g k a p
tu k s u a tu g e le m b u
un n g p a d a p e rm u kaa n za t p a da q
a ? la h s e b a g a i b e r ik u t

m - 2
pgh (3 4 )
J e ta s d a r i p e r s a ma a n d i a ta s b a h w a k e k u t n
a a p e n e m p e la n
te r s e b u t a d a la h b e r b a n d in g d e n g a n i
p p
ro o r s d a r i s ifa t p e n o la k a n
a ir p a d a p e r m u k a a n z a t p a d a t
K e m a m pu an
p e m u a ta n d a r i g e le m b u n g p a d a s a a t p r o s e s
flo t a s i b e r la n g s u n g d ip e la ja r i o le h R p K in 3 ) D a r i h a s il
g
p e n e litia n n y a p r o s e s p e m u a ta n a k a n te r u s b e r la n g s u n g h in g g a
g e le m b u n g te rs e b u t d ila p is i s e c a r a le n g k a p o le h p a r tik e l p a d a t y a n g
s u d a h m e n g a d s o r p k o le k to r In i b e r a r ti e m u a ta n
p g e le m b u n g a k a n
b e r ta m b a h d e n g a n b e r ta m b a h la m a n y a e le m b u n te rs e b u t b e r ta h a n
,
g g
h in g g a p e c a h M e n u r u t p e n e litia n d a r i b e r b a a i e r c o b a a n
g p
m e n u n ju k k a n b a h w a p e m u a ta n
p a d a g e le m b u n g y a n g k e c il a k a n
da p a t le b ih b a n y a k d ib a n din g k a n d e n a n e le m b u n
g g an b e sa r t k
gy g un u
tia p s a tu a n un it v o lu m e
ya n g sa m a
S a la h s a tu la n g k a h y a n g e n tin d i d a ta m flo ta s i a d a la h
p g
ta b r a k a n p a r tik e l p a d a ta n d e n g a n g e le m b u n g g s d e n a n te r b e n tu k
g
ła p is a n tip is d ia n ta r a k e d u a n y tL P e r le k a ta n i
p a r t k e l p a a g e le m b tın g
d
d d t d i i
u m a r te rg a n tu n g p a ? la ju
u a ra a am m e
p e n ip is a n a ir a n ta r a
g e le m b u n g u d a ra d a n p e r m u k a a n p r e
a tik l H a l in i d ik a ra k te r is tik k a n

o le h p r o s e s y a n g te r ja d i s e c a r a d in a m ik F r o s e s p e r le k a ta n in id a a t
p
dib a g i d a ta m tig a ta h a p y a itu ,

] P a r tik e l g e le m b u n g u ? r a s a lin g m e n d e k a t m e n g h a s ilk a n s u a tu


,

ta p is tip is a ir d i a n ta r a n y a D i ? e r a h in i p a r tik e l b e r g e r a k
m e n u ru th u k u m h idro d in a m ik a
2 P e n ip is a n ta p is tip is a ir, d a e r a h in i d is e b u t la p is a n d w w io n

b o u n d a ry
3 H ila n g n y a ta p is tip is a ir o le h g a y a in te r a k s i ta p is r a n g k a p d a n
g a y a in te ra k s i m o le k u l p e r le k a m d ia w a li d e n g a n k o n ta k tig a
fa s a y a n g d e n g a n ce pa t m e lu a s

T ig a z o liak a r a k te r is tik p e n d e k a ta n a n ta ra g e le m b u n g ? n p a r tik e l


s e b a g a im a n a d iilu s tr a s ik a n p a d a G a m b a r 3 1 D a r i g a m b a r te rs e b u t

te rlih a t k e ti a z o n a te r s e b u t
g

m "
a Z o n a g a y a g a y a in te r a k s i M d ro d in a m ik
b Z o n a d w io To r e tik g a y a in te r a k s iy a n g d ih a s ilk a n d a r i p e r u b a h a ı
m u a ta n a n ta r a ta p is r a n g k a p lis tr ik g e le m
b u n g d a n p a r tik e l
p e r p in d a h a n e le k tr o n te r ja d i p a d a ta p is r a n g k a p lis tr ik d a i
il ta is r a n g k a p lis trjj
p e rp in d a h a n in i s e n d ir i d a p a t te r ja d i a p a b a p
tik e l
g e le m b u n g le b ih k e c iıd a r i ta p is r a n g k a p p a r
i i
c Z o n a g a y a g a y a a n ta r p a r tik e l p a d a ta p is tip s a r

ik a d i d a ta m m e s ir
U n tu k m g g a m b a r k a n p r ila k u h id r o d in a m
en

flo ta s i d ip e r lu k a n b ila n g a n ta k b e r d m e n s g e m e tr i m e s in s ifa


i i o , ,

d a n p r ila k u a lir a n flu id a d i d a ta m s e ll flo ta s i

3 1 1 B iı a n g a n t a k b e r d im e n s i

S e ll flo ta s ite rd ir i d a r i b e ja n d a n p e n g a d u k (im p e lle r ) O le l


a

k a re n an ya s e ll flo ta s i d ik a ta k a n b e ja n a p e n g a d u k a ta u p e n g a d u l
m e s in M e n tı
ru t S c h u b e rt
" )
a d a lim a b ila n g a n ta k b e r d im e n s iy a n l

a ka nm e n je la s k a n p r ila k u h id ro d in a m ik d i d a ta m m e s in flo ta s i
1 B ila n g a n R e y n o ld s

2 B ila n g a n F r o u d (F , )

3 B ila n g a n D a ya (C p )
4 B ila n g a n W e b e f (W , )
5 B ila n g a n A lir a n (C ).

- 4
Z o n a I
寧 咿 咿

G a m ba r 3 1
.

Z o n a g a y a in te ra k s i a n ta ra p a r tik e l d a n g e le m b u n da ra g
'
g u

U n tu k m m g g a m b a r k a n p r ila k u M d r o d i n a m ıa d i d a ı
am m s in
flo ta s i d ip e r lu k a n b ila n g a n ta k b e rd im e n s i e o m e tr i m e s i s ifa t
g ,

da n p r iı a k u a lir a n f】 u i? d i d a ta m s e ll flo ta s i

3 ] ] 1 B ila n g a n R e y n o ld s (N . )
B ila n g a n R e n ld s d i a w li d a r i N is b a h
y o a

(G a w k e k e n ta la n ) (m a s s a ) '
p v
o p
'
L
2
m
'

(G a y inersiaxmassa-
u
,
v L 】

V
o P L

III 5
de n ga n ,

p -
v is k o s ita s a b s o lu t

p = ra pat m a ssa

v =
v is k o s ita s k in e m a tik =

ž L
2
t
1

vo -
k e c e p a ta n

d e n g a n d e m ik ia n d id e fın is ik a n b iı
a n g a n R e y n o ld s

V
P L G a y a in e rs ia
(N ) .
= 9 .
(3 6 )
p g a pa v is c o u s

P e rg e s e k a n p a r tik e l p a r tik e l n id a y a n g
u m en ye b a b ka n v is c o u s

. . . . i lan g a n Da y a Po
( w e r)

A d a la h b e s a m y a k a n d a y a p a d a b e ja n a y a n g te ra d u ]t
m asu

D a y a y a n g d ib e r ik a n o le h p e n g a d u k y a n g b e r p u ta r d i d a ta m s u a o
b e ja n a y a n g b e r is i flu id a y a n g ta k m am pu m am p a t (in co m p r e s ib l
ßu id ) ,
d a p a t d in y a ta k ä n se ba ga i

P
L - W I )
, 3 5
p N D

de n gw
ı
P d a y a y a n g d ib e r ik a n o le h p e n g a d u k k e p a d a fı
u id a [F L T j
=

3
p -
ra p a t je n is flu i? [m L ]
N la ju p u ta r a n p e n g a d u k '
=
x w a k tu [ t l ls e ja k p u ta r a n a du k)

t =
w a k tu se a jk im p e lle r b e r p u ta r (d a r i s a a t d i m u la i p u ta ra n )

q = B i]a n g a n d a y a : C =
k o e f】s ie n P =
po w er

D =
d ia m e te r pen gadu k [L ]
- 6
国■

il n a n W e be r
3 1 ı3 B a g

w =
g a y a in e r s ia
.

g û y u k a p ile r

G e le m b u n g b e r g a n tu n g d e n g a n b ila n g a n w eber

3 1 1 4 B ila n g a n F r o u d
B ila n g a n y a n g p e n tin g a p a b ila p a ? a lir a n te r s e b u t sa n ga t
dip e n g a r u h i o le h g a y a ta r ik b u m i a ta u g a y a g r a v ita s i

(g a w in e r s ia ) &
(g a y a g r a v ita s i) v
.
(3 9 )

3 1 1 5 B ila n g a n A lir

C a
= (3 ]0 )

B ila n g a n a lir in i u n tu k m e n d a p a tk a n ju m la h u ? r a
ya n g
dim asu kk a n /d ih e m b u s k a n d i d a ta m s e ll flo ta s i a n d i e r lu k a n
y g p ,

u n tu k m e m tm c lk a n \ le m b u n g
u

3 1 2 A lir a
n p r o s e s d a n g e r a k a n d i d a ta m s e ll flo ta s i
D i d a ta m m e s in flo ta s i e le m b u n d a n a r tik e l s a lin
g g p g
m e n de k i
a t d i a n ta ra a lira n 也 由u ie n p e k l b d i d t
rg e ra a n g e e m u n g a a m

ly a pu n
g g a w s e r e i g a y a b e n tu k a ta u g a y a a lir s e d a n g k a n
,

e ra k a n
p a r tik e ld i d a ta m flu id a d ia k ib a tk a n k a r e n a a d a n y a g a y a
m e d a n g a y a a p u n g s ta tik g a y a s e r e t p a r tik e l (u n tu k p a r tik e l y a n
, ,

tid a k b e r p u ta r ) U n tu k p a r tik e l y a n g b e r p u ta r p a d a s u m b u n y a p e r l
d ita m b a h k a n g a y a a p u n g d in a m ik G a y a te k a n d ip e r ı u k a n a p a b il

p a r tik e l b e r a d a d a ta m m e d a n a lir a n y a n g m e n g a la m i p e r c e p a ta r
Ja d itid a k h a n y a p a r tik e ly a n g m en g a la m ip e r c e p a ta n te ta p is e b a g ia
,

flu id a y a n g m e n g e lilin g in y a ju g a m e n g a la m i p e r c e p a ta n m a k
te r d a p a t g a y a a lir a n d i d a ta m p e rg e r a k a n p a r tik e l K e se tim b a n g a ]
k e tig a g a y a y a n g b e k e r ja p a d a g e le m b u n g a k a n men g a k ib a tk a 】
g e le m b l m b
g e rg e r a k k e a ta s d e n g a n k e c e p a ta n y a n g t e ta p
P a d a b a g ia n la in d i d a ta m s e ll flo ta s i
p a r tik e l n a ik k e
, a ta
d is e b a b k a n o le h lim a a lir a n
1 A lira n ta n g e n s ia l a d a la h a lir a n y a n g te 】ja d i p a d a d a e r a h d a e r a ]
d e k a t p o r o s /s u m b u p e n g a d u k A lir a n t a n g e n s ia l in i a n
y j
m e n y】 n g g u n g p o ro s n y a
2 A lir a n s ir k u la s i te r tu tu p a d a la h a lir a n
y a n g b e r p u ta r te r tu tu 】
d e n g a n a r a h v e r tik a l A lir a n in i a n m e n e b a b k a n
y g y p a r tik e
p a r tik e l b is a n a ik k e a ta s
3 A lir a n s ir k u la s i te r b u k a y a n te r d a a t d i d a ta m l i
, g p a p s a n b u ih
4 A lir a n a k s ia l/p o r o s
, y a n g d i? p a t d e n g a n b a n t u a n p e n y e k a
b e r u b a h k e a ]ir a n ta n g e n s ia l
5 B t ls R b a g ia n lu a r b a n y a k k e a ta s m e m b a w a a r tik l k
, p e e e rm u k p a an

A lir a n ya n g t e r d a p a t d i d a ta m s e ll n o t a s i d a a
p
d iilu s t r a s ik a n p a d a G a m b 3 2 K
a r e c e p a ta n
p e n ge n d a pa i
p e n g a p u n g a n g e le m b u n g d a n k e c e p a ta n p a r tik e ! p a d a ta n d i e la s k a i
j
m eı a lu i p e r s a m a a n d i b a w a h in i

1皿 吕
: X X '

4 A ti- u = TM po ıc «

G .m ba , 3 2 .

A lir a n d id a ı
am se il n o ta s il )

1 U n tu k p a r tik e l g e le m b u n g y a n g k e c il ? n p a r tik e l d e n g a n
b ila n g a n R e y n o ld s ( )< 0 5
,

d (P pr )g
K =
,
u n tu k p a r tik e l (3 1 1)
18 p

=
d (P , P ,
)g u n tu k g e le m b u i ıg (3 12 )
18 p

dim ana ,

K k e c e p a ta n te r m in a l
,
m /d e t
2

d
p
=
d ia m e te r p a r tik e l, cm

a
b
=
d ia m a te r \ le m b u n g ,
m m

3
p p
-
ra pat m a s sa p a r tik e l g r ,
,
cm

m 9
J
- ra p a t m a s s a flu id Ą g rlc m
pf
2
;/ı -
v is k o s ita s flu id a d y n e se c o n d /c m
,

2
g r a v ita s i, 9 8 0 cm /d e t
g
-

p e rs a m aan d ia ta s b e r la k u u n tu k s u a sa n a dim an a h u k u m S to ke s

d ita a ti

2 U n tu k p a r tik e l g e lo m b a n g y a n g k e c il d a n p a r tik e l
3 5
d e n g a n b ila n g a n R e y n o ld s 10 < R ,
< 10

}
r
4 d B& )
Pr g
tu k p a r tik e l
=

3
Þ u n
(3 13 )
P í

l4 d :(p ,
' u N U K ge le m o u n g (j 14 )
I 3 P í

3 2 K in e tik a F ı
o ta s i

K in e tik a flo ta s i a d a la h s tu d i v a r ia s i ju m la h k o n s
te r h a d a p w a k tud a n id e n tifik a s i k u a n tita tif v a r ia b e l a
y n g m e n g a tu r
la ju flo ta s i T u ju a n m e m e la a r i k i ik
p j n e t a flo ta s i a d a la h u n tu k
m e n g e ta h u i h u b ţ u r a n a n ta r v a r ia b l山
g e m m e n u a n k a n k e d a ta m m o d e l
g
p e r s a m a a n m a te m a tik a ı7 ) L a ju flo ta s i d i e n a r u h i l h
p g o e s e ju m la h
fe n o m e n a m e li u tis u b s u b ro
, p p s e s s e b a g a ib e r ik u t
1 T u m b u k a n a r tik e l a d t
p p a a n d e n g a n g e le m b tın g e
2 P e n e m p e la n a r tik e l a d t
p p a a n m a m p u a p u n g p a d a e le m b u n
3 P e le p a s a n k e m b a li g g C
p e rtik e l p a d a ta n d a r i g e le m b u n
4 P e n je b a k a n a r tik e l g \
p p a d a ta n y a n g te r b a w a b e r s a m a d e n n fa sat
i
c a r a n k e d a ta m T
\ ,
u a n g a n ta r e le
g m b u n g p a d a fa s a b ih
u
S tu d i k in e tik a flo ta s i b i
a s a n y a d ila k u k a
n te r h a d a
p ro s e s d e n g a n d a s a r p e n u k u r
p k e s e lu r u ha n
g a n ju m la h a d a t
p an m am
p u a p Lm g y a n gi

III 10

L
d ip is a h k a n p e r s a tu a n w a k tu S b
u s u b p r o s e s d i a ta s b e lu m
e la s k a n s e lu r u h n y a d a n m
a s ih d a ta m
p e n e lit ia n ) K e s u lita n
17

s e b a b k a n o le h k e a n e k a r
a g a m a iıa n ta r a lir
a n c a ra n , p a i r tik e l
da n
g e n y a n g d ig u n a k a n
re a

T e r d a p a t e m p a t m e to d a
y a n g d a p a t d ig iın a k a n d a ta m
'
5pe ru m u s a n k in e tik a flo ta s ir7 ) y a itu ,

ì M e to d e e m p ir ik p e r s a m a a n k in e tik a d ip e r o le h d a r i k m a d a ta
,

p e r o le h a n te r h a d a p w a k tu h a s il p e r c o b a a n
2 Jv le to d a m a litik h u b u n g a in a n tfu k o m p o n e n
,
dipelari b e rd a s a r k a n
te o r i M d r o d in a m ik a d a n fe n o m e n a e
p 中 in 山山a rl
3 M e to d a s e m i e m p irik m e r u p a k a n p e 中 聞 u a n m e to d
,
a e m p ir ik d a n
a n a litik P e r s a m a a n ţ m l l u T ı ( b ia s a n
y a b e r b e n tu k p e r s a m a a n
d iffr e n s ia l ) d it u r u r rk a n s e c a r a t e o r itik
S o lu s i p e r s a m a a n
d iffr e n s ia 】d ip e r o le h d e n g a n m e n
g g u n a k a n d a ta p e r c o b a a n
s e b a g a i s y a r a t b a ta s a ta u s a r a t a w a l i
y n te g r a s i
4 M e to d a a n a lo g i k im ia p r o s e s flo ta s i d ia n
,
g g a p a n a lo g d e n g a n
re a k s i fa m ia K in e t ik a flo ta s i
dipelari m e n g a c u p a d a te o r i
k in e tik a r e a k s i k im ia

y a k p e n e liti le b ih m e n y u k a i m e to d a a n a lo i k a r e
B an
g n a s o lu s i
\ rs a m a a n n y a r e la tif s e d e r h a n a 's ) F a k to r fu a o r y a n g m e n e n tu k a n
ka d a r d a n p e r o le h a n (r e č o v e r ) d a r i k o n s e
y n tr a t d a ta m o p e ra s i
flo ta s i d a p a t ä n y a ta k a n d e n g a n is tila h r o b a b iti
,
p y í o s u c c e s s (p )
da ri b e b e r a p a k e ja d ia n y a n g b e r u r u ta n d i d t
a am s e ll F o r m u la s i
da ri h a r g a P te r s e b u t a d a la h s e b a a i b e r ik t
g u

P =
Pc x Pa x P. x Pr (3 15 )

de n w

,
=
ke m g k in a n ta b r a k à n a n ta ra p a r tik e l d a n g e le m b u n g u d a r a
un
P =
ke m u n g k in a n a d h e s i d a r i a r tik e l te h d
r a a p g e le m b u n
ı
p g u d a ra
P .
K e m u n g k in a n a r tik e l a rı te ta m
c p y g p e n e m p p
e l a d a ge e m b u n g
l
u d a r a d a n n a ik k e
p e rm u k a a n
P Ke m u n g k in a n
.
,
p a r tik e ly a s g d a p a t m en aj d ik o n s e n tra t y a n g
k e lu a r d a r i k o lo m b s
u a
K .
- k o n s ta n ta k e c e p a ta n flo ta s i

n -
p a n g k a t da ri p ro se s
C =
ko n se n u a s i d a r i s p e c ie s

P e rsa m a a n (3 16 )d a p a t d is e d e r h a n a k a n d e n g a n m e n g a n g g a te ta
p p
se m u a k o m p o n e n s e la in k o n s e n tr a s im in e ra lp a d a ta n m a u p u n a p u n
g ,

s e h in g g a d ip e r o le h b e n tu k b a r u

d c /d t =
K C "
(3 19 )

P a ? p e rs a m a a n (3 19 )in i K m e ru p a k a n te ta p a n s e m u S e b e n a m a
, y
K d ip e n g a n M ib a n y a k v a r ia b e l la in y a n g d ia n g g a p te ta p K a r e n a itu
K s e la n ju tn y a a k a n d is e b u t k o e fis ie n la ju flo ta s i N ila i C a 山出出
k o n s e n tr a s i p a d a ta n m a m p u a p u n g d i d a ta m s e ll y a n g b e r k u r a n
g
d m g a n b e r ta m b a h n y a w a k tu flo ta s i P e n g u ra n g a n d itu n ju k fça n d e n a n
g
ta n ? n e g a ti£S e b a g ia n b e sa r p e n e litim e n y a ta k a n b a h w a e rs a m a a n
p
la ju flo ta s i b e r o r d e s a tu (n -
1)
S e p e r ti d ije la s k a n d i a ta s b e b e r a p a p e n e liti m e m a k a i
p e r s a m a a n tin g k a t s a tu s e te n g a h a ta u d u a d a ta m k in e tik a flo ta s i
,
,

te ta p iy a n g te r b a n y a k adalah m e m a k a ip e r s a m a a n p a n g k a t s a tu

d c /d t K C (3 2 0 )
D en g a n d iin te g r a s ik a n , \ rs a m a a n (3 2 0 )m j di
e rl a

Kt
C 0 1 2 1)
(3
d e n g a īr ,

C o
ko n s e n tr a s i d a r i p a r tik e ıd a ta m se ll p a d a w a k tu t O

C =
ko n s e n tr a s i d a r i p a r tik e l s e ll p a d a w a k tu t =
t

III 14
aa n (3 2 0 )d a p a t d itu lis ju g a seba g a i b e r ik u t

k tu flo ta s i d ip e rp a n ja n g b e b e r a a b a ia n d a r ije n is
B ila w a
p g
p a r tik e l y a n g d a p a t d ia p u n g k a n m a s ih b e r a d a d i d a ta m p u ı p
K o n s e n tra s id a r i p a r tik e ld i d a la m ta ilin g in i d in a m a k a n k o n s e n tra s i
te r m in a l d e n g a n n o ta s i C P e r s a m a a n (3 2 2 ) ? p a t d e n a n ie b ih
,
g
te liti s e b a g a i b e r ik u t

- K t (3 23)

de n g a n

Cb ko n se n tra s i d a r i p a r tik e l ? 1a m se ll p a d a w a k tu t O

C kon s e n tr a s i d a r i p a r tik e l s e ll p a d a w a k tu t = t

C .
k o n s e n tr a s i te rm in a l

D (C C (o )
en p lo t in Ļ k e m iń n g a n K ? p a t d ite n iu k a n
.
ga n m e m ï
(c .

P c rs a m aan k in e tik d a p a t ju g a d itu ı


is d e n g a n is tiliıh p e r o le h a n (n e c o v e l ) R

(3 2 4 )
c .

B ila w a k tu flo ta s i d ip e r p a n ja n g s a m p a i w a k tu te r te n tu d i m ,
ana
tid a k la i d
g a a p a r tik e l p a r tik e l y a n g d a p a t m e n g a p u g g , m a ka
P e r s a m a a n d i a ta s m e n ja d i
D a ta m is tila h p e r o le h a n p e r s a m aa n (3 2 1) d a p a t d itu lis se ba
,
ga
b e r ik u t

R =
( 1 e )
(3 2 6
a ta u In
(R .
P ) K
- t
R .
(3 2 ?
de n gan ,

R p e r o le h a n d a ta m p e r s e Ą h in g g a t =
t

p e r o le h a n te r m in a l (b a ta s ) d a ta m \ rse a ta u m in e ra l

y a iıg d a p a t m en sa pu n g

D a ta m s tu d i k in e tik a H o ta s i k o n s e n tr a s i p a d a ta n m
a m pt
a p u n g b ia s a n y a d in y a ta k a n s e c a ra a k tif s e b a a i n is b a h
m a ssı g
p a ? ta n m a m p u a p u n g te rh a d a p v o lu m e p u lp " 1 P e r o le h a n (r e c o v
e ry R ) d id e ĥ n is ik a n s e e r ti a d a
p p p e r s a m a i ın (3 2 4 ) d im a n a C ,

d a n C m e la m b a n g k a n k o n s e n tr a s i a d a ta n m a m u a u n
, p p p g p a dt
k e a d a a n a w a l ? n s e te la h w a k tu fio ta s i t 2 5 ) In te r a s i r
g p e s a m a ai
(3 17 ) d a n s u b s tit u s i p e r s a m a a n R d a r i p e r s a m a a n (3 2 4 ) te r h a d a
l
C m e n g h a s ilk a n

K¢
R 1 e (3 2 8

3 2 1 1 M o d ifik a s i p e r s a m a zl n o r d e s a tu

M o r r is (19 5 2 ) m p e r b a ik i p e o rde u n tu k
em r s a rn a a n sa tu
m e n je la s k a n fa k ta b a h w a t id a k s e m u a m
in e r a l m a m p u a p u n d a a l
g p
d ip is a h k a n d a r i d a ta m p u lp P e r o le h a n 1 0 0 % tid k
a p e m a h d a pa l
d ic a p a i w a la u p u n w a k tu flo ta s i d i e r a n a n 5 ) D e n
p p j g g a n d e m ik ia n
'

p e r s a 】T la a n (3 2 4 )t id a k b is a la n g s u n g d ite r a p k a n p a d a p r o s e s flo ta s i
N ila i C d a n C p a d a p e r s a m a a n in i h a r u s d ik o r e k s i r l if
o , e a t te r h a d a p
ju m la h p a d a ta n m a m p u a p u n g to ta l y a n g d ip e r o le h s e te la h w a k tu
flo ta s i d ip e r p a n ia n g
M o r r is m e n g g u n a k a n fa k to r k o r e k s i C o o
y a n g k e m u d ia ll
d is e b u t k o n s e n tr a s i m in e ra l C o o m e w a k ili a r tik l d
p e p a a ta n m a m pu
a p u n g y a n g te ta
p e r tin g g a l d a ta m s e ll B e s a m y a C o o d ip e n g a r u h i
t

III 16
d is i fis ik d a n kim ia diantaīanyakecepatanpuwpengad
!h k o
e n ,

:o ik l la ju a lir u d a r a m a s u k tin k a t o k s id a s i p a d a
a n p a rt e g
u k lır
, ,

nnu k a a n p a r tik e l p a d a w d a n k o n s e n tr a s ir e a g e n y a n g d ig u n a k a n
ne
tr
N ila i C o o d a p a t dite n tu k a n m e la lu i b e b e r a p a c a r a m is a ln y a
m e to d a c o b a « o b a (tr ia l o n d e r r o r ) ) p e n a m b a h a n w a k tu
2s
de n g a n ,

i i? k a ? la g ip a r tik e l p a d a ta n ? la m fa s a b u iL a ta u
flo ta s is a m p a t
de n g a n m e n e n tu k a n a s im to t p a d a k u r v a k o n s e n tr a s i w a k tu a ta u
le h a n w a k tu d a r i d a ta p e r c o b a a n 2 3 ) P e rs a m a a n la ju o rd e s a tu
pe ro
l h d im o d ifık a s i s e b a g a ib e r ik u t
v a n g te a

da ta m b e n tu k p e r s a m aa n d a p a t d itu lis k a n j
m en a di

Kt

3 2 1 2 D is tr ib u s i k o e fis ie n la ju flo ta s i
P e r b e d a a n u k u r a n b e rıt u k d a
,
n ko m p o s is i m in e ra l
m em p e n g a r u h i tin g k a t k e m a m p u a p u n g a n p a r tik e l p a d a ta n M
a te

r ia l y a n g m e m p u n y a i k e m a m p u a a p u n g a n le b ih b e s a r a k a n

m e n g a p u n g le b ih c e p a t K e m a m p u a p u n g a n y a n g tid a k m e r a ta

m e m e b a b k a n a d a n y a d is tr ib u s i k o e fis ie n la ju flo ta s i p a d a m a te
ı

ria l d i d a ta m 5)
p u lp
'

P o ro g e ly m e m e ta k a n d N d k te r h a d a p L u n tu k m e n u n ju }d «a n
ko e fis ie n la u flo ta s i K u r v a a n g d ip e ro la h k e m u d ia n d in o r m a lk a n : )
7
j y
M a d a la h m a s s a a d a ta n d a ta m k o n s e n tra t
p
B ila fu n g s i d is tr ib u s i k d a ta m m in e ra l a w a l d ila m b a n g k a n
de n a n Đ k
g ( ) m a k a b e r la k u
,

III 1 7
a n g m e m p u n y ai
k k a n fr a k s i m a s s a y
j
Q (k ) D k m en u n u
flo ta s i
a m se ı
k ? n k+ dk dida ı
k o e fis ie n la ju flo ta s i a n ta r a
,

k k n p e rc o b a a n
flo ta i te r h a d a p
L o v e d a y (1 9 6 6 ) m e la u a
i r d e p e r ta n l a tia p fr a k si
a a n la ju flo ta s o
k o n s e n tr a t b fjih p ir it p e r s a m
d in y a ta k a n s e b a g a i b e r ik u t

dr

d en ga n ,

* a ksim a te r ia l te r s is a d i d a ta m se lpa da w a k tu t
f(t) =

d is tr ib u s ik d a ta m m a te r ia ıte r s is a d a ta m se l s e te la h
Q (t k ) =

w a k tu t

la ju flo ta s i u n tu k k e s e lu r u ha n m a t e r ia l d a p aİ
p e rs a m a a n

d itu lis k a n d a lfu n b e n tu k

。 k M (3 3 4)
。,
dr

de n ga n ,

M =
ju m ]a h m a ssa

k. -
K o e fİ s ie n la ju fı
o ta s i r a ta r a ta d a ta m m a te r ia l p a ? ta n

S o lu s i p e rsa m a a n (3 3 3 ) d ip e r o le h d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a n
s y a ra t a w a l r (t O ) 1 da n Q (t O k ) Q (k ) y a itu d is tr ib u s ik
= =
,

d a ta m u In te g r a s i tu k k O p a i d e n g a n k.
m p a n u n sa m ık,

m en g h a s ilk a n

t ) O (t k )
,
=
O (k ) e
K t (3 3 5)

IU 18
d id e k a ti d e n g a n m en g g u n a k a n d is tr ib u s ig a m m a

K o n s ta n ta a d a n b d a ta m p r a k te k n y a ıe b ih m u d i d ite n tu k a n d a i
r
fra k s i m a te r ia l p a d a ta n f ()
t N i
,
la i f (t) d a p a t d ip e r o le h d e n g a n
pe n d e k a ta n m o m e n p e r ta m a

3 2 1 3 P e n g a n lıh u k u ra n g e le m b u n g u d a ra te r h a ? k o e fi i
p s e n la ju
flo ta s i
S u th e r tla n d (19 4 8 )a d a la h e n e liti e r ta m a a
p p y n g m e n ga u k a n i
m o d e ltu m b u k a n a n ta ra p a r tik e l a d a ta n d a n l
p g e e m b u n g u d a ra p a ra
p e n e liti b e r ik u tn y a m e n g e m b a n g k a n m o d e l S u th e r l n d
a de n ga n
a n g g a p a n b a h w a tu m b u k a
n m e r u p a k a n fa k to r
p e n e n t u la ju
flo ta s il6 1 7 ı8 )
E fis ie n s i e m is a h a n flo ta s i d it
p e n tu k a n o le h e f】s ie n si
tu m b u k a n ? n e fi i
s e n s ip e n e m p e la n E fis ie n s i tu m b u k a n
e ůìc ie n c
(c o llĮs io n
y) a d a la h i b nh p a r tik e l y a n g b e r tu m b u k a n d e n a n
s a
g
ge ıe m b tı n g u d a r a E fis ie n s i
p e n e m p e la n (a ıta c h m e n ıe ¡ ğ ?c ie n c y !
m e ru a k a
p n fr a k s i a r tik e l
p y a n g m e n e m p e l p a ? g e le m b u n g u d a r a
da ri s e m
u a p a r tik e l a n
y g b e r tu m b u k a n d e n g a n g e le m b u n g u d a r a
H a s ilk a li
e fis ie n tu m b k
u a n e fis ie n s i e n e m
Pe n a m p u n
, p p e la n d is e b u t e fis ie n s i
g a n (c o tte c l io n e jn c ie n c y )
Ek =
EC Ea
de n a (3 3 9 )
g n,

Ek .
fis ie n s i p e n a m u n a n
E
p g
£ -

-
e fis ie n s i h m rb u k a n

e fis ie n s i
\ n e m p e la n

m 19
p e rmd e la n tu m b u k a n b a r u d ik e m b a n g lca n u r rtu k s is te m s a tt
o
t k e c il ta n
p a r tik e l s a tu g e le m b u n g u d a r a p a d a u k u r a n s a n g a p(
ik l
p e n g a d u k m P e r m o d e la n te r s e b u t c o c o k u n tu k flo ta s o o m d e n g tu
U a n p a r tik e l s a n g a t h a lu s
B e n e t (19 5 8 ) m e n w ,
a tip e n g a r u h u k u ra n g e le m b u n g u d a rt
d a ta m flo ta s i b a tu b a r a
T e m y a ta d e n g a n m a k in k e c il u k u r a r

g e le m b u n g u d a r a y a n g d ig u n a k a n e fis ie n s i tu m b u k a n le b ih tin g i
g
J ia n g d a n H o lth a m ( 1 9 8 6 ) m e n e m u k a n h a s il s e ru pa se p e r ti
d itu n ju k k a n p a d a G a m b a r 3 3
R ea y ra c lifF (1 9 7 3 )m e n u ru n ka n hu bu n ga n u k t? an \ le m b im £
u d a ra d a n e fis ie n si tu m b u k a n b e r d a s a rk a n m o d e l tu m b u k a r
S u th e r la n d p a d a flo ta s i m in e r a l s a n g a ť h a lu s ' 7 )

0 32






0 00 D iım eı
er um d b (ı
un ) 9 2o

G am ba r 3 3
P h ku
en ga ru u ra n ge ı e m b u n g u d a r a d b te r h a d a
( ) p e fis ie n s
l
tu m b u ka n ( c ) p a a b e r b a g a l u k u r a n p a r tik e ı
E d
H a s il p e n e ıltia n J ia n g H o ı
tm a n ıo »

1U 2 0
q

S o lu s i p e rs a m a a n d ip e r o le h d e n s a n m e n g g u n a k a n h u k u m

Sto k e H a s il p e n u r u n a n n y a a d a la h s e b a g a i b e r ik u t

E c - f ( d p /d b , P /p r )
p (3 4 0 )
de n g a n ,

Ec -
e fis ie n s i tu m b u k a n

dp - d ia m e te r p a r tik e l p a d a ta n

db = d ia m e te r g e le m b u n g u da ra

h ra p' " a s s a p a r tik . ı

pr
-
ra pat m a s s a c a ira n

Je m so n e tAl (19 7 7 )m e n y a ta k a n b a h w a p e n in g k a ta n e fis ie n


'
pe n a m pu n g p a r tik e l se b a n d in g d e n g a n k e n a ik a n k o e fis ie n lą ju
flo ta s ir6 ) P e r s a m a a n (3 4 0 ) m e n y a ta k a n b a h w a b ila u k u r a n
ge le m b u n g u ? r a m a k in k æ il m a k a tu rn b u k a n a n ta ra p a r tik e lp a d a ta iı
? n g e le m b u n g u d a r a m a k in k e c il la ju o o ta s id ih a ra p k a n a k a n m a k in
,

æ pa t T a b e l3 1 m e n u n u k ka nj h u b u n g a n k o e fis ie n la ju flo ta s id e n g a n
dia m g e le m b u n g
e te r u d a r a d a n p a r tik e l p a d a ta n h a s il p e r c o b a a n
,

be be ra p a p e n e liti

3 2 2 K in c tik ıtu
u ı k conlltousß
olation
flo ta s i d i d a ta m in d u s tr i d ik e r ja k a n s e c a r a b e r la n ju t
P ro se s
(co n tin u e ) D a ta m flo ta s i in i p e n g is ia n d a n p e n g e lu a r a n s e la lu
ko n s ta n In i b e r a r ti e e d k n n tr a s i u ı ? n ro d u k s e la lu k o n s ta n
f o se p p p
Pe rs a m a a n 3 16
( ) y a n g b ia s a d ip a k a i p a d a b a tc h p r o c c e s d a p a t ,

ju ga d ir u b a h u n tu k c o n tin n o ııs r o c e s s
p

den
g n ,

Cc =
k o n s e n tr a s i ? r i s p e s i y a n g te r a p u n g ? la m k o n s e n tr a t
Ct °
k o n s e n tr a s i d a r i s e s i y a n g te r a p u n g d a ta m ta ilin g
p
Qc ・
=
v o lu m e k e c e p a ta n a lir a n d a ri k o n s e n tra t
V
v o lu m e s e ll

d a r i p u lp d a la m

III- 2 1

L
T h b e ı3 1
H u bu n ga n a n ta ra k o e fıs ie n la ju flo ta s i (k ) d e n g a n d ia m e te r
p a r tik e l p a d a ta n (d p )d a n d ia m e te r g e ı e m b u n g u d a r a (d b )
H a s il p e r c o b a a n »e r a p a p e n e lit i
be ı

H a s il

1 G au d in ct A l (19 4 2 ) k tid a k d ip e īrg a r u h i d p b ila


dp 1 4 u n (G a le n a )
k a B ņ u n tu k d p 4 28 m

y S u th e r la n d (1 9 4 8 )
l= W d
U M o r r is (19 5 2 )
= In d p
B u sh c lı(] 9 6 2 ) k 巴山出 d ip e n g a r u h d p

国图 '" d a n F le m in g (19 6 3 )
)

U R e ay d a n R a tc li« (19 7 3 )
W
2
ídt

= l Ja m e so n e t A ı0 9 7 7 )
l= 1 / db
j

den gan ,

Q t v o lu m e k e c e p a ta n a lir a n d a ń ta ilin g

B ila se ll m em p u n y a ic a m p u r a n y a n g id e a l p e r s a m a a n k in e tik
,

flo ta s i p a n g k a t s a tu m e n ja d i s e b a g a ib e r ik u t
(p e r s a m a a n (3 4 1 )d a n
(3 4 2 ) d ig a b u n g )

R -
H (3 4 3)
d e n ga n ,

V
丸 =
n o m in a l r e s id e n c e tim e

U l 22
B AB ı
v

łL E N G A R U H U KU R AN B U Tı
R D A N
P E R E N C A N A A N S ELL

n 1 k u r a n b u tir d a r i p a r tik e l m in e r a L p e r e n c a n a a n ( l/
s e ll c e
ra n r ıd e s ig n ) e rs e n a ? ta
p p n Danpł ada ı ah u a m
,
. j g p e ru akan
fa k t o y a n g s a n g a t p e n tin g /v a r ia b e l y a iı
r
g b e rp e n g a r u h
? la m m en c a p a i e fis ie n s i d a n s e le k tifita s d
a r i r o s e s n o ta s i D i
p
baw a h in i a ka n d ije la s k a n k e d u a p e n g a r u h /k e e m p a t v a r ia bel
b e rp e n g a r u h te r s e b u t d i ? 1a m flo ta s i

4 1 P en g a r u h d a r i p a d a ıık u r a n p a r tiik e l
P r o s e s flo ta s i s e c a r a k e s e lu r u h a n m e la lu i e iļ e lit ia n
p
p e n e lit ia n m e n u n jtd c lca n b a h w a u k u r a n p a r tilo e l m e n e n a p a k a h
s u a n ım in e ra l d a p a t/s a n g g u p m e n g a p u n g a Ėa u t i A ta lıd e ų a n k a ta
g
a in
ı a pa ka h e ln ıin e r a l d e n g a n u k u r a n te r le n h ıd a p a t m e n e m p e l
d l
p a a g e e m u rtg u a r a y a n g a lc a n n a ik k e a ta s s a m p a i 】
b d cie d a t a m

b u s a lb u ih U k tır a n p a r tik e l y a n g o p tim u m u n h ık m e n d a a tk a n


p
p e n g a p lın g a n y a iıg b a iL te r g a n tu n g p a d a s ifa t h id r o p o b is it e tl
M d r o p o b is ita s d a r i p a r tik e l d a n b e r a t je n is n y a U m tın u w a
o p tım u m tın tu k b ijih t e r ı e ta k a n ta r a 4 0 + t m 3 0 0 lım d a n u n tu k
b a tu b a r a ie r le ta k a n ta r a 4 0 ¢ u n 1 6 0 0 lu n P a r tik e lM lū e l d e s g a n
u k lı r a g r a ta r a ta a d a la h 山 t l 掌印 d c epa \
y a n g 中a s e c a r a e n a n t
te rp is a h d a n u a s e d ik it m e m e r lu ı
j g ca n r e a g e n R e a k s i y a s g p a lin
g
ha lu s b ia s a n a m e m u n a i m u tu a n r e n d a h d is e b a b k a n
y p y y g o le h
s e le ld ifita s a n
y g re n da h

4 11 P ar tiı
ū e ıh a s a r
A d a b e b e r a xa k o n d s i y a n g d ip e r ı u k a n o le h p a r tik e l y a n g
ĺ
be s a r lk a s a r d i d
a m flo ta s i y a i
aı ,

1 P e r m u k a a n a r tik e l h a r u s m e m u n a i s ifa t a n k u a t u n tu k
p p y y g
m e n o la k a ir d e n a n m e n
g gg u n a k a n k o le k to r y a n g le b ih a k tif
2 s e c a ra p ra k te k r e a g e n n o n p o la r y a n g tidaklarutditamba
k
p a d a p u lp y a n g a k a n m e n in g k a tk a n k e u a ta n p e n e m p e la】
g e le m b u n g
3 P e r lu u n tu k m e n gh a s ilk a n a r u s y a n g a k a n m e n a ik k a n p u lp M
zon a te n g a h d a rim e s in flo ta s iy a n g b e b a s da r i a r u s tu r b ]e i
4 Ľ a p is a n b u s a h a n ıs b e b a s d a r i g a n g g u a n B u s a y a n g s ta bi
h a r u s d ip in d a h k a n s e c a r a h a ti h a ti u n tu k m e n g u r a n
g
k e h ila n g a n p a r tik e ly a n g k e m b a lik e p u lp

4 1 2 P a r tik e l h a ı
us
P e r s o a la n y a n g s e la lu d id a p a tk a n p a d a flo ta s i a d a lal
pen em p e la n p a r tik e l h a lu s p a d a p a r tik e l y a n g le b ih b e s a r da i§
b e r b a g a im in e r a l y a n g b ia s a n y a d in a m a k a n s tim e c o a tin
acam m , g
C o n to h n y a p a r tik e l h a lu s d a r i k u a r s a m e n e m p e l p a d a permukaá

g a le n a
P r o b le m d a r i s tim g in ite la h d ia ja r k a n o le h
e c o a tin
Gaudi]
F e u rs te n a u d a n M ia w D a r ip e n elitia n m e r e k a m e n u n ju k k a n b a h w a
p a r tik e l h a lu s d a r i ta n d a y a n g s a m a s e p e r ti g a le n a tid a k a k a n
m e n g g a n g g u ? 1a m flo ta s i ,
u n tu k y a n g m e m p u n y a i ta n ? y a n l
b e r la w a n a n s e p e r ti aı umin a k a n m e n g h e n tik a n flo ta s i B ila ta n da
? r a lu m in a te r s e b u t b e r u b a h d e n g a n p e n g a tu r a n
i p H la r u ta n flo ta si
d a r i g a le n a te r s e b u t d a p a t b e r ja la n k e m b a li S ï im e c o a tin g a d a la ĥ
te r b e ra t b ila s lim e tid a k b e rm u a ta n a ta u b e rm u a ta n a n b e r la w a n a n
y g
d e n g a n p a r tik e l y a n g a k a n d ia p u n g k a n C o n to h n a e n a r u h da n
y p g
s lim e Fe 0 p a d a flo ta s i k u a r s a (lih a t G a m b a r 4 1 ) D a r i g a m ba i
, 3
in i h id r o g e n a ta u io n h id r o k s il a d a la h
, p o te n tia l d ile r m in in g io lı ,

u n tu k s e tia p zat pa da t da n
,
m e n g o n tr o l ta n d a p a d a p e r m itk a a n

K e tia d a a n s lim e p e r o le h a n d a r i flo ta s id ite n tu k a n o le h e fe k m u a tall


,

pe rm u ka a n ,
d a n jik a a ? s lim e h a s il flo ta s i a n o p tim u m a ka o
, y g
d id a p a tk a n a p a b ila s lim e F e 0 d a n k u a r s a k e d u a d u a n ya
2 3
m em p u n y a im u a la n n e g a tif
G a y a g a y a y a n g m e n y e b a b k a n s tim e c o a tin a 出出山 g a ya g a ye
g
y a n g k u a t te ta p id e n g a n tu r b u le n s iy a n g c u k u p b e s a r p a d a p u lp gaya ,

t
g a y a g e s e r y a n g k r itis d a p a t d ic a p a i G a y a g a y a g e s e r in i d a pa
m e m e c a h k a n ik a ta n y a n g m e n ik a t ba ai
g p a r tik e l h a lu s s e g

rv 2
c a rn e t (p e m b a w a ) P a r tik e l h a lu s te r s e b u t m e m b e n tu k s tim e co o l

i» g p a d a m in e ra l pe m b a w S e la iıju b ıy a m in e r a l p e m b a w a d a a t
a
p
i
d ap g u n k a n C o n to h ? ń p o s e s in i a d a la h p e m b e r s ih a n k a o lin d a r i
r

p ir it d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a n b a tu k a p u r s e b a g a i m in e r a l p e m b a w a
S e la n ju tn y a m in e r a l p e m b a w a d a p a t d ia p u n g k a n

4 2 P en g a r u h d a r ip e r e n c a n a a n se ll
F a k to r v a r ia b e l d a ta m o p e r a s i flo ta s i a n
y g m e m p e n g a n ıh i
p o te n s ia l flo a ta b ility d a r i m in e r a l m in e r a l ilih a n d a ta m a r ti k a d a r
" "

p
? n p e r o le h a n a d a la h m e s in flo ta s i P e r b a ik a n d a r i
p e re n c a n a a n
im p e lle r d a n b e n tu k d a r i p a d a s e ll d a n b e b e r a a h
, p a r g a p a r a m e te r
o p e r a s i s e p e r ti k e c e p a ta n iï ii e llle r / k o n i
p s u m s u d a r a d a n te n a a
g ,
m e m e g a n g p e r a n a n p e n tin S e tia p p e r u s a h a a n m e m u n a i
g p y
k a r a k te r is tik te r s e n d ir i ? la m m e r e n c a n a k a n
s e ll in i S e b a g a i c o n to h
r a tio k e d a la m a n ? n
p a n ja n g d a r i ta j u m l a h s u d u s u d u a d a im
p
p e lle r d a n r a tio d a r i k e te b a la n im p e lle r te r h a d a d i e te m y a
p a m
m e m p u n y a i h a r g a h a r a b e r la in
g an S e la in d a r i p a d a itu ju a
g
m e m p u n y a i p e rb e d a a n
p a r a m e te r d a la in o p e r a s in y a B e b e r a a
p
p e r u s a h a a n m e n g g u n a k a n k o n s u m s ite n a g a a n r e n d a h
y g se da n gk a n
y a n g la in k e m Lm g k in a n d e n g a n te n a g a y a n g le b ih tin
g g i B e r ik u t in i
a k a n d ib e r ik a n d u a c o n to h d r i ti
a p e a la t flo ta s i y a itu flo ta s i s e ll
(flo ta tio n c e ll)d a n flo ta s is e ı l m ik r o (m ic r o flo ta tio n c e ll d
) a n ? la m
c o n to h in i a d a la h "
h a llim o n d tu b e "

4 2 1 S e ll F ı
o ta s i
P a ? p e m b ic a r a a n s e llj To ıa s i in i a k a n d ib
ic a ra k a n u k tır a n
se ll 山m im p e lle r k e c e p a ta n e n a lir a n u ? r a d
,

, p g a n ko n s um s i te n a
,
ga

N - 3
G a m ba r 4 1
P h pH d a n s lim e
"
Fe 0
e n ga p a d a fı
«
ru o ta s i k u a rsa
, 3
de n ga n 10 4
M d o d e e y la iu a s e ta t s e b a g a i k o ıe k to
m on m rn

4 2 1 1 U ku r a n se ı
ıd a n im p e lle r
D i d a ta m
k e b a n y a k a rıp e r u s a h a a n r a tio d a r i d ia m e te r im
,

p e lle r D d a n p a n ja n g a ta u te b a r s e ll L a d a la h k o n s ta n P ilih a n
, ,
, ,

te r b a r y a k u n tu k in i a d a la h D /L 0 5 d a n h a r g a te r e n d a h d a r i r a t io
=
,

an j
in i a d a la h 0 2 5 0 3 5 R a tio tin g i H te r h a d a L b e r v a r ia s i
, , pp an g g , ,

an ta r a 1 00
,
1 60,
tın tu k D e n
ll 0 3 7 0 6 0 u n tu k W e m c o
v e r se
, , ,

F a g e r g r e n 0 9 7 1 2 4 tın tu k K n a p d a n B a te s
, , ,

C le a r a n c e a n ta ra im p e lle r d a n s ta to r im e lle r d a n s e ll tid a k


p ,

d ila p o r k a n o le h p e r u s a h a a n ta p i d e n g a n e n iıra n a n k e d a la m a n
p g » g
im p e lle r d a n \ 由 a ik a n p e n g a lir a n u d a r a k e e r lu a n te n a a a d a
p g p ,

flo ta s i d a p a t d ik u r a n g R a tio d a r i k e te b a la n im e lle r d a n d ia m e te r


p
te r le ta k a n ta r a 0 1 1 0 T e ta p i k e b a n y a k a n e r e n c a n a a n m e m ilih
, , p
tip e te r s e b u t 0 1 0 , 2 U n tu k p e n g o la h a n d a r i ti e a n s a m a d a r i
,
p y g
fe e d p a d a flo ta s i b ia s a n y a k e c e p a ta n p e r ip h e r a ld a r i im e lle r s e la lu
,
p
k o n s ttĮ n d a n h a s il flo ta s i k ir a k ira s a m a K e c e a ta n o tim u m d a r i
p p
im p e lle r d id a p a t d a r i p e r c o b a a n d a n b e b e r a a c o n to h a d a a d a
p , p
T abel4 1

rv 4
T a b e ı4 1 .

K e ce p a ta n p e r ip h e r a ıim p e ı
ıe r y a n g d ip e r k ir a k a n

o ıe h b e r b a g a ipe r u sa h a a n

M e s in K ec a ta n ftlm t
w

bgį tai
16 0 0 2400
BOOth
p e n v e r su
b A I 13 7 0 17 3 0

Ip e n v e r s ta n
d a rd 1 15 2 0 15 5 0

e ı R 12 2 o 12 4 o
wal«l ]5 10 15 6 0
l s ta n da rd 16 2 0 173 0
12 3 0 13 0 0
上 15 3 0 18 7 0
a p p + B a te s 16 o 0
ı4 0 0 1 7 6 0
rD e k h a n o v r e 13 0 0 18 0 0
W e m et 14 7 0 15 0 0
m n e ra lSpa r a t io n 14 5 0 15 7 0
id e n FR ) ı2 6 0 ı3 9 0
ı 55 0 0
】 16 8 0
配电罜9 14 6 0 18 6 0
◆ 15 0 0

H o rs t ? n M o r r is
27 )
te la h m e m p e r k e n a lk a n p e n g a r u h k e c e a ta n
p
im p e lle r ? n vo lu m
d a r a te r h a d a p k e c e p a ta n flo ta s i p a d a b e r b a a i
e u
g
m ac a m u k u r a n p e r tik e ı In fo rm a s i in i a d a laĺ h
p e n tin g d a ta m
m e n m tu k a n k o m
p r o m i a n ta ra v o lu m e u d a ra k e c e p a la n im p e lle r y a n g
d ip e r ı
u k a n Lu ı tu k m e n ? p a tk a n k e c e p a ta n n o ta s i a n o tim u m T
y g p e st
y a n g d ila k u k a n d e n a n m e m a k a i k o n s e n tr a t ir it M
g p e n u Ju t m e re ka
ke c e p a ta n flo t i k
o n s ta n m e n c a p a i m a k s im u m
a s
p a d a p a r tik e l y a n g
be ru ku r a n a
n ta ra 3 9 11 m 6 o p m ? n a k a n tu n u r b ila p a r tik e l le b ih
ke c ila ta u l b ,

e ih b e s a r E fe k tifita s d a r i e r ta m b a h a n k e
im e ile p c e p a ta n ? r i
P r a k a n b e rk u r
a n g jik a v o u m e u d a r a t i s e im b m
g
42 12
K e c e p a ta n a ı ir a n u d a r a
S u a tu s k a la k it i
r e r a u n tu k flo ta s iy a n g m e n g u n a x a n m e s in
sa m a g ya n g
te \ i b
e r b e d a u k u ra n a r tik e l, te la h d in y a ta k a n s e b a g a ia n k a
a lira p g
n ya n
g k o n s ta n

N 5
de n ga n ,

N q
-
an gka a lira n

Q =
v o lu m e a lir a n u d a ra (v o lu m e / w a k tu )
D = d ia m e te r im p e lle r
N =
k e c e p a ta n p e r p u ta ra n im p e ı
le r

B e b e ra p a h a r g a N a d a la h se b a ga i b e r ik u t
q
2
de n v e r s e ll : 1 2 10
2
fa g e rg r e n :4 7 10

U n tu k m en g u ra n g i s e n d im e n ta s i d a r ip a r tik e l k a s a r d i d a ta m
s e ll a 出出山 d e n ga n m e n u ru n k a n a n g k a a lir a n N C a ra n y a a d a laı
q
de n ga n m ena ik k a n k « e p a ta n p u ta ra n im p e lle r N a ta u menumnka
,

v o lu m e a lira n u d a ra M em u n g k in k a n ju g a d e n g a n p e n g a tu r a n k e d u a
v a r ia b e l te r s e b u t

4 2 1.3 K o n s u m s i te n a ga
K o n s u m s i te n a
g a y a n g d ip e rlu k a n p a ? m e s in flo ta s i y a n Ë
b e r be d a k u ra n te la h d ip e r k ira k a n s e b a g a ib e r ik u t
u

1 U n tu k k e c e p a ta n im p e lle r y a n k o n s ta te n a a a k a n b e r ta m ba t
g n g
b ila d ia m e te r im p e lle r b e r ta m b a h
2 B e r ta m ba h n ya ja r a k s u b m
e rg e n c y d a r i im
p e lle r k o n s u m s ite n a g ,

a ka b e r ta m b a h d a n v o lu m e u d a ra a k a n b e r k u r a n

g
3 N a ik n y a k e c e p a ta n im e lle r a n b e r b d b d k
p y g e a e ą o n s u m s ite n a g
y a n g d ip e r lu k a n a d a la h s e b a g a i2 0 3 5 u n tu k k e c e a ta n te r e n da ĥ
, p ,

d a n te r tin g g i d e n g a n r a ta ra ta s e b e s 2 6
, ar ,
4 K o n s lım s te n a a n a ik d e n
!
g g a n b e r b a n d in g lu ru s te rh a d a p k e n a ika n
b e r a t je n is d a r i p u l
p

rv 6
K o n s u m s i te n a g a ? la m flo ta s i p a ? s is te m tig a fa s a (p a d a t
c a ir )te la h d ik e m u k a k a n de n
g u r ru m 2 7)
u da ra us

de n w

P n e tp o w e r c o m
a ı
s
u m l io n p a da s is te m p ada t
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Par tike l k
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V13 -
d e n ga n k o ı e k to r a n io n ik
6 2 F lo ta s i k u a r sa

Ju g a m em u n g k in a k a n u n tu k m en g a p u n g k a n k w ir s a d e n g a n
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k a a n k u a r s a d i d a ta m la r u ta n m em
p e n g a tu t a ıı p H p e rm u ya i pu n
m u a ta n n e g a tif In i b e ra r tic o m y a h a r u s p o s itif a ta u k a tio n
le r io n n

p o te n tia l d e te r m in in g io tł u n tu k k u a r s a a d a a h o n o n h id r o k s n
l i i

d a n h id r o g e n Jik a p H la n 】ta n naidissosiasi io n w d a r i p e r m u k a a n


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i b
s o d iu m la u r a t tid a k a k a n b e r fu n g s s e a g a
i k o le k to r Io n io n la u r a t
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inid a p a t u a rsa p a da p H

g tin g g itid a k d a p a t m e n g a la m i d e p r e s i s e b a b a d a n a k
y m y o m p e tis i
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a ri be be p a fa k to r y a n g m e m p e n g a r u h i flo ta s i
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v n 6
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,

s ta b il B e r a r ti g a le n a d a n k lk
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n P e m is a h a n a n ta ra P b s da n C u F e Sl p a da p H =
9 5 ,

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9 ,5

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gg p
le n a d a p a t d a p u n g k a n

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=
.

a T am ba h C u s0 4 m tu k a la ifa s i Z n s

b T am b a h C a (O ıg 2 M n g Ba m =
11 5 ,

c T am bah K E X h ık m e n g a p u n g k a n Z n s y a n g te la h d ia k tifır
u n

o le h C u s0 s e a n g p ir it te ta p te n g g e la m k a r e ı
d ıa p H te r la lu
4

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rv P e m is a h a n a n ta r a F e S , d a n S iO a pa da p H = 6 5
.

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l = 6 ,5

b Tead p em b e n tu k a n F e E X k a ī e n a F c E X l e b i h i l d a r ip a d a
FE C N n i b e r a r ti d a p a t d ia p u
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