Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

Nuovo Pignone

CLIENTE - CUSTOMER
FIRENZE
LOCALITA' - PLANT LOCATION
COMMESSA - JOB IMPIANTO - PLAN
TITOLO - TITLE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
0 EMESSO - ISSUED EA 22/12/08 LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION PREP'D CONT-CHK'D APP-APPR'D DATA-DATE A 1 / 2
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato.
SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law.
SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
QAFCO 5 PROJECT
MESAIEED STATE OF QATAR
ANTISURGE WRITE-UP
for
AMMONIA SYNTHESIS COMPRESSOR
(Flow Element installed at compressor suction)
TAGGING RULE
Instrument to be wired (transmitter, limit switch, ecc)
351.5xxx07yyyZ (1
st
UNIT JOB 110.2339/190.0550)
361.6xxx07yyyZ (2
nd
UNIT JOB 110.2340/190.0551)
Where
xxx is instrument ID (ex. PIT for pressure instrument)
yyy is a progressive number starting from 251 to 305
This Functional Description is revised according to P. & I.D. (rev. 1)
TOTAL SHEET : 13
1102339 - 40
QATAR FERTILISER COMPANY
Job No.
Q5-PT-C900-01004
Job No.
317300
Category Code: Acceptance Code:
Rev. Status
1
00
Q5-SH-T151.32000-022
A company of Saipem
Doc. No.
51-MA-E-32022
Plant
QATAR FERTILISER COMPANY (S.A.Q.)
Sh. 1 of 13
QAFCO 5 PROJECT
Doc. ID code
Nardi G. Mannucci S.

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c
a
l
l
y

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

d
r
a
w
.

G
E

N
u
o
v
o
P
i
g
n
o
n
e

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

D
T
-
'
N
'
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 2 / 3
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
INDEX
SECTION 1 : GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1 - GENERAL FEATURES page 3/4
1.2 - SYMBOLS LEGEND page 4/5
1.3 - ANTISURGE CONTROL LAW page 5/6
1.4 - ANTISURGE CONTROL ALGORITHM page. 7/8
SECTION 2 : ANTISURGE PROTECTION
2.1 - ANTISURGE CONTROL page 8/9
2.2 - ANTISURGE CONTROL LINE (SCL) page 9/10
SECTION 3 : ANTISURGE CONTROLLER
3.1 - ANTISURGE CONTROLLER OPERATION page 11/12
3.2 - AUXILIARIES CONTROLLER OPERATION page 12/13
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 3 / 4
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
SECTION 1
1.1 GENERAL FEATURES
For each compressor speed, its possible to determine, on the plane SUCTION FLOW
COMPRESSION RATIO, a curve that describes all compressor operating points. Each obtained
curve meets its limits on the surge point, corresponding to the maximum polytropic head. All
surge points, defined for different speeds represent the limit line, on the left of this line (called
SURGE LIMIT LINE SLL) the compressor operates in an unstable area.
The purpose of the ANTISURGE CONTROL SYSTEM is to avoid that the operating point
A reaches the SLL. To achieve this objective, its defined, on the right of the SLL, a
protection line where (point B) the control system will operate opening the antisurge valve.
This line is called SURGE CONTROL LINE (SCL). The opening of the antisurge valve
increases the suction flow moving the operating point along the speed characteristic curve, from
the critical condition to the stable operating area (fig. 1).
Fig. 1
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 4 / 5
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
1.2 SYMBOLS LEGEND
N = compressor speed
K
1
,K
2,
K
3
,K
4
= constants
Q
S
= volumetric flow
Hp = polytropic head
Pd = discharge pressure
Ps = suction pressure
Z = compressibility factor
R = gas constant
T = gas absolute temperature
n = polytropic head exponent
| = characteristic orifice constant
hs
= Ap across the orifice
s = suction gas density
PSD = design suction pressure
K = deviation margin
SLL = surge limit line
SCL = surge control line
PV = process variable (compressor operating point)
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 5 / 6
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
1.3 ANTISURGE CONTROL LAW
Considering a mono-stage centrifugal compressor, it is possible to verify the following relations,
varying the compressor speed, for each surge point:
(1) Q
S
= K
1
* N
(2) Hp = K
2
* N
2
From (1) and (2) we obtain
(3)
2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
=
K
Qs
K Hp where
( )
3
2
1
2
K
K
K
= = constant .So : ( )
2
3 s
Q K Hp =
being
(4)
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
1
n
n
Ps
Pd
n
n
ZRT Hp
from (3) and (4) we obtain
(5) ( )
2
3
1
1
1
s
n
n
s
d
Q K
P
P
n
n
ZRT =
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
If Qs is measured through a flow element installed at the compressor suction, we can express it
related to the measured Ap
(6)
s
s
s
h
Q

| =
since
RZT
P
s
s
= the (6) becomes
s
s
s
P
RZT h
Q
*
| = (7)
so we can describe the (5) as :
s
s
n
n
s
d
P
ZRT h
K
P
P
n
n
ZRT
2
3
1
1
1
| =
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 6 / 7
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
Simplifying ZRT in the expression, the obtained equation, that represents all the surge points in
function of the orifice Ap; we can demonstrate how the surge phenomenon is not influenced by
the gas condition and composition.
(8)
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
*
1
2
3
n
n
s
d s
s
P
P
n
n
K
P
h
|
Moreover for small compression ratios, using series expansion at first order ( ) 1 1 + ~ m
m
we have:
1 1
1
1
~
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
s
d
n
n
s
d
P
P
P
P
n
n
; so the (8) becomes :
(

= 1
*
2
3
s
d s
s
P
P
K
P
h
|
where
4
2
3
*
1
K
K
=
|
is a constant
(9)
(

= 1 * *
4
s
d
s s
P
P
K P h 1
* * 1
4
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
K P
P
P
h
s
s
d
s
The equation (9) defines the SLL shape, on the plane of compression ratio () versus flow (Q),
represented by a parabola which has the minimum located in = 1 and Q = 0 , Fig 1a .

Q Q
Fig.1a Fig.1b
The fig. 1a represents a theoretical performance characteristic for a single stage compressor (one
impeller only), while the Fig. 1b represents a typical characteristic for a multistage compressor.
As we can see in the latter conditions the antisurge control line can not be realized utilizing a
parabola without cutting a large zone of compressor operability .
SLL SCL SLL
SCL
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 7 / 8
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
In order to avoid this inconvenient, the Surge Control Line is calculated by a eight break lines
function generator
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
s d
P
P P
f that permits to realize the SLL and consequently the relevant SCL.
The SCL will be positioned at a pre-set percentage margin (K), to the right of the first one .

Q
1.4 ANTISURGE CONTROL ALGORITHM
In order to meet the described requests, the control algorithm will be developed inside the
controller is the follows :
2
*
K
P
P P
f
P
P
h
s
s d
s
sd
s
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
Where :
hs = differential pressure on calibrated orifice at compressor suction (Eng. unit).
Pd = compressor absolute discharge pressure (eng. unit).
Ps = compressor absolute suction pressure (eng. unit).
Psd = compressor absolute suction pressure at design conditions
The controller set-point is K
2
. It represents the deviation margin between SLL and SCL . In
the Antisurge Control Line configuration sheet , the margin is expressed in percentage of flow.
The algorithm takes in account the AP measured across the flow element (indicated by hs) that
is proportional to square suction flow (hs = Q
2
) .
The controller algorithm compensates continuously the hs signal according to the suction
pressure variation, taking in account the suction pressure measured and comparing it with the
design suction pressure PSD.
SCL SLL
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 8 / 9
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
SECTION 2
2.1 ANTISURGE CONTROLLER
The picture 2 shows the antisurge system diagram. With reference to the picture, the instruments
range will be :
INSTRUMENT MEASURED VARIABLE RANGES
PT-278 SUCTION PRESSURE 0 6 Mpa(g)
PT-280 DISCHARGE PRESSURE 0 25 Mpa(g)
FT-258 FLOW ELEMENT DIFFER. PRESSURE 0 25 Kpa
Fig. 2
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 9 / 10
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
2.2 ANTISURGE CONTROL LINE
The picture 3 shows the SLL and SCL line on the plane COMPRESSOR RATIO ORIFICE
AP.
Fig. 3
Units
for all
tables
Flow
Margin %
m3/h 10
mBar
bara
K
N Q surge (Pd/Ps)-1 hs(SLL) hs(scl)
1 5556 0.000 31.54 38.16
2 5556 2.551 31.54 38.16
3 6037.857 3.118 37.24 45.06
4 6519.714 3.685 43.42 52.54
5 7001.571 4.316 50.08 60.60
6 7483.429 5.018 57.21 69.23
7 7965.286 5.721 64.82 78.43
8 8447.143 6.516 72.90 88.20
9 8929 7.331 81.45 98.55
hs_safe 81.45 98.55 (Pd/Ps)-1 (R)
(Pd/Ps)-1 (N)
hs(R) @ ref.con.
Abs.disch.press.
Q(R) vol. flow
91.13
Mol. weight
Abs.suct.press.
Compressibility
8.702
FE diff.pressure
290.2
1.012
Abs. suct. temp.
Surge values @ reference conditions
15643.3
Compressibility 1.012 1.012
Absolute suction pressure 31.40 31.40
Absolute suct. temperature
Point N (normal point)
290.2
Differential pressure 250.00 250.00
Molecular weight 8.702 8.702
290.2
FE calc.
values
FE values @
refer.conditions
Volumetric flow 15642.0
FLOW ELEMENT
4.959
PSD
187.10
91.11
91.13
31.40
4.959
9443.9
9445.0 Q(N) @ ref.con.
Point R (real point)
hs(N) @ ref.con.
187.100 Abs.disch.press.
Antisurge curve
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
Differ. Press. across suction FE at refer. conditions (mBar)
(
P
d
/
P
s
)
-
1
hs(SLL)
hs(SCL)
N
R
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 10 / 11
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
-Surge Limit Line
span press Diff
cond ref span flow Vol
Qsurge
sll hs . .
. . @ . .
) (
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
-Surge Control Line
( )
2
100
100 . .
) ( ) (
(

+
=
mar Flow
sll hs scl hs
-Point R (real point)
This portion of values could be use for verify the operating point position during compressor running.
-Point N (normal point)
Represents the compressor operating point @ performance curve reference conditions
-FE calc. values
Values used for the design of flow element (data from FE calculation sheet) .
-FE values @ refer. condition
FE design values converted to the compressor reference condition.
-Surge value @ reference condition
Surge values expressed by volumetric suction flow and (Pd/Ps)-1 at compressor reference
condition.
-hs_safe
Represent the antisurge controller setpoint in case of one or more pressure and temperature
transmitters in fault.
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 11 / 12
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
SECTION 3
3.1 ANTISURGE CONTROLLER OPERATION
Controller Operation; Cascade PI control by direct action with the following signals:
Inputs :
a) Suction pressure (Ps)
b) Discharge Pressure (Pd)
c) Differential pressure on suction orifice Suction Flow (hs)
d) HIC Antisurge valve manual opening/closing command.
e) Safety Protection/Correction disabling.
f) External protection (EP)
g) L4AS (min. control speed) antisurge controller enable / disable.
h) External Transient.
i) PURGE command.
j) Zero Speed.
k) Solenoid Reset push button.
l) External override controller.
Outputs :
a) Antisurge valve control signal (ASVC)
b) Solenoid Valve Command.
c) Transmitter Failure indication.
d) Safety Protection/Correction disabling indication.
e) A/S Solenoid Valve de-energize indication.
f) A/S Controller Manual Control indication.
g) Feedback to external override controller.
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 12 / 13
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
3.2 AUXILIARIES CONTROLLERS OPERATION
a) Dead band function :
If the difference between measure and set is included between imposed value, the controller
output does not change. This function permits to make the controller less sensitive to the noise of
flow transmitter.
b) Transient Absorption :
If the measure decreases very fast, to anticipate the controller response, the controller set point is
incremented by a fixed value.
When the condition resets, the set point return to the previous value following a pre-set ramp .
Pressure
Ratio
Suction Flow
Surge Limit Line
Safety Protection Line
Safety Correction Line
Surge Control Line
Compressor
Operating
Point
Nuovo Pignone
FIRENZE
ITEM 51.K0701
N. SOS9972962 /4
LINGUA-LANG. PAGINA-SHEET
REV. DESCRIZIONE - DESCRIPTION A 13 / 13
Il presente documento di propriet NUOVO PIGNONE. A termine di legge ogni diritto riservato. SOSTITUISCE IL - REPLACES
This document is the property of NUOVO PIGNONE. All rights are reserved according to law. SOSTITUITO DA - REPLACED BY
c) Safety Correction :
When the measure is lower of the Safety Correction Line (SLL + 5% in term of flow) the
antisurge controller output decreases following fixed steps in fixed time gaps until the measure
goes back to a value higher than Safety Correction Line.
d) Safety Protection :
When the measure is lower of the Safety Protection Line (SLL + 2% in term of flow) the
antisurge controller output decreases following quick opening ramp until the measure goes back
to the right of the Safety Correction Line .
e) Rate limiter function :
Its used to avoid instability phenomenon on antisurge control introducing an output limit of
variation. Quick rate is used in opening, slow rate in closing.
f) Safety disabling function :
Allows disabling the safety protection and safety correction functions. Password protected.
A typical application of this function is the compressor surge points test, using the controller in
manual mode.
g) Manual operation override function :
Allows the automatic disabling of manual control in case measure reaches the Safety
Correction limit.
h) Controller Enabling/Disabling
When the controller is disabled the antisurge valve is forced to open position. Controller is
generally enabled when min. control speed is reached.
i) Purge function :
Allows the complete closing of the antisurge valve when the compressor is stopped .