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lim

n+

sin 1

1

n

= 1

1 cos 1

n 1

=

sin

1

n

1

n n

1

2

2

2

= 0

lim

n+

lim

n+1

n

n+ n! = +

lim

n+n n = +

lim

lim

n+

n

q

n k = + q ]1; +[, k R

lim

n+

n

q

n k = 0 q ] 1; 1[, k R

q

n

lim

n+n!

= 0 q R

lim

n+

n n! n = 0

n+ 1 +

lim

n n

1

= e

lim

n+

log 1 +

1

n

1

n

= 1

lim

n+

1

e n 1

1

n

= 1

 a n < +∞ lim n→∞ a n = 0 n∈N |S n+k − S n | < a n < +∞ n∈N a n a n < +∞ n∈N n∈N b n ≥ a n b n < +∞ a n < +∞ n∈N n∈N lim n→+∞ a b n n = L ∈ ]0; +∞[ a n b n lim n→+∞ √ a n = L ∈ [0; 1[ n a n < +∞ n∈N lim n→+∞ √ a n = L ∈ ]1; +∞] n a n = +∞ n∈N lim a n+1 = L ∈ [0; 1[ n∈N a n < +∞ n→+∞ a n lim a n+1 = L ∈ ]1; +∞[ n∈N a n = +∞ n→+∞ a n a n ≥ 0 a n ≥ a n+1 ∀n ∈ N a n < +∞ ⇔ 2 n a 2 n < +∞ n∈N n∈N {B n } n a n ≥ 0 a n ≥ a n+1 ∀n ∈ N (a n b n ) < +∞ n∈N

f

lim

f(x)0

sin f (x) f(x)

= 1

lim

f(x)0

1 cos f (x)

= 1

2

f(x) 2

lim

f(x)0

sin f (x) f (x)

f(x) 2

= 0

f(x)+f(x) f(x) = +

lim

lim

f(x)+

q f(x)

f(x) k

= + q ]1; +[, k R

lim

f(x)+

q f(x)

f(x) k

= 0 q ] 1; 1[, k R

f(x)+ 1 +

lim

f(x) f(x)

1

= e

log (1 + f (x))

f(x)

e f(x) 1

f(x)

= 1

lim

f(x)0

= 1

lim

f(x)0

 k ∈ R =⇒ x a , a = −1 =⇒ 1 =⇒ x e x =⇒ sin x =⇒ cos x =⇒ tan x =⇒ log x =⇒ sinh x =⇒ cosh x =⇒ tanh x =⇒ arcsin x =⇒ arccos x =⇒ arctan x =⇒ a x =⇒ log a x =⇒ √ x =⇒

0

ax a1

 − 1 x 2 e x cos x − sin x 1 + tan 2 x = 1 x cosh x sinh x 1 − tanh 2 x = 1 √ 1 − x 2 −1 √ 1 − x 2

1

cos 2 x

1

cosh 2 x

1

1 + x 2 a x log a

1

x log a

1

2 x

 f(x) a , a = −1 =⇒ 1 f(x) =⇒ e f(x) =⇒ sin f (x) =⇒ cos f (x) =⇒ tan f (x) =⇒ log f (x) =⇒ arctan f (x) =⇒ f(x) =⇒

af (x)f(x) a1

f (x)

f(x) 2

f (x)e f(x)

f (x) cos f (x)

f (x) sin f (x)

f (x)

cos 2 f(x) f (x)

f(x)

f (x)

1 + f(x) 2

f (x)

2 f(x)

 (f · g)(x) =⇒ (f + g)(x) =⇒ f(x) g(x) =⇒ (g ◦ f )(x) = g(f (x)) =⇒

f (x) · g (x) + g(x) · f (x)

f

(x) + g (x)

f (x)g(x) g (x)f(x)

g(x) 2

f (x)g (f (x))

 e x = log(1 + x) = sin x = cos x = tan x = arcsin x = arccos x = arctan x = 1 = 1 − x (1 + x) a = sinh x = cosh x = tanh x =

1

+ x + x 2 +

2

x x 2 + x 3

2

3

x x 3! 3

+ x 5! 5

1 x 2! 2

+ x 4! 4

+

n

x n! + o(x n )

n

+ (1) n1 x n + o(x n )

+ (1) n x 2n+1

(2n + 1)! + o(x 2n+2 )

+ (1) n

x 2n

(2n)! + o(x 2n+1 )

x

3

2x 5

x +

x + 1

2

3

x

15

+ 2 · 4

+

3

+

1 · 3 x 5

o(x 6 )

+

3

5

π

2

x 1

2

1 · 3 x 5

x

3

3

2 · 4

5

+ (2n 1)!!

x

2n+1

2n + 1 + o(x 2n+2 )

x

2n+1

(2n)!!

(2n 1)!!

2n + 1 + o(x 2n+2 )

(2n)!!

x x 3

3

+ x 5 5

x

2n+1

+ (1) n 2n + 1 + o(x 2n+2 )

1 + x + x 2 +

+ x n + o(x n )

1 + ax + a(a 1) x 2 +

x 5

x

n

(a n + 1) x n! + o(x n )

2

+

+ a(a 1)

x

2n+1

+ x 3! 3

+

5! +

(2n + 1)! + o(x 2n+2 )

x 2 + x 4

1 +

2!

+

4!

2x

5

+

x

x 3

3

15

x

2n

+

(2n)! + o(x 2n+1 )

+ o(x 6 )

b

= 0 k R a

= 1 c > 0

k =

=

1

=

x

x a

kx

x a+1

a + 1

log |x|

e x

sin x

cos x

tan x

log x

sinh x

cosh x

tanh x

arcsin x

arccos x

arctan x

1

x 2 + b 2

1

x 2 b 2

x

x 2

+ k

x 2 + k

c x 2

1

b x 2

1

c x 2

=e x

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

cos x

sin x

log | cos x|

x(logx 1)

cosh x

sinh x

log cosh x

arcsin x + 1 x 2

arccos x 1 x 2

arctan x log 1 x 2

1 b arctan x
b
1
|x − b|
2b log
|x + b|
log x 2 + k
1 b arctan x
k
c
x
(arcsin √
c − x 2 )
2
c + x c
log |x + x 2 + b|
x
arcsin
c

=

=

=

=

=

=