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CONSTANTES DE DISOCIACION PARA ACIDOS

cidos
Actico
Aluminio (hidrxido)
Aluminio (in)
Amonio (in)
Antimonio (III) Hidrxido

Arsnico (orto)

Arsenoso (meta)
Benzoico
Bismuto (III) in
Brico (orto)
Bromhdrico
n-butrico
Carbnico
Cianhdrico
Cinc( hidrxido)
Cinc (in)
Ctrico

Cloractico
Clorhdrico
Cobre (II) (hidrxido)
Cobre (II) (in)
Crmico
Cromo (III)(hidrxido)
Cromo (III) (in)
Dicloroactico
Estao (IV) hidrxido
Estao (II)hidrxido
Frmico
Fosfrico (orto)

o-ftlico
m- ftlico
p-ftlico

Ecuacin de equilibrio

HC2H3O2 + H2O H3O+ + C2H3OAl(OH)3 H3O+ + AlO2+


Al3+ + 2H2O H3O+ + AlOH2+
NH4+ + H2O H3O+ + NH3
SbOOH + H2O H3O+ + SbO2H3AsO4 + H2O H3O+ + H2AsO4H2AsO4 + H2O H3O+ + HAsO42HAsO4 + H2O H3O+ + AsO43HAsO2 + H2O H3O+ + AsO2HC7H5O2 + H2O H3O+ + C7H5O2Bi3+ + 2H2O H3O+ + BiOH2+
H3BO3 + H2O H3O+ + H2BO3HBr + H2O H3O+ + BrHC4H7O2 + H2O H3O+ + C4H7O2H2CO3 + H2O H3O+ + HCO3HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32HCN + H2O H3O+ + CNZn(OH)2 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + ZnO2 2Zn2+ + 2H2O H3O+ + ZnOH+
H3C6H5O7+ H2O H3O+ + H2C6H5O7H2C6H5O7-+ H2O H3O++ HC6H5O7-2
HC6H5O7-2+ H2O H3O+ + C6H5O7-3
HC2H2ClO2 + H2O H3O+ + C2H2ClO2HCl + H2O H3O+ + ClCu(OH)2 + H2O H3O+ + HCuO2HCuO2- + H2O H3O+ + CuO2Cu2+ + 2H2O H3O+ + CuOH+
H2CrO4 + H2O H3O+ +HCrO4HCrO4- + H2O H3O+ +CrO4-2
Cr(OH)3 + H2O H3O+ + CrO2-2
Cr3++ 2H2O H3O+ + CrOH2+
HC2HCl2 + H2O H3O+ + C2HCl2O2Sn(OH)4 + 4H2O 2H3O+ + [ Sn(OH)6]2Sn(OH)2 + H2O H3O+ + HSnO2HCHO2 + H2O H3O+ + CHO2H3PO4 + H2O H3O+ + H2PO4H2PO4- + H2O H3O+ + HPO4-2
HPO42- + H2O H3O+ + PO4-3
H2C8H4O4 + H2O H3O+ + HC8H4O4HC8H4O4- + H2O H3O+ + C8H4O42H2C8H4O4 + H2O H3O+ + HC8H4O4HC8H4O4- + H2O H3O+ + C8H4O42H2C8H4O4 + H2O H3O+ + HC8H4O4

Ka

pKa

1.80 x 10-5
4 x 10-13
1.4 x 10-5(kh)
5.5 x 10-10(kh)
1 x 10-11
2.5 x 10-4
5.6 x 10-8
3 x 10-13
6 x 10-10
6.6 x 10-5
1 x 10-2(kh)
6.0 x 10-10
grande
1.5 x 10-5
4.2 x 10-7
4.8 x 10-11
4 x 10-10
2.5 x 10-29
2.5 x 1010(kh)
8.4 x 10-4
1.8 x 10-5
4.0 x 10-6
1.4 x10-3
grande
1 x 10-19
7.9 x 10-14
1 x 10-8
10-1
3.2 x 10-7
9 x 10-17
1 x 10-4(kh)
3.3 x 10-2
10-32
3.8 x 10-15
2.1 x 10-4
7.5 x 10-3
6.2 x 10-8
10-12
1.3 x 10-3
3.9 x 106
2.9 x 10-4
2.5 x 10-5
3.1 x 10-4

4.7
12.4
4.9
9.3
11.0
3.6
7.3
12.5
9.2
4.2
2.0
9.2
neg.
4.8
6.4
10.3
9.4
29
9.6
3.1
4.7
5.4
2.8
neg.
19
13.1
8.0
1.0
6.5
16.1
4.0
1.5
32
14.4
3.7
2.1
7.2
12
2.9
5.5
3.5
4.6
3.5

Fluorhdrico
Hexacianoanofrrico(III)

Hexacianofrrico(II)

Hierro(III) in
Hierro(II) in
Hipocloroso
Lctico
Magnesio(in)
Mercurio(II)ion
Ntrico
Nitroso
Oxlico
Perclrico
Permangnico
Perxido de hidrgeno
Pcrico
Plomo(II) hidrxido
Propinico propanoico
Saliclico
Silcico (meta)
Sulfmico
Sulfhdrico
Sulfrico
Sulfuroso
Tartrico
Tiocinico
Tiosulfrico
Tricloroactico
Yodhdrico

HC8H4O4- + H2O H3O+ + C8H4O42HF + H2O H3O+ +FH3(Fe(CN)6) + H2O H3O+ + H2(Fe(CN)6)H2(Fe(CN)6)- + H2O H3O+ + H(Fe(CN)6)2H(Fe(CN)6)2- + H2O H3O+ + (Fe(CN)6)3H4(Fe(CN)6) + H2O H3O+ + H3(Fe(CN)6)H3(Fe(CN)6)- + H2O H3O+ + H2(Fe(CN)6)2H2(Fe(CN)6)2- + H2O H3O+ + H(Fe(CN)6)3H(Fe(CN)6)3- + H2O H3O+ + (Fe(CN)6)4Fe3+ + H2O H3O+ + FeOH2+
Fe2+ + H2O H3O+ + FeOH+
HClO + H2O H3O+ +ClOHC3H5O3 + H2O H3O+ + C2HCl2O2Mg2+ + H2O H3O+ + MgOH+
Hg2+ + H2O H3O+ + HgOH+
HNO3+ H2O H3O+ + NO3HNO2 + H2O H3O+ + NO2H2C2O4 + H2O H3O+ + HC2O4HC2O4- + H2O H3O+ + C2O42HClO4 + H2O H3O+ + ClO4HMnO4+ H2O H3O+ + MnO4H2O2 + H2O H3O+ + HO2HC6H2N3O7 + H2O H3O+ + C6H2N3O7Pb(OH)2 + H2O H3O+ + HPbO2HC3H5O2 + H2O H3O+ + C3H5O2HC7H5O3+ H2O H3O+ + C7H5O3H2SiO3 + H2O H3O+ + HSiO3HSiO3- + H2O H3O+ + SiO32HNH2SO3 + H2O H3O+ + NH2SO3H2S+ H2O H3O+ + HSHS-+ H2O H3O+ +S2H2SO4- + H2O H3O+ + HSO4HSO4- + H2O H3O+ + HSO42H2SO3 + H2O H3O+ + HSO3HSO3- + H2O H3O+ + SO32H2C4H4O6 + H2O H3O+ + HC4H4O6HC4H4O6- + H2O H3O+ + C4H4O62HNCS + H2O H3O+ + NCSH2S2O3 + H2O H3O+ + HS2O3HS2O3- + H2O H3O+ + S2O32HC2Cl3O2 + H2O H3O+ + C2Cl3O2HI+ H2O H3O+ +I-

1.5 x 10-5
6.7 x 10-4
grande
grande
grande
grande
10-3
5.6 x 10-5
4.0 x 10-3(Kh)
4.0 x 10-3
1.2 x 10-8
3.2 x 10-8
8.4 x 10-4(kh)
2 x 10-12(kh)
2 x 10-3(kh)
grande
4.5 x 10-4
3.8 x 10-2
5.0 x 10-5
grande
grande
2.4 x 10-12
4.2 x 10-1
4.6 x 10-16
1.4 x 10-5
1.0 x 10-3
3.2 x 10-10
6.3 x 10-12
1.0 x 10-1
1 x10-7
1.3 x 10-13
grande
1.26 x 10-2
1.25 x 10-2
5.6 x 10-8
1.0 x 10-3
4.3 x 10-5
grande
2.0 x 10-2
3.2 x 10-3
2.0 x 10-1
grande

4.8
3.2
neg
neg
neg
neg
3
4.2
2.4
2.4
7.5
7.5
3.1
11.7
2.7
neg
3.4
1.4
4.3
neg
neg
11.6
0.4
15.3
4.9
3.0
9.5
11.8
1.0
7.0
12.9
neg
1.9
1.9
7.3
3.0
4.4
neg
1.7
2.5
0.7
neg

CONSTANTES DE DISOCIACION PARA BASES


Base

Ecuacin de equilibrio

Kb

pKb

Acetato (in)
Amoniaco
Anilina
Arsenato (in)(orto)

Arsenito (ion)
Borato (ion)
Tetraborato (ion)
Bromuro
Carbonato (ion)
Fosfato

(in) (orto)

Glicina
Hexacianoferrato(III)*
Hexacianoferrato(II)*
* (ion)
hidrazina
Hidroxilamina
Metilamina
Nitrato (in)
Nitrito (ion)
Oxalato (ion)
Permanganato (in)
Piridina
Sicalato (in) (meta)
Sulfato (in)
Sulfito (in)
Sulfuro (in)
Tiocianato (in)
Tiosulfato (in)
Trietanolamina
Trietilamina
Trimetilamina
Yoduro (in)

C2H3O2- + H2O HC2H3O2 + OHNH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHC6H5NH2 + H2O C6H5NH3+ + OHAsO43- + H2O HAsO42- + OHHAsO42- + H2O H2AsO4- + OHH2AsO42- + H2O H3AsO4 + OHAsO2- + H2O HAsO2 + OHH2BO3- + H2O H3BO3 + OHB4O72- + 5H2O 2H2BO3- + 2H3BO3
Br- + H2O HBr + OHHCO3- + H2O H2CO3 + OHCO32- + H2O HCO3- + OHPO4- + H2O HPO4- + OHHPO4- + H2O H2PO4- + -OH
H2PO4- + H2O H3PO4 + -OH
NH3CH2CO2 + H2O NH3 CH3 COOH + -OH
(Fe(CN)6)- + H2O H(Fe(CN)6)- + -OH
(Fe(CN)6)4- + H2O H(Fe(CN)6)- + -OH
H(Fe(CN)6)- + H2O H2(Fe(CN)6)- + -OH
H2NNH2 + H2O H2NNH3+ + -OH
HONH2 + H2O H2NNH3+ + -OH
CH3NH2 + H2O CH3NH3+ + -OH
NO3- + H2O HNO3 + -OH
NO2- + H2O HNO2 + -OH
C2O4 - + H2O HNO2 + -OH
MnO4- + H2O HMnO4 + -OH
C5H5N + H2O C5H5NH* + -OH
SiO3- + H2O HSiO3- + -OH
HSiO- + H2O H2SiO3 +-OH
SO4- + H2O HSO4- + -OH
SO3- + H2O HSO3- + -OH
HSO3- + H2O H2SO3 + -OH
S + H2O HS- + -OH
HS- + H2O H2S + -OH
NCS-+ H2O H2S + -OH
S2O3 + H2O HS2O3- + -OH
(HOC2H2)3N + H2O (HOC2H2)3 NH+ + -OH
(C2H5)3 N + H2O (C2H5)3 NH+ + -OH
(CH3)3N + H2O (CH3)3 NH+ + -O
I- + H2O HI + -OH

5,6 x 10-10(Kh)
1,8 x 10-5
3,8 x 10-10
3,3 x 10-2(Kh)
1,8 x 10-7(Kh)
4,0 x 10-11(Kh)
1,6 x 10-5(Kh)
1,6 x 10-5(Kh)
10-3
muy pequeo
2,4 x 10-8(Kh)
2,1 x 10-4(Kh)
10-2 (Kh)
1.6 x 10-7 (Kh)
1.3 x 10-12(Kh)
2.2 x 10-12
muy pequeo
1.8 x 10-10 (Kh)
10-11
1.3 x 10-6
9.1 x 10-9
4.4 x 10-4
muy pequeo
2.2 x 10 -11(Kh)
2.0 x 10-10 (Kh)
muy pequeo
2.0 x 10-9
1.6 x 10-3(Kh)
3.1 x 10-5(Kh)
8.0 x 10-13(Kh)
1.8 x 10-7 (Kh)
8.0 x 10-13 (Kh)
7.7 x 10- (kh)
1.0 x 10-7(Kh)
muy pequeo
3.1 x 10-12 (Kh)
5.9 x 10-7
5.3 x 10-4
5.3 x 10-5
muy pequeo

9,3
4,7
9,4
1,5
6,7
10,4
4,8
4,8
3
grande
7,6
3,7
2
6.8
11.9
11.7
grande
9.7
11
5.9
8.0
3.4
grande
10.7
9.7
grande
8.7
2.8
4.5
12.1
6.7
12.1
1.1
7.0
grande
11.5
6.2
3.3
4.3
grande

CONSTANTES DEL PRODUCTO DE SOLUBILIDAD Kps


Anin
Acetato

Ecuacin de equilibrio

AgC2H3O2 Ag+ + C2H3O2Hg2(C2H3O2)2 Hg22+ + 2C2H3O2-

Kps

pKps

4 x 10-3
3.6 x 10-10

2.4
9.4

Arsenato (orto)

Bromato
Bromuro

Carbonato

Cloruro

Cromato

Ag3AsO4 3Ag+ + AsO43AlAsO4 Al3+ + AsO43Ba3(AsO4)2 3Ba2+ + 2AsO43Ca3(AsO4)2 3Ca2++ 2AsO43Cd3(AsO4)2 3Cd2++ 2AsO43CrAsO4 Cr3+ + AsO43Cu3(AsO4)2 3Cu2+ + 2AsO43FeAsO4 Fe3+ + AsO43Pb3(AsO4)2 3Pb2+ + 2AsO43Mg3(AsO4)2 3Mg2+ + 2AsO43Mn3(AsO4)2 3Mn2+ + 2AsO43Ni3(AsO4)2 3Ni2+ + 2AsO43Zn3(AsO4)2 3Zn2+ + 2AsO43AgBrO3 Ag+ + BrO3Ba(BrO3)2 Ba2+ + 2BrO3
CuBr Cu+ + Br
PbBr2 Pb2+ + 2BrHg2Br2 Hg22+ + 2BrHgBr2 Hg2+ + 2BrAgBr Ag+ + BrTlBr Tl+ + BrBaCO3 Ba2+ + CO3 2CdCO3 Cd2+ + CO3 2CaCO3 Ca2+ + CO3 2CoCO3 Co2+ + CO3 2CuCO3 Cu2+ + CO3 2FeCO3 Fe2+ + CO3 2Li2CO3 2Li+ + CO3 2PbCO3 Pb2+ + CO3 2MgCO3 Mg2+ + CO3 2MnCO3 Mn2+ + CO3 2NiCO3 NI2+ + CO3 2Hg2CO3 Hg22+ + CO3 2Ag2CO3 2Ag+ + CO3 2SrCO3 Sr2+ + CO3 2Tl2CO3 2Tl+ + CO3 2ZnCO3 Zn2+ + CO3 2BiOCl BiO+ + Cl CuCl Cu+ + Cl PbCl2 Pb2+ + 2Cl Hg2Cl2 Hg22+ + 2Cl HgCl2 Hg2+ + Cl AgCl Ag+ + Cl TlCl Tl+ + Cl BaCrO4 Ba 2+ + CrO4 2CaCrO4 Ca 2+ + CrO4 2-

1x 10-22
1.6 x10-16
1.1x 10-3
6.8 x 10-19
2.2 x 10-33
7.8 x 10-21
7.6 x 10-36
5.8 x10-21
4.1 x 10-36
2.1 x 10-20
1.9 x 10-29
3.1 x 10-26
1.1 x 10-27
6 x 10-5
5.5 x 10-6
5.3 x10-9
4.6 x 10-6
1.3 x 10-22
1.1 x 10-19
5.2 x 10-13
3.9 x 10-6
5.1 x 10-9
5.2 x 10-12
4.7 x 10-9
8.0 x 10-13
2.5 x 10-10
3.5 x 10-11
3.1 x 10-1
1.5 x 10-13
2.1 x 10-20
8.8 x 10-11
1.4 x 10-7
8.9 x 10-17
8.2 x 10-12
7.0 x 10-10
4 x 10-3
2.0 x 10-10
7.9 x 10-9
3.2 x 10-7
1.6 x 10-5
1.1x 10-18
6.1 x 10-15
2.8 x 10-10
1.8 x 10-4
8.5 x 10-11
7.1 x 10-4

22.0
15.8
12.9
18.2
32.7
20.1
35.1
20.2
35.4
19.7
28.7
25.5
26.9
4.2
5.3
8.3
5.3
21.9
18.9
12.3
5.4
8.3
11.3
8.3
12.9
9.6
10.5
0.5
12.8
19.7
10.9
6.9
16.1
11.1
9.2
2.4
9.7
8.2
6.5
4.8
17.9
14.2
9.6
3.7
10.1
3.2

Cianuro

Fluoruro

Fosfato

Hexacianoferrato (II)
Hexacianoferrato (III)
Hidrxido

CuCrO4 Cu 2+ + CrO4 2PbCrO4 Pb 2+ + CrO42Hg2CrO4 Hg2 2+ + CrO4 2Ag2CrO4 2Ag + +

3.6 x 10-6
2.0 x 10-16
2.0 x 10-9
1.9 x 10-12

5.4
15.7
8.7
11.7

SrCrO4 Sr2+ + CrO4 2TI2CrO4 2TI+ + CrO4 2


CuCN Cu4 + CNHg2(CN)2 Hg22+ + 2CNAgCN Ag+ + CNBaF2 Ba2' + 2FCaF2 Ca2 + 2F
LiF Li+ + FPbF2 Pb2+ + 2FMgF2 Mg2+ + 2FSrF2 Sr2+ + 2FThF4 Th4+ + 4FAIPO4 AI3+ + PO43Ba3(PO4)2 3Ba2+ + 2PO43BiPO4 Bi3+ + PO43Ca3(PO4)2 3Ca2+ 2PO43FePO4 Fe3+ + PO43Pb3 (PO4)2 3Pb2++ 2PO43Li3PO4 3Li+ + PO43Mg3 (PO4)3 3Mg2+ + 2PO43MgNH4PO4 Mg2+ + NH4 + + PO43Mn3(PO4) 3Mn2+ + 2PO43Ag3PO4 3Ag+ + PO43Sr3 (PO4)2 3Sr2+ + 2PO43TI3 PO4 3TI+ + PO43Zn3 (PO4)2 3Zn2+ + 2PO43K2Zn3 (Fe(CN)6)2 2K+ + 3Zn2+ + 2Fe(CN)64Ag4(Fe(CN)6) 4Ag+ + Fe(CN) 64Ag4(Fe(CN)6) 3Ag+ + Fe(CN) 63AI(OH)3 Al3+ + 30HSbOOH SbO+ + OHBe(OH)2 Be2+ + 2OHBiOOH BiO+ + OHCd(OH)2 Cd2+ + 2OHCa(OH)2 Ca2 + + 2OHCe(OH)3 Ce3+ + 3OHCr(OH)3 Cr3+ + 3OHCr(OH)2 Cr2+ + 2OHCo(OH)3 Co3+ + 3OHCo(OH)2 Co2+ + 2OHCu(OH)2 Cu2+ + 2OHFe(OH)3 Fe3+ + 3OH-

3.6 x l0-6
9.8 x 10-13
1.0 x 10-11
5 x 10-4
1.6 x 10-14
2.4 x 10-5
1.7 x 10-10
5.0 x 10-3
4 x 10-8
8 x 10-8
7.9 x 10-10
4.0 x 10-28
5.8 x 10-19
6.0 x 10-39
1 x 10-20
1.3 x 10-32
1.5 x 10-18
8.0 x 10-43
3.2 x 10-13
1.0 x 10-13
2.6 x 10-13
1.0 x 10-22
1.0 x 10-21
1.0 x 10-31
6.7 x 10-8
9.1 x 10-33
I x 10-95
1.6 x 10-41
1 x 10-22
5 x 10-33
1 x 10-17
7 x 10-22
1 x 10-12
2.0x 10-14
5.5 x 10-6
2.0 x 10-20
7 x 10-31
1 x 10-17
1x 10-43
2.5 x 10-16
1.6 x 10-I9
6.0 x 10-38

5.4
12.0
11.0
39.3
13.8
4.6
9.7
2.3
7.4
7.1
9.1
27.4
18.2
38.2
20.0
31.9
17.8
42.1
12.5
13.0
12.6
22.0
21.0
31.0
7.2
32.1
95.0
40.8
22.0
32.3
17.0
21.2
12.0
13.7
5.3
19.7
30.2
17.0
43.0
15.6
18.8
37.2

Oxalato

Fe(OH)2 Fe2+ + 20HAu(OH)3 Au3+ + OHPb(OH)2 Pb2+ + 2OHMg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2OHMn(OH)2 Mn2+ + 2OHMn(OH)3 Mn3+ + 3OHHg(OH)2 Hg2+ + 2OHNi(OH)2 Ni2+ + 2OHPd(OH)2 Pd2+ + 2OHPt(OH)2 Pt2+ +2OHAg2O + H2O 2Ag+ + 2OHSn(OH)2 Sn2+ + 2OHSn(OH)4 Sn4+ + 4OHTIOH TI++ -OH
Zn(OH)2 Zn2+ + 2OHBaC2O4 Ba2+ + C2O4 2CdC2O4 Cd2+ + C2O4 2-

Ca2+ + C2O42CoC2O4 Co2+ + C2O42CuC2O4 Cu2+ + C2O42FeC2O4 Fe2+ + C2O42La2(C2O4)3 2La3+ + 3C2O42PbC2O4 Pb2+ + C2O42MgC2O4 Mg2+ + C2O42Mn2(C2O4)3 2Mn2+ + 3C2O42MnC2O4 Mn2+ + C2O42Hg2C2O4 Hg22+ + C2O42NiC2O4 Ni2++ C2O42Ag2C2O4 2Ag2- + C2O42SrC2O4 Sr2++ C2O42ZnC2O4 Zn2+ + C2O42BaSO4 Ba2+ + SO42CaSO4 Ca2+ + SO42PbSO4 Pb2+ + SO42Hg2SO4 Hg22+ + SO42RaSO4 Ra2+ + SO42Ag2SO4 2Ag+ + SO42SrSO4 Sr2+ + SO42Tl2SO4 2Tl+ + SO42BaSO3 Ba2+ + SO32CaSO3 Ca2+ + SO32Ag2SO4 2Ag+ + SO32CaC2O4

Sulfato

Sulfito

2.0 x 10-I5
5.5 x 10-46
4.2 x 10-I5
8.9 x 10-I2
1.6 x10-3
1.0 x 10-36
1.2 x 10-22
1.6 x 10-16
1 x 10-31
1 x 10-35
2.0 x 10-8
3.0 x 10-27
10-57
6.3 x 10-1
4.5 x 10-I7
1.5 x 10-8
2.9 x 10-8
2.1x 10-9

14.7
45.3
14.4
11.1
12.8
36.0
21.9
15.8
31.0
35.0
7.7
26.5
57
0.2
16.3
7.8
7.6
8.7

4 x 10-8

7.4

-8

7.5

-7

6.7

3 x 10
2 x 10

2 x 10-28

27.7

-12

11.1

-5

4.1

8.3 x 10
8.6 x 10

-20

19.2

-15

15.0

-13

13.0

-10

9.4

7 x 10
1 x 10
1 x 10
4 x 10

1 x 10-11

11

-8

7.3

-9

8.8

-9

8.8

-5

4.6

-8

7.9

5.6 x 10
1.5 x 10
1.5 x 10
2.4 x 10
1.3 x 10

-7

6.8 x 10

6.2
-11

4.63 x 10

10.4

1.7 x 10-5

4.8

-7

6.1

-4

3.4

7.6 x 10
3.6 x 10
-5

4.2

-4

4.0

-14

13.8

6 x 10
1 x 10
5 x 10

Sulfuro

2Al + 3S
Bi S 2Bi + 3S
CdS Cd + S
CoS Co + S
CuS Cu + S
Cu S 2Cu + S
Fe S 2Fe + 3S
FeS Fe + S
PbS Pb + S
MnS Mn + S
HgS Hg + S
Hg S Hg + S
NiS Ni + S
Ag S 2Ag + S
Tl S 2Tl + S
SnS Sn + S
SnS Sn + S
ZnS Zn + S
CuSCN Cu + SCN
Hg (SCN) Hg + 2SCN
AgSCN Ag + SCN
BaS O Ba + S O
Ba(IO ) Ba + 2IO
Ca(IO ) Ca + 2IO
Ce(IO ) Ce + 3IO
Cu(IO ) Cu + 2IO
Pb(IO ) Pb + 2IO
Hg(IO ) Hg + 2IO
Hg (IO ) Hg + 2IO
Ni + 2IO
Ni(IO )
AgIO Ag + 2IO
Sr(IO ) Sr + 2IO
TlIO Tl + IO
Zn(IO ) Zn + 2IO
CuI Cu + I
PbI Pb + 2I
HgI Hg + 2I
Hg I Hg + 2I
AgI Ag + I
TlI Tl + I
3+

2-

3+

2-

Al2S3
2 3

2+

2 3

2-

2+

2-

2+

2-

2-

4+

Tiocianato

2+

Tiosulfato
Yodato

2+

3 2

3-

2+

3-

2+

3 2

3-

2+

3 2

3-

2+

3 2

3-

2+

3 2

3 2

3-

2+

3-

2+

3 2

3-

3-

2+

3 2

3-

3-

2+

3 2

Yoduro

2+

3 2

2-

2+

2+

2+

2 2

3-

11.0

-52

51.5

-20

19.5

-22

21.7

-24

23.9

-70

70.0

1.3 x 10-27

26.9

1.6 x 10

-23

22.8

-14

13.4

-20

19.5

-12

12.0

-5

4.2

4 x 10
-

49.1

1.2 x 10
1 x 10

27.9

1x 10-11

8 x 10

2-

2+

1.3 x 10

-50

2-

2+

16.5

2 x 10

2-

2+

88.0

-17

3 x 10

2-

49.0

-88

3 x 10

2-

2+

1.2 x 10

-28

2-

2+

35.1

3 x 10

2-

2+

21.3

-36

1 x 10

2-

2+

26.2

-22

-49

2-

3+

96.0

7 x 10-27
8 x 10

2-

1 x 10
5 x 10

2-

6.7

-96

2-

2+

2 x 10-7

3 x 10
1 x 10
6 x 10

-9

1.3 x 10
-7

8.9

6 x 10

6.2

3.2 x 10-10

9.5

-8

3 x 10

7.5
-13

2.6 x 10

12.6

-13

12.5

3 x 10

-14

13.6

-8

7.8

2.5 x 10
1.4 x 10
-8

3 x 10

7.5

3.3 x 10-7

6.5

-6

5.5

-8

7.7

3 x 10
2 x 10

-12

1 x 10

12.0

-9

8.1

-26

25.6

4.5 x 10

-29

28.3

8.5 x 10-17

16.1

8.3 x 10
2.5 x 10

6.5 x 10

-8

7.2

CONSTANTES DE DISOCIACION DE COMPLEJOS


Especie
AlF63-

Ecuacin de equilibrio

Al(OH)2+
3-

Al(C2O4)3
Bi(OH)2+

2+
3 4

Cd(NH )
CdCl3
Cd(CN)

24

24 2

Cd(C2O )

2+
3 6

Co(NH )
Co(OH)

Co(C2O4)223+
3 6

Co(NH )

Co(NH3)5(H20)
Co(NH3)5 Cl
Cu(NH3)

2+

+
3 2

Cu(NH )
Cu(CN)

Cu(CN)

23

Cu(CN)432+
3 4

Cu(NH )
Cu(OH)

24 2

Cu(C2O )
Fe(CN)

46

Fe(OH)
FeBr

2+

FeCl2+
Fe(CN)
FeF

36

25

Fe(OH)

2+
3-

Fe(C2O4)3
Fe(SCN)

2+

Fe(SCN)3
Fe(SCN)632-

Pb(C2H3C2)4
PbCl

PbCl

AlF6 Al3 + 6FAl(OH)2+ Al3 + OHAl(C2O4)33- Al3+ + 3C2O42Bi(OH)2+ Bi3+ + OHCd(NH3)42+ Cd2+ + 4NH3CdCl3 Cd2+ + 3ClCd(CN)42- Cd2+ + 4CNCd(C2O4)22- Cd2+ + 2C2O42Co(NH3)62+ Co2+ + 6NH3
Co(OH)+ Co2+ + OHCo(C2O4)22- Co2- + 2 C2O42Co(NH3)63+ Co3+ + 6NH3
Co(NH3)5(H2O)3+ Co3++ 5NH3 + H2O
Co(NH3)5 Cl2+ Co3++ 5NH3 + ClCu(NH3)+ Cu+ + NH3
Cu(NH3)+ Cu+ + 2NH3
Cu(CN)2- Cu+ + 2CNCu(CN)3+ Cu+ + 3CNCu(CN)43- Cu+ + 4CNCu(NH3)42+ Cu2+ + 4NH3
Cu(OH)+ Cu2+ + -OH
Cu(C2O4)22- Cu+ + 2 C2O42Fe(CN)64- Fe2+ + 6CNFe(OH)+ Fe2+ + -OH
FeBr2+ Fe3+ + BrFeCl2+ Fe3+ + ClFe(CN)63- Fe3+ + 6CNFeF52- Fe3+ + 5FFe(OH)2+ Fe3+ + OHFe(C2O4)33- Fe3+ + 3C2O42Fe(SCN)2+ Fe3+ + SCNFe(SCN)3 Fe3+ + 3SCNFe(SCN)63- Fe3+ + 6SCNPb(C2H3C2)42- Pb2+ + 4C2H3O2PbCl+ Pb2+ + ClPbCl3- Pb2+ + 3Cl3-

3+

Kd
1.5 x 10-20

pKd
19.8

7.9 x 10-10

9.1

-17

16.3

4 x 10-13

12.4

5 x 10

-7

2.5 x 10
-3

4 x 10

6.6
2.4

-19

1.4 x 10
-6

2 x 10

18.9
5.7

-5

4.9

2.5 x 10

-5

4.6

2.0 x 10-7

6.7

1.2 x 10

-34

33.7

1.6 x 10

-35

34.8

-38

38.0

-7

6.2

2.2 x 10
1 x 10
7 x 10

-11

1.4 x 10

10.8

-16

16.0

-28

27.3

2 x 10-27

26.7

1 x 10
5 x 10

-15

4.7 x 10
-6

1 x 10

14.3
6.0

-11

4.8 x 10

10.3

-37

37.0

-6

5.7

1 x 10
2 x 10

-1

2.5 x 10

0.6

5 x 10-2

1,3

-42

42

-16

15,3

1 x 10
5 x 10

-12

2,5 x 10

11,6

-21

20,2

6 x 10

-4

2,6 x 10

-6

5,6

8 x 10-10

9,1

9,4 x 10

-3

8 x 10

2,1
-1

0,1

-2

1,4

7,8 x 10
4,2 x 10

Pb(CN)42Pb(OH)

2+

PbI3

Mg(OH)
Mn(OH)

Hg(OH)

24

HgCl4

2-

HgCl3

HgCl

2-

HgCl4

Hg(CN)4
Hg(OH)

Ni(NH3)4

15,1

8,3 x 10-15

14,1

2-

Ni(CN)4
Ni(OH)

2-

2-

Ag(NH3)
Ag(NH3)

2+

Ag(NH3)

2-

Ag(CN)2-

3-

Ag(SO3)2

3-

Ag(S2O )
Sn(OH)2

3-

3 2
2

26

2-

SnF6

2-

Zn(NH3)4

Zn(CN)42+

Zn[Hg(SCN)4]s

2+

2+

4 s

4.7

2.8 x 10-19

18.7

5.0 x 10

2.3

-19

8.5

-14

13.2

-12

11.9

-2

1.5

1 x 10

-10

2-

18

3.4 x 10

9.5

1 x 10-18

18

-5

4.4

-7

6.7

4 x 10

2+

2.0 x 10

-18

2+

7.2

-5

3.2 x 10

2+

3.3

-8

1.3 x 10

3 4

3.9

-4

6 x 10

2-

4+

2-

5
-4

3 x 10

2-

4+

2+

2-

22

-5

-3

3 2

33 2

8.7

-22

6.3 x 10

7.3

1.8 x 10-9

4.8 x 10

5 x 10

1.3 x 10

Ag(OH)

2+

19.3

-8

1 x 10

2+

54.7

-20

1 x 10

2+

2+

2+

2+

30.3

-55

5 x 10

2+

2+

5.3 x 10
2 x 10

2-

2+

10,3

-31

2+

41,4

-11

5 x 10

2+

-42

4 x 10

2+

3 4

Zn(OH)

2+

2+

Ni(NH3)6 2+

SnCl

8,3 x 10

2-

2+

6,7

-16

1,8 x 10

Hg(SCN)

6,5

-7

2+

2-

HgS2

14,1

-7

2+

2-

15,1

-15

24

21,6

-16

3,3 x 10

19,3

-22

2-

2-

5,2 x 10-20

8,3 x 10

2+

HgCl3-

AgCl

1+

1,0 x 10

8,3 x 10

3,9

-9

2,3 x 10

2+

HgCl2

2+

2+

2,3
-4

1,3 x 10

2+

24

2-

5 x 10

2+

2+
3 4

5,4

-3

2+

Hg(NH3)42+
HgBr

2+

7,8

-6

3,6 x 10

10,3

-8

1,6 x 10

2+

5 x 10-11

2+

HgI

Pb + 4CN
Pb(OH) Pb + OH
PbI Pb + 3I
Mg(OH) Mg + OH
Mn(OH) Mn + OH
Hg(OH) Hg + OH
Hg(NH ) Hg + 4NH
HgBr Hg + 4Br
HgCl Hg + 4Cl
HgCl Hg + 3Cl
HgCl HgCl + Cl
HgCl Hg + Cl
HgCl Hg + 4Cl
HgCl Hg + 3Cl
Hg(CN) Hg + 4CN
Hg(OH) Hg + OH
HgI Hg +4I
HgS Hg + 2S
Hg(SCN) Hg + 4SCN
Ni(NH ) Ni + 4NH
Ni(NH3) Ni + 6NH
Ni(CN) Ni + 4CN
Ni(OH) Ni + OH
Ag(NH ) Ag(NH ) + NH
Ag(NH ) Ag + NH
Ag(NH ) Ag + 2NH
AgCl Ag + 2Cl
Ag(CN) Ag + 2CN
Ag(OH) Ag + OH
Ag(SO ) Ag + 2SO
Ag(S O ) Ag + 2S O
Sn(OH) H O + HSnO
SnCl Sn + 6Cl
SnF Sn + 6F
Zn(NH ) Zn + 4NH
Zn(CN) Zn + 4CN
Zn(OH) Zn + OH
Zn[Hg(SCN) ] Zn + Hg(SCN)
Pb(CN)42-

2 x 10

POTENCIAL ESTANDAR DE REDUCCIN

Media-reaccin

E0 (V) a 25oC

Li+ + e

-3.045

Li

Ca(OH)2 + 2e Ca0 + 2OHBa(OH)2 8H2O + 2e Ba0 + 8H2O + 2OHRb+ + e Rb0


K+ + e K0
Cs+ + e Cs0

Media-reaccin
2+

Sr + 2e

Ca + 2e Ca0
Na+ + e Na0
Mg(OH)2 + 2e Mg0 + 2OH
Mg2+ + 2e Mg0
H2AIO3- + H2O + 3e Al0 + 4OHH2 + 2e 2HBe2+ + 2e Be0
AI3+ + 3e Al0
Mn(OH)2 + 2e Mn0 + 2OHCr(OH)3 + 3e Cr0 + 3OHZn(CN)4 2- + 2e Zn0 + 4CNZn(OH)2 + 2e Zn0 + 2OHZnO2- + 2H2 O + 2e Zn0 + 4OHCr(OH)3 + 2H2O + 3e Cr0 + 4OHMn2+ + 2e Mn0
V2+ + 2e V0
S0 + Hg2+ + 2e HgS
2SO32- + 2H2O + 2e S2O4 2- + 4OHCd(CN)42- + 2e Cd0 + 4CNZn(OH3) 2+ + 2e Zn0 + 4NH3
SO42- + H2O + 2e SO3 2- + 2OHSe + 2e Se2HSnO2- + H2O + 2e Sn0 + 3OHCr2+ + 2e Cr0
Sn(OH)62- + 2e HSnO2 - + H2O + 3OHFe(OH)2 + 2e Fe0 + 2OH2H2O + 2e H2O + 2OH- (1M OH-)
Cd(OH)2 + 2e Cd0 + 2OHZn2+ + 2e Zn0
Cr2+ + 3e Cr0
2+

-303
-2.97
-2.925
-2.925
-2.92

E0 (V) a 25oC
-2.89
-2.87
-2714
-2.69
-2.37
-2.35
-2.25
-1.85
-1.66
-1.55
-1.3
-1.26
-1.245
-1.216
-1.2
-1.18
-1.18
-1.15
-1.12
-1.03
-1.03
-0.93
-0.92
-0.91
-0.91
-0.90
-0.877
-0.828
-0.809
-0.763
-0.74

Co(OH)2 + 2e
Ni(OH)2 + 2e

Co + 2OH
Ni + 2OH
0

-0.73

Ag S + 2e 2Ag + S
TIBr + e Tl + Br
Au(CN) + e Au + 2CN
2SO + 3H O + 4e S O + 6OH
Fe(OH) + e Fe(OH) + OH
TlCI + e Tl + Cl
H PO + 2H O + 2e H PO + 3H O
S + 2E S
Bi O + 3H O + 6e 2Bi + 6OH
Fe + 2e Fe
Cr + e Cr
2H O + 2e H + 2OH (10 OH 10 H O )
Cd + 2e Cd
2H O Se 2e H Se + 2H O
Mn(OH) + e Mn(OH) + OH
0

2-

2-

2-

3+

2+

2+
3

-7

-7

Media-reaccin

PbSO4 + 2e Pb0 + SO42-

TI + e TI
Ag(CN)2 + e Ag0 + 2CN
PbBr2 + 2e Pb0 + 2BrCo2 + 2e Co0
H3PO4 + 2H3O+ + 2e H3PO3 + 3H2O
PbCl2 + 2e Pb0 + 2CIV3 + e V2+
Ni2 + 2e Ni0
2SO4 2- + 4H3O + 2e S2O62- + 6H2O
Co2 + 2H2O+ + 2e HCOOH + 2H2O
Cul + e Cu0 + IAgl + e Ag0 + ISn2 + 2e Sn0
CrO4 2- + 4H3O+ + 3e Cr(OH)3 + 5OHPb2+ + 2e Pb0
.
+
0

Cu(NH3)2 + e
Cu + 2NH2
NO3 + 6H2O + 8e NH3 + 9OHO2 + H2O + 2e HO2- + OHMnO2 + 2H2O + 2e Mn(OH)2 + 2OH2H2O+ + 2e H2O + 2H2O (1M H3O+)
+

-0.72
-0.69
-0.658
-0.60
-0.58
-0.56
-0.557
-0.50
-0.48
-0.44
-0.440
-0.41
-0.41
-0.403
-0.40
-0.40

E0 (V) a 25oC
-0.356
-0.3363
-0.31
-0.280
-0.277
-0.276
-0.268
-0.255
-0.250
-0.22
-0.196
-0.185
-0.151
-0.136
-0.13
-0.126
-0.12
-0.12
-0.076
-0.05
0.00

NO - + 2OHAg S O
Ag 2S 0

NO3- + H2O + 2e
3-

Ag(S2O3)2 + e
CuBr + e

Cu

2-

2-

2 3

+ Br

HCOOH(aq) + 2H2O+ + 2e
S4O62- + 2e 2S2O32-

3H2O + HCHO(aq)

Ag0 + Br
Mn(OH)3 + e Mn(OH), + OHCuCI + e Cu + ClSO42-.+ 8H3 O+ + 8e S2- + I 2H2O
2H2O+ + S + 2e H2S + 2H2O
Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+
Cu2+ + e Cu+
SO42- + 4H3O+ + 2e H2SO3 + 5H2O
Co(OH)3 + e Co(OH)2 + OHHCHO(aq)+ 2H3O+ + 2e CH3OH + 2H2O
AgCI + e Ag0 + Cl
PbO2 + H2O + 2e PbO + 2OHIO3- + 3H2O + 6e I- + 6OHBiO+ + 2H3O+ + 3e Bi0 + 3H2O
Hg 2Cl2 + 2e 2Hg0 + 2ClCu2 + 2e Cu0
Ag2O+ H20 + 2e 2Ag + 2OHClO4-+ H20 + 2e ClO3- + 2OHAg(NH3)2+ + e Ag0 + 2NH3
2H2SO3 + 2H30+ + 4e S2O32- + 5H2O
O2+ 2H2O + 4e 4OH- (1M OH-)
AgCrO4 + 2e Ag0 + CrO42NiO2 + 2H20 + 2e Ni(OH)2 + 2OHAgBr + e

+0.01
-0.01
+0.033
+0.056
+0.08
+0.095
+0.I
+0.137
+0.14
+0.141
+0.15
+0.153
+0.17
+0.17
+0.19
+0.222
+0248
+026
+0.32
+0.334
+0.337
+0.342
+0.36
+0.373
+0.40
+0.401
+0.4463
+0.49

Media-reaccin

E0 (V) a 25oC

Cu+ + e

+0.521

Cu
I + 2e 2I
I + 2e 3I
Cu + C + e CuCl
AgBrO + e Ag + BrO H AsO + 2H O + 2e H AsO + 3H O
MnO + e MnO
MnO + 2H O + 2e MnO + 4OH
BrO + 3H O + 6e Br + 6OH
CIO +3H O + 6e Cl + 6OH
Cu +Br + e CuBr
0

2+

+0.5355

+0.536

l-

2-

3
3

24

+0.538
+0.55
+0.559
+0.564
+0.60

+0.61

+0.62
+0.640

H O + 2H O
BrO + H O + 2e Br + 2OH
Fe + e Fe
Hg + 2e 2Hg
Ag + e Ag
2NO + 4H O + 2e 2NO (N O ) + 6H O
O +4H O + 4e 6H O (10 H O , 10 OH )
NO + 10H O + 8e NH + 13H O
Hg + 2e HG
Cu + I + e CuI
HO + H O + 2e 3OH
CIO + H O + 2e Cl + 2OH
2Hg + 2e Hg
NO + 3H O + 2e HNO + 4H O
NO + 4H O + 3e NO + 6H O
AuCl + 3e Au + 4Cl
HNO + H O + e NO + 2H O
VO + 2H O + e VO + 3H O
Br + 2e 2Br
NO + H O + e HNO + H O
SO + 4H O + 2e H SeO + 5H O
CIO + 2H O + 2e CIO + 3H O
IO + 6H O + 5e 1/2 I + 9H O
CIO + 3H O + 2e 4H O + HCIO
O + 4H O + 4e 6H O (1M H O )
MnO + 4H O + 2e 6H O + Mn
Cr O + 14H O + 6e 2Cr + 21H O
Cl + 2e 2Cl
HIO + H O + e 1/2 I + 2H O
PbO + 4H O + 2e Pb + 6H O
2CIO + 12H O + 10e Cl + 18H O
Au + + 3e Au
Mn + 3e Mn
MnO + 8H O + 5e Mn + 12H O
BrO + 6H O+ + 5e 1/2Br + 9H O
HBrO + H O + e 1/2Br + 2H O
Ce + e Ce
Ti + 2e Ti
HClO + H O + e 1/2Cl + + 2H O
O2 + 2H3O+ + 2e
-

3+

2+

2+
2

2+

-7

2+

-7

2+

2+

2-

2-

3+

2+

2+

4+

2+

+0.7991
+0.80
+0.82
+0.84
+0.854
+0.86
+0.88
+0.89
+0.920
+0.94
+0.96
+0.994
+1.00
+1.000
+1.0652
+1.07
+1.15
+1.19
+1.195
+1.21
+1.23

+0.789

2+

2+

+0.771

+1.229

3+

+0.76

+0.682

+1.33
+1.3595
+1.45
+1.455
+1.47
+1.50
+1.51

+1.51

+1.52
+1.59

3+

+1.61

+1.628

+1.63

E0 (V) a 25oC

Media-reaccin

PbSO + 6H O
MnO + 4H O + 3e MnO + 6H O
H O + 2H O + 2e 4H O
CO + e CO
Ag e Ag
S O + 2e 2SO
O + 2H O + 2e O + 3H O
F + 2e 2F
F + 2H O + 2e 2HF + 2H O
PbO2 + SO42- + 2e
-

+1.685

+1.695

+1.77

3+

+1.82

2+

2+

+1.98

28

+2.01

2-

+2.07

+2.65

2
2

+3.06

ALGUNOS POTENCIALES DE DESCOMPOSICIN


Reaccin del electrodo
Ag+ + e Ag0

0.1 N

AgNO3

0.84

1.0 N

CuSO4

1.49

2+

1.0 N

ZnSO4

2.35

2+

0.5 N

ZnCl2

2.28

2+

1.0 N

NiSO4

2.09

2+

Cu
Zn + 2e Zn
Zn + 2e Zn
Ni + 2e Ni
Ni + 2e Ni
Co + 2e Cu
Cd + 2e Cd
Pb + 2e Pb
2H O + 2e H
2H O + 2e H
2H O + 2e H
2H O + 2e H
2H O + 2e H
2H O + 2e H
Cu2+ + 2e

1.0 N

NiCl2

1.85

2+

1.0 N

CoCl2

1.78

2+

1.0 N

CdSO4

1.98

2+

0.1 N

Pb (NO3)2

1.52

3
3
3
3
3
3

+
+
+
+
+
+

+ 2H2O

1.0 N

H2SO4

1.67

+ 2H2O

1.0 N

H3PO4

1.70

+ 2H2O

0.2 N

HCl

1.40

+ 2H2O

1.0 N

HCIO4

1.67

+ 2OH-

1.0 N

NaOH

1.69

1.0 N

KOH

1.69

2
2
2
2
2
2

+ 2OH