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Cristina Oddone – Enrica Cristofani

New
Fashionable
English
English for Textile, Clothing and Fashion Industry
Nuova edizione: 2016

Con la collaborazione della Redazione e dei Consulenti della CESM


Revisione linguistica: Dorian e Kristen Dwyer

Audio CD allegato al testo


Speaker: Brian Whalley
Tecnico del suono: Alberto Nacci
Produzione audio: ajpstudio, Dalmine (BG)

Impaginazione e graica: pagineaperte, Vignate (MI)


Copertina: Vavassori & Vavassori, Bonate Sotto (BG)
Stampa: Arti Graiche Battaia Franco S.r.l. – Zibido S.G. (MI)

Per le citazioni delle fonti, per le riproduzioni varie inserite in quest’opera, nonché per even-
tuali non volute omissioni nei riferimenti o nelle attribuzioni all’interno del libro, l’editore è
a disposizione degli accertati aventi esclusivo diritto. Il copyright delle iconograie e la proprietà
dei marchi registrati citati nel testo, utilizzati ai soli ini didattici e a titolo esempliicativo,
sono dei rispettivi proprietari e inseriti nei limiti della normativa vigente per le opere a caratte-
re didattico scolastico. Le immagini di prodotti commercializzati utilizzate sono da intendersi solo
come esempi didattici e non come scelte di merito, né come propensione all’acquisto o quant’al-
tro.

L’Editrice San Marco dichiara che il presente libro di testo è fruibile sia in versione mista,
sia in versione digitale, in conformità alle attuali Linee Guida e normative relative alle carat-
teristiche tecniche e tecnologiche dei libri di testo.

Printed in Italy

ISBN 978-88-8488-286-8

TUTTI I DIRITTI RISERVATI


© 2016 Editrice San Marco S.r.l., Bergamo Ponteranica
www.editricesanmarco.it - info@editricesanmarco.it

È vietata la riproduzione anche parziale o a uso interno o didattico, con qualsiasi mezzo, non
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Romana 108, 20122 Milano, e-mail autorizzazioni@clearedi.org e sito web www.clearedi.org.

Ristampa
1 2 3 4 5 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
presentazione 3

Presentazione
ew Fashionable English è il corso di inglese tecnico specialistico destinato
N al settore tessile, moda e abbigliamento che costituisce un valido supporto
per l’apprendimento attivo della microlingua attinente il settore di specializzazione.
Questa nuova edizione si propone di ofrire un approccio completo ed esaustivo
alla materia e di stimolare, anche mediante l’uso di tecnologie multimediali, la
creatività e la partecipazione degli studenti, per renderli i veri protagonisti
dell’apprendimento.
Il testo è strutturato in dieci moduli, ciascuno dei quali afronta una tematica
fondamentale del settore. I primi sette moduli riguardano argomenti
principalmente tecnici, fondamentali per chi lavora nel settore della moda, quali
colori e forme, i vari tipi di indumenti ed accessori, i particolari, i tessuti, i metodi
di costruzione e progettazione. I tre moduli successivi fanno riferimento a un
più ampio contesto culturale, tratteggiando la storia della moda e delle tendenze
a partire dalla metà del secolo scorso, approfondendo il ruolo dei media e il
marketing della moda e, inine, trattando i principali stilisti e brand, storici ed
attuali, noti a livello globale.
I contenuti settoriali sono aggiornati, con riferimento soprattutto dei
cambiamenti e delle innovazioni che sono state introdotte nel corso degli ultimi
anni: gli sviluppi nel campo dell’industria tessile, con l’invenzione delle tecno-
ibre e dei tessuti di ultima generazione; il rinnovamento che ha investito le
strategie commerciali e di marketing con l’avvento delle catene low-cost e della
propensione al fast fashion; il ruolo di fashion bloggers, celebrità e personaggi
famosi nella propagazione di mode e tendenze; i designer emergenti.
Rispetto alla precedente edizione, sono inoltre state aggiunte due nuove rubriche:
la prima dedicata ad approfondimenti interdisciplinari, la seconda volta a ofrire
una panoramica delle principali carriere professionali nel settore.
Come leggere il testo
I moduli sono articolati in letture di carattere specialistico che
approfondiscono gli aspetti fondamentali di ogni singolo tema.
Ogni lettura è corredata di un corposo apparato di attività mirate a
veriicare l’apprendimento dei contenuti, ad arricchire il lessico anche
settoriale e a consolidare la produzione scritta e
orale. Sono presenti numerosi esempi di
pratica della lingua inglese per tutte e quattro
le abilità, con particolare riferimento allo
sviluppo del lessico speciico.
I glossary a integrazione dei testi
spiegano in inglese le parole e le
espressioni più ostiche.
Le keywords trattano la terminologia
tecnica semanticamente più rilevante o
ampliano l’informazione fornita nel testo di riferimento.
4
New Fashionable English
Le rubriche
All’interno di ciascun modulo si inseriscono tre rubriche con funzioni e contenuti
diferenziati.

A Glimpse into… (Art, Avant-Garde, Cinema, Literature, ecc.) propone un approfondi-


mento interdisciplinare che riguarda non solo le materie di indirizzo, ma anche le mate-
rie culturali. All’interno di questa rubrica sono presentati testi (letterari, cinematograici,
narrativi), analizzati nei loro rimandi al mondo della moda.

Fashion Careers traccia un percorso di graduale avvicinamento al mondo del


lavoro illustrando i principali strumenti per la formazione specialistica (corsi di
specializzazione, tirocini, ecc.) e culminando con la trattazione di alcuni proili
Fa
s hion
C aree
rs professionali del settore (fashion journalist, fashion designer, fashion stylist, ecc.).

rivede le principali strutture linguistiche afrontate nel


corso del biennio e costituisce un agile strumento di consultazione e di revisione,
anche grazie al ricco apparato di esercizi.
Gli apparati
Una serie di apparati on-line e of-line supportano l’apprendimento attivo dello studente.
Le attività di listening consolidano l’abilità di comprensione orale
01 attraverso brani letti da uno speaker madrelingua e presenti sull’Audio
CD allegato al testo.
Attività di listening aggiuntive sono così segnalate sul testo e possono
essere svolte accedendo all’Interactive e-book sul sito
dell’editore.
Sempre sull’Interactive e-book, sono proposti
approfondimenti testuali aggiuntivi con relative attività.
A ciascun modulo è abbinato un test eseguibile on-line e
fornito sull’Interactive e-book, per l’autoveriica delle
conoscenze con valutazione immediata.

New Fashionable English è pubblicato in forma mista interattiva (cartacea + web), conformemente
a quanto disposto dalla normativa sulle adozioni dei libri di testo. Collegandosi al sito dell’Editrice
San Marco (www.editricesanmarco.it), è possibile scaricare il materiale didattico a disposizione
degli utenti del libro selezionando il titolo e cliccando sull’icona Interactive e-book. Nella
schermata che compare, occorre registrarsi e/o efettuare il login. In entrambi i casi, è richiesta la
compilazione di alcuni dati (nome utente e password – lettere e/o numeri di fantasia). Successivamente, occorre
inserire il codice PIN posto in terza di copertina.
Dalla pagina che compare, selezionare la parte desiderata e l’icona per visualizzare gli approfondimenti testuali,
l’icona per eseguire le prove di autoveriica, l’icona per accedere alle tracce audio aggiuntive in formato mp3.
Indice 5

Skirts 47
INDICE Trousers 49
Dresses and Suits 52
Underwear and Nightwear 53

MODULE 1 Fashion Careers


Working Experience in a Fashion Company 55
Colours
and Shapes 9 Sostantivi numerabili e non numerabili 57
Molto, poco, abbastanza e troppo 58
How to Be Fashionable 10 I comparativi e i superlativi 59
he Properties of Colours 12 Il past simple 61
he Meaning of Colours 15
On the Web...
Shapes and Silhouettes 17
The Ball
he Ideal Body through the Age 20
Shawn Stussy, the Creator of Streetwear Clothing
Research and Inspiration 23 The History of Lingerie
Spelling Changes Referring to Comparatives and Superla-
A Glimpse into... Art tive
Art Nouveau, the Aesthetic Movement
and the Pre-Raphaelites 27

Fashion Careers
Students’ Routes into Fashion 29

Gli aggettivi 31 MODULE 3


Il tempo presente 32

On the Web...
Details 63
Grunge he Importance of Details in Clothes Design 64
The Two Faces of Red Closures and Fasteners 67
Buttons 70
Collars, Lapels and Cufs 72
Necklines 76
Sleeves 79
MODULE 2
Hemlines 81
Genres and A Glimpse into… Avant-Garde
Garments 34 Deconstructionist Design 83
Pockets 85
Levels of Market 35
Types of Companies 37 Fashion Careers
Writing a Curriculum Vitae 87
Genres of Fashion 39
Collections and Ranges 40
Nomi e aggettivi composti 91
A Glimpse into… Literature Il genitivo sassone 92
Jane Austen and the Novel of Manners 43 Il past continuous 93
Tops and Shirts 45 Il present perfect 93
6
New Fashionable English
On the Web... Hats 125
Stitches Gloves 127
Top Fashion Trends
A Glimpse into… Literature
A History of Buttons
Philip Roth’s Picture of Jewish-American Life 128
Scarves 130
Ties 131
Belts 133
Hosiery 134
MODULE 4 Eyewear 136

Footwear 95
Fashion Careers
The Job Interview 138
History of Shoes 96
How a Shoe is Made 99 Il futuro 141
Shoe Materials 101 Present conditional e past conditional 142
If clauses 143
Shoe Styles 102
On the Web...
A Glimpse into… Television
Sex and the City: Fashion Trendsetter 104 Borsalino
“Miss America Turns Bomber. Do You still Blame the
Sandals 106 Parents?” – A Review of American Pastoral
Boots 107
Athletic Shoes 110
Fashion Careers
Writing a Covering Letter 112
MODULE 6

Le preposizioni di tempo 114 Fabrics and


Le preposizioni di stato in luogo
Le preposizioni di moto
115
116 Treatments 145
La forma di durata 117 Choosing the Right Fabric 146
Past perfect e past perfect continuous 117
Natural Fibres 147
On the Web... Man-Made Fibres 150
Salvatore Ferragamo Technical Fibres 153
Birkenstock Sandals Fabric Types 154
Foot Locker
Finishing Treatments 158
Dyeing 161
Printing 163
A Glimpse into… Avant-Garde
Op Art and Wearable Art 166

MODULE 5
Embellishments 167
Garment Labels and Care Instructions 169
Accessories 119 Fashion Careers
he World of Accessories 120 Seamstresses and Tailors 172
Bags 121
Types of Bags 123 I verbi modali 173
Indice 7

On the Web... he Fabulous 1960s 207


A Brief History of Dyeing 1970s Trends: Disco Fashion versus Punk Fashion 210
Natural and Synthetic Dyes he Conservative 1980s 212
3-D Printing
he 1990s: between Minimalism
and Body Decorations 215
Fashion in the New Millennium 217
MODULE 7

Design,
A Glimpse into… Literature
When Shopping Becomes an Addiction 219
Prototypes and A Contemporary Phenomenon: Ethical Fashion 222

Construction 177 Fashion Careers


Fashion Merchandiser 224
How to Produce a Garment 178
Design 179
La forma passiva 226
Art Materials 181
Prototypes 184 On the Web...
Construction 186 The Cultural Revolution of the 1960s
Heavy Duty Machinery 188 The 1970s: from Idealism to the Nihilistic Generation
Main Events in the Conservative 1980s
A Glimpse into… History Main Events in Recent History
The Spinning Jenny 190
Seams 191
Finishes 192
Volume Creation 194
Support and Structure 195 MODULE 9

Marketing
Fashion Careers
Fashion Stylist 198
and Media 229
Le proposizioni relative 199
Verbi seguiti da infinito o forma in -ing 201 Market Research, Promotion, Media:
the Key to Success 230
On the Web... Promoting Fashion 231
Collaged Research and Photomontage with Drapery Advertising 234
Colour Blocking
Computer and Fashion Design
Globalisation and Fashion 235
Folds and Pleats in the First Part of the 20th Century Fashion Magazines 237
Websites and Blogs 239

A Glimpse into… Cinema


The Devil Wears Prada 242
MODULE 8 Celebrities and Endorsers 245
Fast Fashion and Low-Cost Brands 247
Fashion Trends in
Recent Times 203
Fashion Careers
Fashion Journalist 249
Fashion Trends over Time 204
he 1950s: Teenagers as a Market Force 205 Il discorso indiretto 252
8
New Fashionable English
On the Web... Calvin Klein 272
Advertise Your Look Michael Kors 274
British and American Press Karl Lagerfeld 275
Elle, Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue
Kenzo 276
List of Some Fashion Magazines
Fast Fashion Brands: Spanish Zara and Mango Fashion Careers
Fashion Designer 279

Phrasal Verbs 281


On the Web...
MODULE 10 Popular Fashion Brands

Fashion Dirk Bikkembergs


Jean Paul Gaultier
Designers 255 The Golden Age of Couture
Paco Rabanne
Fashion Shows and Brands 256 Jil Sander
Giorgio Armani 258
Gucci 259
Fendi 261
Dolce & Gabbana 262
Christian Dior 264
Coco Chanel 266 Language
Vivienne Westwood 268 Highlights 283
Stella McCartney 270
Irregular Verbs 284
A Glimpse into… Fashion False Friends 286
A Reportage from Paris Fashion Week 271 Idioms 287
Colours
and Shapes
How to Be Fashionable
1
The Properties of Colours
The Meaning of Colours
Shapes and Silhouettes
The Ideal Body through the Ages
Research and Inspiration
Art Nouveau, The Aesthetic Movement
and the Pre-Raphaelites

Students’ Routes into Fashion

01 Colour Descriptions
Wedge and Triangle

Grunge
The Two Faces of Red

Online Tests
10
Colours and Shapes

How to Be Fashionable
T here is no point trying to be fashionable when
designing fashion. Books can teach us how to
put things together, suggest the right steps to follow,
and all the important elements to consider when we
try to design clothes. However they cannot tell us
how to design the most fashionable clothes. It is a
matter of chance if some clothes turn out to be
fashionable and others do not. People and the
industry decide that a speciic garment is fashionable
when it embodies the spirit of that age.
What is Fashion?
Broadly speaking it can be deined as a popular
current or style. he way styles are perceived and
The word DESIGNER is used to identify a person but also to indicate the
accepted as up-to-date by people is subjective and
objects bearing the name, signature, or identifying pattern of a specif- dependent on a number of factors. Fashion is the
ic designer (designer clothes). result of DESIGNERS and brilliant industrial, commercial,
and scientiic minds working together. It is a mobile,
changing relection of the way we are and the times we live in. Clothes reveal our priorities,
aspirations, liberalism, or conservatism. hey satisfy simple and complex emotional needs,
and people use them consciously or unconsciously to convey speciic messages.
Sometimes styles and movements are born with a diferent purpose. he punk movement,
for example, was the expression of youth disenchantment with politics and culture in the
1970s. Its real aim was to be subversive but eventually its ideas became fashionable. he
same thing happened with grunge, which evolved from the street culture of THRIFTSTORE
THRIFTSTORE also thriftshop
clothing and vagabond living in the 1990s. It was more concerned with making a political,
(American English); a shop
where used things, especially anti-consumerist, anti-fashion statement but, once more, it inspired many designers who
clothes, are sold to collect adapted the scale and the odd pairings of this mismatched clothing to their lines. his
money for a specific charity reinforces the idea that trying too hard to be fashionable is not an important factor.
(British English: charity shop)

Grunge
Module 1 11

Exhibitions, ilms, and music can also have a huge inluence on what is destined to become
fashionable.
Fashion designers must develop an awareness of their own taste and style. his does not
mean having an aptitude or desire to design ‘unconventional’ clothes. Some designers focus
on the detail of garments, others design conventional garments but they put them together
in an original way. But eventually it is up to the public and the industry to decide for
fashion trends. As fashion designers, the most important thing is to know what we are ‘best
at’, and it does not mean that we should not experiment.

MATCHING
Match the words in the irst column with their deinition.
1 Fashion A A drawing, sketch, or graphic representation
2 Fashionable B A tendency or trend
3 Design C Conforming to the current style; stylish
4 Style D he sense of what is proper, adequate
5 Movement E To create or execute in an artistic or highly skilled manner
6 Trend F he prevailing style or custom, as in dress
7 Taste G A person who draws up original sketches or plans from which things are made
8 Conventional H Current style; vogue; tendency
9 To design I Sort; type; a particular fashion
10 Designer J Conforming to established practice or accepted standards; traditional

TRUE OR FALSE
Say whether the following sentences are true or false, then correct the false ones.
1 It is easy to be fashionable when designing fashion.  F
2 We can learn how to design the most fashionable clothes.  F
3 Fashion is subjective; it depends most on people’s reaction.  F
4 Fashion relects the times we live in.  F
5 People always use clothes consciously to convey messages.  F
6 Styles and movements are always born to become fashionable.  F
7 he punk movement and grunge were born with the same purpose and in the same period.  F
8 Media and events can inluence fashion too.  F
9 he most important thing for a fashion designer is to design conventional clothes.  F
10 Originality always lies in the details.  F

VOCABULARY
Read the text once again and ind the English equivalents of the following Italian words.
1 Vestiti ........................ 6 Strani ........................
2 Aggiornato; recente ........................ 7 Accoppiamenti ........................
3 Delusione ........................ 8 Contrastante; abbinato male ........................
4 Scopo ........................ 9 Dettaglio ........................
5 Economico ........................ 10 Negozi di seconda mano ........................

SPEAKING
Oscar Wilde, the Irish playwright, said:“Fashion is what one wears oneself. What is unfashionable is what other people wear”.
What do you think he meant? Do you agree with him? Why/Why not? Discuss your opinion with other students.
12
Colours and Shapes

The Properties of Colours


WARM COLOURS are made
T he research and design process involves important considerations about colours. In
fact, the way garments and collections are perceived by the public largely depends on
the irst impression and therefore on the impact of their colours. But what is a ‘colour’? It
mostly of red, yellow, and
orange. They remind us of is the property of an object that results from the relection, transmission or emission of
warm things like the sun or light waves. Each colour has a diferent wavelength or frequency, and its perception comes
fire. They stimulate the viewer.
from the eye or brain.
COOL COLOURS are symbols of
water, sky, ice or grass and Types of Colours
evoke cool feelings (blue,
green and purple). Even if
Colours are also perceived diferently when placed next to each other: for instance, brighter
they are cold and imper- colours can seem larger than darker ones. hey also have the strongest visual impact on an
sonal, they calm and object: pure and WARM COLOURS appear nearer, whereas COOL COLOURS seem to recede; light colours
relax the viewer. expand shapes, and dark colours contract them.
Neutral colours do not contrast with others. hey are often deined as dull and uninteresting,
but they are often used in combination with others. hese are grey, white, beige and brown.
Bright colours have more or less white in them. hey are strong and easy to see.
Pastels are pale, soft, delicate colours.
The Colour Theory
It is vital to have a clear idea of colour theory before starting a collection: choosing colours,
or a colour palette, is one of the earliest decisions to make. It often dictates the mood or
season you are working towards.
he colour wheel is an easy exercise which helps you to understand the basics of mixing
colours. It is a wheel or circle, made up of 12 segments starting with red at the top. Colours
are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary.
hey go around infusing with each other.
Primary colours are red, yellow, and blue. hey cannot
be made by mixing other colours. They form an
equilateral triangle within the wheel.
Secondary colours are orange, green, and violet. hey
are created by mixing two of the primary colours
together. hey stand between these two primary colours,
forming another triangle.
Tertiary colours are red-orange, orange-yellow, green-yel-
low, blue-green, vio-
let-blue, and red-violet.
hey are made by com-
bining a primary colour with
an adjacent secondary colour.
Complementary colours are pairs of colours
that appear on opposite sides of the colour wheel
(for example, red and green, blue and orange, and yellow
and violet).
Analogous colours are colours that are adjacent on the colour
wheel (for example, blue and violet, and red and violet).
Module 1 13

READING COMPREHENSION COMPREHENSION CHECK


Answer the following questions. Make your own colour wheel following
the instructions given in the text.
1 What is a colour?
2 Why are colours important in fashion?
3 How do we perceive colours? yellow

4 Which colours expand?


5 Which colours appear nearer?
6 Which colours are neutral?
7 What are bright colours like?
8 What is the colour wheel?

blue
9 Which colours are primary?
10 What is the diference between secondary and tertiary
colours?

re
d

11 Where can you ind the complementary colours?


12 Which colours are next to each other on the wheel?

MATCHING
Match the words in the irst column with their opposite.
1 Warm A Big
2 Light B Strong
3 Strong C Colourless
4 Pale D Distant
5 Colourful E Dull
6 Vivid; bright F Dark
7 Small G Dark
8 Narrow H Weak
9 Adjacent I Cool; cold
10 Delicate J Wide

TRUE OR FALSE
Say whether the following sentences are true or false, then correct the false ones.
1 Warm colours are stimulating.  F
2 Neutral colours contrast with all the others.  F
3 Grey and black are warm colours.  F
4 Cool colours are symbols of ire.  F
5 Primary colours can be made by mixing other colours.  F
6 Pastels are delicate colours.  F
7 Dull and bright colours look the same.  F
8 Secondary colours stand between the two primary colours they are formed by.  F

WRITING
Imagine being a fashion designer, which colours would you
ind more suitable for each season and collection? Write a
short text to discuss this topic.
14
Colours and Shapes
LISTENING
Listen to the recording and ill the gaps with the missing words. hen listen again and check.

COLOUR DESCRIPTIONS
01 here are several terms that can be used to as .................... 6.
describe colours, and there is often • he value describes lightness and .................... 7. It is the
confusion as to what each of them means. measurement of the brightness of a colour.
• A tint is a .................... 1 colour mixed with white (e.g. red • he intensity describes .................... 8 saturation or impact;
and white make pink). saturation is the degree of purity of a hue, it is a matter of
• A shade is the result of a pure colour mixed with how pale or .................... 9 a colour is.
.................... 2 (e.g. blue and black make navy blue). • Colours can also be described by using descriptive names
• he patina identiies the .................... 3 texture of the taken from nature, such as lowers (violet, rose, ............
described colour. ........10), food (cherry, lime, chocolate, sage, olive, pea),
• Tone is a general term used to describe a .................... 4 or insects, .................... 11 and carmine), precious stones
shade. (emerald, .................... 12, cornelian), minerals and materials
• he hue describes the .................... 5 of a colour on the (gold, .................... 13, cobalt, terracotta), ish (salmon), and
colour wheel. It is often synonymous to what we refer to places (magenta, sienna).

MATCHING WORD FORMATION


Match the words in the irst column with their Italian Compound names of colours are usually formed by two words,
translation. Use a dictionary if necessary. one of which identiies the base colour. Add the correct word to
form compound-word colour names.
1 Hue A Luminoso; brillante
2 Tint B Purezza 1 Cherry ................... 10 Sage ...................
3 Shade C Scuro 2 Coral ................... 11 Salmon ...................
4 Bright D Tinta 3 Dove ................... 12 Scarlet ...................
5 Dark E Intensità 4 Lime ................... 13 Shocking ...................
6 Light F Tonalità; colore 5 Navy ................... 14 Sky ...................
7 Purity G Tenue; pallido 6 Olive ...................
8 Texture H Sfumatura 7 Pea ...................
9 Pale I Aspetto 8 Pitch ...................
10 Intensity J Chiaro 9 Ruby ...................

VOCABULARY
Divide the following colours into cool, warm, light and dark. Use a dictionary if necessary.
COOL WARM LIGHT DARK COOL WARM LIGHT DARK COOL WARM LIGHT DARK
1 Aquamarine • • • • 14 Green • • • • 27 Red • • • •
2 Azure • • • • 15 Grey • • • • 28 Sapphire • • • •
3 Beige • • • • 16 Indigo • • • • 29 Scarlet • • • •
4 Blue • • • • 17 Ivory • • • • 30 Tangerine • • • •
5 Brown • • • • 18 Jade • • • • 31 Topaz • • • •
6 Carmine • • • • 19 Lilac • • • • 32 Turquoise • • • •
7 Cobalt • • • • 20 Lime • • • • 33 Vanilla • • • •
8 Copper • • • • 21 Magenta • • • • 34 Vermilion • • • •
9 Cream • • • • 22 Mauve • • • • 35 Violet • • • •
10 Dove-grey • • • • 23 Ochre • • • • 36 White • • • •
11 Emerald • • • • 24 Orange • • • • 37 Wine • • • •
12 Gold • • • • 25 Pink • • • • 38 Yellow • • • •
13 Grape • • • • 26 Purple/violet • • • • 39 Zafre • • • •
Module 1 15

The Meaning of Colours


C olour is often the starting point in the design process. When viewing a design, colour
usually has a strong visual impact over other considerations. Colours appear warm,
cool, dry, and wet: this reaction is natural in most humans and perhaps it is built upon the
association of earthly elements such as the sun, ire, water, sky, and even deserts. When
referred to clothes, colours can warm up, cool down, make something practical or
impractical, create impact or camoulage. For instance, certain shades of black, brown,
camel, grey, and blue, based on natural colour schemes, are easy to wear. Other colour
schemes follow fashion in a more cyclical manner, depending on a current vogue or market
area. Most designers do not consider theory when choosing the colour scheme. However,
the message of a garment can be completely altered by the colour.
The Influence of Colours
Colours afect us very deeply, on a physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual level.
Our own personal understanding or feeling toward colour deines our fashion sensibilities,
our ability to create art, our interior and exterior environments, and can encourage or
adversely afect our health and well being.
But how do we relate to colours, use them in our lives, manipulate and master them? he
way we experience colour is personal, and no two people see colours the same way. Colours
may have opposite meanings to people in diferent cultures, too. For example, white means
‘death’ in Eastern cultures and ‘life’ in Western cultures.
Colours and Emotions
he English language abounds with expressions pointing to connections between colours
and emotions.
It is possible, for instance, to be purple with rage or green with envy. Sometimes one sees
the world through rose-tinted glasses; at other times one feels blue.
hus colours take on symbolism and often indicate mood, feelings, and emotions.
Here are just a few examples of colour associations.
• Red → excitement, passion, violence, success, power, energy, heat.
• Yellow → joy, freedom, change, enthusiasm, anxiety, tension, dishonesty.
• Green → relaxation, prosperity, possession, growth, sincerity, health, harmony.
• Blue → quietness, satisfaction, tranquillity, loyalty, trust, seriousness, peace.
• White → purity, neutrality, virtue, silence, life, cleanliness, youth.
• Orange → warmth, energy, vitality, health, happiness, enthusiasm, friendship.
• Brown → earth, stability, reliability, relaxation, softness.
• Pink → admiration, appreciation, love, health.
• Grey → elegance, respect,
The Two
Faces of Red
stability, pessimism, bore-
dom.
• Black → silence, elegance,
sophistication, authority,
mystery, death, fear.
• Violet → mystery, supersti-
tion, sadness, dignity, magic.
16
Colours and Shapes
COMPREHENSION CHECK
Write the names of these colours.
1 his colour indicates silence and mystery ........................
2 his colour means silence and purity ........................
3 his colour is associated with energy ........................
4 his colour conveys tranquillity ........................
5 his colour corresponds to health and warmth ........................

TRUE OR FALSE
Say if the following sentences are true or false, then correct the false ones.
1 he colour of a garment is the irst thing we see.  F
2 Colours seem warm or cool because we associate
them to natural elements.  F
3 Colours can help to hide defects or details.  F
4 Warm colours are easy to wear.  F
5 Colours do not have any inluence on our lives.  F
6 Some people can see colours in the same way.  F
7 Colours are associated to mood and feelings.  F
8 Colour meaning changes according to cultures.  F

SPEAKING
Discuss the symbolism and psychology of colours with your classmates.
Do you agree or disagree?

WORD FORMATION FILL IN THE GAPS


Transform the words listed below into adjectives by using the Use the adjectives mentioned in the previous exercise to
correct suix. You may need to change the word structure. complete the following sentences.

-FUL -OUS -Y -IC -ED 1 He is a very ........................ actor: he has acted in


1 Success ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ almost every ilm this year
2 Power ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ 2 Eating vegetables and fruit is good and helps you to
3 Joy ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ stay ........................ .
3 You can hear him from the distance: he has a very
4 Energy ......... ......... ......... ......... .........
........................ voice.
5 Earth ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ 4 A ........................ woman lives next door: we don’t
6 Anxiety ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ know anything about her.
7 Virtue ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ 5 I am very ........................ I never feel tired.
8 Mystery ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ 6 Tom is a ........................ person, he never worries
9 Silence ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ about things.
10 Admiration ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... 7 My friend is ........................ by everyone for his
11 Peace ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ qualities.
12 Pessimism ......... ......... ......... ......... ........ 8 George is very ........................ he always expects bad
things to happen.
13 Relax ......... ......... ......... ......... ........
14 Health ......... ......... ......... ......... ........
15 Harmony ......... ......... ......... ......... ........
Module 1 17

MATCHING
Match the proverbs and idioms related to colours with their meaning.
1 Feeling blue A Area of a subject or question that is not clearly deined
2 Black sheep of the family B Appearing jealous, envious
3 See red C A list of people considered undesirable
4 In the red D To feel unwell, unhappy
5 Red carpet treatment E Permission, authorisation to proceed
6 Get the green light F Become angry, lose self-control
7 Have green ingers G Other people’s circumstances seem more desirable than one’s own
8 Green with envy H Lies used to avoid ofence
9 Grass is always greener on the other side I he worst member of the family
10 On the black list J Be good at keeping plants
11 White lie K In debt
12 A grey area L Very special, royal treatment

FILL IN THE GAPS


Use the idioms mentioned in the previous exercise to complete the following sentences.
1 His garden is full of wonderful plants and lowers: he 4 After all these expenses we ........................ in our bank
certainly ........................ . account.
2 She did not want to hurt her feelings by telling the 5 Debbie is ........................ of the family: nobody is
truth so she told ........................ . proud of her as she has left school and home to do
3 Cheer up! Stop ........................ he does not deserve nothing.
your tears. 6 When he comes to our home he is always welcome: he
gets ........................ .

WRITING AND SPEAKING


Are there any similar idioms and sayings in your own language? Write them down and try to explain their meaning. Discuss
your conclusions with other students.

Shapes and Silhouettes


A shape is an area or form with a deinite outline and a visible appearance or structure.
It is also the way in which something is constructed or supported in a framework.
Shapes are a very important element of research and design, because they provide us with
potential ideas that can be transformed into garments. Without shapes, there would be no
silhouettes in fashion design. Understanding how a framework can support shape is vital,
it is part of the initial research and then it is translated into fashion design. Components
such as shape and structure, texture and colour determine the creative direction that the
collection is going to take.
he silhouette of a garment is one of the irst things the viewer sees on the catwalk. In
other words, it is the outline or shape that is cast around the body by a garment. When
designing the silhouette designers consider a garment from all angles, in order to have a
clear understanding of the result, both from the side and the front view. Closely allied with
18
Colours and Shapes
silhouette is volume. he fullness, bulk or lack of it is readily seen in a garment style and
its silhouette. A garment can also contain qualities of lightness or weight, depending on
the fabrics. Historically, fashionable clothing enhanced and idealised the silhouette of the
human form by exaggerating parts of the body, often with the aid of a corset. he ‘ideal’
body shape was based on an hourglass, and it still
continues to be. However, today, most clothes follow
the line of the body and the fashionable silhouette is
less enhanced.
Proportions
he proportion of a garment develops from the
silhouette, and it is deined by the way the body is
divided up either through lines (horizontal, vertical
or curved) or through the use of blocks of colour or
texture and fabric.
he proportion of the body is seen through the
changes in the waist, hem, and neckline of a garment
but this judgement is often subjective, it depends on
the customers’ ideal and real body shape, and on their
perception of proportions.
The LINE OF A GARMENT usually refers to its cut, where seams and darts are
he LINE OF A GARMENT generally relates to its cut and the
placed on the body, and the effect they have visually. Confusingly, some
designers refer to the line of a garment when they actually mean sil- visual efect of seams and darts placed on the body.
houette. All these elements must be judged against each other
and in relation to other details.
he following are some general rules.
• Vertical lines tend to lengthen the body.
• Horizontal lines widen the body.
• Curved lines or lines cut on the bias create a softer, more feminine look.
• Straight lines are seen as more masculine and hard.
• Seams and darts are not standard and can be moved around the body.
• Layers of clothing create multiple lines.

LABELLING
Match each word in the irst column to the corresponding picture. hen identify which of these shapes are
related to today’s fashion design.
1 Rectangle
2 Circle A E
3 Square B C
D
4 Triangle
5 Rhombus
6 Symmetrical F J
7 Parallelogram
8 Trapezoid
9 Vertical straight line G I
10 Horizontal straight line K
11 Curved line H
Module 1 19

READING COMPREHENSION TRANSLATION


Answer the following questions. Match the words in the irst column
with their Italian translation.
1 What is a shape?
2 Why are shapes important? 1 Waistline A Cuciture
3 What other elements are important along with shape? 2 Hemline B Taglio
4 What is the silhouette? 3 Neckline C Vita; giro vita
5 Is the front-view impression of a garment faithful? 4 Cut D Taglio a diagonale
6 What makes a garment light or heavy? 5 Seams E Aspetto
7 What is the ideal body shape? 6 Darts F Riprese; pieghe
8 Are proportions and shapes subjective? 7 Openings G Aperture
8 Line H Scollatura
MATCHING 9 Look I Linea
10 Bias J Orlo
Match the words in the irst column with their deinitions.
1 Outline A A structure supporting something LABELLING
2 Appearance B A structure of interwoven ibres or he shapes below represent the basic silhouettes available for
3 Framework other elements dresses. Match them with the corresponding descriptions.
4 Texture C he amount of space occupied by an
5 Volume object
6 Fullness D Size, mass, or volume, especially
7 Bulk when very large
8 Lack
E he shape of an object or igure, a
9 Catwalk
sketch of the contours
10 Hourglass
F Models walk on it to show garments
G An instrument for measuring time,
made of two sections of glass joined
by a narrow passage
1 2
H Having or made with a generous
amount of fabric
I Deiciency or absence
J Outward aspect

FILL IN THE GAPS


Complete the sentences with the following words from the
text: outline – appearance – framework – catwalk – bulk –
lack.
1 Despite its .................... and weight, this wedding 3 4
dress is very comfortable.
2 Models walk on a .................... during a fashion show.
A Bell. It follows the shape of a bell, narrow at the top
3 She draws the igures in .................... then adds the and large at the bottom.
details. B Tube. It has the form of a cylinder.
4 he jacket is loose because of its .................... of C Barrel. Similar to a cylinder but with a narrow top and
volume. bottom.
5 She is very concerned about her .................... so she D Hourglass. his shape has a wide bottom, narrow waist
always buys fashionable clothes. (wasp waist), and wide top.
6 All the details make up the .................... of a garment.
20
Colours and Shapes
WRITING
Look at the shapes in the previous exercise and answer the following questions.
1 Which shape corresponds to the ‘ideal’ shape mentioned in the main text?
2 Do you agree with this idea?
3 Look at the fashion magazines and ads: are these shapes fashionable now?

VOCABULARY
Complete the table with the following words: large/small – to lengthen/to shorten – heavy/light – to widen/to narrow – height
– hard/soft. hen translate the verbs into Italian.

NOUN ADJECTIVES VERB TRANSLATION


Length Long/short .................... 1 Allungare/accorciare
Width Wide/narrow .................... 2 ....................
Size .................... 3 To enlarge/to reduce ....................
.................... 4 High/low To heighten; to raise/to lower ....................
hickness/latness hick/thin/lat To thicken/to latten/ ....................
Softness/hardness .................... 5 To harden/to soften ....................
Weight .................... 6 To make heavier; to overload/to lighten Appesantire/alleggerire

FILL IN THE GAPS


Complete the sentences with words from the table above. Sometimes there is more than one option.
1 his waistline is too high, I’d prefer to .................... it.
2 Juliet loves woollen jumpers, especially .................... ones.
3 hose trousers are too long for her, let’s .................... them.
4 What is your size? .................... or .................... .
5 I was a small, but now I have put on weight and I had to .................... most of my skirts.
6 If you want to .................... this scarf, try this new product: it’s fantastic!
7 You need to .................... these jumpers if you want to store them into that small drawer!

The Ideal Body


through the Ages
S ilhouettes either remain the same for a period of time, or evolve slowly, then suddenly
change dramatically. his depends on the social and cultural events of the time and
results in diferent ideal body types. Some of the past silhouettes and shapes are now
considered within a historical or costume context, whereas others have been recently revived.
In the 18th century the fashion was to accentuate the hourglass form of the body through
the use of corsets. Since then diferent types of contraptions have been added to exaggerate
some parts of the body and project a shifting ideal of the female form. In the Victorian
Age, this style was revived: women wore corsets and huge padded crinolines to increase the