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Evora – Portugal 12 Abril 2014

Post harvest fruit management

by
Paolo Inglese

- Sde Boker Campus, Israel - February 2014


Arbore o mostro?
(Oviedo y Valdez, 1526)
Centri di collezione Collezioni minori
Centro di origine Aree di coltivazione Ultime introduzioni OFI infestante
FAO-CACTUSNET
Pubblicazioni : Technical reports, Newsletter…
Nazioni Partecipanti

Angola, Algeria, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, China, Cuba, Egypt,


Eritrea, Ethiopia, Germany, Greece, India, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Italy,
Jordan, Mauritanian, Morocco, Mexico, Mozambique Pakistan, Peru,
South Africa, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United States, Zimbabwe.
Una specie multifunzionale per eccellenza

FRUTTO
FORAGGIO NUTRACEUTICA

COSMESI COLORANTI

USES
CONTROLLO
Sequestro di C
EROSIONE

AGROFORESTRY ARTIGIANATO
VERDURA
Varietà commerciali registrate in Messico
(50 nel 2007)

REYNA BURRONA MILPA ALTA CRISTALINA ROJO PELÓN


Opuntia albicarpa Opuntia albicarpa Opuntia ficus-indica Opuntia albicarpa Opuntia ficus-indica

R. SAN MARTÍN VILLANUEVA MONTESA PICO CHULO GAVIA


Opuntia megacantha O. albicarpa O. megacantha O. megacantha Opuntia albicarpa

TORREOJA AMARILLA PLÁTANO ROJO VIGOR ROJO LIRIO NARANJÓN LEGÍTIMO


Opuntia megacantha Opuntia megacantha Opuntia ficus-indica Opuntia megacantha Opuntia albicarpa
Diversità delle Pitahayas (Tel-Zur, 2011)
Diversità genetica e diversità di utilizzazione
Le nuove varietà

Sunset Mexican Cvs: “Juanita”, Tricolor”, “Virreyna”

Varietà brevettate recentemente


DAR 1-27-24 Orange
DAR 1-29-21 Green USA, D’Arrigo Bros
DAR 1-21-27 Purple
DAR 1-12-19 Red
Left, new purple-fleshed cactus pear; center, new green-fleshed cactus pear;
and right, the standard commercial cultivar…..(Los Angeles Times, Nov 17, 2011)
Disponibilità di frutti di OFI sul mercato

COUNTRY G F M A M G L A S O N D
* Cile
** Israele
** Italia
Messico
Nord Africa
** Sud Africa
* USA

Produzione estiva * Rifiorenza naturale


Produzione autunnale
** Rifiorenza indotta
Produzione invernale
Great color
variety

Opuntia spp.
Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity
found in cactus pear fruits

• Betalains
• Vitamin C
• Polyphenols
I pigmenti presenti nelle cactacee:
Le Betalaine
BETAXANTHINE BETACYANINE

R1 R2 R1O
indicaxanthin C H
betanin
+ -
N H R2O N COO

HO OH HO OH
C N C C N C

O H O O H O
BETALAIN CONTENTS OF OPUNTIA FRUITS

500 484
472
450
(μg/g)

398
400
350
300
250
200 147,6
150 89,1 96
30,9 54,1 58,5
100
50
0
clon clon
1288 1320 clon clon clon
1380 1406 clon purple
AR9 1300 deep deep
purple purple
Topping ottenuti con
il succo concentrato
delle varietà Rossa e
Gialla

Source: Morales et al. (2009)


Ancora meglio: polpa surgelata (-18 ºC) per
preparare gelati, succhi, etc.

Cactus Pear e Syrah Sorbet


I succhi
Fruit characteristics for a low-seeded clone of
O. ficus-indica

Garufa selection of O. ficus-indica


Harvesting
MAJOR INNOVATIONS:
• Fruit characteristics:
 fruit growth and ripening pattern;
 fruit ripening period (out-of-season crop);
 fruit harvest and qualty index;
 fruit quality parameters;
 fruit nutraceutical potential;
 fruit minimal processing;
 post harvest physiology and management.
Distribution of fruit of average fruit fresh weight in five 8-years-old O. ficus-
indica trees, cultivar Gialla, grown in a commercial orchard, at Roccapalumba
(Sicily - Italy).
QUALITY AND UNIFORMITY
40 1
Cactus pears Commercial class
35 0,9
crop value
0,8 price
30
0,7
25
0,6

/Kg)
%

20 0,5

price(€
0,4
15

0,3
10
0,2
5
0,1

0 0
AAA AA A B C D waste

Ccommercial classification
FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS
Tab.1 Qualitative parameters for Opuntia ficus-indica fruit
parameter range parameter range parameter range

Soluble Sugars (Brix %) 12 . 16 Biotiolo (mg/100 g) 4.17-8.82 Ca (mg/100 g) 12,4-12.8

pH 5.4 - 6.5 Taurin (mg/100 g) 8-11.7 K (mg/100 g) 90-199

Acidity (% dicitric acid) 0.06- 0.15 Vitamina E (μg/ 100 g) 111-115 Na (mg/100 g) 0,6-1,09

Fruit fw (g) 100-250 Carotenoids (μg/100 g) 1.45-3.47 Mg (mg/100 g) 16,8-18,8

Percent flesh (%) 55-65 Seed vs flesh (n g-1) 3.0-4.5 glucose (%) 29
fructose (%) 24
Seed count 150-300 Ascorbic acid (mg 100g-1) 20-40 sucrose (%) 0.2
Fonte: Inglese et al (2010, 2006, 2002); De Wit et al (2010); Salim et al(2009); Tesoriere et al (2005); Barbera et al., (1992)
Fruit thinning

90

80 3 fruits
6 fruits
9 fruits
70 15 fr uits
P ercentage bys ize (% )

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
<110 110/140 >140
F ruit weight (g)
Relationship between and average fruit fresh weight and number of fruits per tree in
five 8-years-old Opuntia ficus-indica trees, cultivar Gialla, grown in a commercial
orchard.
Carbon flux in O. ficus-indica cladode with
and without fruit, during fruit growth

Import Export

15
Growth Rate
6 fruit 0.156 g dw day-1
Number of f ruit per cladode

10 fruit 0.128
15 fruit 0.112
10

0 0-15 days after bloom


15-30 30-45
fruitless cladode
60-75 45-60

-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100


Carbon budget (%)
Relationship between average fruit fresh weight and number of fruits per cladode in
five 8-years-old Opuntia ficus-indica trees, cultivar Gialla, grown in a commercial
orchard, at Roccapalumba (Sicily - Italy).
Relationship between average TSSand number of fruits per
cladode in five 8-years-old Opuntia ficus-indica trees, cultivar
Gialla, grown in a commercial orchard.
Fruit characteristics in relation to canopy site
Fruit parameters Bottom (0-1 m) Middle (1-2 m) Top (2-3 m)
PAR
15 mol m-2 day-1 18 mol m-2 day-1 26 mol m-2 day-1

Fruit weight (g) 127.0 a 139.5 b 149.6 c

TSSC* (°Brix) 14.9 ns 15.0 15.7

Percent flesh (%) 55.1 ns 56.3 56.1

TSSC= Total Soluble Solids Content. Different letters indicate significant differences and ns = not significant differences within the row at
p=0.05 (Tukey’s test).
Fruit characteristics in relation to canopy orientation
Fruit parameters NE SE NW SW
PAR
24 mol m-2 day-1 27 mol m-2 day-1 17 mol m-2 day-1 16 mol m-2 day-1

Fruit weight (g) 142.9 a 141.4 a 131.8 b 131.6 b

TSSC* (°Brix) 14.8 ns 15.0 14.9 15.1

Percent flesh (%) 56.8 ns 54.3 55.8 54.7

*TSSC= Total Soluble Solids Content. Different letters indicate significant differences and ns = not significant differences within the row at p=0.05
(Tukey’s test).
Fruit parameters in relation to thinning and
irrigation

Fruits Fresh weight Flesh Fruits > 100 g


(n) (g) (%) (%)
6 126 52 84
Wet 15 95 50 29
15 6 108 49 54

Dry 6 104 53 33
15 89 46 10
15 6 97 54 30
Analysis of variance of quality parameters of O. ficus-indica fruits, cultivar Gialla and
Rossa, coming from three different growing sites, in Sicily

Weight TSS Percent pH Titratable Height/


(g) (% Brix) Flesh Acidity Width
(%) (% NaOH)

Site ** ** ns ns ns *
Cultivar ** ns ns ns ns ns
Altitude ** ** ns ns ns **
Site x ns ns ns ns ns ns
Cultivar

*=significant at p<0.05; **=significant at p<0.01; ns=non significant (Tukey’s test).


Factors affecting postharvest life of cactus
pears

- Cactus pears are considered non-climacteric fruit,


but a preharvest climacteric-like rise was observed
at various stage of development.

- According to metabolic activity postharvest life can


be very short at ambient temperature and 3-4 weeks
at 5-8°C.
Respiration rate
• mL CO2/kg h

• 8.5 Late crop (O. ficus-indica cv Gialla) (Chessa and Schirra, 1992)

• 11 First crop (O. ficus-indica) (Dimistris et al., 2005)

• 11 First crop (O. ficus-indica cv Gialla) (Schirra et al., 1997)

• 13.5 Late crop (O. ficus-indica cv Gialla) (Schirra et al., 1999)

• 15 First crop (O. ficus-indica cv Gialla) (Schirra et al., 1999)

• 16.3 Late crop (O. ficus-indica cv Gialla) (Schirra et al., 1996)

• 21 First crop (O. ficus-indica) (D’Aquino et al., 2013)

• 21.9-31.3 First crop (Opuntia spp. six cv) (López-Castañeda et al., 2010)

• 29 First crop (O. ficus-indica cv Gialla) (Piga et al., 1997)

• 23-40 First crop (Opuntia spp. six cv) (Corrales-García, 1997)


• As most tropical species, fruit are chilling sensitive at
temperatures below 8-10 °C

• Chilling injury causes imbalance in metabolic


pathways; loss of firmness, higher rates of
degradation of organic compounds and alteration of
flavour and taste (acetaldehyde and ethanol)

• Visual damages of the peel and increased


suspeptibility to decay
Typical symptoms of Chilling injury

• brownish pitting of the peel,


• surface bronzing,
• black patches
TIPYCAL SYMPTOMS OF CHILLING INJURY
Physical damages developing during storage
Physical damages developing at room temperature
Decay caused by fungi
Cause of visual alterations
CI is more frequent especially when fruit are returned to warm
conditions.

Water loss usually is the most important factor shortening storage life
and reducing the quality of horticultural crops.

Not only does the weight loss cause shrivelling, wilting, shrinkage
and loss of firmness, but in addition the resultant water stress induces
hormonal changes such as enhanced ethylene production and
increased abscissic acid (ABA) levels, which hasten senescence,
membrane disintegration and the leakage of cellular contents.

The sharp increases of fruit weight loss when fruit are removed from
chilling to nonchilling temperature were related to occurrences of
microscopic cracks of the rind.
Susceptibility to CI is related to genetic background and
environment

Bergher et al.(1978) detected no chilling damage after 2


months at 0°C (Chile);

Chavéz-Franco and Saucedo (1985) detected CI symptoms


after 15 days of storage at 8-10°C (O. amilacea and O. ficus-
indica) (Mexico);

Chessa and Schirra (1992) detected severe symptoms of CI


after 4 weeks at 6°C.
Controlled atmosphere

Storage at 5°C under controlled atmosphere (CA) with 2%


O2 and 5% CO2 or 2% O2, and 2% CO2 reduced CI and
decay incidence, decreased the transpiration rate and
resulted in better fruit appearance than fruit stored under
normal atmosphere (Testoni and Eccher-Zerbini 1990; Di
Cesare et al. 1993).
Modified atmosphere
• Heat-shrinkable polyethylene film
(6 weeks at 6°C plus 1 week at 20 °C)
(Piga et al. 1996)

• Heat-shrinkable polyethylene film


(4 weeks at 9° plus 1 week at 20°C)
(Piga et al., 1997)

• PE film
(2 or 4 weeks at 17 °C and 60% RH)
(D’Aquino et al., 1998)

• PVC film
(18 days at 10 °C)
(Brito Primo et al., 2009)
Heat therapy Postharvest treatment
Physical means
• Hot water dip (5 min at 55°C)and Hot air (24 h at 38 °C, RH>95%)
(Schirra et al. 1996).

• Hot air (24, 48 or 72 h at 38°C, RH<95%).


• Hot water 52°C, TBZ 150mg/L at 52°C (Schirra et al., 2002).
• Hot water (2 min at 55°C) with or without waxes (Berger et al., 2002).
• Hot water (1 min at 53°C) (Ben Abda et al, 2010).
• Shower (30 s at 60°C or 20 s at 65 °C) while brushing (Dimitris et al., 2005).
• Hot water 2 min at 50 °C alone or in combination with 2% sodium
carbonate or 0,1% soy lecithin (D’Aquino et al., 2012).
• Vapor heat (12 or 24 h at 35, 38 or 42 °C) (López-Castañeda et al. 2010).
• Hot air (36 h at 38°C with 75-80% or 100% RH) (D’Aquino et al. 2013).
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF HEAT THERAPY

• Quarantine security.

• Decay control.

• Enhance fruit resistance to chilling injury.

• Retain fruit quality.

• Meet consumer demand for ‘organic’ crops.

• Reduce postharvest decay in species that cannot be treated with


fungicide.
CONTROL HARVEST
3 min HWD 52°C (Before storage)
HT 24 h at 36°C (Before storage)
HT 48 h at 36°C Before storage
HT 72 h at 36°C (Before storage)
CONTROL (21 d at 6°C + 7d SL 20°C
HT 24 h at 36°C (21 d at 6°C + 7d SL 20°C
HT 48 h at 36°C (21 d at 6°C + 7d SL 20°C
HT 72 h at 36°C (21 d at 6°C + 7d SL 20°C
IMPACT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL
CHANGES IN EPICUTICULAR WAX

• Occlusion of micro-wounds and cracks normally present in


untreated fruits and subsequent disappearance of platelets,
• relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to melting of wax layers.

• Occlusion of glochids wounds
• Occlusion of possible gaps for wound pathogens by melting the
surface may contribute to protecting the fruit against decay.
• Inhibition of spore germination
• Delay of spore growth
• Suppression of early germinated spore
CONCLUDING REMARKS
MEDFLY

• Visual sound harvested fruit may contain eggs or larvae


of various developing stages, depending upon the
elapsed time between fly oviposition and fruit harvest.
• At normal refrigeration temperature (5-8 °C), larvae
continue to grow and at the end of storage fruit can
show visual damages.
• Flies from infected fruit can develop during storage.
O. ficus-indica fruits management and packaging

Sterilization:
200 ppm Cl2 in 20 l of H2O

Packaging: Storage
Microperforaed 3, 6, 10 and 14 days

Temperature:
8°C and 20°C
Atmosphere composition in microperforated packages of
peeled cactus pear fruit (CO2, O2, C2H4)
25 CO2 ( 8°C )
CO2 (20°C )
O2 ( 8°C )
20 O2 ( 20°C )
Partial pressure, (kPa)

15

10

35 Ethylene ( 8°C )
5
Ethylene ( 20°C )
28

Ethylene (ppm)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(days) 21

14

0 2 4 6 8 10
Time(days)
Fresh-cut fruit quality parameters after 10 days at 8°C e
20°C (microperforated packaging)

Temperature Storage days SSC Malic Acid Decay


Packaging %
°C °Brix %

Harvest room temp 0 13.7 0.3

3 13.3 0.3 --
8 6 13.2 0.3 --
10 13.2 0.3 --

Microperforated
3 13.3 0.3 --
20 6 13.1 0.2 --
10 13.0 0.2 66

3 13.3 0.3 --
8 6 13.1 0.3 --
10 13.1 0.2 --
Macroperforated
3 13.3 0.2 --
20 6 -- -- 100
10 -- -- 100
Quality of fresh-cut cactus products after the arrival to the destination
point

Enterobacteria E.coli Yeast Molds taste


CFU/g CFU/g CFU/g CFU/g
Product Inspection day
Acceptability threshold
5000< not found 20000< 5000<

Cactus pear On arrival, after 4 days


100< not found 100< 1000 good
(peeled) of transit

Cactus pear After 5 additional days


100< not found 2000 2000 good
(peeled) at 6°C
Marketing cacti as ready-to-eat (fresh-cut)
products may significantly expand their
consumption, on condition that their
quality, safety and longevity would answer
the market demands