Sei sulla pagina 1di 65

Manual of W eighing Applications

Part 1
Densi ty
BK - 07.07.99- VORWOR_E.DOC
Foreword
In m a n y c o m m o n a re a s o f a p p l i c a ti o n , a w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t o r th e w e i g h t i t m e a sure s i s j ust a
m e a n s to a n e n d : Th e v a l ue th a t i s a c tua l l y so ug h t i s c a l c ul a te d f ro m th e w e i g h t o r m a ss th a t w a s
d e te rm i n e d b y th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t. Th a t i s w h y th i s Manual of W eighing Applications d e sc ri b e s
th e m o st w i d e l y use d w e i g h i n g a p p l i c a ti o n s i n a se ri e s o f se p a ra te b o o kl e ts, w i th e a c h b o o kl e t
re p re se n ti n g a c o m p l e te a n d i n d e p e n d e n t m a n ua l .
Ea c h o f th e se b o o kl e ts b e g i n s w i th a d e sc ri p ti o n o f th e g e n e ra l a n d th e o re ti c a l b a si s o f th e
a p p l i c a ti o n c o n c e rn e d w h i c h i n m a n y c a se s c a n n o t b e d o n e w i th o ut usi n g f o rm ul a s a n d
e q ua ti o n s ta ke n fro m th e fi e l d s o f p h y si c s a n d m a th e m a ti c s. Th e e q ua ti o n s use d a re e x p l a i n e d i n
th e te x t, a n d th e i n te rm e d i a te ste p s n e c e ssa ry fo r a rri vi n g a t th e re sul ts g i ve n h e re a re a l so
i n c l ud e d . So m e re a d e rs m a y g e t th e i m p re ssi o n , a t fi rst g l a n c e , th a t th e m a n ua l i s j ust a c o l l e c ti o n
o f (m a n y ) e q ua ti o n s, b ut w e d o h o p e th a t th e m o st i m p o rta n t p o i n ts a re fa m i l i a r to a l l re a d e rs, e v e n
i n th i s c o n te x t.
Ea c h se p a ra te b o o kl e t a l so c o n ta i n s a c h a p te r g i vi n g d e ta i l e d e x a m p l e s o f a p p l i c a ti o n s, a s w e l l a s
a n i n d e x w h e re y o u c a n l o o k up ke y w o rd s to f i n d th e i n f o rm a ti o n y o u n e e d .
A t th e b a c k o f e a c h b o o kl e t, j ust b e fo re th e i n d e x , w e h a ve i n c l ud e d a l i st o f q ue sti o n s o n th e
sub j e c t so th a t re a d e rs c a n c h e c k w h e th e r th e y h a v e un d e rsto o d w h a t th e y h a v e re a d a n d c a n p ut
i t i n to p ra c ti c e .
Th i s m a n ua l w a s w ri tte n to p ro v i d e sartorius e m p l o y e e s a n d a sso c i a te s, a s w e l l a s a n y i n te re ste d
c usto m e rs, w i th a c o m p re h e n si ve c o m p i l a ti o n o f i n fo rm a ti o n o n th e m o st w i d e l y use d a p p l i c a ti o n s,
b o th to i n tro d uc e th e sub j e c t a n d to i n c re a se e x i sti n g kn o w l e d g e i n th e fi e l d , a s w e l l a s to p ro v i d e
a re fe re n c e so urc e . W e a l so h o p e th a t re a d e rs w h o m a ke a c ti ve use o f th i s m a n ua l w i l l g a i n
c o n f i d e n c e i n f i n d i n g so l uti o n s w h e n usi n g th e se a p p l i c a ti o n s a n d g a i n a f e e l i n g f o r th e
p o ssi b i l i ti e s th a t th e se w e i g h i n g a p p l i c a ti o n s o p e n up , so th e y c a n b e g i n to c re a te c usto m so l uti o n s
w h e re n e e d e d .
C o n tri b uti o n s f ro m use rs b o th i n th e l a b o ra to ry a n d i n i n d ustry w i l l h e l p e n sure th a t th i s m a n ua l
"l i ve s" a n d g ro w s w i th use . W e a re e sp e c i a l l y i n te re ste d i n re c e i vi n g y o ur a p p l i c a ti o n re p o rts,
w h i c h w e w o ul d l i ke to i n c l ud e i n f uture e d i ti o n s o f th e Manual of W eighing Applications, to m a ke
i n f o rm a ti o n a b o ut n e w a n d i n te re sti n g a p p l i c a ti o n s o f w e i g h i n g te c h n o l o g y a v a i l a b l e to a l l o ur
re a d e rs.
Marketing, Weighing Technology
February 1999
Symbol s Symbol s
Indi ces Indi ces
a a Ai r
fl fl Fluid (flowing system)
s s Solid
(a) (a) Determined in air
(fl ) (fl ) Determined in a fluid
B B Buoyancy
b b Bulk
t t Total
Symbol Symbol Uni t Uni t Uni t Uni t
m m Mass m m kg kg
V V Volume V V m m
3 3
A A Area A A m m
F F Force F F N = kg N = kg m/ s m/ s
2 2
W = m W = m g g Weight (force) W = m W = m g g N = kg N = kg m/ s m/ s
2 2
g g Gravitational
acceleration
g g m/ s m/ s
2 2
p = F/ A p = F/ A Pressure p = F/ A p = F/ A Pa=N/ m Pa=N/ m

rho rho
Densi ty Densi ty

rho rho
kg/ m kg/ m
3 3
; g/ cm ; g/ cm
3 3
T T Temperature in
Kelvin
T T K K
t t Temperature in
Celsius
t t C C
t=T-273,15 K

gamma gamma
Specific gravity (old!)
gamma gamma
kp/ dm kp/ dm
3 3

al pha al pha
Linear expansion
coefficient of (of solids)

al pha al pha
1/ K = K 1/ K = K
- 1 - 1

gamma gamma
Expansion coefficient (of
liquids or gases)

gamma gamma
1/ K = K 1/ K = K
- 1 - 1

phi phi
Relative humidity
phi phi
% %

pi pi
Porosity
pi pi
Vol ume-% Vol ume-%
1
Contents:
C O N TEN TS: C O N TEN TS: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
TH E G EN ERA L PRIN C IPLES O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N TH E G EN ERA L PRIN C IPLES O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3
EXA M PLES O F A PPLIC A TIO N S FO R D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
D EN SITY: A D EFIN ITIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
U N ITS FO R M EA SU RIN G D EN SITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
D EPEN D EN C E O F D EN SITY O N TEM PERA TU RE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
TH E A RC H IM ED EA N PRIN C IPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
G RA VIM ETRIC M ETH O D S O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N G RA VIM ETRIC M ETH O D S O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 0
D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N BA SED O N TH E A RC H IM ED EA N PRIN C IPLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0
Buo y a n c y M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0
D i sp l a c e m e n t M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
D e te rm i n i n g th e D e n si ty o f A i r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N U SIN G PYC N O M ETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5
W e i g h i n g a D e fi n e d Vo l um e ("W e i g h t p e r Li te r ") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5
Py c n o m e te r M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6
O TH ER M ETH O D S O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N O TH ER M ETH O D S O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 1 8
O SC ILLA TIO N M ETH O D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
SU SPEN SIO N M ETH O D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
H YD RO M ETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0
PRA C TIC A L A PPLIC A TIO N S PRA C TIC A L A PPLIC A TIO N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 2 1
D ETERM IN IN G TH E D EN SITY O F SO LID S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1
C h a ra c te ri sti c Fe a ture s o f Sa m p l e M a te ri a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1
C h o o si n g a D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1
Pe rf o rm i n g D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e D i sp l a c e m e n t M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1
D ETERM IN IN G TH E D EN SITY O F PO RO U S SO LID S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2
C h a ra c te ri sti c Fe a ture s o f Sa m p l e M a te ri a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2
C h o o si n g a D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3
Pe rf o rm i n g D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e Buo y a n c y M e th o d (i n A c c o rd a n c e w i th Euro p e a n Sta n d a rd
EN 9 9 3 -1 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3
D ETERM IN IN G TH E D EN SITY O F PO W D ERS A N D G RA N U LES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
C h a ra c te ri sti c Fe a ture s o f Sa m p l e M a te ri a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
C h o o si n g a D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5
Pe rf o rm i n g D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e Py c n o m e te r M e th o d (i n A c c o rd a n c e w i th G e rm a n a n d
Euro p e a n Sta n d a rd D IN EN 7 2 5 -7 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6
D ETERM IN IN G TH E D EN SITY O F H O M O G EN O U S LIQ U ID S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7
C h a ra c te ri sti c s o f Sa m p l e M a te ri a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7
C h o o si n g a D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7
Pe rf o rm i n g D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e Buo y a n c y M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7
D ETERM IN IN G TH E D EN SITY O F D ISPERSIO N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8
C h a ra c te ri sti c s o f Sa m p l e M a te ri a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8
C h o o si n g a D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
Pe rf o rm i n g D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e D i sp l a c e m e n t M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
ERRO RS IN A N D PREC ISIO N O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N ERRO RS IN A N D PREC ISIO N O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 3 1
A IR BU O YA N C Y C O RREC TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1
D i sp l a c e m e n t M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1
Buo y a n c y M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
2
Py c n o m e te r M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
A IR BU O YA N C Y C O RREC TIO N FO R TH E PA N H A N G ER A SSEM BLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
Buo y a n c y M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
D i sp l a c e m e n t M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4
PREVEN TIO N O F SYSTEM A TIC ERRO RS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5
H y d ro sta ti c M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5
Py c n o m e te r M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6
ERRO R C A LC U LA TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6
Buo y a n c y M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7
D i sp l a c e m e n t M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5
Py c n o m e te r M e th o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6
C O M PA RISO N O F D IFFEREN T M ETH O D S O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N C O M PA RISO N O F D IFFEREN T M ETH O D S O F D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 5 0
A PPEN D IX A PPEN D IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 5 4
TEM PERA TU RE D EPEN D EN C Y O F D EN SITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4
H YD RO STA TIC D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N ELIM IN A TIO N O F TH E VO LU M ES IN TH E EQ U A TIO N FO R R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5
A IR D EN SITY D ETERM IN A TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6
A IR BU O YA N C Y C O RREC TIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7
Q U ESTIO N S A B O U T D EN SITY Q U ESTIO N S A B O U T D EN SITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 5 8
TIPS FO R A N SW ERIN G TH E Q U ESTIO N S TIPS FO R A N SW ERIN G TH E Q U ESTIO N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 6 0
REG ISTER REG ISTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 6 2
3
The General Principles of Density Determination
Examples of Appli cati ons for Densi ty Determi nati on
Densi ty i s use d i n m a n y a re a s o f a p p l i c a ti o n to d e si g n a te c e rta i n p ro p e rti e s o f materi als or
products. In c o n j un c ti o n w i th o th e r i n f o rm a ti o n , th e d e n si ty o f a m a te ri a l c a n p ro v i d e so m e
i n d i c a ti o n o f p o ssi b l e c a use s f o r a l te ra ti o n s i n p ro d uc t c h a ra c te ri sti c s. D e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n i s
a m o n g th e m o st o fte n use d g ra vi m e tri c p ro c e d ure s i n l a b o ra to ri e s.
D e n si ty c a n i n d i c a te a c h a n g e i n th e composi ti on of a materi al, o r a d e f e c t i n a p ro d uc t, suc h a s
a c ra c k o r a b ub b l e i n c a st p a rts (kn o w n a s v o i d s), f o r i n sta n c e i n sa n i ta ry c e ra m i c s o r i n f o un d ri e s
i n th e i ro n a n d ste e l i n d ustri e s.
In a l um i n um f o un d ri e s, th e melt quali ty i s m o n i to re d b y ta ki n g tw o sa m p l e s: o n e un d e r a i r p re ssure
a n d o n e un d e r, fo r e x a m p l e , 8 0 m b a r p re ssure . O n c e th e y h a ve se t a n d c o o l e d , th e d e n si ty o f th e
sa m p l e s i s d e te rm i n e d . Th e ra ti o o f b o th d e n si ty va l ue s p ro vi d e s i n fo rm a ti o n o n th e p uri ty o f th e
me l t.
D e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty o f p l a sti c s use d i n e n g i n e e ri n g c a n h e l p to m o n i to r th e proporti on of
crystalline phase, b e c a use th e h i g h e r g e o m e tri c o rd e r o f c ry sta l s m a ke s th e m d e n se r th a n th e n o n -
c ry sta l l i n e p o rti o n . Th e d e n si ty o f g l a ss i s d e te rm i n e d b y b o th th e c h e m i c a l c o m p o si ti o n o f th e
sa m p l e a n d th e c o o l i n g ra te o f th e m e l te d m a ss.
W i th porous materials, th e d e n si ty i s a ffe c te d b y th e q ua n ti ty o f p o re s, w h i c h a l so d e te rm i n e s
c e rta i n o th e r q ua l i ti e s o f th e m a te ri a l ; fo r i n sta n c e , th e fro st re si sta n c e o f ro o f ti l e s, o r th e i n sul a ti n g
p ro p e rti e s o f w a l l m a te ri a l s suc h a s c l a y a n d l i m e m a l m b ri c ks o r p o ro us c o n c re te .
O n e o f th e f a c to rs m e a sure d to d e te rm i n e th e q ua l i ty o f w i n e i s kn o w n a s th e m ust w e i g h t, w h i c h i s
m e a sure d i n d e g re e s c h sl e th i s i s a l so a d e n si ty va l ue , b e c a use th e densi ty i s proporti onal to
the concentrati on of a substance i n th e so l ve n t (e . g . , sug a r, sa l t o r a l c o h o l i n a n a q ue o us so l uti o n ).
Th e d e n si ty o f p ro d uc ts a l so p l a y s a n i m p o rta n t ro l e i n th e average wei ght control of prepackaged
products, i n th o se c a se s w h e re a p a c ka g e i s fi lled by wei ght b ut m ust c a rry a l a b e l indicating the
contents i n volume.
Density: A Definition
D e n si ty () i s th e p ro p o rti o n o f m a ss (m ) to vo l um e i n a n a m o un t o f m a te ri a l . Th e te rm s use d h e re
a re d e f i n e d i n th e G e rm a n In d ustri a l Sta n d a rd (D IN ) 1 3 0 6 .

m
V
Equation 1
D i ffe re n t fi e l d s o f i n d ustry a n d te c h n o l o g y h a ve a l so d e ve l o p e d va ri o us sp e c i a l te rm s re l a ti n g to
d e n si ty :
N ormal density th e d e n si ty o f g a se s un d e r n o rm a l p h y si c a l c o n d i ti o n s (0 C a n d 1 0 1 3 h Pa )
Tap density th e d e n si ty o f a p o w d e ry m a te ri a l un d e r un d e fi n e d c o n d i ti o n s; fo r e x a m p l e , i n
sh i p p i n g (D IN 3 0 9 0 0 ) o r th e m a ss q uo ti e n t o f th e un c o m p re sse d d ry g ra n ul e s i n a d e si g n a te d
m e a suri n g c o n ta i n e r d i v i d e d b y th e v o l um e o f th e c o n ta i n e r (D IN EN 1 0 9 7 -3 )
4
Apparent density th e d e n si ty o f a p o w d e r w h e n f i l l e d i n a c c o rd a n c e w i th th e re l e v a n t
d e si g n a te d te sti n g p ro c e d ure ; th i s i s i m p o rta n t f o r d e te rm i n i n g th e f i l l q ua n ti ty o f p re ssi n g m o l d s
Bulk densi ty th e m a ss/ vo l um e ra ti o th a t i n c l ud e s th e c a vi ti e s i n a p o ro us m a te ri a l
Soli d densi ty th e m a ss/ vo l um e ra ti o o f a p o ro us m a te ri a l ; i . e . , e x c l ud i n g th e p o re vo l um e
True density Te rm sti l l use d fo r "so l i d d e n si ty "
Relati ve densi ty th e p ro p o rti o n o f a d e n si ty v a l ue to a re fe re n c e d e n si ty
0
ta ke n f ro m a
re fe re n c e m a te ri a l ; re l a ti ve d e n si ty i s a ra ti o w i th th e d i m e n si o n 1
Th e va l ue fo r speci fi c gravi ty i s sti l l so m e ti m e s g i ve n a s w e l l , a l th o ug h i t i s ra re l y use d to d a y .

W
V
m g
V
Equation 2
In c o n tra st to th e d e n si ty , th i s v a l ue i n d i c a te s th e w e i g h t f o rc e i n re l a ti o n to th e v o l um e ; i . e . , th e
d i ffe re n c e b e tw e e n d e n si ty a n d sp e c i fi c g ra vi ty i s th a t th e c a l c ul a ti o n o f sp e c i f i c g ra v i ty i n c l ud e s
th e g ra v i ta ti o n a l a c c e l e ra ti o n (g ).
Uni ts for Measuri ng densi ty
In th e In te rn a ti o n a l Sy ste m o f U n i ts, th e unit for density is kg/ m
3
; th e un i t use d m o st o fte n i s g / c m
3

th i s c o rre sp o n d s to th e re sul ts i n g / m l . Re sul ts a re a l so so m e ti m e s g i ve n i n kg / d m
3
.
1 kg/ m
3
= 0.001 g/ cm
3
or:
1 g/ cm
3
= 1 kg/ dm
3
= 1000 kg/ m
3
Dependence of Densi ty on Temperature
Th e d e n si ty o f a l l so l i d , l i q ui d a n d g a se o us m a te ri a l s d e p e n d s o n temperature.
A si d e fro m te m p e ra ture , th e d e n si ty o f g a se o us m a te ri a l s a l so d e p e n d s o n p re ssure . G a se s a re
c o m p re ssi b l e a t "n o rm a l " p re ssure ; th i s m e a n s th a t a i r d e n si ty c h a n g e s w h e n th e a i r p re ssure
c h a n g e s.
Th e normal density i s th e d e n si ty o f a g a s (o r c o m b i n a ti o n o f g a se s) un d e r n o rm a l p h y si c a l
c o n d i ti o n s: te m p e ra ture T = 0 C , p re ssure p = 1 0 1 . 3 2 5 kPa .
A g e n e ra l rul e i s: The hi gher the temperature, the lower the densi ty. M a te ri a l s e x p a n d w h e n
h e a te d ; i n o th e r w o rd s: th e i r vo l um e i n c re a se s. Th e re fo re th e d e n si ty o f m a te ri a l s w i l l d e c re a se a s
th e i r vo l um e i n c re a se s. Th i s i s m o re n o ti c e a b l e i n l i q ui d s th a n i n so l i d s, a n d e sp e c i a l l y i n g a se s.
Th e c h a n g e i n d e n si ty o v e r a c e rta i n te m p e ra ture i n te rv a l c a n b e c a l c ul a te d usi n g th e h e a t
e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t; th i s w i l l y i e l d th e c h a n g e i n v o l um e o f a m a te ri a l i n re l a ti o n to th e
te m p e ra ture (se e A p p e n d i x , p a g e x x ).
Th e f o l l o w i n g d i a g ra m s sh o w th e d e n si ty o f v a ri o us sub sta n c e s c a l c ul a te d i n re l a ti o n to th e
te m p e ra ture th e x a x e s sh o w d e n si ty i n i n te rva l s o f 0 . 0 6 g / c m 3 (e x c e p t i n th e c a se o f a i r).
A s c a n b e se e n fro m th e se d i a g ra m s, te m p e ra ture a ffe c ts so m e sub sta n c e s m o re stro n g l y th a n
o th e rs. For density determination, this means that d e p e n d i n g o n th e re q ui re d a c c ura c y o f
me a sure me n t, o f c o urse the test temperature must be set very preci sely and kept constant.
In h y d ro sta ti c d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n m e th o d s, fo r e x a m p l e , i t i s usua l l y b e tte r to use w a te r th a n
e th a n o l a s a l i q ui d fo r b uo y a n c y ; w h e n th e te m p e ra ture i n c re a se s, fo r e x a m p l e , fro m 2 0 C to
5
2 1 C , th e d e n si ty o f th e w a te r o n l y d e c re a se s b y 0 . 0 0 0 2 1 g / c m
3
, w h e re th e d e n si ty o f e th a n o l
d e c re a se s b y 0 . 0 0 0 8 5 g / c m
3
m o re th a n 4 ti m e s a s m uc h . Th i s m e a n s th a t th e te m p e ra ture h a s
to b e c o n tro l l e d m o re p re c i se l y , o r a g re a te r e rro r m ust b e a ssum e d i n th e re sul ts o f th e d e n si ty
d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g e th a n o l .
Figure 1: Temperature dependency of densi ty for water and ethanol (above) and for steel and
aluminum (below)
0.9700
0.9800
0.9900
1.0000
1.0100
1.0200
1.0300
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/

g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/

g
/
c
m

Water (calc. from density (20C) and expansion coefficient)


Water (PTB-table)
0.7500
0.7600
0.7700
0.7800
0.7900
0.8000
0.8100
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

Ethanol
7.8700
7.8800
7.8900
7.9000
7.9100
7.9200
7.9300
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

Steel
2.6700
2.6800
2.6900
2.7000
2.7100
2.7200
2.7300
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

Aluminum
6
Figure 2: Temperature dependency of glass, polyethylene and ai r
2.1700
2.1800
2.1900
2.2000
2.2100
2.2200
2.2300
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

Quartz Gl ass
2.4500
2.4600
2.4700
2.4800
2.4900
2.5000
2.5100
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y
/
g
/
c
m

AR-glass (plummet of the Density Determination Kit)


0.9000
0.9100
0.9200
0.9300
0.9400
0.9500
0.9600
10 20 30 40 50
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

Polyethylene
0.00110
0.00115
0.00120
0.00125
0.00130
15 20 25
Temperature / C Temperature / C
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

/
g
/
c
m

Ai r
7
The Archimedean Principle
In a c c o rd a n c e w i th th e d e f i n i ti o n o f d e n si ty a s = m/ V, i n o rd e r to d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f
m a tte r, th e m a ss a n d th e vo l um e o f th e sa m p l e m ust b e kn o w n .
Th e determination of mass can be performed di rectly usi n g a w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t.
Th e determi nati on of volume g e n e ra l l y cannot be performed di rectly. Ex c e p ti o n s to th i s rul e
i n c l ud e
c a se s w h e re th e a c c ura c y i s n o t re q ui re d to b e v e ry h i g h , a n d
m e a sure m e n ts p e rfo rm e d o n g e o m e tri c b o d i e s, suc h a s c ub e s, c ub o i d s o r c y l i n d e rs, th e vo l um e
o f w h i c h c a n e a si l y b e d e te rm i n e d fro m d i m e n si o n s suc h a s l e n g th , h e i g h t a n d d i a m e te r.
Th e vo l um e o f a l i q ui d c a n b e m e a sure d i n a g ra d ua te d c y l i n d e r o r i n a p i p e tte ; th e vo l um e o f
so l i d s c a n b e d e te rm i n e d b y i m m e rsi n g th e sa m p l e i n a c y l i n d e r fi l l e d w i th w a te r a n d th e n
m e a suri n g th e ri se i n th e w a te r l e ve l .
Be c a use o f th e di ffi culty of determi ni ng volume wi th preci si on, e sp e c i a l l y w h e n th e sa m p l e h a s a
h i g h l y i rre g ul a r sh a p e , a "d e to ur" i s o f te n ta ke n w h e n d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty , b y m a ki n g use o f th e
Archimedean Principle, w h i c h d e sc ri b e s th e re l a ti o n b e tw e e n fo rc e s (o r m a sse s), vo l um e s a n d
d e n si ti e s o f so l i d sa m p l e s i m m e rse d i n l i q ui d :
Fro m e ve ry d a y e x p e ri e n c e , e ve ry o n e i s fa m i l i a r w i th th e e ffe c t th a t a n o b j e c t o r b o d y a p p e a rs to
b e l i g h te r th a n i n a i r j ust l i ke y o ur o w n b o d y i n a sw i m m i n g p o o l .
Figure 3: The force exerted by a body on a spri ng scale i n ai r (left) and i n water (ri ght)
Bo th th e c a use o f th i s p h e n o m e n o n a n d th e c o rre l a ti o n b e tw e e n th e v a l ue s d e te rm i n e d i n i ts
m e a sure m e n t a re e x p l a i n e d i n d e ta i l i n th e fo l l o w i n g .
A b o d y i m m e rse d i n w a te r i s sub j e c te d to stre ss fro m a l l si d e s si m ul ta n e o usl y d ue to h y d ro sta ti c
p re ssure . Th e hori zontal stress i s i n e q ui l i b ri um , w h i c h i s to sa y th a t th e f o rc e s c a n c e l e a c h o th e r
o ut.
Th e verti cal pressure o n th e i m m e rse d b o d y i n c re a se s a s th e d e p th o f th e b o d y un d e r th e surfa c e
i n c re a se s. Th e p re ssure a t a c e rta i n d e p th i n l i q ui d e x e rte d b y th e l i q ui d a b o v e th a t p o i n t i s c a l l e d
weight pressure. Th e w e i g h t p re ssure c a n b e c a l c ul a te d fro m th e d e n si ty o f th e l i q ui d , th e h e i g h t o f
th e l i q ui d a n d th e g ra v i ta ti o n a l a c c e l e ra ti o n : p =
fl
g h .
The same pressure is exerted on area A at depth h:
F p A g A h
fl
Equation 3
8

fl
= 1g/ cm
3
h
1
h
2
h
3
A
A
Figure 4: Gradient of pressure in liquid
F
1
F
2

fl
x
h
x + h
Figure 5: Buoyancy effects
Th e w e i g h t p re ssure o n th e surfa c e o f a n i m m e rse d b o d y w i th a re a A c a use s a fo rc e o f
F
1
= A x
fl
g to b e e x e rte d o n th e up p e r surfa c e o f th e b o d y , a n d F
2
= A (x + h )
fl
g o n th e l o w e r
surfa c e . Th e re sul ti n g fo rc e o n th e b o d y c a n b e c a l c ul a te d fro m th e d i ffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e se tw o
fo rc e s:
[ ] [ ]
F F - F
= A (x+h) g - A x g
= A (x+h- x) g
= A h g
res 2 1
fl fl
fl
fl

Equation 4
Th e p ro d uc t o f a re a a n d h e i g h t o f th e b o d y i s e q ua l to th e vo l um e o f th e b o d y . Th i s vo l um e i s i n
turn e q ua l to th e vo l um e o f w a te r th a t i s d i sp l a c e d b y th e i m m e rse d b o d y .
(A h) V V
s fl
Equation 5
Th us th e re sul ti n g fo rc e i s
F V g F
res fl fl B
. Equation 6
Th i s f o rc e i s kn o w n a s buoyancy force o r si m p l y b uo y a n c y , a n d i t d i re c tl y i n c l ud e s th e va l ue fo r
vo l um e to b e d e te rm i n e d .
with fl = 1 g/cm
3
and g 10 m/s
2
h p A F
1 1 cm 0.01 N/cm
2
1 cm
2
0.01 N
2 10 cm 0.1 N/ cm
2
1 cm
2
0.1 N
3 50 cm 0.5 N/ cm
2
1 cm
2
0.5 N
9
O b se rvi n g th e ra ti o o f fo rc e s e x e rte d o n th e i m m e rse d b o d y a n d th e w a te r d i sp l a c e d b y th e b o d y ,
i t c a n b e se e n th a t th e f o rc e s e x e rte d i n c l ud e b o th th e w e i g h t W
s
, a d o w n w a rd f o rc e , a n d
b uo y a n c y F
B
, a n up w a rd fo rc e . Th e re sul ti n g fo rc e c a n b e c a l c ul a te d fro m th e d i ffe re n c e b e tw e e n
th e se tw o fo rc e s: F
re s
= W
s
- F
B
. Th e b uo y a n c y F
B
e x e rte d o n th e b o d y i s e q ua l to th e w e i g h t W
fl
o f th e l i q ui d d i sp l a c e d b y th e b o d y .
W
S
F
B
F
B
=
fl
V
fl
g
W
fl
= m
fl
g = F
B
Figure 6: On the Archimedean Principle: The figure on the left represents the body immersed in liquid;
on the right, the liquid element.
Th e re sul t i s
W m g = V g
fl fl fl fl
Equation 7
If th e b o d y a n d th e l i q ui d e l e m e n t a re a t e q ui l i b ri um , th e b uo y a n c y F
B
m ust, b y m o d ul e , b e e q ua l
to th e w e i g h t W
fl
; th us
F = W
B fl
. Equation 8
The buoyancy i s the result of the level of hydrostati c pressure i n a li qui d. Buoyancy i s i nverse to the
weight of a body immersed in liquid. This explains why a body seems to be lighter in water than in
air. Depending on the ratio of body weight to buoyancy, the immersed body may sink, float or be
suspended.
If th e b uo y a n c y i s l e ss th a n th e w e i g h t (F
B
< W
s
), the body wi ll si nk. In th i s c a se , th e d e n si ty o f th e
b o d y i s g re a te r th a n th a t o f th e l i q ui d (
s
>
fl
). Th e w i d e l y use d m e th o d o f d e te rm i n i n g d e n si ty
a c c o rd i n g to th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d i s usua l l y use d un d e r th e se c o n d i ti o n s.
If th e b uo y a n c y i s e q ua l to th e w e i g h t (F
B
= W
s
), the body re m a i n s c o m p l e te l y i m m e rse d a n d is
suspended in the liquid. Be c a use b o th th e vo l um e a n d m a ss o f th e b o d y a re e q ua l to th e vo l um e
a n d m a ss o f th e d i sp l a c e d w a te r, i t f o l l o w s th a t th e b o d y a n d th e l i q ui d h a v e th e sa m e d e n si ty .
Th e re a re a n um b e r o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n p ro c e d ure s th a t m a ke use o f th i s c o n d i ti o n (se e Pa g e
1 8 ).
If th e b uo y a n c y i s g re a te r th a n th e w e i g h t (F
B
> W
s
), the body floats; i . e . , i t ri se s to th e surfa c e o f
th e l i q ui d a n d re m a i n s o n l y p a rti a l l y i m m e rse d . In f a c t, i t d i p s so f a r i n to th e l i q ui d un ti l th e w e i g h t
o f th a t v o l um e o f l i q ui d th a t i s d i sp l a c e d i s e q ua l to th e w e i g h t o f th e b o d y . In th i s c a se , th e
vo l um e o f th e d i sp l a c e d l i q ui d i s l e ss th a n th e vo l um e o f th e b o d y (V
fl
< V
s
) a n d th e d e n si ty o f th e
l i q ui d i s g re a te r th a n th e d e n si ty o f th e b o d y
fl
>
s
. Th e se a re th e c o n d i ti o n s fo r d e n si ty
d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g a h y d ro m e te r (se e p a g e 2 0 ).
10
Gravimetric Methods of Density Determination
Density Determination Based on the Archimedean Principle
Th e re l a ti o n sh i p s b e tw e e n the mass, the volume and the density o f solid bodies immersed in liquid
a s d e sc ri b e d b y A rc h i m e d e s fo rm a b a si s fo r th e d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e d e n si ty o f sub sta n c e s. Th e
d i ffi c ul ty i n th i s m e th o d o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n l i e s i n th e p re c i se d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e vo l um e o f
th e sa mp l e .
W h e n a b o d y i s c o m p l e te l y i m m e rse d i n l i q ui d , th e m o d e o f p ro c e d ure d e m a n d s th a t th e vo l um e o f
th e b o d y i s e q ua l to th e vo l um e o f th e d i sp l a c e d l i q ui d . Th us w e c a n d e ri ve th e fo l l o w i n g general
equation between the density and mass of a liquid and of a solid, i n w h i c h th e v o l um e s a re n o t
e x p l i c i tl y n a m e d (se e A p p e n d i x , p a g e 5 4 fo r th e d e ri va ti o n ):

s fl
s
fl
m
m
Equation 9
A c c o rd i n g l y , th e un kn o w n density of a solid substance c a n b e d e te rm i n e d f ro m th e kn o w n d e n si ty
o f th e l i q ui d fo r b uo y a n c y a n d tw o m a ss v a l ue s:

fl s
fl
s
m
m

or

fl
fl
s
m
V

Equation 10
Re c i p ro c a l l y , th e densi ty of li qui ds c a n b e d e te rm i n e d fro m o n e m a ss va l ue a n d th e kn o w n d e n si ty
o f th e i mme rse d b o d y .
Simple and precise methods of mass determination can eliminate the need to measure volume.
H y d ro sta ti c b a l a n c e s a n d M o h r b a l a n c e s a re sti l l use d i n so m e c a se s fo r m e a suri n g d e n si ty ; th e
M o h r b a l a n c e , a b e a m b a l a n c e h a s b e e n w i d e l y re p l a c e d b y th e use o f d e n si ty se ts i n c o n j un c ti o n
w i th l a b o ra to ry b a l a n c e s.
Th e re a re tw o b a si c a l l y d i ffe re n t p ro c e d ure s fo r hydrostatic weighing methods. Th e a c tua l
m e a n i n g o f th e va l ue s d i sp l a y e d o n th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t d e p e n d s o n th e m o d e o f p ro c e d ure
use d . Th e buoyancy method (se e Fi g ure 7 a n d Fi g ure 8 ) e n ta i l s m e a suri n g th e w e i g h t o f th e b o d y ,
w h i c h i s d e c re a se d b y b uo y a n c y , w h i l e th e displacement method (se e Fi g ure 9 ) c a l l s fo r th e d i re c t
m e a sure m e n t o f th e w e i g h t o r m a ss o f th e d i sp l a c e d fl ui d .
O th e r m e th o d s th a t a re b a se d o n th e A rc h i m e d e a n p ri n c i p l e i n c l ud e d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g
h y d ro m e te rs (se e p a g e 2 0 ) a s w e l l a s va ri o us susp e n si o n m e th o d s (se e p a g e 1 8 ).
Buoyancy Method
Th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d i s o fte n use d to d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f b o d i e s a n d l i q ui d s. The apparent
weight of a body in a liquid, i . e . , th e w e i g h t a s re d uc e d b y th e b uo y a n c y fo rc e is measured. Th i s
v a l ue i s use d i n c o m b i n a ti o n w i th th e w e i g h t i n a i r to c a l c ul a te th e d e n si ty .
11
W ei ghi ng pan
Figure 7: Basic procedure for the buoyancy method with below-balance weighing
Liquid in a beaker on a metal platform;
no contact with the weighing pan
Weighing pan
Figure 8: Basic procedure for the buoyancy method with a frame for hanging the plummet and a
bridge for holding the container for liquid
In th e p ro c e d ure s i l l ustra te d i n Fi g ure 7 a n d Fi g ure 8 , th e v a l ue s d i sp l a y e d o n th e w e i g h t re a d o ut
i n d i c a te th e m a ss o f th e i m m e rse d b o d y a s re d uc e d b y b uo y a n c y (se e a l so Fi g ure 3 ).
Th i s m e a n s th a t, i n l i g h t o f th e e q ua ti o n
s
=
fl
(m
s
/ m
fl
), th e m a ss o f th e b o d y w e i g h e d i n a i r i s
kn o w n : m
s
= m
(a )
. Th e m a ss o f th e l i q ui d m
fl
i s n o t d i re c tl y kn o w n , b ut i s y i e l d e d b y th e d i ffe re n c e
b e tw e e n th e w e i g h ts o f th e b o d y i n a i r (m
(a )
) a n d i n l i q ui d (m
(fl)
):
m
fl
= m
(a)
- m
(fl)
.
Th i s c h a n g e s Eq ua ti o n 9 f o r d e te rm i n i n g th e densi ty of the body i n to :

s fl
(a)
(a) (fl)
m
m m

. Equation 11
To d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f a l i q ui d , m
fl
i s a g a i n c a l c ul a te d fro m th e va l ue s m e a sure d fo r m a ss o f
th e b o d y i n a i r a n d i n l i q ui d m
fl
= m
(a )
- m
(fl)
a n d th e re sul t use d i n Eq ua ti o n 1 0 . Th e b uo y a n c y
m e th o d m a i n ta i n s th e re l a ti o n sh i p f o r d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e densi ty of the li qui d:

fl s
(a) (fl)
(a)
(a) (fl)
s
m m
m
m m
V

Equation 12
12
V
s
i s th e kn o w n vo l um e o f th e p l um m e t use d to d e te rm i n e th e l i q ui d d e n si ty . Thus the density of a
substance can be determined in two weighing operations.
Displacement Method
Th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d i s a n o th e r w a y th a t th e A rc h i m e d e a n Pri n c i p l e i s use d i n d e te rm i n i n g th e
d e n si ty o f b o d i e s a n d l i q ui d s.
The procedure for the displacement method entails determining the mass of the liquid displaced by
the body. A c o n ta i n e r o f l i q ui d i s p l a c e d d i re c tl y o n th e w e i g h i n g p a n w h i l e th e b o d y i s
i m m e rse d . In m o st c a se s, th e b o d y i s susp e n d e d fro m a h a n g e r a sse m b l y .
W h e n th e b o d y i s i m m e rse d i n th e l i q ui d , i t d i sp l a c e s a vo l um e o f l i q ui d V
fl
w i th d e n si ty
fl
a n d
ma ss m
fl
. Th e b uo y a n c y fo rc e e x e rte d o n th e b o d y i s F
B
=
fl
V
fl
g = m
fl
g . Be c a use th e w e i g h t o f
th e b o d y W
s
= m
s
g i s c a rri e d b y th e h a n g e r a sse m b l y a n d th e b a l a n c e i s n o t l o a d e d , th e b a l a n c e
re a d o ut d i re c tl y i n d i c a te s th e m a ss o f th e l i q ui d m
fl
a ssum i n g th e w e i g h t o f th e c o n ta i n e r w a s
ta re d b e fo re h a n d .
Figure 9: Basic mode of procedure for the displacement method
Th i s m e a n s th a t, i n th e c a se o f th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d , Eq ua ti o n s 9 a n d 1 0 (se e p a g e 1 0 ) c a n
b e d i re c tl y a p p l i e d fo r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n . Fo r th e densi ty of a soli d:

s fl
s
fl
m
m

Equation 13
while for the density of a liquid:

fl s
fl
s
fl
s
m
m
m
V

Equation 14
If y o u use a p l um m e t w i th a kn o w n v o l um e V
s
, th e un kn o w n d e n si ty
fl
o f a l i q ui d c a n b e
c a l c ul a te d fro m j ust o n e m e a sure m e n t.
13
Determining the Density of Air
To convert a wei ght value to the true mass value, you must know the value for the ai r densi ty. Th i s
va l ue c a n va ry o ve r th e c o urse o f a d a y b y a n a ve ra g e o f t 0 . 0 5 mg / c m
3
i n re l a ti o n to th e
n o rm a l d e n si ty o f 1 . 2 mg / c m
3
. Th i s i s w h y th e a i r d e n si ty m ust b e d e te rm i n e d a t th e ti m e th e
v a l ue i s re q ui re d , w i th a re l a ti v e un c e rta i n ty f a c to r o f < 5 1 0
-4
.
Th e a i r d e n si ty
a
d e p e n d s o n th e te m p e ra ture T, th e p re ssure p a n d th e re l a ti v e h um i d i ty o f th e a i r
. Th e re a re va ri o us a p p ro x i m a ti o n fo rm ul a s use d to d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f a i r a s d e p e n d e n t o n
a i r p re ssure , te m p e ra ture a n d h um i d i ty , a n d e ve n so m e w h i c h c o n si d e r o f th e C O
2
-c o n te n t o f th e
a i r (se e a l so "Th e Fun d a m e n ta l s o f W e i g h i n g Te c h n o l o g y , " p p . 4 7 -4 8 . )
It i s a l so p o ssi b l e to determi ne the densi ty of ai r (w i th a 1 % m a rg i n o f e rro r) with high-resoluti on
weighing instruments. Th i s i s d o n e usi n g 2 c a l i b ra te d w e i g h ts th a t a re e a c h m a d e o f d i f f e re n t
m a te ri a l s, w i th d i ffe re n t d e n si ti e s (fo r e x a m p l e , a l um i n um a n d ste e l ).
Th i s d e te rm i n a ti o n m e th o d i s a l so b a se d o n th e A rc h i m e d e a n Pri n c i p l e . Be c a use a i r i s m a d e up o f
m a tte r, a b o d y i n a i r i s sub j e c t to b uo y a n c y j ust a s i t i s i n l i q ui d . Th e sa m e re g ul a ri ti e s a p p l y a s
th o se d e sc ri b e d i n th e c h a p te r e n ti tl e d "Th e A rc h i m e d e a n Pri n c i p l e ", o n p a g e 7 .
O b se rv i n g f i rst i n a v a c uum a n a l um i n um c y l i n d e r w i th a d e n si ty
A l
2 . 7 g / c m
3
(Fi g ure 1 0 ,
l e f t), w e se e th a t i t i s i n e q ui l i b ri um w i th a sta n d a rd i z e d w e i g h t o f th e sa m e m a ss
(
N
= 8 . 0 0 0 g / c m
3
).
G
N
= m
N

. .
g
G
Al
= m
Al

. .
g
G
N
= m
N
. .
g
G
Al
= m
Al

. .
g
F
BN
=

a

. .
V
N

. .
g
F
BAl
=

a

. .
V
Al

. .
g
Figure 10: The effect of buoyancy on weighing in a vacuum (left) and in air (right)
O b se rvi n g th e sa m e c i rc um sta n c e s i n a i r (Fi g u r e 1 0 Fi g u r e 1 0 , ri g h t), ra th e r th a n i n a v a c uum , w e se e th a t
th e a l um i n um c y l i n d e r a n d th e sta n d a rd i z e d w e i g h t a re n o l o n g e r i n e q ui l i b ri um . This is due to the
di fference i n buoyancy forces c a use d b y th e d i ffe re n t m a te ri a l d e n si ti e s a n d vo l um e s.
To d e te rm i n e w h a t m a ss m
N
h o l d s th e a l um i n um c y l i n d e r (m
A L
) i n e q ui l i b ri um i n a i r th a t h a s a
d e n si ty
a
, a l l e ffe c ti ve fo rc e s a re o b se rve d a t e q ui l i b ri um :
W F W F
m g V g m g V g
N BN Al BAl
N
weight
a N
buoancy
Al
weight
a Al
buoancy


123 12 4 3 4 123 1 2 4 3 4

Equation 15
C o n v e rsi o n w i th V
N
m
N
N


a n d V
Al
m
Al
Al


th e n y i e l d s
14
m m
1
1
Al N
a
N
a
Al

Equation 16
m
N
i s th e w e i g h t v a l ue W . Th e w e i g h t v a l ue i s i n g e n e ra l e q ua l to th e re a d o ut o n th e w e i g h i n g
i n strum e n t. Th e w e i g h t v a l ue W m
1
1
Al Al
a
Al
a
N

i s n o t c o n sta n t; ra th e r, i t i s d e p e n d e n t o n th e a i r
d e n si ty o n th e w e a th e r, so to sp e a k. Th i s re l a ti o n sh i p a p p l i e s i n a si m i l a r m a n n e r fo r th e ste e l
c y l i n d e r i n th e w e i g h t se t f o r th e d e te rm i n a ti o n o f a i r d e n si ty : W m
1
1
St St
a
St
a
N

. Fro m th e se 2
e q ua ti o n s, a re l a ti o n to th e d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e a i r d e n si ty c a n b e d e ri ve d (se e A p p e n d i x , p a g e
5 7 ):


a
Al St St Al
m W m W
m W m W
A
l
St
Al
St Al
St

Equation 17
W
St
a n d W
A l
a re th e w e i g h t va l ue s c urre n tl y m e a sure d .
m
St
a n d m
A l
a re c a l c ul a te d a c c o rd i n g to th e f o l l o w i n g f o rm ul a , usi n g th e c o n v e n ti o n a l m a ss a n d th e
d e n si ti e s o f th e c e rti fi e d w e i g h ts:
m M
1
1
St St
1.2kg/ m
8000kg/ m
1.2kg/ m
3
3
3
St


or m M
1
1
Al Al
1.2kg/ m
8000kg/ m
1.2kg/ m
3
3
3
Al


Equation 18
Th e c o n ve n ti o n a l m a ss M o f a w e i g h t i s n o t th e m a ss o f th e w e i g h t i tse l f , b ut ra th e r i s e q ua l to th e
m a ss o f th e re f e re n c e w e i g h t (sta n d a rd m a ss) w h i c h un d e r c e rta i n d e f i n e d c o n d i ti o n s
1
i s i n
e q ui l i b ri um w i th th e w e i g h t b e i n g m e a sure d .
Th e a i r d e n si ty
a
c a n b e c a l c ul a te d fro m th e conventional mass values g i v e n i n th e w e i g h t se t f o r
th e d e te rm i n a ti o n o f a i r d e n si ty f o r th e w e i g h ts (d e si g n a te d th e c h a ra c te ri sti c v a l ue s o f th e w e i g h ts),
th e material densities o f th e w e i g h ts a n d th e current wei ght values.
A n um b e r o f Sartorius w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts h a v e th e f o rm ul a s f o r c a l c ul a ti n g th e a i r d e n si ty ,
i n c l ud i n g th e v a l ue s
ST
= 8 . 0 0 0 g / c m
3
a n d
A l
= 2 . 7 0 0 g / c m
3
, i n te g ra te d i n th e i r so f tw a re .
Th e c urre n t a i r d e n si ty v a l ue c a n b e sa v e d a n d i s th e n use d to c o n v e rt w e i g h t v a l ue s to th e a c tua l
m a sse s o f th e sa m p l e s w e i g h e d , usi n g th e fo rm ul a d e ri ve d a t th e b e g i n n i n g o f th i s c h a p te r:
m W
1
1
v
a
N
a
x

.


1
Te m p e ra ture T = 2 0 C
D e n si ty o f th e sta n d a rd m a ss a t 2 0 C :

= 8 0 0 0 kg / m
3
A i r d e n si ty
a
= 1 . 2 kg / m
3
15
Density Determination using Pycnometers
A p y c n o me te r i s a g l a ss o r m e ta l c o n ta i n e r w i th a p re c i se l y d e te rm i n e d vo l um e , use d fo r
d e te rm i n i n g b o th th e d e n si ty o f l i q ui d s a n d d i sp e rsi o n b y si m p l y w e i g h i n g th e d e fi n e d vo l ume (se e
a l so n e x t c h a p te r), b ut e sp e c i a l l y fo r d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e d e n si ty o f p o w d e rs a n d g ra n ul e s.
Py c n o m e te rs c a n a l so b e use d i n d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty o f th e so l i d p h a se i n a p o ro us so l i d , b ut
th e sa m p l e m ust fi rst b e c rush e d o r g ro un d to th e p o i n t w h e re a l l p o re s a re o p e n e d .
Th e p y c n o m e te rs use d i n d i ffe re n t a re a s o f a p p l i c a ti o n h a v e d i ffe re n t sh a p e s a n d sta n d a rd s.
D uri n g m e a sure m e n t, i t i s i m p o rta n t to m a ke sure th a t a l l w e i g h i n g o p e ra ti o n s a re p e rf o rm e d a t a
c o n sta n t te m p e ra ture a n d th a t th e re i s n o a i r tra p p e d e i th e r i n th e l i q ui d o r b e tw e e n th e sa m p l e
p a rti c l e s.
Figure 11: Different glass pycnometers for density determination in laboratories: The pycnometers
made according to Gay-Lussac, DIN 12 797 (c) and to Hubbard, DIN 12 806 (f) are used for
determining the density of solids; the volume indicated applies to complete filling after the stopper is
inserted. The pycnometers made according to Bingham, DIN 12 807 (b) and to Sprengel, DIN
12 800 (d) have a li ne marki ng the fi ll level for the defi ned volume; the Rei schauer, DIN 12 801 (a)
and Lipkin, DIN 12 798 (e) pycnometers are marked wi th scales for checki ng the fi ll level.
W eighing a Defined Volume (" W eight per Liter " )
A n e sp e c i a l l y si m p l e g ra vi m e tri c m e th o d fo r d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty o f fl o w i n g sub sta n c e s (l i q ui d s,
p o w d e rs, d i sp e rse sy ste ms) is to weigh a sample with a defined volume. In th i s c a se , th e sa m p l e i s
p l a c e d i n a c o n ta i n e r th a t h a s a d e f i n e d v o l um e , a n d th e m a ss o f th e sa m p l e (a f te r ta ri n g ) i s
d e te rm i n e d b y w e i g h i n g . Th e d e n si ty c a n e a si l y d e te rm i n e d a c c o rd i n g to = m/ V.
D i f f e re n t sta n d a rd i z e d c o n ta i n e rs a re a v a i l a b l e f o r th i s p urp o se i n d i f f e re n t b ra n c h e s o f i n d ustry ; f o r
e x a m p l e , a sp h e ri c a l 1 l -c o n ta i n e r fo r d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty o f c a st m a te ri a l (sl i p s) i n th e c e ra m i c
i n d ustry . In th e l i m e i n d ustry , th e ta p d e n si ty o f un h y d ra te d l i m e g ra n ul e s i s d e te rm i n e d usi n g a
sta n d a rd i z e d p ro c e d ure , i n w h i c h b o th th e c o n ta i n e r f o r th e sa m p l e a n d th e p ro c e d ure f o r f i l l i n g
th e c o n ta i n e r a re p re c i se l y d e fi n e d . U S a n d Bri ti sh sta n d a rd s c a l l fo r th e use o f c y l i n d ri c a l sta i n l e ss
ste e l c o n ta i n e rs, c a l l e d sp e c i fi c g ra vi ty c up s, w i th va ri o us vo l um e s a n d e rro r m a rg i n s.
Fi l l l e v e l
Fi l l l e v e l
16
Pycnometer Method
Th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d i s a ve ry p re c i se p ro c e d ure fo r d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty o f p o w d e rs,
g ra n ul e s a n d d i sp e rsi o n s th a t h a v e p o o r f l o w a b i l i ty c h a ra c te ri sti c s. Th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d i s
m o re l a b o r-i n te n si v e a n d fa r m o re ti m e -c o n sum i n g th a n th e b uo y a n c y a n d d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d s.
Th i s m e th o d a l so e n ta i l s th e d i ffi c ul ty o f p re c i se vo l um e d e te rm i n a ti o n o f a p o w d e r sa m p l e V
s
fo r
d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e so l i d
s
. The need for expli ci t determi nati on of the volume o f p o w d e rs
o r g ra n ul e s can g e n e ra l l y be avoided by performing 3 weighing operations and using an
auxi li ary li qui d wi th a known densi ty.

s
s
s
m
V
Equation 19
V
ges
m
1fl

fl
V
fl,
m
2fl
,
fl
V
s,
m
s,

s
Figure 12: Pycnometer with contents
Th e vo l um e o f th e so l i d V
s
c a n o n l y b e d e te rm i n e d i n d i re c tl y :
V V V
s ges fl
Equation 20
Th e p ro c e d ure i s a s fo l l o w s:
Fi rst th e p y c n o m e te r i s completely filled with liquid, and the mass of the liquid in the
pycnometer d e te rm i n e d . O n c e th i s va l ue h a s b e e n d e te rm i n e d , th e vo l um e o f th e
p y c n o m e te r V
g e s
i s kn o w n .
V
m
ges
1fl
fl

Equation 21
N e x t (a fte r th e p y c n o m e te r i s e m p ti e d , c l e a n e d , d ri e d a n d b ro ug h t to th e re q ui re d
te m p e ra ture ) th e p y c n o m e te r i s fi l l e d to a b o ut 2 / 3 w i th sa m p l e m a te ri a l ; th i s y i e l d s th e mass
of the powder m
s
.
Th e n e x t ste p i s to f i l l th e p y c n o m e te r th e re st o f th e w a y w i th l i q ui d a n d w e i g h i t a g a i n ,
w h i c h g i v e s th e combined mass of the sample with the liquid m
(fl+ s)
.
Th e m a ss o f th e l i q ui d m
2 fl
c a n b e c a l c ul a te d f ro m th i s d a ta
m m m
2fl (fl s) s

+
Equation 22
w h i c h a l so y i e l d s th e v o l um e Vf l o f th e l i q ui d i n th e p y c n o m e te r f i l l e d w i th w a te r a n d l i q ui d
V
m
m - m
fl
2fl
fl
(fl+s) s
fl


. Equation 23
17
Th e volume of the powdered sample V
s
, th e va l ue a c tua l l y so ug h t, i s y i e l d e d b y th e d i ffe re n c e
b e tw e e n th e to ta l vo l um e V
g e s
a n d th e v o l um e o f th e l i q ui d V
fl
.
V V V
s ges fl

V
m
m - m
s
1fl
fl
(fl+s) s
fl


Equation 24
U si n g th e vo l um e V
s
i n th e o ri g i n a l e q ua ti o n
s
= m
s
/ V
s
re sul ts i n th e fo l l o w i n g c o n ve rsi o n
2

s fl
s
1fl (fl s) s
m
m - m m

+
+
or

s fl
2
1 2 3
m
m m m

+
Equation 25
w i th th e m a sse s m
1
, m
2
a n d m
3
i n th e o rd e r o f th e p ro c e d ura l ste p s:
m
1
m a ss o f th e l i q ui d i n th e p y c n o m e te r fi l l e d c o m p l e te l y w i th l i q ui d
m
2
m a ss o f th e sa m p l e m a te ri a l
m
3
m a ss o f th e sa m p l e a n d l i q ui d to g e th e r i n th e p y c n o m e te r
Th us th i s p ro c e d ure re p re se n ts a n o th e r m e th o d fo r d e te rm i n i n g d e n si ty "vi a d e to urs, " i . e . usi n g a
se ri e s o f m a ss d e te rm i n a ti o n m e a sure m e n ts.

2



s
s
s
s
m
m m
s
m -(m m )
fl s
1fl (fl s) s
m
V
m m m
m -(m m)
1fl
fl
(fl s) s
fl
1fl (fl s) s
fl

+ +

+
18
Other Methods of Density Determination
Th e re a re a l so o th e r m e th o d s o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n th a t a re b a se d o n th e A rc h i m e d e a n
Pri n c i p l e . Th e d e n si ty o f a i r c a n b e d e te rm i n e d usi n g tw o so l i d b o d i e s o f d i ffe re n t d e n si ti e s (e . g . ,
2 w e i g h ts m a d e o f d i ffe re n t m e ta l s).
D e n si ty c a n a l so b e d e te rm i n e d b y ra d i o a c ti ve a b so rp ti o n b y th e m a te ri a l b e i n g te ste d . Th e
a b so rp ti o n o f th e ra d i a ti o n w i l l d e p e n d o n th e m a ss a b so rp ti o n c o e f f i c i e n t, th i c kn e ss o f l a y e rs a n d
d e n si ty o f th e m a te ri a l . O n c e th e m a ss a b so rp ti o n c o e ffi c i e n t a n d th i c kn e ss a s w e l l a s th e p h y si c a l
i n te rre l a ti o n sh i p s a re kn o w n , th e d e n si ty o f th e sub sta n c e c a n b e c a l c ul a te d .
O n m a g n e ti c sa m p l e s, th e m a g n e ti c fo rc e s c a n a l so b e uti l i z e d i n d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n o f so l i d s o r
l i q ui d s.
Osci llati on Method
Th e o sc i l l a ti o n m e th o d i s w i d e l y use d to d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f h o m o g e n o us l i q ui d s. Th i s
p ro c e d ure i s n o t sui ta b l e fo r use w i th susp e n si o n s o r e m ul si o n s w h i c h , b e c a use th e y a re m a d e up
o f d i ffe re n t p h a se s, c o ul d se p a ra te .
Th e sa m p l e b e i n g te ste d i s p l a c e d i n a m e a suri n g c h a m b e r (usua l l y a U -sh a p e d g l a ss tub e ) a n d
m e c h a n i c a l l y v i b ra te d . C a l c ul a ti o n o f th e d e n si ty use s th e p h y si c a l i n te rre l a ti o n sh i p b e tw e e n th e
f re q ue n c y o f th e o sc i l l a ti o n a n d th e m a ss o f th e o sc i l l a ti o n c h a n n e l (th e U -sh a p e d tub e w i th th e
sa m p l e ). Th e e q ui p m e n t m ust b e c a l i b ra te d usi n g l i q ui d s th a t h a v e a kn o w n d e n si ty a n d a v i sc o si ty
si m i l a r to th a t o f th e sa m p l e m a te ri a l .
Suspensi on Method
Th e susp e n si o n m e th o d m a ke s use o f th e A rc h i m e d e a n Pri n c i p l e i n th e sp e c i a l c a se o f susp e n si o n
i n w h i c h th e d e n si ti e s o f th e l i q ui d a n d o f th e susp e n d e d so l i d a re e q ua l .
Th e d e n si ty o f th e so l i d b o d y c a n b e d e te rm i n e d b y se tti n g th e d e n si ty o f th e te st l i q ui d so th a t th e
sa m p l e b o d y re a c h e s a sta te o f susp e n si o n . Th e d e n si ty se tti n g o f th e te st l i q ui d c a n a l so b e
a c h i e ve d b y m i x i n g tw o l i q ui d s o f d i ffe re n t d e n si ti e s; th e d e n si ty o f th e sa m p l e i s th e n d e te rm i n e d
fro m th e p ro p o rti o n s o f th e l i q ui d s m i x e d , o r w i th th e o sc i l l a ti o n m e th o d (se e p a g e 1 8 ) o r th e
d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d .
Density Gradient Column
W i th a d e n si ty g ra d i e n t c o l um n , tw o l i q ui d s o f d i f f e re n t d e n si ti e s a re l a y e re d i n a g l a ss tub e so th a t
o v e r ti m e , d i f f usi o n re sul ts i n a v e rti c a l d e n si ty g ra d i e n t (a c o n ti n uo us c h a n g e o f th e d e n si ty
th ro ug h o ut th e h e i g h t o f th e c o l um n ). Sm a l l so l i d s o f va ri o us d e n si ti e s a re th e n susp e n d e d a t
v a ri o us h e i g h ts, w i th e a c h h e i g h t i n d i c a ti n g a p a rti c ul a r d e n si ty . C o l o re d g l a ss b e a d s o f kn o w n
d e n si ti e s a re a va i l a b l e fo r c a l i b ra ti o n .
In a d d i ti o n to th e d e n si ty o f sm a l l b o d i e s (suc h a s fi b e rs, p o w d e r p a rti c l e s, sm a l l p i e c e s o f m e ta l o r
p l a sti c fo i l ) th i s m e th o d c a n a l so b e use d to d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f d ro p s o f l i q ui d o f c o urse th e
l i q ui d te ste d sh o ul d b e i n so l ub l e i n th e te st l i q ui d .
19
Schli eren Method
If y o u f i l l a c a p i l l a ry tub e w i th l i q ui d a n d h o l d i t h o ri z o n ta l l y i m m e rse d i n a n o th e r l i q ui d , th e l i q ui d
w i l l o n l y fl o w h o ri z o n ta l l y fro m th e tub e i f th e d e n si ti e s o f th e tw o l i q ui d s a re e q ua l . If th e d e n si ty o f
th e l i q ui d f l o w i n g f ro m th e tub e i s l o w e r o r h i g h e r th a n th a t o f th e l i q ui d i n w h i c h th e tub e i s
i m m e rse d , sc h l i e re n (stre a ks) w i l l fo rm , fl o w i n g up w a rd i n th e fo rm e r c a se a n d d o w n w a rd i n th e
l a tte r.
20
Hydrometers
H y d ro m e te rs, a l so kn o w n a s sp i n d l e s, a re si m p l e m e a suri n g i n strum e n ts fo r d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty
o f l i q ui d s o r d i sp e rsi o n s. Th e y a re fo rm s o f plummets that float on the surface a n d th e n si n k to a
c e rta i n l e v e l , d e p e n d i n g o n th e d e n si ty o f th e l i q ui d . Th e d e n si ty o f th e l i q ui d c a n b e d e te rm i n e d
fro m th e d e p th th e p l um m e t si n ks (fro m th e vo l um e o f th e d i sp l a c e d l i q ui d ) b y c o m p a ri n g th e h e i g h t
o f th e l i q ui d i n th e c o n ta i n e r to th e sc a l e m a rke d o n th e h y d ro m e te r. Fo r c e rta i n a p p l i c a ti o n s, th e re
a re a l so h y d ro m e te rs th a t sh o w th e c o n c e n tra ti o n o f a g i v e n sub sta n c e i n a n a q ue o us so l uti o n ; f o r
i n sta n c e ; sug a r (i n a sa c c h a ri m e te r), a l c o h o l (i n a n a l c o h o l o m e te r), b a tte ry a c i d o r a n ti -fre e z e .
Figure 13: Special hydrometer with integrated thermometer in accordance with DIN 10 290 for
determining the density of milk and skimmed milk the densi ty i s dependent on the fat content of the
milk.
Th e rm o m e te r sc a l e
Th e rm o m e te r
sc a l e
H y d ro m e te r
sc a l e
Th e rm o m e te r
c a p i l l a ry
W e i g h ti n g
d e vi c e
Th e rm o m e te r f i l l i n g
6 . 2 5
H y d ro m e te r sc a l e
Th e r m o h y d r o m e te r f o r u se w i th m i l k a n d sk i m m e d m i l k Th e r m o h y d r o m e te r f o r u se w i th m i l k a n d sk i m m e d m i l k
21
Practical Applications
Determi ni ng the Densi ty of Soli ds
Characteristic Features of Sample Material
So l i d b o d i e s re ta i n th e i r vo l um e a n d sh a p e un d e r a tm o sp h e ri c p re ssure . Ex a m p l e s o f so l i d s fo r
w h i c h i t c a n b e use ful to kn o w th e d e n si ty i n c l ud e m e ta l s, g l a ss a n d p l a sti c s. Th e se so l i d s m a y b e
m a d e up o f o n l y o n e o r m a n y p h a se s; o n e p h a se m a y a l so b e e m b e d d e d i n a n o th e r (fo r i n sta n c e ,
i n fi b e rg l a ss-re i n fo rc e d p l a sti c ) o r th e d i ffe re n t p h a se s m a y b e i n te rl o c ki n g , suc h a s th e m a n y sm a l l
c ry sta l s i n a h o m o g e n o us m e ta l l i c m a te ri a l .
A n i m p o rta n t f a c to r i n c h o o si n g a sui ta b l e sa m p l e f o r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n i s th e q ue sti o n o f
w h e th e r th e d e n si ty i s re q ui re d a s a c h a ra c te ri sti c o f a m a te ri a l o r w h e th e r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n i s
p e rfo rm e d to c h e c k fo r d e fe c ts i n a m a te ri a l . Th e c h o i c e o f p ro c e d ure fo r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n
w i l l d e p e n d o n th i s fa c to r a s w e l l .
Choosing a Density Determination Method
Th e b e st p ro c e d ure s fo r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n o n so l i d s a re th e b uo y a n c y a n d d i sp l a c e m e n t
m e th o d s, b o th o f w h i c h a re b a se d o n th e A rc h i m e d e a n Pri n c i p l e . Pre re q ui si te fo r th e se m e th o d s i s
th e use o f a l i q ui d f o r b uo y a n c y th a t d o e s n o t re a c t w i th th e sa m p l e m a te ri a l , b ut w e ts i t
th o ro ug h l y .
Th e susp e n si o n m e th o d , fo r e x a m p l e , i s w i d e l y use d i n th e g l a ss p ro c e ssi n g i n d ustry . G l a ss
sa m p l e s a re p l a c e d i n a n o rg a n i c l i q ui d i n w h i c h th e y fl o a t a t ro o m te m p e ra ture . Be c a use th e
d e n si ty o f th e l i q ui d i s 1 0 0 ti m e s m o re te m p e ra ture -d e p e n d e n t th a n th a t o f g l a ss, th e g l a ss c a n b e
b ro ug h t to th e p o i n t w h e re i t i s susp e n d e d w i th i n th e l i q ui d b y sl o w l y i n c re a si n g th e te m p e ra ture i n
th e te st sy ste m ; i n th i s w a y , th e d e n si ty o f th e g l a ss c a n b e d e te rm i n e d .
Performing Density Determination using the Displacement Method
Equipment Required
W e i g h i n g i n strum e n t
Th e rmo me te r
Sta n d w i th h o l d i n g d e v i c e f o r sa m p l e s
Be a ke r w i th l i q ui d f o r b uo y a n c y th a t h a s a kn o w n d e n si ty d i sti l l e d w a te r f o r a l l m a te ri a l s th a t
d o n o t re a c t w i th w a te r
Preparation of the Sample, Testing Procedure and Evaluation
Th e b e a ke r i s p l a c e d o n th e p a n o f th e b a l a n c e a n d th e sa m p l e -h o l d i n g d e vi c e i s i m m e rse d i n th e
l i q ui d , to th e sa m e d e p th th a t i t w i l l l a te r b e i m m e rse d w i th th e sa m p l e o n i t. Th e w e i g h i n g
i n strum e n t i s ta re d .
Th e sa m p l e i s p l a c e d n e x t to th e b e a ke r o n th e w e i g h i n g p a n . Th e m a ss o f th e sa m p l e i n a i r m (a )
i s d e te rm i n e d .
Th e sa m p l e i s p l a c e d i n th e h o l d i n g d e v i c e o n th e sta n d a n d i m m e rse d i n th e l i q ui d . Th e w e i g h t
re a d o ut sh o w s th e m a ss o f th e d i sp l a c e d l i q ui d m
fl
.
22
Th e d e n si ty o f th e sa m p l e i s c a l c ul a te d a c c o rd i n g to
fl
(a)
fl
m
m
.
Determi ni ng the Densi ty of Porous Soli ds
Characteristic Features of Sample Material
Th e re a re a n um b e r o f te rm s use d i n c o n n e c ti o n w i th th e d e n si ty o f p o ro us m a te ri a l s, suc h a s so l i d
d e n si ty , true d e n si ty , b ul k d e n si ty , a p p a re n t p o ro si ty , o p e n p o ro si ty a n d c l o se d p o ro si ty .
Porous soli ds consi st of one or more soli d phases and pores. Po re s a re c a v i ti e s f i l l e d w i th a i r (o r
o th e r g a s). Th e se o p e n i n g s a re fo un d e i th e r b e tw e e n i n d i vi d ua l c ry sta l s i n th e so l i d m a te ri a l , o r a s
g a s b ub b l e s i n g l a ss p h a se s; i . e . , so l i d i fi e d i n a n o n -c ry sta l l i n e fo rm . Th us th e re a re b a si c a l l y tw o
fo rm s o f p o re s: o p e n a n d c l o se d . A mo n g o p e n p o re s, i n turn , th e re a re a l so d i ffe re n t ty p e s; fo r
i n sta n c e , th e re a re p o re s th ro ug h w h i c h l i q ui d m a y f l o w , a n d sa tura b l e p o re s. W i th th e se
d e si g n a ti o n s, th e ty p e o f so a ki n g m e d i um a n d o th e r c o n d i ti o n s m ust b e g i ve n (e . g . , w a te r a t a
te m p e ra ture o f 2 2 C a n d p re ssure o f 2 5 0 0 Pa ).
Th e te rm "p o re " i s use d fo r o p e n i n g s o r g a p s fro m 1 n m to 1 m m . O p e n i n g s l a rg e r th a n 1 mm a re
re fe rre d to a s c ra c ks o r vo i d s; th o se un d e r 1 n m a re d e fe c ts i n th e c ry sta l l a tti c e . Po re s a re a n
i m p o rta n t e l e m e n t i n th e m i c ro struc ture o f m a n y m a te ri a l s; th e q ua n ti ty , ty p e , sh a p e , o ri e n ta ti o n ,
si z e a n d si z e d i stri b uti o n o f p o re s si g n i f i c a n tl y a f f e c t m a n y i m p o rta n t c h a ra c te ri sti c s o f a m a te ri a l ;
fo r e x a m p l e , th e fro st-re si sta n c e o f ro o f ti l e s, o r i n sul a ti n g p ro p e rti e s o f l i m e m a l m b ri c ks o r p o ro us
c o n c re te . Suc h c h a ra c te ri sti c s a s m e c h a n i c a l so l i d i ty a n d c o rro si o n re si sta n c e a re a l so a ffe c te d b y
p o re s i n a m a te ri a l .
Figure 14: Microstructure of a porcelain plate. Magnification: approximately 80x. Left: porcelain
with irregular pores between phases; right: glaze layer melted during firing, with closed spherical
pores (bubbles); extreme right: synthetic resin as embedding medium for the polishing preparation
Th e d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n p ro c e d ure w i l l d e p e n d o n w h e th e r th e v a l ue so ug h t i s th e d e n si ty o f th e
so l i d m a tte r o n l y o r th e d e n si ty o f th e m a te ri a l i n c l ud i n g p o re s; a fte r a l l , i t m a y b e i m p o rta n t to
kn o w th e p o ro si ty o f th e m a te ri a l .
Th e d e n si ty o f th e so l i d m a te ri a l (n o t th e so l i d b o d y ), w h i c h use d to b e te rm e d th e "true d e n si ty " i s
n o w si m p l y re fe rre d to a s "d e n si ty ":
t
= m / V
so l i d
. Th e p o re s a re n o t i n c l ud e d i n th i s
me a sure me n t.
"Bul k d e n si ty " i s th e q uo ti e n t o f m a ss a n d to ta l vo l um e o f a sa m p l e :
b
= m / V
b
. Th e b ul k d e n si ty
i s a n a ve ra g e o f th e d e n si ty o f th e so l i d a n d th e g a s fo un d i n th e p o re s.
23
"O p e n p o ro si ty " i s th e ra ti o o f th e vo l um e o f o p e n p o re s to th e to ta l vo l um e o f th e p o ro us b o d y , i n
p e rc e n t:
a
= V
a
/ V
b
.
"C l o se d p o ro si ty " i s th e ra ti o o f th e vo l um e o f c l o se d p o re s to th e to ta l vo l um e o f th e p o ro us b o d y ,
i n p e rc e n t:
f
= V
f
/ V
b
.
Th e a p p a re n t p o ro si ty i s th e ra ti o o f th e vo l um e o f a l l p o re s to th e to ta l vo l um e o f th e m a te ri a l , i n
p e rc e n t:
t
= V
t
/ V
b
. Th e a p p a re n t p o ro si ty i s th e sum o f o p e n a n d c l o se d p o ro si ty :
t
=
a
+
f
.
Choosing a Density Determination Method
Bo th th e b uo y a n c y a n d th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d s a re sui ta b l e f o r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n o n p o ro us
so l i d s. Th e so l i d d e n si ty c a n a l so b e d e te rm i n e d usi n g th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d , b y fi rst g ri n d i n g th e
sa m p l e un ti l th e g ra i n si z e i s ro ug h l y e q ua l to th e p o re si z e .
To d e te rm i n e th e b ul k d e n si ty o f p o ro us m a te ri a l , th e sa m p l e c a n a l so b e c o ve re d i n a w a x o r l a te x
c o a ti n g o r l a y e r to p re ve n t l i q ui d fro m e n te ri n g o p e n p o re s (se e fo r e x a m p l e th e G e rm a n In d ustry
Sta n d a rd (D IN ) 2 7 3 8 ). D e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n c a n th e n b e p e rf o rm e d usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d .
Performing Density Determination using the Buoyancy Method (in Accordance with European
Standard EN 993-1)
Figure 15: Mode of procedure for density determination using the buoyancy method and the Density
Determination Set from sartorius
Equipment Required
D ry i n g o v e n ; te m p e ra ture : 1 1 0 t 5 C
W e i g h i n g i n strum e n t: m a rg i n o f e rro r: 0 . 0 1 g
Fra m e to b e p l a c e d o v e r th e w e i g h i n g p a n : i n c l ud e d w i th th e D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t
Va c uum g e n e ra to r w i th a d j usta b l e p re ssure a n d p re ssure g a ug e
Th e rm o m e te r w i th a n e rro r m a rg i n o f 1 C
Li q ui d f o r sa tura ti o n d i sti l l e d w a te r f o r a l l m a te ri a l s th a t d o n o t re a c t w i th w a te r
24
D e ssi c a to r.
Preparati on of the Sample
Sh a p e a n d si z e (to ta l vo l um e b e tw e e n 5 0 c m
3
a n d 2 0 0 c m
3
) o f th e sa m p l e , a s w e l l a s th e n um b e r
o f sa m p l e s to b e te ste d , a re d e fi n e d i n th e Sta n d a rd .
Testing Procedure and Evaluation
Th e sa m p l e i s f i rst d ri e d i n th e d ry i n g o v e n un ti l i t re a c h e s a c o n sta n t m a ss a n d th e n c o o l e d to ro o m
te m p e ra te i n th e d e ssi c a to r. Th e m a ss o f th e sa m p l e i s th e n d e te rm i n e d i n a i r usi n g th e w e i g h i n g
i n strum e n t. m
1
Th e sa m p l e i s th e n e v a c ua te d un d e r p re c i se l y d e f i n e d c o n d i ti o n s a n d sa tura te d (i n th e v a c uum ) un ti l
th e o p e n p o re s a s sta te d i n th e te st sp e c i f i c a ti o n s a re f i l l e d w i th th e sa tura ti o n l i q ui d . Th e
apparent mass of the saturated sample i s th e n d e te rm i n e d usi n g a h y d ro sta ti c b a l a n c e (o r usi n g th e
D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t). Th e sa m p l e m ust b e c o m p l e te l y i m m e rse d i n a b e a ke r fi l l e d w i th th e
sa tura ti o n f l ui d f o r b uo y a n c y . m
2
Th e te m p e ra ture o f th e sa tura ti o n l i q ui d m ust b e d e te rm i n e d .
Th e n th e mass of the saturated sample i s d e te rm i n e d b y w e i g h i n g in air. Li q ui d th a t re m a i n s o n th e
surfa c e o f th e sa m p l e m ust b e re m o ve d w i th a d a m p sp o n g e b e fo re w e i g h i n g . Th e w e i g h i n g
o p e ra ti o n m ust b e p e rfo rm e d q ui c kl y , to a vo i d l o ss o f m a ss d ue to e va p o ra ti o n . m
3
Th e d e n si ty o f th e sa tura ti o n l i q ui d
fl
m ust b e m e a sure d o r ta ke n fro m a ta b l e o f d e n si ty va l ue s a t
d e fi n e d te m p e ra ture s.
Th e b ul k d e n si ty
b
i n g / c m
3
i s c a l c ul a te d a s fo l l o w s:

b
1
3 2
f l
m
m m

Equation 26
Th e o p e n p o ro si ty
a
i n vo l um e p e rc e n t i s c a l c ul a te d a s fo l l o w s:

a
3 1
3 2
m m
m m
100

Equation 27
Th e a p p a re n t p o ro si ty
t
i s c a l c ul a te d a s fo l l o w s:

t
t b
t
100

Equation 28
Th e a p p a re n t p o ro si ty i s th e sum o f o p e n a n d c l o se d p o ro si ty (
t
=
a
+
f
); th us i t f o l l o w s th a t f o r
th e c l o se d p o ro si ty
f
:

f t a
Equation 29
m
1
M a ss o f th e d ri e d sa m p l e
m
2
A p p a re n t m a ss o f th e sa tura te d sa m p l e w e i g h e d i n l i q ui d
m
3
M a ss o f th e sa tura te d sa m p l e w e i g h e d i n a i r
25
r
t
D e n si ty o f th e so l i d , d e te rm i n e d a c c o rd i n g to EN 9 9 3 -2 (o r c a l c ul a te d fro m th e
c o m p o si ti o n )
r
fl
D e n si ty o f th e fl ui d fo r b uo y a n c y
r
b
Bul k d e n si ty o f th e sa m p l e
O n e o f th e n um e ri c v a l ue s o f te n g i v e n f o r c e ra m i c s f o r th e o p e n p o ro si ty , i n a d d i ti o n to th e v a l ue s l i ste d
a b o v e , i s th e w a te r a b so rp ti o n . Th e w a te r a b so rp ti o n i n p e rc e n t i s y i e l d e d b y th e d i f f e re n c e i n m a ss
b e tw e e n th e sa tura te d sa m p l e a n d th e d ri e d sa m p l e , re l a ti v e to th e m a ss o f th e d ri e d sa m p l e . Th e re sul ti n g
f i g ure c a n b e use d i n d i v i d i n g c e ra m i c s i n to "d e n se " a n d "p o ro us" g ra d e s.
A d d i ti o n a l i n fo rm a ti o n a b o ut th e ty p e a n d si z e d i stri b uti o n o f th e p o re s c a n b e g a i n e d usi n g a m e rc ury
p o ro si m e te r: Th e p o ro us sa m p l e s a re p ut un d e r p re ssure w i th m e rc ury , w h e re b y th e p re ssure i s i n c re a se d a t
c e rta i n sta g e s so th a t, d e p e n d i n g o n th e p o re d i a m e te rs, a c e rta i n n um b e r o f th e p o re s a re f i l l e d w i th
m e rc ury . Th i s c a n y i e l d i n f o rm a ti o n o n th e p ro p o rti o n a n d d i a m e te r o f o p e n p o re s th a t a re a c c e ssi b l e f ro m
th e o utsi d e .
A n o th e r m e th o d f o r d e te rm i n i n g n um b e r, sh a p e a n d si z e o f p o re s i s i m a g e a n a l y si s, th e q ua n ti ta ti v e
sta ti sti c a l e v a l ua ti o n o f p o l i sh e d se c ti o n s un d e r a m i c ro sc o p e , si m i l a r to th e i m a g e sh o w n i n Fi g ure 1 4 .
Determining the Density of Powders and Granules
Characteristic Features of Sample Material
Th e te rm powder re fe rs to "a h e a p o f p a rti c l e s, usua l l y w i th d i m e n si o n s sm a l l e r th a n 1 mm. "
Granules are larger particles than those that make up a powder. Th e te rm "g ra n ul e s" h a s d i ffe re n t
m e a n i n g s i n d i f f e re n t a re a s o f a p p l i c a ti o n :
M a te ri a l m a d e up o f "se c o n d a ry " p a rti c l e s, w h i c h i n turn a re m a d e up o f a g g l o m e ra te d
p a rti c l e s o f a fi n e p o w d e r; o r
M a te ri a l th a t w a s h e a te d to th e m e l ti n g p o i n t a n d th e n c o o l e d v e ry q ui c kl y , c a usi n g i t to ta ke
o n a te a rd ro p sh a p e ; fo r e x a m p l e , i n te rm e d i a te p ro d uc ts i n th e p l a sti c s o r p o rc e l a i n e n a m e l
i n d ustri e s.
Choosing a Density Determination Method
Th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d i s th e o n l y m e th o d th a t c a n b e use d w i th p o w d e rs o r g ra n ul e s.
Performing Density Determination using the Pycnometer Method (in Accordance with German
and European Standard DIN EN 725-7)
Figure 16: Pycnometer with integrated thermometer
26
Equipment Required
D i sti l l e d w a te r a n d a n o th e r l i q ui d , suc h a s e th a n o l
Py c n o m e te r w i th th e rm o m e te r a n d si d e a rm w i th p o l i sh e d g l a ss sto p p e rs
W a te r b a th
Va c uum p um p
W e i g h i n g i n strum e n t; e rro r m a rg i n : 0 . 0 0 0 1 g
Testing Procedure and Evaluation
Th e p y c n o m e te r m ust b e c a re ful l y c l e a n e d a n d d ri e d ; i t i s th e n fi l l e d w i th d i sti l l e d w a te r, e va c ua te d
un d e r p re c i se l y d e f i n e d c o n d i ti o n s, a n d b ro ug h t to w i th i n t 0 . 1 K o f th e re q ui re d te m p e ra ture i n a
w a te r b a th . Th e n th e p y c n o m e te r i s fi l l e d . Th e vo l um e o f th e p y c n o m e te r i s c a l c ul a te d fro m th e
m a ss o f th e w a te r a t th e te st te m p e ra ture : V
p y c n o me te r
= m
w a te r
/
w a te r
.
Th e p y c n o m e te r i s th e n d ri e d , fi l l e d w i th e th a n o l a n d w e i g h e d , fo l l o w i n g th e sa m e p ro c e d ure a s
th a t d e sc ri b e d a b o v e . Th e d e n si ty o f th e e th a n o l a t th e te st te m p e ra ture c a n b e c a l c ul a te d fro m th e
mass of the ethanol a n d th e vo l um e o f th e p y c n o m e te r:

e th a n o l
= m
e th a n o l
/ V
p y c n o me te r
.
m
ethanol
= m
1
.
O n c e th e p y c n o m e te r h a s b e e n c l e a n e d a n d d ri e d a g a i n
3
, i t i s l o a d e d w i th a b o ut 1 0 g (a t a
d e n si ty b e tw e e n 2 . 5 a n d 4 g / c m
3
) o f th e powder, w h i c h h a s b e e n dried a t a te m p e ra ture 1 0 K
b e l o w th e d e c o m p o si ti o n p o i n t o f th e p o w d e r. m
2
En o ug h e th a n o l i s n o w a d d e d to th e p y c n o m e te r to w e t th e p o w d e r; th e p y c n o m e te r i s th e n
e va c ua te d a n d sh o o k to re l e a se a s m a n y a i r b ub b l e s a s p o ssi b l e . M o re e th a n o l i s a d d e d to th e
p y c n o m e te r; a fte r th i s h a s b e e n h e a te d to th e te st te m p e ra ture , th e p y c n o m e te r i s c o m p l e te l y fi l l e d .
Th e total mass of powder and ethanol i s d e te rm i n e d . m
3
Th e d a ta i s e v a l ua te d usi n g th e f o rm ul a
+
ethanol
2
1 2 3
m
m m m
, th e d e n si ty o f th e sa m p l e
m a te ri a l i s g i v e n w i th a p re c i si o n o f 0 . 0 0 1 g / c m
3
.
Determining the Density of Homogenous Liquids
Characteristics of Sample Material
H o m o g e n o us l i q ui d s a re re l a ti ve l y si m p l e sy ste m s; un l i ke d i sp e rsi o n s, th e y a re a l w a y s si n g l e -p h a se
sy ste m s. W h e n sub sta n c e s a re m i x e d , suc h a s w a te r w i th a l c o h o l o r sug a r w i th w a te r, th i s i s
re fe rre d to a s th e so l uti o n o f o n e sub sta n c e s i n th e o th e r. A genuine solution is clear, th e p a rti c l e s
o f th e d i sso l ve d sub sta n c e a re p re se n t a s m o l e c ul e s o r i o n s i n th e so l uti o n .

3
Th e l a te st w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts f ro m sartorius c o m e e q ui p p e d w i th d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n
so f tw a re th a t e l i m i n a te s w i th ti m e -c o n sum i n g ste p s f o r d ry i n g i n th e d ry i n g o v e n a n d c o o l i n g i n th e
d e ssi c a to r; th e p ro g ra m h a s a se c o n d ta re m e m o ry w h i c h c a n b e use d to ta re th e w e i g h t o f w a te r
re m a i n i n g i n th e p y c n o m e te r. Th i s c o n si d e ra b l y si m p l i fi e s w o rk i n th e l a b o ra to ry .
27
Th e densi ty of a soluti on depends on the concentration of the dissolved substance; i n o th e r w o rd s,
w h e n th e i n te rre l a ti o n sh i p s a re kn o w n , th e d e n si ty v a l ue c a n b e use d to d e ri v e th e c o n c e n tra ti o n o f
th e so l uti o n .
A t 2 0 C m o st f l ui d s h a v e a d e n si ty b e tw e e n 6 0 0 kg / m
3
a n d 2 0 0 0 kg / m
3
o r 0 . 6 g / c m
3
to
2 . 0 g / c m
3
. Th e d e n si ty o f fl ui d s i s fa r m o re te m p e ra ture -d e p e n d e n t th a n th a t o f so l i d s. Th i s m e a n s
th a t th e te m p e ra ture m ust always b e m o n i to re d c a re ful l y a n d , i f n e c e ssa ry , th e sa m p l e h e a te d o r
c o o l e d to th e re q ui re d te m p e ra ture .
Choosing a Density Determination Method
Th e re a re se ve ra l m e th o d s th a t c a n b e use d to d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f l i q ui d s, i n c l ud i n g th e
h y d ro m e te r, p y c n o m e te r, o sc i l l a to r, b uo y a n c y a n d d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d s. Th e c h o i c e o f m e th o d
d e p e n d s, a m o n g o th e r th i n g s, o n th e d e g re e o f p re c i si o n re q ui re d a n d th e a m o un t o f sa m p l e
m a te ri a l a va i l a b l e .
Performing Density Determination using the Buoyancy Method
Figure 17: Determining the density of a liquid using the buoyancy method
Equipment Required
W e i g h i n g i n strum e n t
D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t
Pl um m e t w i th kn o w n v o l um e (1 0 c m
3
i n th e sartorius D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t; se e Fi g ure 1 7 )
Th e rmo me te r
In so m e c a se s: w a te r b a th fo r a d j usti n g th e te m p e ra ture o f th e sa m p l e
Preparation of the Sample, Test Procedure and Evaluation
Po si ti o n a n e m p ty b e a ke r o n th e b ri d g e a n d h a n g th e p l um m e t f ro m th e f ra m e p ro v i d e d i n th e
D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t.
Ta re th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t w i th th e p l um m e t.
Fi l l th e b e a ke r w i th th e l i q ui d to b e te ste d up to a l e v e l 1 0 m m h i g h e r th a n th e p l um m e t.
28
Th e n e g a ti v e v a l ue sh o w n o n th e w e i g h t re a d o ut c o rre sp o n d s to th e b uo y a n c y o f th e p l um m e t i n
th e l i q ui d .
Th e d e n si ty o f th e l i q ui d i s c a l c ul a te d b y d i vi d i n g th e m e a sure d va l ue b y th e vo l um e o f th e p l um m e t

m
V
fl
TK
.
Determining the Density of Dispersions
Characteristics of Sample Material
D i sp e rse sy ste ms o r dispersions are combinations of two or more phases, each of which is insoluble
i n the other(s). O n e p h a se , c a l l e d th e d i sp e rsi o n m e d i um , i s a l w a y s c o n ti g uo us, w h i l e th e o th e r
p h a se o r p h a se s a re p re se n t i n th e m e d i um i n th e fo rm o f fi n e l y d i stri b ute d i so l a te d p a rti c l e s.
In a c o l l o i d d i sp e rsi o n , th e p a rti c l e s a re g e n e ra l l y b e tw e e n 1 m a n d 1 n m i n si z e . If th e p a rti c l e s
a re l a rg e r th a n > 1 m , th i s i s re fe rre d to a s a c o a rse d i sp e rsi o n ; i f p a rti c l e s a re sm a l l e r th a n
< 1 n m , i t i s a m o l e c ul a r d i sp e rsi o n .
Th e re a re m a n y e x a m p l e s o f d i sp e rsi o n s, b e c a use " dispersion" is the generic term for all systems,
i ndependent of the state of the phases. D i ffe re n t ty p e s o f d i sp e rsi o n s i n c l ud e :
Susp e n si o n s
M i x ture s o f so l i d p a rti c l e s i n a l i q ui d
Ex a m p l e s: "D i sp e rsi o n " p a i n t, c e ra m i c sl i p s, a b ra si v e l i q ui d c l e a n se r, to o th p a ste ,
i n k, e tc .
Em ul si o n s
M i x ture s o f tw o l i q ui d s th a t a re m utua l l y i n so l ub l e , w h e re o n e i s p re se n t i n th e
f o rm o f f i n e l y d i stri b ute d m i n usc ul e d ro p s i n th e o th e r
Ex a m p l e s: C re m e s, l o ti o n s, m a y o n n a i se , m i l k, th e c l a ssi c o i l -a n d -v i n e g a r sa l a d
d re ssi n g , e tc .
Fo a ms
M i x ture s o f g a s b ub b l e s i n a l i q ui d (o r a so l i d )
M i st
M i x ture s o f sm a l l d ro p s o f l i q ui d i n a g a s p h a se
Smo ke
M i x ture s o f so l i d p a rti c l e s i n a g a s p h a se
Th e te rm "sta b i l i ty " i n re fe re n c e to d i sp e rsi o n i s so m e w h a t p ro b l e m a ti c , b e c a use th e se a re a c tua l l y
un sta b l e sy ste m s. Th i s c a n b e se e n i n th e i r te n d e n c y to se p a ra te . Th e te rm s "sta b l e susp e n si o n "
a n d "sta b l e e m ul si o n " a re o fte n use d to re fe r to sy ste m s th a t re m a i n c o n sta n t o ve r a c e rta i n p e ri o d
o f ti me .
Choosing a Density Determination Method
M a n y o f th e sa m e m e th o d s use d o n l i q ui d s o r so l i d s c a n a l so b e use d fo r d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty
o f d i sp e rsi o n s. Th e b e st c h o i c e fo r a g i ve n sa m p l e m a te ri a l w i l l d e p e n d o n th e c o n si ste n c y o f th e
sa mp l e .
Th e o sc i l l a ti o n m e th o d i s n o t w e l l -sui te d fo r use h e re , fo r a n um b e r o f re a so n s. Th e m a n y p h a se
b o un d a ri e s a re a d i sa d v a n ta g e ; th e v i sc o si ty h a s a n e f f e c t o n th e m e a sure m e n t, a n d th e v i b ra ti o n
d uri n g m e a sure m e n t c a n p ro m o te se p a ra ti o n o f th e p h a se s, w h i c h m e a n s th e va l ue s o b ta i n e d w i l l
n o t b e re p re se n ta ti ve o f th e o ve ra l l a ve ra g e .
H y d ro m e te rs c a n b e use d , b ut i t m ust b e e n sure d th a t th e susp e n si o n o r e m ul si o n d o e s n o t sh o w
si g n s o f se p a ra ti n g .
29
Th e p y c n o m e te r c a n a l so b e use d o n d i sp e rsi o n s, j ust a s w i th d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n o n l i q ui d s o r
p o w d e rs. D i ffe re n t c o n ta i n e rs a re use d i n d i ffe re n t b ra n c h e s o f i n d ustry ; th e c o n ta i n e rs m a y b e
f i l l e d to th e ri m o r up to a m a rki n g w i th th e sa m p l e m a te ri a l a n d w e i g h e d . Th e p o te n ti a l
se p a ra ti o n o f th e sa m p l e p h a se s d uri n g m e a sure m e n t i s n o t a p ro b l e m w i th th i s p ro c e d ure .
Th e b uo y a n c y o r d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d c a n b e use d fo r m a n y susp e n si o n s a n d e m ul si o n s. In th i s
c a se , to o , c a re m ust b e ta ke n to a vo i d se p a ra ti o n o f th e sa m p l e p h a se s; th e fl o w b e h a vi o r o f th e
susp e n si o n m ust a l so a l l o w th e p l um m e t to si n k q ui c kl y .
Performing Density Determination using the Displacement Method
Figure 18: Density determination using the displacement method, with a gamma sphere as a plummet,
affixed to a holder mounted next to the weighing instrument
Equipment Required
W e i g h i n g In strum e n t
Pl um m e t w i th kn o w n v o l um e
H o l d e r
Th e rmo me te r
In so m e c a se s: w a te r b a th fo r a d j usti n g th e te m p e ra ture o f th e sa m p l e
Preparation of the Sample, Test Procedure and Evaluation
Bri n g th e sa m p l e to th e re q ui re d te m p e ra ture a n d p l a c e i t i n a b e a ke r. Pl a c e th e b e a ke r o n th e
w e i g h i n g p a n a n d ta re th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t. Im m e rse th e p l um m e t i n th e te st sub sta n c e up to
th e m a rki n g .
Th e w e i g h t re a d o ut sh o w s th e m a ss o f th e d i sp l a c e d l i q ui d d i re c tl y (se e Pa g e 1 2 ). Th e d e n si ty o f
th e sa m p l e i s d e te rm i n e d b y d i vi d i n g th e m e a sure d va l ue b y th e vo l um e o f th e p l um m e t
m
V
fl
TK
.
30
Errors in and Precision of Density Determination
In th e tw o p re v i o us c h a p te rs (Fe h l e r ! Ve r w e i sq u e l l e k o n n te n i c h t g e f u n d e n w e r d e n . Fe h l e r ! Ve r w e i sq u e l l e k o n n te n i c h t g e f u n d e n w e r d e n . a n d Fe h l e r ! Fe h l e r !
Ve r w e i sq u e l l e k o n n te n i c h t g e f u n d e n w e r d e n . Ve r w e i sq u e l l e k o n n te n i c h t g e f u n d e n w e r d e n . ) th e f un d a m e n ta l s o f th e se tw o h y d ro sta ti c d e n si ty
d e te rm i n a ti o n m e th o d s w e re e x p l a i n e d a n d th e fo rm ul a s fo r c a l c ul a ti o n o f th e d e n si ty w e re
d e ri ve d .
If a h i g h d e g re e o f p re c i si o n i s re q ui re d , th e e x i sti n g c o n d i ti o n s m ust b e a l l o w e d fo r. Te c h n i c a l l y
sp e a ki n g , th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t d o e s n o t sh o w th e m a ss o f th e sa m p l e s th e va l ue g i ve n i n th e
e q ua ti o n s b ut ra th e r th e w e i g h t va l ue fo r th e sa m p l e s i n a i r. Fo r m o re p re c i se re sul ts, use the
wei ght values obtai ned after ai r buoyancy correcti on.
W h e n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d , the immersion level of the pan hanger assembly i s a ffe c te d
w h e n th e sa m p l e i s i m m e rse d , w h i c h p ro d uc e s additional buoyancy. Th i s m ust a l so b e c o n si d e re d
i n m o re p re c i se c a l c ul a ti o n s.
In g e n e ra l , d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n p ro c e d ure s re q ui re ve ry c a re ful w o rk; i t i s e sp e c i a l l y i m p o rta n t to
m a ke sure th e te m p e ra ture re m a i n s c o n sta n t d uri n g te sti n g .
Bub b l e s e n te ri n g th e l i q ui d w h e n th e sa m p l e i s i m m e rse d c a n a l so a ffe c t re sul ts; b ub b l e s a d h e ri n g
to th e te st p i e c e w i l l d i sto rt th e m e a sure m e n t re sul ts.
Air Buoyancy Correction
Fo r h i g h -p re c i si o n d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n , i t i s i m p o rta n t to n o te th a t th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t d o e s
n o t d i re c tl y d e te rm i n e th e m a ss o f th e sa m p l e , b ut i ts wei ght value. Th i s v a l ue i s d e p e n d e n t o n th e
air density, w h i c h i n turn d e p e n d s o n th e p re ssure a n d te m p e ra ture a n d m ust b e c o rre c te d b y th e
va l ue fo r a i r b uo y a n c y .
Be tw e e n th e m a ss o f a so l i d b o d y m a n d i ts w e i g h t v a l ue i n a i r W ; th a t i s, un d e r c o n si d e ra ti o n o f
th e a i r b uo y a n c y o n th e sa m p l e , th e fo l l o w i n g re l a ti o n sh i p i s g e n e ra l l y va l i d (
G
= d e n si ty o f th e
sta n d a rd ):
m W
1
1
v
a
G
a

. Equation 30
Displacement Method
If y o u i n c l ud e th i s e q ua ti o n i n th e c a l c ul a ti o n o f th e d e n si ty w h e n th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d i s use d ,
th e e q ua ti o n f o r d e te rm i n i n g th e d e n si ty o f th e so l i d b o d y f o l l o w s w i th allowance for the ai r
buoyancy (se e A p p e n d i x , p a g e 5 8 , fo r d e ri va ti o n ).

s fl
s
fl
fl a
s
fl
a
m
m
( - )
W
W
+ Equation 31
Th i s i s th e m a n n e r i n w h i c h d e n si ty i s c a l c ul a te d b y th e so f tw a re th a t c o m e s w i th sartorius
w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts.
31
Buoyancy Method
If y o u i n c l ud e th e e q ua ti o n m W
1
1
v
a
G
a

fo r m
(a )
a n d m
(fl)
i n th e e q ua ti o n f o r d e n si ty
d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d
s fl
(a)
(a) (fl)
m
m m

, m a th e m a ti c a l c o n ve rsi o n re sul ts i n

s fl a
(a)
(a) (fl)
a
( )
W
W W

+ . Equation 32
the formula for calculating the densi ty of soli d bodi es wi th allowance for ai r buoyancy.
Th i s i s th e m a n n e r i n w h i c h th e a i r b uo y a n c y i s a c c o un te d f o r i n th e so f tw a re th a t c o m e s w i th
sartorius w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts (f o r d e ta i l s, se e th e o p e ra ti n g i n struc ti o n s f o r th e i n strum e n t i n
q ue sti o n ). M o re o v e r, a n o th e r c o rre c ti o n f a c to r i s i n c l ud e d i n th e c a l c ul a ti o n w h i c h ta ke s i n to
a c c o un t th e a d d i ti o n a l b uo y a n c y c a use d b y th e i m m e rsi o n o f th e w i re s o n th e p a n h a n g e r
a sse mb l y (se e b e l o w ).
Pycnometer Method
Th e f o rm ul a f o r c a l c ul a ti n g d e n si ty w i th th e ai r buoyancy correcti on usi n g th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d
i s:
( )
s fl a
2
1 2 3
a
W
W W W

+
+ . Equation 33
Th i s i s th e f o rm ul a use d b y th e so f tw a re th a t c o m e s w i th sartorius w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts.
Air Buoyancy Correction for the Pan Hanger Assembly
Buoyancy Method
Fo r h i g h -p re c i si o n m e a sure m e n t, a n o th e r c o n si d e ra ti o n b e si d e s th e a i r b uo y a n c y i s th e additional
buoyancy of the pan hanger wires, c a use d b y th e f a c t th a t th e height of the liquid is increased
when the sample is immersed w h i c h m e a n s th e w i re s a re d e e p e r un d e r th e surf a c e th a n w i th o ut th e
sa m p l e . (Th e b uo y a n c y o f th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y i s n o t i n c l ud e d i n th e d e n si ty c a l c ul a ti o n i f th e
w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t i s ta re d w i th th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y . )
h
d
D
Figure 19: Diagram illustrating the calculation of the buoyancy caused by increased height of liquid
when sample is immersed
W i th th e p ro c e d ure f o r usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d w i th th e D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t, th e w i re s o f
th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y a re d e e p e r un d e r th e surfa c e o f th e w a te r w h e n th e sa m p l e i s i m m e rse d
32
b e c a use th e vo l um e o f th e sa m p l e c a use s m o re l i q ui d to b e d i sp l a c e d . Be c a use m o re o f th e w i re i s
i m m e rse d , i t c a use s m o re b uo y a n c y ; th e a d d i ti o n a l b uo y a n c y c a n b e c a l c ul a te d a n d c o rre c te d fo r
i n th e re sul ts.
Th e a m o un t o f v o l um e b y w h i c h th e l i q ui d i n c re a se s i n a c o n ta i n e r w i th d i a m e te r D c o rre sp o n d s to
th e vo l um e V
fl
i n Fi g ure 1
V
D
4
h
fl

. Equation 34
Th e vo l um e V
s
o f th e sa m p l e i s
V
m m
s
(a) (fl)
fl

Equation 35
Th e se tw o vo l um e s a re i d e n ti c a l , V
fl
= V
s
. U si n g th e a b o v e e q ua ti o n s a n d so l v i n g fo r h , th e
i n c re a se i n h e i g h t o f th e l i q ui d , y i e l d s
h
(m m ) 4
D
(a) (fl)
fl



Equation 36
Th e b uo y a n c y fo rc e F
BD
e x e rte d o n two wires o f d i a m e te r d a t th e fl ui d l e ve l h i s
F V g (2 h) g
BD fl D fl
d
4



Equation 37
a n d w i th th e v a l ue f o r h i n c l ud e d y i e l d s
F 2
d
4
(m m ) 4
D
g
BD fl
(a) (fl)
fl






F
2 d (m m ) 4 g
4 D
2
d
D
(m m ) g
BD
f l
2
(a) (f l )
f l
2
2
2 (a) (f l )






Equation 38
Th i s m e a n s th a t the buoyancy caused by the wi res i s proporti onal to the relati on between the
diameters of wires and beaker.
In a d d i ti o n to th e b uo y a n c y o f th e sa m p l e w h i c h i s to b e d e te rm i n e d th e m e a sure d va l ue a l so
i n c l ud e s p a rt o f th e "w i re b uo y a n c y ; " th us th e w i re b uo y a n c y m ust b e sub tra c te d f ro m th e m e a sure d
va l ue to y i e l d th e b uo y a n c y o f th e sa m p l e a l o n e F
BS
(c o rr):
[ ]
F (corr) (m m ) (2
d
D
m m ) g
BS (a) (fl) (a) (fl)

F (corr) (1 2
d
D
) (m m ) g
BS
correction factor
(a) (fl)

12 4 3 4
Equation 39
W h e n th e d i a m e te rs o f th e w i re s a n d th e b e a ke r a re kn o w n , th e f a c to r b y w h i c h th e v a l ue
m e a sure d fo r b uo y a n c y m ust b e m ul ti p l i e d c a n b e c a l c ul a te d . In th e D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t
33
fro m sartorius, th e w i re d i a m e te r i s d = 0 . 7 mm, th e b e a ke r d i a m e te r D = 7 6 mm, a n d th e p a n
h a n g e r a sse m b l y h a s tw o w i re s. Th us th e c o rre c ti o n fa c to r i s:
Corr 1 2
d
D
1 2
0.7
76
0.99983 .
The smaller the di ameter d of the wi res, the larger the di ameter D of the beaker and the fewer
wi res on the pan hanger assembly, the nearer the correcti on factor wi ll be to 1; i . e . , th e c o rre c ti o n
i s n e g l i g i b l e . Th e se c o n d i ti o n s a re e a sy to c re a te w h e n p e rfo rm i n g d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e
b e l o w -sc a l e o r b e l o w -b a l a n c e w e i g h i n g m e th o d .
Re turn i n g to th e f o rm ul a f o r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d : Fo r th e b uo y a n c y
c o rre c ti o n f o r th e w i re s, th e e q ua ti o n
s fl
(a)
(a) (fl)
m
m m

y i e l d s

s fl
(a)
(a) (fl)
m
[m m ] Corr


o r, w h e n th e a i r b uo y a n c y i s a l so a c c o un te d f o r,

s fl a
(a)
(a) (fl)
a
( )
W
(W W ) Corr


+ Equation 40
This is the formula used for density determination in the software that comes with sartorius
weighing instruments. Th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts c a n w o rk w i th th e p re se t v a l ue s f o r a sta n d a rd a i r
d e n si ty o f
a
= 0 . 0 0 1 2 g / c m
3
a n d a c o rre c ti o n f a c to r o f 0 . 9 9 9 8 3 f o r th e sa rto ri us D e n si ty
D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t. A l te rn a ti ve l y , use r-d e fi n e d c o rre c ti o n fa c to rs c a n b e e n te re d .
Displacement Method
Erro rs c a use d b y th e a d d i ti o n a l b uo y a n c y w h e n th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y fo r th e sa m p l e o r l i n e s o r
w i re s o f th e p a n h a n g e r c a n b e e l i m i n a te d a t th e o utse t b y i m m e rsi n g th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y j ust
a s d e e p i n th e l i q ui d w h e n i t i s w e i g h e d e m p ty o r ta re d a s i t w i l l b e l a te r w i th th e sa m p l e o n i t.
In a d d i ti o n , th e te st c o n d i ti o n s c a n b e a rra n g e d to m a ke th e c o rre c ti o n f a c to r 1 ; i . e . , b y usi n g
l a rg e c o n ta i n e r d i a m e te r, sm a l l p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y d i a m e te r, o n l y o n e p a n a sse m b l y i f p o ssi b l e .
Th e e q ua ti o n f o r c a l c ul a ti o n o f th e solid body density usi n g th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d w i th
a l l o w a n c e f o r a i r b uo y a n c y a n d th e c o rre c ti o n f a c to r f o r th e sa m p l e h a n g e r i s:

s fl a
(a)
(fl)
a
( )
W
W Corr

+ Equation 41
This is the formula used by the software that comes with sartorius weighing instruments. Th e d e f a ul t
se tti n g s i n th i s so f tw a re i n c l ud e a n um e ri c a l v a l ue o f 1 . 0 f o r th e c o rre c ti o n f a c to r a n d
ra = 0 . 0 0 1 2 g / c m 3 fo r th e sta n d a rd a i r d e n si ty . U se r-d e fi n e d va l ue s c a n a l so b e e n te re d .
W h e n th e displacement method for density determination on liquids i s use d , i n c l ud i n g o n p a i n ts
a n d va rn i sh e s, th e p l um m e t i s usua l l y m a d e o f m e ta l (g a m m a sp h e re ) a n d i s ta p e re d i n o n e se c ti o n
(se e Fi g ure 2 0 ); th e n o m i n a l vo l um e o f th e p l um m e t i s c a l c ul a te d to th e m i d d l e o f th e ta p e re d
p o rti o n . Th e re a re d i ffe re n t si z e s o f p l um m e ts a va i l a b l e fo r use w i th d i ffe re n t d e g re e s o f surfa c e
34
te n si o n i n th e l i q ui d b e i n g te ste d . Th e i n fl ue n c e o f th e b ul g e o f l i q ui d a ro un d th e ste m o f th e
p l um m e t i s a l so a c c o un te d fo r.
Figure 20: Plummet (in accordance with DIN 53 217 Part 3) for determining the density of paints,
varnishes, and similar coating materials using the displacement method.
Preventi on of Systemati c Errors
Hydrostati c Method
To l i m i t th e e rro rs i n d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n w i th d i f f e re n t h y d ro sta ti c p ro c e d ure s, th e f o l l o w i n g
sh o ul d b e o b se rve d :
Th e temperature must be kept constant th ro ug h o ut th e e n ti re e x p e ri m e n ta l p ro c e d ure . W i th
w a te r a s b uo y a n c y m e d i um , fo r e x a m p l e , a te m p e ra ture va ri a ti o n o f 0 . 1 C c h a n g e s th e d e n si ty
b y 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 to 0 . 0 0 0 0 3 g / c m
3
; w i th a l c o h o l , b y 0 . 0 0 0 1 g / c m
3
.
Th e m e a suri n g i n strum e n t sh o ul d b e l o a d e d e x a c tl y i n th e c e n te r, to m a x i m a l l y l i m i t off-center
loading e rro rs. W h e n w e i g h i n g i n a i r usi n g th e sartorius D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t w i th th e
sa m p l e o n to p o f th e fra m e , e c c e n tri c p o si ti o n i n g o f th e sa m p l e d ue to th e sh a p e o f th e fra m e
c a use s fo rc e to b e c o n d uc te d to tw o e x te rn a l p o i n ts o n th e b a se o f th e fra m e re sul ti n g i n a
g re a te r to rq ue th a n w i th th e use o f "n o rm a l " w e i g h i n g p a n s w i th th e sa m e d e v i a ti o n f ro m th e
c e n te r.
A fte r sub m e rsi o n i n th e l i q ui d th e re m ust b e no air bubbles on the sample or on the pan hanger
assembly. Th e se c a use a n a d d i ti o n a l b uo y a n c y a n d fa l si fy th e m e a sure d w e i g h t. To p re v e n t
th i s, o n e c a n w e t th e sa m p l e i n a se p a ra te b e a ke r o r i n a n ul tra so un d b a th .
Erro rs d ue to adhesi on of li qui d to the wi re o f th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y c a n b e p re ve n te d b y
ta ri n g th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t w i th sub m e rse d p a n h a n g e r a sse mb l y b e fo re m e a suri n g .
A re a fo r l a b e l i n g
La b e l a c c o rd i n g to se c ti o n 3 1
d = 3 mm w i th a 1 0 0 -ml p l umme t
d = 1 mm w i th a 1 0 -ml p l umme t
1 0 0 ml o r 1 0 ml up to th e mi d d l e o f th e
ta p e ri n g se c ti o n .
1 0 to 1 2 mm
35
Air buoyancy c a use s a n e rro r o f d e n si ty o f 0 . 0 0 1 2 g / c m 3 (c o rre sp o n d i n g w i th a i r d e n si ty
un d e r n o rm a l c o n d i ti o n s); th e re f o re i n c a l c ul a ti n g th e d e n si ty , th e e q ua ti o n sh o ul d ta ke a i r
b uo y a n c y i n to a c c o un t (se e p . 3 1 , "A i r Buo y a n c y C o rre c ti o n ").
A fte r sub m e rsi n g th e sa m p l e i n th e c o n ta i n e r, th e l e ve l o f th e l i q ui d ri se s so th a t the wi res of the
pan hanger assembly c a use additional buoyancy. D e p e n d i n g o n th e d i a m e te r o f th e b e a ke r
use d a n d th e n um b e r o f w i re s o f th e a sse m b l y , th i s a d d i ti o n a l b uo y a n c y c a n b e c o rre c te d (se e
p . 3 2 A i r Buo y a n c y C o rre c ti o n fo r th e Pa n H a n g e r A sse m b l y .)
Pycnometer Method
To l i m i t th e e rro rs i n d e te rm i n i n g d e n si ty w i th th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d , th e fo l l o w i n g sh o ul d b e
o b se rve d :
The temperature must be kept constant th ro ug h o ut th e e n ti re e x p e ri m e n ta l p ro c e d ure ; th e
te mp e ra ture o f th e sa m p l e s m ust b e c a re ful l y c o n tro l l e d . W i th w a te r a s th e l i q ui d m e d i um fo r
e x a m p l e , a te m p e ra ture c h a n g e o f 0 . 1 C c h a n g e s th e d e n si ty b y 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 to
0 . 0 0 0 0 3 g / c m
3
; w i th a l c o h o l , b y 0 . 0 0 0 1 g / c m
3
.
Th e re sh o ul d b e n o air bubbles i n th e l i q ui d m e d i um o r o n th e sa m p l e .
Th e air buoyancy c a use s a n d e n si ty e rro r o f 0 . 0 0 1 2 g / c m
3
(c o rre sp o n d i n g to a i r d e n si ty
un d e r n o rm a l c o n d i ti o n s); th e re f o re i n c a l c ul a ti n g th e d e n si ty , th e e q ua ti o n sh o ul d ta ke a i r
b uo y a n c y i n to a c c o un t (se e p . 3 3 , "A i r Buo y a n c y C o rre c ti o n ").
W h e n p ro p e r c a re i s e x e rc i se d usi n g th e p y c n o m e te r, th i s m e th o d c a n b e use d fo r h i g h l y a c c ura te
d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e d e n si ty o f m a te ri a l s.
Error Calculati on
W i th c a re f ul w o rk a n d w i th th e p re v e n ti o n o f th e a b o v e -m e n ti o n e d sy ste m a ti c e rro rs, th e e rro rs o f
d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n c a n b e c a l c ul a te d a c c o rd i n g to th e rul e s o f e rro r re p ro d uc ti o n . Th e d e n si ty
e rro r i s b a se d m a i n l y o n m e a suri n g re sul ts i n m a ss d e te rm i n a ti o n .
G e n e ra l l y , fo r th e d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e to ta l e rro rs F o f a d i m e n si o n th a t i s c a l c ul a te d fro m se ve ra l
m e a suri n g va l ue s:
W i th th e sum (a n d th e d i f f e re n c e ) th e absolute si ngle errors a d d up q ua d ra ti c a l l y :
F F F ...
1
2
2
2
+ + Equation 42
W i th p ro d uc ts (a n d q uo ti e n ts) th e relati ve si ngle errors a d d up q ua d ra ti c a l l y . (Th e re l a ti v e e rro r i s
th e a b so l ute e rro r i n re l a ti o n to th e m e a sure d va l ue . ):


F
F
F
F
F
F
...
1
1
2
2
2
2

1
]
1
+

1
]
1
+ Equation 43
Buoyancy Method
Fo r th e d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n o f so l i d b o d i e s usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d th e fo l l o w i n g re l a ti o n sh i p
i s a p p l i e d
s fl
(a)
(a) (fl)
m
m m

o r
s fl a
(a)
(a) (fl)
a
( )
W
(W W ) Korr


+
36
Be c a use th e c o rre c ti o n f a c to r f o r th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y a n d th e d e n si ty o f a i r h a v e n o
n o ti c e a b l e e ffe c t o n th e e rro r o f d e n si ty , th e y d o n o t n e e d to b e re g a rd e d i n e rro r c a l c ul a ti o n .
If o n e use s th e b a si c rul e s o f e rro r c a l c ul a ti o n , th e a b so l ute e rro r o f th e d e n o m i n a to r [ m (a )-m (fl )] i s
c a l c ul a te d n e x t:
[ ]
m m m m
(a) (fl) (a)
2
(fl)
2
+ Equation 44
fo l l o w e d b y th e to ta l re l a ti ve e rro r o f d e n si ty /

1
]
1
+

1
]
1
+

1
]
1
fl
fl
2
(a)
(a)
2
(a) (fl)
(fl)
2
m
m
(m m )
m
Equation 45
Th e to ta l e rro r o f weighing in air (m
(a )
) i s th e sum o f reproduci bi li ty a n d a li neari ty error o f o n e
d i g i t re g a rd l e ss o f th e ty p e o f w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t, b e c a use d i ffe re n ti a l w e i g h i n g i s p e rfo rm e d .
Th e m a x i m um e rro r o f weighing in liquids (m
(a )
- m
(fl)
) i s o n a ve ra g e a ssum e d to b e 1 0 ti m e s a s
g re a t a s w i th w e i g h i n g i n a i r th i s a ssum p ti o n i s b a se d o n m a n y m e a sure m e n ts i n d e n si ty
d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d .
Fo r th e e rro r o f l i q ui d d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n , th e v a l ue o f 0 . 0 0 0 0 3 g / c m
3
f o r w a te r a n d 0 . 0 0 0 0 9
g / c m
3
fo r e th a n o l a re a p p l i e d ; th a t i s th e va l ue o f a th e rm o m e te r re a d i n g e rro r o f t 0 . 1 C w h i c h
c o rre sp o n d s to a te m p e ra ture v a ri a ti o n d uri n g m e a sure m e n t o f t 0 . 1 C .
Th e fo l l o w i n g fi g ure s (se e Fi g ure 2 1 : So l i d d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d th e
re l a ti ve e rro r o f d e n si ty i s d e p e n d e n t o n th e sa m p l e si z e a n d th e sa m p l e d e n si ty ) sh o w th e re l a ti ve
e rro r o f so l i d d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n w i th th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d i n w a te r o r e th a n o l , d e p e n d i n g o n
th e sa m p l e si z e a n d th e d e n si ty o f th e sa m p l e e x a m p l e s, usi n g sartorius w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts w i th
d i f f e re n t re a d a b i l i ti e s a n d w e i g h i n g c a p a c i ti e s.
It i s c l e a r th a t th e e rro r i n d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n i s d e p e n d e n t o n th e d e n si ty o f th e sa m p l e to a
si g n i fi c a n t d e g re e : the lower the densi ty of the sample, the greater the error of the end result
4
.
A furth e r fi g ure (se e fi g ure 2 7 ) sh o w s the error i n densi ty determi nati on of li qui ds usi n g th e
b uo y a n c y m e th o d f o r l i q ui d d e n si ti e s b e tw e e n 0 . 5 a n d 2 . 2 g / c m
3
w i th th e use o f th e g l a ss
p l um m e t i n c l ud e d w i th th e sartorius D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se t. Th e p l um m e t h a s a vo l um e o f
(1 0 + 0 . 0 1 ) c m
3
a n d a d e n si ty o f 2 . 4 8 g / c m
3
w i th a to l e ra n c e o f 0 . 5 mg i n re l a ti o n to th e
b uo y a n c y o f w a te r. H e re to o the error of densi ty i s dependent on the densi ty value of the
investigated sample.

4
Fo r th e c a l c ul a ti o n o f

m m 1
(fl) (a)
fl
s

1
]
1

i s p l ug g e d i n fo r m (fl );
f o r
fl
th e d e n si ty o f w a te r 1 . 0 g / c m
3
i s use d , f o r th e d e n si ty o f e th a n o l 0 . 7 8 9 g / c m
3
37
Figure 21: Solid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density
Readability: 1 mg
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.6%
0.7%
0.8%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y


Sample Density = 2 g/cm3
Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
38
Figure 22: Solid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density
Readability: 0,1 mg
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Sample Density = 2 g/cm3


Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
39
Figure 23: Solid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density
Readability: 0,01 mg
0.00%
0.01%
0.02%
0.03%
0.04%
0.05%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Sample Density = 2 g/cm3


Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
40
Figure 24: Solid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density
Readability: 1 mg
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.6%
0.7%
0.8%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y


Sample Density = 2 g/cm3
Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Ethanol
= 0,79 g/cm
3
41
Figure 25: Solid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density
Readability: 0,1 mg
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Sample Density = 2 g/cm3


Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Ethanol
= 0,79 g/cm
3
42
Figure 26: Solid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density
Readability: 0,01 mg
0.00%
0.01%
0.02%
0.03%
0.04%
0.05%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Sample Density = 2 g/cm3


Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Ethanol
= 0,79 g/cm
3
43
Figure 27: Liquid density determination using the buoyancy method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample density and the readability of the weighing instrument for density
determination with the sartorius Densi ty Determi nati on Set
0.10%
0.11%
0.12%
0.13%
0.14%
0.15%
0.16%
0.17%
0.18%
0.19%
0.20%
0.5 1 1.5 2
Liquid Density / g/cm
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Readability: 0,01 mg
Readability: 0,1 mg
Readability: 1 mg
44
Displacement Method
Fo r so l i d b o d y d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d th e fo l l o w i n g re l a ti o n sh i p i s
a p p l i e d , i n w h i c h a i r d e n si ty
a
i s ta ke n a s c o n sta n t a n d n o t use d i n th e e rro r c a l c ul a ti o n .

s fl
s
fl
fl a
s
fl
a
m
m
( - )
W
W
+

1
]
1
+

1
]
1
+

1
]
1
fl
fl
2
(a)
(a)
2
(fl)
(fl)
2
m
m
m
m
5
In c o m p a ri so n w i th th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d , i t i s stri ki n g (se e Fi g ure 2 1 th ro ug h 2 6 ) th a t so l i d b o d y
d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d re sul ts i n a sm a l l e r e rro r th a n th e d i sp l a c e m e n t
m e th o d (se e Fi g ure 2 8 ) A si d e fro m th i s i t i s c l e a r th a t usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d th e m i sta ke
d e c re a se s w i th i n c re a si n g sa m p l e d e n si ty , w h e re a s usi n g th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d i t i n c re a se s w i th
i n c re a si n g sa m p l e d e n si ty .
Figure 28: Solid density determination using the displacement method the relati ve error of densi ty i s
dependent on the sample size and the sample density

5
With m m
(fl)
fl
s
(a)

Readability: 1 mg
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.6%
0.7%
0.8%
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Sample Size / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y


Sample Density = 2 g/cm3
Sample Density = 5 g/cm3
Sample Density = 10 g/cm3

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
45
Pycnometer Method
Fo r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d , a p p l y th e re l a ti o n sh i p

s fl
2
1 2 3
m
m m m

+
a n d ( )
s fl a
2
1 2 3
a
W
W W W

+
+ .
Th e e rro r o f a i r d e n si ty i s n e g l e c te d a g a i n . To g e t th e to ta l e rro r o f th e w e i g h t va l ue , a l i n e a r e rro r o f
o n e d i g i t w a s a d d e d to th e re p ro d uc i b i l i ty o f th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t ty p e . Fo r th e e rro r o f l i q ui d
d e n si ty a v a l ue o f 0 . 0 0 0 0 3 g / c m
3
i s use d , w h i c h c o rre sp o n d s to th e va l ue o f a fa l se re a d o ut o f th e
th e rmo me te r o f t 0 . 1 C o r a te m p e ra ture c h a n g e o f t 0 . 1 C . Th e l i q ui d d e n si ty w i th 1 . 0 g / c m
3
fo r w a te r a s m e d i um i s use d i n th e e q ua ti o n b e l o w . .
N e x t th e e rro r o f th e d e n o m i n a to r [ m
1
+ m
2
-m
3
] i s c a l c ul a te d
[ ]
m m m m m m
1 2 3 1
2
2
2
3
2
+ + +
a n d th e n th e to ta l re l a ti v e e rro r o f d e n si ty /

1
]
1
+

1
]
1
+
+
+

1
]
1
fl
fl
2
2
2
2
1 2 3
1 2 3
2
m
m
(m m m )
(m m m )
.
Th e f o l l o w i n g d i a g ra m (se e Fi g ure 2 9 to 3 1 ) f o r w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts w i th d i f f e re n t re a d a b i l i ti e s a n d
w e i g h i n g c a p a c i ti e s sh o w s th e re l a ti ve e rro r o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n d e p e n d e n t o n th e sa m p l e si z e
a n d th e sa m p l e d e n si ty .
46
Readability: 1 mg
0.00%
0.01%
0.02%
0.03%
0.04%
0.05%
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0
Sample Qantity / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y


Sample Density = 4 g/cm
Sample Density = 3 g/cm
Sample Density = 2 g/cm
Sample Density = 1 g/cm

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
Figure 29: Density determination using the pycnometer method the relati ve error of densi ty i s dependent
on the sample size and the sample density.
47
Figure 30: Density determination using the pycnometer method the relati ve error of densi ty i s dependent
on the sample size and the sample densi ty.
Readability: 0,1 mg
0.000%
0.005%
0.010%
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0
Sample Quantity / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y


Sample Density = 4 g/cm
Sample Density = 3 g/cm
Sample Density = 2 g/cm
Sample Density = 1 g/cm

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
48
Figure 31: Density determination using the pycnometer method the relati ve error of densi ty i s dependent
on the sample size and the sample densi ty.
Readability: 0,01 mg
0.002%
0.003%
0.004%
0.005%
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0
Sample Quantity / g
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
r
r
o
r

o
f

D
e
n
s
i
t
y


Sample Density = 4 g/cm
Sample Density = 3 g/cm
Sample Density = 2 g/cm
Sample Density = 1 g/cm

Water
= 1 g/cm
3
49
Comparison of Different Methods of Density Determination
O n th e fo l l o w i n g p a g e s d i ffe re n t m e th o d s o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n a re c o n tra ste d , so th a t th e m o st
i m p o rta n t a d v a n ta g e s a n d d i sa d v a n ta g e s m a y b e re c o g n i z e d a t a g l a n c e .
50
Buoyancy method Displacement method Pycnometer method Weighing a defined volume
Suitable for: Solids Solids Solids
Powder, Granules Powder (tap density)
Liquids Liquids Liquids Liquids
Dispersions Dispersions Dispersions Dispersions
Gases
Advantages
Suitable for almost all
sample types
Suitable for almost all
sample types
Suitable for all sample types
Flexible with regard to
sample size
Flexible with regard to
sample size
Weighing instruments
already available
Weighing instruments
already available
Weighing instruments
already available
Weighing instruments
already available
Quick process Quick process Accurate method Quick process
All methods especially easy to perform using weighing instruments with
integratedsoftware with user guidance prompts and evaluation of results
Disadvantages
Solids and liquids must be brought to a defined
temperature
Solids and liquids must be
brought to a defined
temperature
Large volume sample required for fluid density
determination
Labor-intensive
Care must be taken to avoid
evaporation
time-consuming
Sample must be wet very
carefully
Sample must be wet very
carefully
Bubbles must not be trapped Bubbles must not be trapped Bubbles must not be trapped
51
Buoyancy method Displacement method Pycnometer method Weighing a defined volume
Uncertainty of
measurement *
Dependent on the weighing instrument used and the sample
amount and sample density
Dependent on the weighing
instrument used
Dependent on the weighing
instrument used
Readability 1 mg Solids: Solids: Liquids, Dispersions
<0,4% for m>10g
<0,2% for m>50g (water),
=5g/ cm
<0,02% for m>20g
<1% for V=100ml, <0,1% for
V=1000ml and <2g/ cm
3
Liquids: **
<0,20% for =1,3g/ cm
Readability 0,1 mg Solids: Solids: <0,005% for m>10g
<0,1% for m>5g
<0,02% for m>50g (water),
=5g/ cm
Liquids: **
<0,11% for <1,8g/ cm
Readability 0,01 mg Solids: <0,003% for m>10g
<0,10% for m > 5g (water)
<0,15% for m > 5g (ethanol)
Liquids: **
~0,1% for <1,5g/ cm
*For more exact results see the chapter entitled "Errors in and Precision of Density Determination"
**With the plummet from the Sartorius Density Determination Set
52
Hydrometer Oscillation-method Density gradient column
Suitable for: Solids (small sample size)
Liquids (Homogeneous) liquids (Liquids)
(Dispersions)
Advantages Easy measurement
Small sample size: approx.
1ml
Several samples can be
checked simultaneously
Quick process Quick process
Inexpensive plummet
Disadvantages
In dispersions: measuring error can be caused by
separation of the components in the sample
Time-consuming experiment
preparation
Density is slightly influenced
by the viscosity of the sample
Expensive equipment must be
purchased
Uncertainty of
measurement
0.1 to 10 kg/ m or 0.0001 to
0.01 g/ cm for r=0.6 to 2.0
g/ cm
There are emasuring devices
with uncertainy of
measurement rated to
0.001g/ cm
3
, 0.0001g/ cm
3
or
0.00001g/ cm
3
Calibrated glass references
with densities of 0.8 to
2.0g/ cm
3
0.0002g/ cm
3
Hydrometers are suited to
certain areas of sample
surface tension
53
Appendix
Temperature Dependency of Densi ty
Th e d e p e n d e n c e o f d e n si ty o n te m p e ra ture m a y b e c a l c ul a te d w i th th e a i d o f th e vo l um e
e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t . In g e n e ra l , th e e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t i s o n l y g i ve n fo r a se t te m p e ra ture
ra n g e (e . g . 2 0 C to 1 0 0 C ) fo r w h i c h a l i n e a r a p p ro x i m a ti o n i s p e rm i ssi b l e . N um e ri c a l va l ue s
fo r o f d i ffe re n t g a se s a n d l i q ui d s m a y b e fo un d i n p h y si c a l c h e m i stry ta b l e s.
U sua l l y , w i th so l i d b o d i e s th e e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t i s g i v e n . To c o n v e rt th e l i n e a r c a l c ul a ti o n
i n to th e vo l um e e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t, use th e re l a ti o n sh i p 3 .
Th e d e n si ty o f a sub sta n c e a t te m p e ra ture T
2
c a n b e c a l c ul a te d w i th th e a i d o f th e te m p e ra ture T
1
a n d th e vo l um e e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t:

( T )
( T )
1 ( T T )
2
1
2 1

+
.
54
Hydrostati c Densi ty Determi nati on Eli mi nati on of the Volumes i n the Equati on
for
W i th c o m p l e te sub m e rsi o n o f th e b o d y i n th e l i q ui d , th e e x p e ri m e n ta l m e th o d re sul ts i n th e vo l um e
o f th e so l i d a n d th e vo l um e o f th e l i q ui d b e i n g e q ua l .
O n e c a n d e ri v e a re l a ti o n sh i p b e tw e e n th e m a sse s a n d d e n si ti e s o f th e tw o sub sta n c e s, i n w h i c h
vo l um e i s n o l o n g e r e x p l i c i tl y i n c l ud e d .

fl
fl
fl
m
V

s
s
s
m
V

otherwise:
V
m
fl
fl
fl

V
m
s
s
s

fro m V
fl
= V
s
m m
fl
fl
s
s

Fo r d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e so l i d d e n si ty , i t fo l l o w s:

s fl
s
fl
m
m

O r f o r d e te rm i n a ti o n o f th e l i q ui d d e n si ty :

fl s
fl
s
fl
s
m
m
m
V
.
55
Air Density Determination
Th e re l a ti o n sh i p f o r d e te rm i n i n g a i r d e n si ty i s d e ri v e d f ro m th e e q ua ti o n s f o r th e re l a ti o n sh i p
b e tw e e n th e m a ss a n d th e w e i g h t va l ue fo r a l um i n um a n d fo r ste e l :
W m Al Al
a
A
a
N

1
1

l
1
m
W
1
1
Al
Al
a
Al
a
N

W m
1
1
St St
a
St
a
N

1
m
W
1
1
St
St
a
St
a
N

Sta n d a rd i z i n g th e e q ua ti o n s to 1 a n d j o i n i n g th e m g i v e s:
m
W
1
1
m
W
1
1
St
St
Al
Al
a
St
a
N
a
Al
a
N

( ) ( )
m
W
1
m
W
1
St
St
a
St
Al
Al
a
Al

( ) ( )
W m 1 W m 1
Al St
a
St
St Al
a
Al

W m W m W m W m
l
Al St Al St
a
St
St Al St Al
a
A

W m W m W m W m
St Al
a
Al
Al St
a
St
St Al Al St

W m W m
W m W m
St Al Al St a
St Al
Al
Al St
St

_
,


( )


a
St A Al St
W m W m
W m l W m
St Al
Al
Al St
St

56
Air Buoyancy Correction
W i th th e e x a m p l e o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n b y th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d , th e fo rm ul a fo r c a l c ul a ti n g
th e d e n si ty w i th re g a rd to a i r b uo y a n c y i s d e ri v e d :
D e n si ty i s c a l c ul a te d b y
s fl
s
fl
m
m
,
fo r th e m a ss th e fo l l o w i n g re l a ti o n sh i p th a t d e sc ri b e s th e d e p e n d e n c y o f th e m a ss o n a i r d e n si ty i s
sub sti tute d : m W
1
1
v
a
G
a

s f
s
fl
l
W (1 ) (1 )
(1 ) W (1 )
a
G
a
fl
a
s
a
G



s fl
s
fl
W (1 )
(1 ) W
a
fl
a
s


s
s
fl
fl a
W
W 1
a
s

s
s
fl
fl a
W
W
s
s
a
s

( )
1

s
s
fl
fl a ( )
W
W
( )
1
s a
s




s
s
fl
fl a
s
s a
W
W
( )


s a
s
s
fl
fl a
W
W
( )

s a
s
fl
fl a
W
W
( )

s
s
fl
fl a a
W
W
( ) +
57
Questions About Density
1 . H o w i s d e n si ty d e f i n e d a n d w h a t i s th e un i t o f d e n si ty ?
2 . H o w d o e s d e n si ty c h a n g e w h e n te m p e ra ture i n c re a se s?
3 . W h y d o b o d i e s a p p e a r to b e l i g h te r i n w a te r th a n i n a i r w h e n th e y a re w e i g h e d ? D e sc ri b e th e
p h e n o m e n o n .
4 . W h e n d o b o d i e s "f l o a t" i n a l i q ui d ? W h i c h sta te m e n t th e n i s v a l i d f o r th e d e n si ty o f l i q ui d s a n d
so li d s?
5 . W h a t i s th e d i f f e re n c e b e tw e e n th e struc ture o f th e e x p e ri m e n t f o r d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n usi n g th e
b uo y a n c y a n d usi n g th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d , a n d w h a t d o th e m e a sure d v a l ue s i n c l ud e w i th e a c h
m e th o d ?
6 . W i th w h i c h m e th o d c a n th e d e n si ty o f f l ui d s b e d e te rm i n e d ? W h y a re f l ui d d e n si ti e s d e te rm i n e d ;
w h i c h c o n c l usi o n s c a n o n e re a c h f ro m th e m e a sure d v a l ue s?
7 . W h a t i s a d i sp e rsi o n a n d h o w c a n o n e m e a sure i ts d e n si ty ?
8 . W h a t i s th e d i f f e re n c e b e tw e e n d e n si ty a n d b ul k d e n si ty h o w c a n o n e d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f
p o ro us m a te ri a l ?
9 . W h a t i s th e d e n si ty o f a i r; w h e n m ust o n e kn o w th e a i r d e n si ty a n d h o w c a n o n e d e te rm i n e i t?
1 0 . H o w d o y o u d e te rm i n e th e d e n si ty o f p o w d e rs?
1 1 . W h i c h p ro d uc t o r m a te ri a l p ro p e rti e s c a n b e c o n tro l l e d b y m e a suri n g d e n si ty ?
1 2 . W h a t re l e v a n c e h a s d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n i n th e re a l m o f th e p re p a c ka g e i n d ustry f o r a v e ra g e w e i g h t
c o n tro l ?
1 3 . O n w h a t i s th e a c c ura c y o f d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n d e p e n d e n t a n d h o w d o e s o n e m e a sure th e e rro r o f
d e n si ty v a l ue s?
1 4 . Ex p l a i n th e m e a n i n g o f th e i n d i v i d ua l sy m b o l s a n d f a c to rs i n th e f o l l o w i n g f o rm ul a s; w h a t i s i n c l ud e d
i n C o rr?
Rh o = (W a * (Rh o fl - LA )) / ((W a - W fl ) * C o rr) + LA
Rh o = (W a * (Rh o fl - LA )) / (W fl * C o rr) + LA
Rh o = (W a * (Rh o fl - LA )) / (W fl + W a - W r) + LA
1 5 . W h i c h a d v a n ta g e s a re o f f e re d b y th e a p p l i c a ti o n ta re m e m o ry i n th e LA / FC w e i g h i n g i n strum e n ts i n
d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n w i th th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d ?
1 6 . O n p ro d uc ts suc h a s m usta rd , th e a m o un t o f th e f ul l p a c ka g e m ust b e g i v e n i n m l . D uri n g f i l l i n g a n d
c h e c kw e i g h i n g , h o w e v e r, th e w e i g h t (o r m a ss) i s c h e c ke d . Th e d e n si ty i s n e c e ssa ry a s a c o n v e rsi o n
f a c to r b e tw e e n m a ss a n d v o l um e . W h i c h d e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n m e th o d d o y o u re c o m m e n d to y o ur
c usto m e r
w h e n h i g h a c c ura c y i s d e si re d ?
58
w h e n a q ui c k re sul t i s i m p o rta n t?
1 7 . A c l i e n t w a n ts to kn o w th e d e n si ty o f m e l te d g l a ss (i n a l a b o ra to ry o v e n w i th th e o p e n i n g o n to p ) a t
1 2 0 0 C w h a t d o y o u re c o m m e n d ?
59
Tips for answering the questions
1 . D e n si ty = M a ss / Vo l um e
1 0 0 0 kg / m = 1 kg / d m = 1 g / c m = 1 g / ml
2 . Th e d e n si ty d e c re a se s (se e p . 3 ).
3 . Re sul ta n t fo rc e = W e i g h t fo rc e m i n us b uo y a n c y fo rc e .
Th e b uo y a n c y i s d e p e n d e n t o n th e h y d ro sta ti c p re ssure i n th e l i q ui d p = g h ;
F = p A = g h A = g V (se e p . 7 8 )
4 . Th e d e n si ty o f th e so l i d b o d y a n d th e l i q ui d a re th e sa m e (se e p . 9 ).
5 . Th e b e a ke r w i th l i q ui d f o r b uo y a n c y sta n d s o n th e w e i g h i n g p a n usi n g th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d , i t
h a s n o c o n ta c t w i th th e w e i g h i n g p a n usi n g th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d .
M e a sure d v a l ue c o rre sp o n d s w i th th e m a ss o f th e d i sp l a c e d f l ui d usi n g th e d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d .
M e a sure d v a l ue c o rre sp o n d s w i th th e m a ss re d uc e d b y th e b uo y a n c y i n th e b uo y a n c y m e th o d (se e p .
1 0 ).
6 . Buo y a n c y m e th o d , d i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d , w e i g h i n g a d e fi n e d vo l um e , h y d ro m e te r, o sc i l l a ti o n m e th o d ,
susp e n si o n m e th o d (n o t w i th m i x a b l e f l ui d s).
C o n c l usi o n f ro m th e c o n c e n tra ti o n re l a ti o n sh i p s, A W C : g ra v i m e tri c ra th e r th a n v o l um e tri c f i l l i n g ; se e
p . 2 7 a n d ta b l e , p . 5 0 - 5 2
7 . M ul ti -p h a se sy ste m c o n si sti n g o f c o n ti n uo us p h a se (m a tri x ) a n d o n e o r se v e ra l f i n e l y d i v i d e d p h a se s
(d i sp e rse d p h a se s) (se e p . 2 8 )
C h o i c e o f th e m e th o d i s d e p e n d e n t o n th e a c c ura c y re q ui re d , th e c o n si ste n c y a n d f l o w i n g p ro p e rty o f
th e d i sp e rsi o n : e i th e r a s f o r l i q ui d s o r th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d . Be c a re f ul o f th e i n f l ue n c e o f p h a se
se p a ra ti o n usi n g th e d i f f e re n t m e th o d s, w i th th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d th e se p a ra ti o n h a s n o e f f e c t o n th e
re sul t.
8 . W i th p o ro us m a te ri a l : b ul k d e n si ty re l a te s to th e to ta l v o l um e i n c l ud i n g o p e n a n d c l o se d p o re s true
d e n si ty re l a te s to th e so l i d vo l um e .
D e n si ty d e te rm i n a ti o n m e th o d s w i th p o ro us sa m p l e s: Buo y a n c y m e th o d (se e p . 2 2 ) o r p y c n o m e te r
m e th o d f o r d e te rm i n a ti o n o f true d e n si ty a f te r g ri n d i n g th e sa m p l e to a p o w d e r. A d v a n ta g e o f th e
p y c n o m e te r m e th o d : a h i g h e r m e a sure d a c c ura c y i s p o ssi b l e , e x i sti n g c l o se d p o re s a re n o t a ttri b ute d
to th e so l i d .
9 .
Luf t
= 0 , 0 0 1 2 g / c m
W i th a n a l y ti c a l a n d m i c ro b a l a n c e s th e w e i g h e d v a l ue m ust b e c o rre c te d to y i e l d th e m a ss a c c ura te l y .
W i th tw o w e i g h ts o f d i f f e re n t d e n si ti e s a n d th e re b y d i f f e re n t v o l um e s, a n d o f m o re o r l e ss th e sa m e
m a ss, a i r d e n si ty c a n b e d e te rm i n e d w i th a m i c ro b a l a n c e .
Th e c o n v e n ti o n a l m a ss v a l ue o f th e w e i g h ts a n d th e d e n si ty o f th e m a te ri a l m ust b e kn o w n b e f o re a i r
60
d e n si ty c a n b e c a l c ul a te d f ro m th e m e a sure d v a l ue s (se e p . 1 3 i n c l ud e d i n th e so f tw a re o f Sa rto ri us
m i c ro - a n d ultra -m i c ro b a l a n c e s).
1 0 . U si n g th e p y c n o m e te r m e th o d . Fo r a d e sc ri p ti o n , se e p . 1 6 , 2 5 .
1 1 . Po ro si ty , v o i d s, c ry sta l c o n te n t (c ry sta l l i n e p h a se s h a v e a h i g h e r d e n si ty th a n n o n -c ry sta l l i n e g l a ss
p h a se s), c o o l i n g ra te w i th g l a ss, c o n c e n tra ti o n o f a n i n g re d i e n t i n a so l uti o n , so l i d c o m p o n e n t i n
susp e n si o n s . . . se e p . 3 .
1 2 . Vo l um e try i s re p l a c e d b y g ra v i m e try , a m o re a c c ura te a n d si m p l e r m e a suri n g m e th o d . Th e
p ro p o rti o n a l i ty fa c to r o f m a ss a n d v o l um e i s th e d e n si ty (v e ri fi e d d e v i c e s m ust b e use d ).
1 3 . C a re ful m a i n te n a n c e o f th e e x p e ri m e n ta l c o n d i ti o n s, fo r e x a m p l e te m p e ra ture . . . se e p . 3 5 . Th e
e rro r o f th e m e a sure d v a l ue i s d e p e n d e n t o n re a d a b i l i ty , re p e a ta b i l i ty . . . o f th e w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t.
Th e to ta l e rro r o f th e re sul t m ust b e c a l c ul a te d usi n g th e rul e s o f e rro r re p ro d uc ti o n se e p . 3 6 .
1 4 . Se e i n struc ti o n s f o r th e LA a n d FC w e i g h i n g i n strum e n t m o d e l s.
1 5 . Sa v e ti m e b e c a use th e p ro c e d ure f o r d ry i n g th e p y c n o m e te r c a n b e ski p p e d ; se e p . 2 6 .
1 6 . ? ? ?
1 7 . ? ? ?
61
Re g i ste r Re g i ste r
A A
A d h e si o n 3 3
A i r b uo y a n c y 2 9 ; 3 4
A i r Buo y a n c y C o rre c ti o n 2 9
A i r d e n si ty 1 2 ; 2 9
A p p a re n t d e n si ty 2
A p p a re n t p o ro si ty 2 2
A rc h i m e d e a n Pri n c i p l e 5
B B
Bul k d e n si ty 2 ; 2 2
Buo y a n c y 6 ; 7
Buo y a n c y m e th o d 9
Buo y a n c y o f th e p a n h a n g e r a sse m b l y 3 0
C C
C l o se d p o re s 2 1
C l o se d p o ro si ty 2 2
C o a rse d i sp e rse sy ste m 2 7
C o l l o i d d i sp e rse sy ste m 2 7
C o n v e n ti o n a l m a ss 1 3
C o rre c ti o n f a c to r 3 2
D D
D e n si ty g r a d i e n t c o l u m n D e n si ty g r a d i e n t c o l u m n 1 7
D e n si ty o f a so l uti o n 2 6
D e n si ty o f l i q ui d s 2 6
D i sp e rsi o n s 2 7
D i sp l a c e m e n t m e th o d 9 ; 1 1
E E
Em ul si o n 2 7
Erro r c a l c ul a ti o n 3 4
Erro r re p ro d uc ti o n 3 4
F F
Fo a m 2 7
G G
G a m m a sp h e re 3 2
G ra n ul e s 2 4
H H
H e a t e x p a n si o n c o e ffi c i e n t 2
H o m o g e n o us l i q ui d s 1 7
H y d ro m e te rs 1 9
H y d ro sta ti c b a l a n c e 9
H y d ro sta ti c w e i g h i n g m e th o d s 9
L L
Li q ui d s 2 5
M M
M i st 2 7
M o h r b a l a n c e s 9
M o l e c ul a r d i sp e rse sy ste m 2 7
N N
N o rm a l d e n si ty 1 ; 2 ; 1 2
O O
O f f -c e n te r l o a d e rro rs 3 3
O p e n p o re s 2 1
O p e n p o ro si ty 2 2
O sc i l l a ti o n m e th o d 1 7
P P
Pl um m e t 2 8
Po re s 2 1
Po ro si ty 2 1
Po ro us m a te ri a l s 2 1
Po w d e r 2 4
Py c n o m e te r m e th o d 1 5
Py c n o m e te rs 1 4
R R
Re l a ti ve d e n si ty 2
S S
Sa rto ri us D e n si ty D e te rm i n a ti o n Se ts 3 2
Sc h l i e r e n m e th o d Sc h l i e r e n m e th o d 1 8
Sm o ke 2 7
So l i d d e n si ty 2
Sp e c i fi c g ra vi ty 2
Sp i n d l e s 1 9
Surf a c e te n si o n 3 3
Susp e n si o n 2 7
Susp e n si o n m e th o d 1 7
T T
Ta p d e n si ty 1
Te m p e ra ture
d e p e n d e n c e o n 2
Te m p e ra ture v a ri a ti o n 3 3 ; 3 5
To ta l e rro rs 3 4
True d e n si ty 2 ; 2 1
62
W W
W a te r a b so rp ti o n 2 4
W e i g h t p re ssure 5
W e i g h t v a l ue 1 3 ; 2 9