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GUIDE BY CHUCK

WHERE TO FIND WHAT


AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE SHEET

p3

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE
HAWKER HURRICANE
BRISTOL BLENHEIM IV
DE HAVILLAND DH.82A TIGER MOTH II

p4
p 46
p 88
p 167

MESSERSCHMITT BF.109
MESSERSCHMITT BF.110
JUNKERS JU-87 B-2 STUKA
JUNKERS JU-88 A-1
HEINKEL HE-111 H-2

p 203
p 252
p 315
p 375
p 462

FIAT G.50 SERIE II


FIAT BR.20M CIGOGNA

p 552
p 584

(Unit)

SPITFIRE
Mk Ia 100 oct

HURRICANE BLENHEIM
Mk IA Rotol 100oct
Mk IV

TIGER MOTH

DH.82

BF.109
E-4

BF.110
C-7

JU-87B-2
STUKA

JU-88
A-1

HE-111
H-2

G.50
SERIE II

BR.20M

60
90
40
85
-

38
95
30
95
-

40
90
40
80
-

38
95
35
95
-

50
90
140
240

50
90
140
240

PERFORMANCE SHEET

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max
Cylinder Head Temp Min
Max

Deg C

Deg C

60
115
40
95
-

60
115
40
95
-

Takeoff RPM

RPM

3000

3000

2600 FINE

2350

2400

2400

2300

2400

2400

2520

2200

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

+6

+6

+9 BCO ON

1.3

1.3

1.35

1.35

1.35

890

820 BCO ON

Climb RPM

RPM

2700

2700

2400 COARSE

See
RPM Gauge
2100

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

+6

+6

+5

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2300
30 min MAX
1.2

2300
30 min MAX
1.15

2300
30 min MAX
1.15

2300
30 min MAX
1.15

2400
30 min MAX
700

2100
30 min MAX
740

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure
Combat RPM

RPM

2700

2600

2400 COARSE

2200

2200

2200

2100

2200

2100

2100

+3

+4

+3.5

1.15

1.15

1.1

1.1

1.10

590

670

2800

2800

2400 COARSE

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

+6

+6

+5

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

2850
5 min MAX

2850
5 min MAX

2600 COARSE
5 min MAX

Emergency Power / Boost Manifold


Pressure @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

+12 BCO ON

+12 BCO ON

Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude
Landing Approach RPM

UK: ft
GER: M

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

Landing Approach Manifold


Pressure
Notes

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Deg C

40
85
100
235

40
100
40
105
-

ENGINE SETTINGS

BLABLALBLAB

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

RPM

See
RPM Gauge
2000
See
RPM Gauge
2100

2400

2400

2300

2300

2300

2400

2100

See
RPM Gauge
2350

1.3
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX

1.3
5 min MAX
2400
5 min MAX

1.15

1.15

1.15

700

740

2300
1 min MAX

2400
1 min MAX

2400
1 min MAX

2520
3 min MAX

2200
5 min MAX

+9 BCO ON

See
RPM Gauge

1.40
1 min MAX

1.3
5 min MAX

1.35
1 min max

1.35
1 min max

1.35
1 min max

890
3 min max

820 BCO ON
5 min MAX

0
1220
1220+

0
1220
1220+

0
1500
1500+

(AUTO/MAN MODES)

3000

3000

2400

As required

2300

2300

2000

2100

2300

2400

2200

As required

As required

As required

See
RPM Gauge

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

Boost Cut-Out
Override (BCO)
during takeoff
often required

Min Oil Press:


35 psi
Max Oil Press:
45 psi

Use Rich mixture for normal


operation. Use Lean mixture for fuel
conservation for RPM under 2600 &
boost @ +1 or lower.

No Abrupt
Throttling

Eng. very
sensitive to
ata/rpm

Boost Cut-Out
Override (BCO)
during takeoff
often required

Eng. very
sensitive to
ata/rpm

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff Rotation
Max Dive Speed
Optimal Climb Speed
Landing Approach
Landing Touchdown

UK:
mph
GER/ITA:
km/h

120

120

110

55

180

190

170

185

150

170

175

420

390

260

160

750

620

720

675

600

410

600

165

175

135

66

240

270

215

250

240

240

160

160

140

55

200

220

170

200

200

175

90

90

85

50

160

180

150

180

140

160

210
175
160

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE

TABLE OF CONTENT - SPITFIRE


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL
5

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Supermarine Spitfire was designed as a short-range, high-performance interceptor


aircraft by Reginald J. Mitchell, chief designer at Supermarine Aviation Works (which
operated as a subsidiary of Vickers-Armstrong from 1928).

In accordance with its role as an interceptor,


Mitchell
designed
the
Spitfire's
distinctive elliptical wing to have the thinnest
possible cross-section; this thin wing enabled
the Spitfire to have a higher top speed than
several contemporary fighters, including
the Hawker Hurricane. Mitchell continued to
refine the design until his death from cancer in
1937, whereupon his colleague Joseph
Smith took over as chief designer, overseeing
the development of the Spitfire through its
multitude of variants. During the Battle of
Britain (JulyOctober 1940), the Spitfire was
perceived by the public to be the RAF fighter,
though
the
more
numerous
Hawker
Hurricane shouldered a greater proportion of
the burden against the Luftwaffe. However,
because of its higher performance, Spitfire units
had a lower attrition rate and a higher victoryto-loss ratio than those flying Hurricanes.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

In 1934, Mitchell and the design


staff decided to use a semi-elliptical
wing shape to solve two conflicting
requirements; the wing needed to
be thin, to avoid creating too
much drag, while still able to house
a retractable undercarriage, plus
armament and ammunition. An
elliptical planform is the most
efficient aerodynamic shape for an
untwisted wing, leading to the
lowest amount of induced drag. The
ellipse was skewed so that the
centre of pressure, which occurs at
the quarter-chord position, aligned
with the main spar, thus preventing
the wings from twisting. Mitchell has
sometimes been accused of
copying the wing shape of
the Heinkel He 70, which first flew in
1932; but as Beverly Shenstone,
the aerodynamicist on Mitchell's
team, explained "Our wing was
much thinner and had quite a
different section to that of the
Heinkel. In any case it would have
been simply asking for trouble to
have copied a wing shape from an
aircraft designed for an entirely
different purpose."

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Pilots came from the four corners of the world to fly the Spitfire
and fight the Luftwaffe. Famous aces include James Johnnie
Johnson, Douglas Bader, Robert Stanford Tuck, Paddy Finucane,
George Beurling, Adolph Sailor Malan, Alan Deere, Colin
Falkland Cray and Pierre Clostermann.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

After the Battle of Britain, the Spitfire superseded the Hurricane to become
the backbone of RAF Fighter Command, and saw action in
the European, Mediterranean, Pacific and the South-East Asian theatres.
Much loved by its pilots, the Spitfire served in several roles, including
interceptor, photo-reconnaissance, fighter-bomber and trainer, and it
continued to serve in these roles until the 1950s.

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

SPITFIRE
MK I

SPITFIRE
MK I 100 OCT

SPITFIRE
MK IA

SPITFIRE
MK IA 100 OCT

SPITFIRE
MK IIA

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

60
130
40
100

Merlin II - 87 octane fuel

Merlin II 100 octane fuel

Merlin III 87 octane fuel

Merlin III 100 octane fuel

Merlin XII 100 octane fuel

3000 FINE

3000 FINE

3000

3000

3000

+6

+6

+6

+6

+9

COARSE

COARSE

2650

2700

2850

+6

+6

+6

+6

+9

COARSE

COARSE

2600

2700

2650

+3

+3

+3

+3

+6

COARSE

COARSE

2800

2800

2850

+6

+6

+6

+6

+9

2850 COARSE
5 min MAX

2850 COARSE
5 min MAX

2850
5 min MAX

2850
5 min MAX

3000
5 min MAX

+6

+12 BCO-ON

+6

+12 BCO-ON

+12 BCO-ON

3000 FINE

3000 FINE

3000

3000

3000

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

272

298

282

312

300

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


Engine & Fuel grade
Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure
Combat RPM

RPM

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

Emergency Power / Boost


Manifold Pressure @ Sea
Level
Landing Approach RPM

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Landing Approach Manifold


Pressure
Top Speed @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

RPM

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

Fit with a De-Havilland Two Speed Propellor,


maximum RPMs are not restricted by the
propellor governor. The two settings available
are either 'Fine Pitch' or 'Coarse Pitch'.

Fit with a Rotol Constant Speed Propellor, maximum


RPMs at 3000. The difference between Two Speed and
Constant Speed Props will be explained on the next
page.

The Spitfire IIa has better


performance (and top
speed) than
10the IA btwn
10,000ft and 25,000ft.

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

The propeller installed on your aircraft means that a specific prop mechanism is
used. The De Havilland DH5-20 two-pitch props were used on early Spitfire and
Hurricane variants, mainly during the Battle of France. However, pilots realized that
two-pitch props could be manually fine-tuned between FINE and COARSE to gain
slightly better engine performance at desired engine RPMs. The Constant-Speed
Rotol propeller was the logical next step in this idea. With CSU governors, the
propeller pitch was automatically adjusted in order to gain a desired engine RPM.
This reduced the workload of experienced pilots and allowed overall slightly better
engine and aircraft performance.

Constant Speed Prop Mechanism

11

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

A constant-speed unit (CSU) or propeller governor is the device fitted to one of these propellers to
automatically change its pitch so as to attempt to keep engine speed constant. Most engines produce their
maximum power in a narrow speed band. The CSU can be said to be to an aircraft what the CVT is to the
motor car: the engine can be kept running at its optimum speed no matter what speed the aircraft is flying
through the air. The advent of the CSU had another benefit: it allowed the designers of aircraft engines to
keep ignition systems simple - the automatic spark advance seen in motor vehicle engines is simplified in
aircraft engines.
A controllable-pitch propeller (CPP) or variable-pitch propeller is a type of propeller with blades that can
be rotated around their long axis to change their pitch. If the pitch can be set to negative values,
the reversible propeller can also create reverse thrust for braking or going backwards without the need of
changing the direction of shaft revolutions. Such propellers are used in propeller-driven aircraft to adapt the
propeller to different thrust levels and air speeds so that the propeller blades don't stall, hence degrading the
propulsion system's efficiency. Especially for cruising, the engine can operate in its most economical range
of rotational speeds. With the exception of going into reverse for braking after touch-down, the pitch is
usually controlled automatically without the pilot's intervention. A propeller with a controller that adjusts the
blades' pitch so that the rotational speed always stays the same is called a constant speed propeller (see
paragraph above). A propeller with controllable pitch can have a nearly constant efficiency over a range of
airspeeds.
Team Fusion NOTE: The Spitfire Mk I 2-pitch system could in fact be used with limitations as a Variable Pitch system.
Though not exactly designed with this in mind it was found by pilots that careful use of the Prop pitch control allowed them to
set any desired RPM rather than just Coarse or Fine pitch setting. This did not provide the complete flexibility of a dedicated
VP system but did allow intermediate RPM control. This was good for certain flight phases like climb and Cruise. Due to
limitations in the Pitch plunger design it does not really lend itself to combat flying. In this patch we have enabled the pilot to
select a desired RPM. Blade angle change rates are still the same as was used in the original 2 Pitch system. We have not
changed the 3d modelling of the Pitch lever, this will be done at a later stage. In the real aircraft the Pitch Change control
12
was of a plunger or Push Pull type control.

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Spitfire Ia 100 oct

ELEVATOR TRIM WHEEL


FWD: NOSE DOWN
AFT: NOSE UP
RUDDER TRIM WHEEL
FWD: TRIM RIGHT
AFT: TRIM LEFT

CROWBAR

WATER RADIATOR LEVER


OPEN: DOWN
CLOSE: UP

13

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Spitfire Ia 100 oct

NAVIGATION LIGHTS
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

MIXTURE CONTROL
AFT: RICH (DEFAULT)
FWD: LEAN

MAGNETO 1 + 2

GUNSIGHT
DIMMER

FLAPS CONTROL
UP: UP
DOWN: DOWN

GUNSIGHT RANGE SETTER


(100 YARDS)
GUNSIGHT RANGE SETTER
(FT)

P-8 MAGNETIC COMPASS &


COURSE SETTER
GUNSIGHT ILLUMINATION
TOGGLE

THROTTLE
BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

PROP PITCH / RPM CONTROLLER


AFT: COARSE / LOWER RPM
FWD: FINE / HIGHER RPM

FUEL COCK
UP: ON
DOWN: OFF

14

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Spitfire Ia 100 oct


AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(x10 MPH)

OXYGEN REGULATOR SWITCH


(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
OXYGEN SUPPLY
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
OXYGEN DELIVERY
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

LANDING GEAR
INDICATOR

ALTIMETER
SHORT NEEDLE: 10,000 FT
LONG NEEDLE: 1000 FT
BOTTOM KNOB: SETS QFE

VOLTMETER
ARTIFICIAL
HORIZON

CLIMB RATE
INDICATOR
(1000 FT/MIN)
CLOCK

TURN & BANK


SIDE SLIP
INDICATOR
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO
PNEUMATIC PRESSURE
(PSI)

ELEVATOR TRIM
INDICATOR
(DEGREES)

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO SETTER

COCKPIT FLOOD
LIGHT CONTROLS

15

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Spitfire Ia 100 oct


TACHOMETER
(X 100 RPM)
MANIFOLD / BOOST PRESSURE
(PSI, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS POUNDS OF BOOST)
Spitfire Mk IIa has got the correct instrument (37 gallon) showing the bottom tank only
(correctly), but in normal conditions, the gauge should read zero. Reading has been
obtained by pressing the button as shown. (Only then, with the button pressed, the
needle would move and show the amount of fuel left in the respective tank. It would
obviously move back to zero when pilot released the button).

FUEL PRESSURE
(PSI)

OIL PRESSURE
UPPER FUEL TANK GAUGE (48 gal)
NOTE: GAUGE WILL ALWAYS SHOW 0 IN (PSI)
CURRENT VERSION AS IT IS NOT YET
FUNCTIONAL

BOTH FUEL GAUGES ARE INCORRECT IN BOTH


FUNCTION AND APPEARANCE.
THE SPITFIRE MK I AND IA DID IN FACT HAVE 2 FUEL
GAUGES IN THIS STARBOARD SIDE OF THE COCKPIT ONE CALIBRATED TO 37 GALLONS FOR THE BOTTOM
TANK (RIGHT HAND SIDE), NEXT TO IT ON THE LEFT
WAS AN IDENTICAL INSTRUMENT CALIBRATED TO 48
GALLONS INSTEAD. BOTH OPERATED VIA BUTTON AS
DESCRIBED ABOVE.

LOWER FUEL TANK GAUGE (37 gal)


NOTE: DIAL DESCENDS ONLY WHEN
THE UPPER TANK IS EMPTY (LOGICALLY,
FUEL WILL BE TAKEN FROM THE UPPER
FUEL TANK FIRST BECAUSE OF GRAVITY)
AND THE FUEL LEVEL IN THE LOWER
TANK IS FALLING.

OIL RADIATOR TEMPERATURE


(DEG C)
WATER/GLYCOL RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

16

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Spitfire Ia 100 oct

LANDING GEAR
LEVER

EMERGENCY
LANDING GEAR
LEVER

17

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CHECK THE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION FOR RECOMMENDED RADIATOR SETTINGS.

GLYCOL/WATER
RADIATOR

WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE
ENGINE, HIGH RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

OIL RADIATOR
SYSTEM

WATER RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL
THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

18

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS
FUEL TANKS

.303 IN (8 TOTAL)
BROWNING MACHINE GUNS

WING SPARS

CONTROL
CABLES

OIL
RADIATOR

WATER
RADIATOR

AMMUNITION
BOXES

19

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

20

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE (ALL MARKS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle secondary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

increase sight distance (gunsight range)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

decrease sight distance (gunsight range)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

adjust gunsight left (gunsight wingspan)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

adjust gunsight right (gunsight wingspan)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle gunsight illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - increase

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - decrease

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

directional gyro - increase

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

directional gyro - decrease

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator and rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

21

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE (ALL MARKS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
NOT ESSENTIAL

fire guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

ESSENTIAL

throttle

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

boost cut-off (boost cut-out override)

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

increase mixture

ESSENTIAL

decrease mixture

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for


second throttle. Set to
keyboard otherwise.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch

ESSENTIAL

Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)

ESSENTIAL

Wheel brakes

ESSENTIAL

bail out

ESSENTIAL

engage emergency undercarriage system

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide


mouse cursor)

F10

ESSENTIAL
22

PART 4: CONTROLS

Unlike the Bf.109, the Spitfire uses differential braking instead of toe brakes.
In order to brake, you need to hold your Full Wheel Brakes key (which is physically mapped as a
lever on your control column) while you give rudder input to steer your aircraft. Make sure you
have adequate mixture, RPM and Manifold Pressure settings or your turn radius will suffer. Keep
in mind that that for British and Italian aircraft, you use this braking system (Full Wheel Brakes
key), while for the German aircraft you use toe brakes (Full Left/Right Wheel Brakes keys or
Left/Right Wheel Brakes axes in your controls).
ONLY THE LEFT / PORT
WHEEL IS BRAKING

LEFT RUDDER PUSHED


(WILL TURN LEFT)

23

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Machine-Gun Belt Loadout Browning Mk II (.303 in)


1. Incendiary, Nitrocellulose, Mark Viz, De Wilde
2. Armour Piercing, W. Nitrocellulose, Mark Iz
3. Incendiary/Tracer (White), B. Nitrocellulose, Mark Iz (recommended for outer guns only)
The Spitfire is armed with 8 .303 Browning machine-guns. Hispano Cannons only came with B wing marks (while the only
marks available in the game so far have the A wing) the This caliber is very unlikely to create structural damage, so you are
better off to aim for critical 109 components like the engine and water radiators under the wings. Recommended loadout is
a belt of mixed armour piercing and De Wilde incendiary. Incendiary/Tracer rounds can be used for outer guns to help you
adjust your aim. I recommend a horizontal convergence of 175 meters and a vertical convergence of 175 meters.

24

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Interestingly enough, Spitfire marks (for example the Mk Ia) included a letter, which described the wing type installed. The early A type was
for 8 browning machine guns. The B type (not in-game yet) was an A type wing modified to have 1 Hispano-Suiza cannon and 2 Browning
machine-guns per wing. The C type (not in-game yet) only came in 1942 and was the Universal Wing, which allowed either 8 Brownings (A),
4 Brownings and 2 Hispano-Suiza cannons (B) or 4 Hispanos. This particular C design allowed great flexibility in terms of armament.

Your gun convergence is set in the loadout


menu, but you still need to adjust your
gunsight reticle to reflect what youve just
asked the ground crew to do. Keep in
mind that your gun convergence is
entered in meters (usually 150-200 m) in
the previous loadout menu. Your gunsight,
however, has these values set in YARDS (as
shown on the clickable reticle sight
distance control).
Remember: 1 m = 1.1 yd and 1 yd = 0.91 m

GUNSIGHT

If done properly, bullets


should meet at this point

For example, for a gun convergence set at


175 m, your gunsight should have it set for
approx. 190 yd.

Remember: unit in yards

Click on this to set gunsight distance


25

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Next is your wingspan adjustment on your


gunsight. The wingspan of an aircraft is the
distance between the tip of each wing (as
shown). The wingspan of the aircraft youre
hunting for should be included between the
inner edges of your crosshair. If the aircraft
wingspan in your gunsight appears smaller
than the distance youve set, this means the
aircraft is too far; you need to get closer. The
wingspan sight is a good indication of how
far you are to your target and allows you to
judge its range. The closer you are, the
better. Pilots usually fired from 200-400
yards, but more aggressive pilots (such as
the polish fighter pilots) fired from 150-200
yards. The wingspan you set is not limited to
the wingspan of a Bf.109: its a matter of the
size of your target.

Bf.109 fighter wingspan: approx. 32 ft (9.91


m)
Ju-88 bomber wingspan: approx. 60 ft (18 m)

Wingspan

GUNSIGHT

Bf.109 wing should fit in


there (as desired)
Wingspan unit is in feet (ft)

Click on this to set


target wingspan

26

27

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

28

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

29

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.
1. Open fuel cock (ON)
2. Ensure that mixture is set to fully rich (by default it is).
3. Set your prop pitch to full fine (100 %).
4. Crack throttle half an inch forward.
5. Water radiator shutter fully open.
6. Turn both magnetos ON
7. Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)
8. Engine ignition! (press I by default)
9. Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and water rad temperature to reach at least 60 deg C.
10. Taxi to the runway. You can taxi with low oil/water temps without any problem as long as you keep your
throttle under 20 %. If you throttle up while your oil is not yet warm, you will hear your engine shake and
cough.
11. Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right direction for
takeoff.
12. Flaps up.
13. Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Flaps up, Rad fully open, Full Fine prop pitch, good oil &
water rad temperatures.
14. Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using right aileron and rudder pedals to
keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the control column forward to lift the tail.
15. Rotation is at 110-120 mph.
16. Raise landing gear and set RPM to 2800 max for climb.
30

PART 7: LANDING

1. Start your approach at 160 mph @ approx.


1500 ft.
2. Rads fully open (100 %) and RPM set to 3000
(max).
3. Deploy flaps (down) and landing gear.
4. Cut throttle and try to keep your nose
pointed to the end of the runway.
5. Touchdown at 90 mph in a 3-point landing.
6. Stick fully back.
7. Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop.
Be careful not to overheat your brakes or
force your aircraft to nose over into a prop
strike.

31

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

MERLIN II

MERLIN III
Like the Merlin II, the Merlin III was originally built to run on 87 octane Fuel. It had a number
of improvements to engine reliability over the Merlin II, and therefore was more capable of
sustaining the high power generated at +12 boost, but still needs to be treated with care. Like
the Merlin II, Pilots should be cautious of using +12 boost and 3000 rpm with the Merlin III
except in all out high speed level flight. Use of these ratings in low speed maneuver or steep
low speed climbs will cause rapid overheating.

Both the Spitfire I and Hurricane


I DH5-20 are equipped with the
Rolls-Royce Merlin II engine,
which is an earlier version of the
Merlin III. This engine is slightly
less refined than the Merlin III
and is more prone to overheat
and damage when stressed.
Pilots need to be aware of their
limits. The Merlin II was
originally built to run at a
maximum of +6 boost Manifold
pressure on 87 octane gasoline,
but advances in Gasoline refining
technology produced 100 octane
gasoline in time for the Battle of
Britain. With 100 octane fuel,
the Merlin II was capable of +12
boost pressure and greatly
improved horsepower. However,
as mentioned, this is an older
generation engine, and needs to
be treated with care when using
high boost and rpm.

32

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The supercharger on the Merlin


II and III were not capable of
achieving full +12 boost to their
original 16,250 ft Full Throttle
Height. While nominally the
Merlin II and III on 100 octane
have ratings of 1310 hp, that is
only achieved to a Full Throttle
Height of 10,500 ft. By 16,250 ft,
both engines are rated at 1030
hp, and from that altitude up,
their performance is no better
than an 87 octane fueled Merlin
III.

MERLIN XII
The Merlin XII was a newer generation of engine, and had a number of important improvements.
First, it was designed to run on both 87 and 100 octane fuel, and was a stronger and more durable engine. Second, while has a lower
maximum horsepower rating of 1175, it was capable of sustaining 1090 hp up to its Full Throttle Height of 17,550ft. Third, and very
importantly, the Merlin XII had a newer design Radiator and cooling system, which was fully pressurized, an advantage over the partially
pressurized Merlin III or the unpressurized Daimler Benz engines. The Merlin XII used a more efficient mixed glycol/water coolant system,
compared to the full glycol systems of the earlier Merlin and the Daimler Benz. As a result, the Merlin XII is capable of maintaining
+9 boost
33
and 2850 rpm for 30 minutes. The limit for the Merlin II and III using 100 octane is 2700rpm and +6 boost for 30 minutes.

34

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out


his engine settings once in a while for the pilots to
know what settings they should use.
You can read your engine settings from the gauges
in the cockpit or from an info window.

The RPM indicator (1) shows 2700 RPM. The boost (2)
reads +6 lbs/in2 (psi). The radiators can be approximated
from the lever position or read from the info window in
%
(100 % = fully open).
The resulting RPM is affected by both boost pressure
and prop pitch (5).
Water Radiator settings:

70 % during normal operation


70+ % during combat
40-50 % over 20,000 ft during cruise
100 % during takeoff & landing
(Unit)

SPITFIRE
MK I

SPITFIRE
MK I 100 OCT

SPITFIRE
MK IA

SPITFIRE
MK IA 100 OCT

SPITFIRE
MK IIA

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

60
130
40
100

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

35

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Boost cut-out override (BCO)


The Boost control override did not originate as an
emergency power setting, but was adapted to be so by the
British. In original form, it was just a way of disabling the
boost controller in case of malfunction, thus making the
system directly link the pilot handle to the throttle valve
and giving him the ability to set any boost the supercharger
was capable of (but without control, boost would change
with altitude).

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

CloD shows the Spitfire red tab rotating a little cam


allowing the throttle handle to go further, which is not the
actual case and confuses the red tab with the throttle gate
which appears as an additional overboost system on the
(reality) Spit II. In fact the red tab in Spit I/II pulled a cable
which opened a channel around the valve, which applied
suction to the valve piston and forced it to the right in
Figure 1 and stay there, thus disabling the controller. The
Hurricane is correct in that the red tab is replaced by a
knob that pulls the cable (the "tit").
Although it is hard to find references on this, it is easy to
see how the BCO could become an unofficial emergency
power switch. A pilot could pull it and try for a bit more
boost than the rated 6.25 psi, and hopefully get a bit more
power without damaging the engine.

36

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

120
420
165
160
90

In comparison to the Bf.109, the Spitfire has a


better turn rate. However, the Bf.109 has a
superior climb rate and dive speed. The preferred
way of fighting the 109 is when you have an
altitude advantage.
The Spitfire has better performance at higher
altitudes (over 20,000 ft) than the 109. Use this to
your advantage.
For more information on either aircraft or engine
performance, consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation Regiment Operations Checklist. It is a
fantastic resource (link below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/CLIFFS%20OF%
20DOVER%20Operations%20Checklist.pdf

37

38

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

39

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

40

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

If you see a 109 on your tail, do not think:


ACT. If you think, youre dead. This is why
you need to know instinctively what to do if
you have been unlucky enough to be put in
that situation.
Evasive manoeuvers when you have a 109
on your tail are only limited by your
imagination. As long as it is unexpected,
anything can work.
Typically, pilots do a half-roll to the right or
left and dive down by doing a Split-S.
The reason for using the Split-S is that it is a
positive-G
manoeuver.
Negative-G
manoeuvers are usually avoided by Spitfire
pilots (or any pilots flying an aircraft with an
early Merlin engine) because the engine
tends to cut-out.
This peculiarity of the Merlin is attributed to
the carburetor being starved of fuel during
negative Gs (when you push the nose down).
You can figure out why by shaking up and
down a bottle of water that is half-full. This
issue was eventually temporarily addressed
in later Merlin variants with Miss Shillings
Orifice, and later on fixed altogether with
fully pressurized carburetors in 1943 .
Bf.109s did not have this issue since they
used direct fuel injection in the DaimlerBenz engines. Therefore power dives were
frequently used to escape from Spitfires.

41

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass and the gyro is quite useful to know where
you are going.
The gyro indicator itself does not indicate your heading. You need to set it
manually in order to translate what the magnetic compass is telling you.
You must set up your magnetic compass first by adjusting the course
setter instrument on top of it, and once you can read your heading from
your compass, THEN you set your gyro to reflect the compass reading.
Sounds complicated? Its not. We will see why in the next slide.
Typically, you set your compass and gyro on the ground. It is not the kind of
stuff you want to do when you are flying 20,000 ft over France.
High-G manoeuvers can decalibrate your gyro and give you a wrong
reading. Be aware that once you start a dogfight, your gyro can give you
readings that dont make sense. Its normal: it is one of the real-life
drawbacks of this navigation system. The same issue is also recurrent in
todays civilian acrobatic prop planes.
42

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

HOW TO SET UP YOUR GYRO & COMPASS

1.

The white T on your P-8 magnetic compass indicates magnetic North. You always use that
as a reference. It is hard to see because of the control column hiding part of it.

2.

Align the red N on the white T by clicking on the course setter until both yellow-ish bars
are parallel with it the white T. You will obtain a resulting course from the course setter
(which is the blue text that pops up on your screen). Keep that number in mind. In our
case, the number is a heading of 71. However, in order to take into account the effects of
magnetic declination, you need to add 10 degrees to get the geographic north. For now,
consider that your current heading is 81 degrees.

3.

Set your directional gyro compass by clicking on the rotary knob to reflect the corrected
heading obtained on your magnetic compass. In our case, set the gyro to 081. You will see
the blue numbers pop again. You can use them as a way to fine tune your gyro.

4.

And thats it! You will now be able to use your gyro compass to orient yourself. If your
gyro accumulates error after high-G manoeuvers, you can try to re-set it using steps 1 to 3.

Gyro heading
(081)

Parallel lines
(must be
aligned with T)

White T facing
the Red N

Magnetic
Compass
Heading
(071)

43

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
44

45

HAWKER HURRICANE

TABLE OF CONTENT - HURRICANE


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL
47

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Hawker Hurricane was designed


and predominantly built by Hawker
Aircraft Ltd for the Royal Air
Force
(RAF).
Although
largely
overshadowed by the Supermarine
Spitfire,
the
aircraft
became
renowned during the Battle of Britain,
accounting for 60% of the RAF's air
victories in the battle, and served in
all the major theatres of the Second
World War.

Both the Supermarine Spitfire and the


Hurricane are renowned for their part in
defending Britain against the Luftwaffe;
generally, the Spitfire would intercept the
German fighters, leaving Hurricanes to
concentrate on the bombers, but despite the
undoubted abilities of the "thoroughbred"
Spitfire, it was the "workhorse" Hurricane
that scored the higher number of RAF
victories during this period

48

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Hurricane was the culmination of a series of capable metal biplane fighters evolved by the Hawker
concern throughout the 1920s. The Hurricanes fuselage shape and design borrowed much from the
preceding Hawker Fury biplane line that the Hurricane was known or a time as the Fury monoplane.
Design of the aircraft was attributed to Sidney Camm, who also lent his design talents to the wartime
Hawker Typhoon and Tempest fighter-bombers. In the post-war years, Camm helped further the Vertical
Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) Harrier jumpjet and the Hawker Hunter jet fighter programs which
reached their own level of fame during the Cold War.
49

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Though faster and more advanced than the RAF's current front
line biplane fighters, the Hurricane's constructional design was
already outdated when introduced. It used the traditional
Hawker construction techniques, with a Warren truss boxgirder primary fuselage structure with high-tensile
steel longerons and duralumin cross-bracing using
mechanically fastened rather than welded joints. Over this,
wooden
formers
and
stringers
carried
the
doped linen covering. Initially, the wing structure consisted of
two steel spars, and was also fabric-covered. An all-metal,
stressed-skin wing of duraluminium (a DERD specification
similar to AA2024) was introduced in April 1939 and was used
for all of the later marks.

Second highest-scoring British ace James Ginger Lacey flew a


Hurricane during the Battle of Britain, as did the famed Polish No.
303 "Kociuszko Squadron. The Hurricane was slower than both
the Spitfire I and II and the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, and the thick
wings compromised acceleration, but it could out-turn both of
them. In spite of its performance deficiencies against the 109, the
Hurricane was still very capable of destroying the German fighter,
especially at lower altitudes.

50

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Hurricane, in various guises, saw combat in most areas of World War Two the jungles of
the Far East, the deserts of North Africa, the snows of Eastern Europe... Almost 3,000
Hurricanes were delivered to Russia during the war with a lend-lease program. In total, more
than 14,000 Hurricanes fought in World War Two in all theatres of war a remarkable
achievement for a remarkable plane.

51

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

HURRICANE
MK I DH5-20

HURRICANE
MK I DH5-20 100 OCT

HURRICANE
MK IA ROTOL

HURRICANE
MK IA ROTOL 100 OCT

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


Engine & Fuel grade
Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure
Combat RPM

RPM

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

Emergency Power / Boost


Manifold Pressure @ Sea
Level
Landing Approach RPM

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Landing Approach Manifold


Pressure
Top Speed @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

RPM

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

Merlin II - 87 octane fuel

Merlin II 100 octane fuel

Merlin III 87 octane fuel

Merlin III 100 octane fuel

3000 FINE

3000 FINE

3000

3000

+6

+6

+6

+6

COARSE

COARSE

2650

2700

+6

+6

+6

+6

COARSE

COARSE

2600

2700

+3

+3

+3

+3

COARSE

COARSE

2800

2800

+6

+6

+6

+6

2850 COARSE
5 min MAX

2850 COARSE
5 min MAX

2850
5 min MAX

2850
5 min MAX

+6

+12 BCO-ON

+6

+12 BCO-ON

3000 FINE

3000 FINE

3000

3000

As required

As required

As required

As required

255

275

265

288

Fit with a De-Havilland Two Speed Propellor, maximum Fit with a Rotol Constant Speed Propellor, maximum RPMs at
RPMs are not restricted by the propellor governor. The 3000. The difference between Two Speed and Constant Speed
two settings available are either 'Fine Pitch' or 'Coarse Props will be explained on the next page.
52
Pitch'.

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

The propeller installed on your aircraft means that a specific prop mechanism is
used. The De Havilland DH5-20 two-pitch props were used on early Spitfire and
Hurricane variants, mainly during the Battle of France. However, pilots realized that
two-pitch props could be manually fine-tuned between FINE and COARSE to gain
slightly better engine performance at desired engine RPMs. The Constant-Speed
Rotol propeller was the logical next step in this idea. With CSU governors, the
propeller pitch was automatically adjusted in order to gain a desired engine RPM.
This reduced the workload of experienced pilots and allowed overall slightly better
engine and aircraft performance.

Constant Speed Prop Mechanism

53

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

A constant-speed unit (CSU) or propeller governor is the device fitted to one of these propellers to
automatically change its pitch so as to attempt to keep engine speed constant. Most engines produce their
maximum power in a narrow speed band. The CSU can be said to be to an aircraft what the CVT is to the
motor car: the engine can be kept running at its optimum speed no matter what speed the aircraft is flying
through the air. The advent of the CSU had another benefit: it allowed the designers of aircraft engines to
keep ignition systems simple - the automatic spark advance seen in motor vehicle engines is simplified in
aircraft engines.
A controllable-pitch propeller (CPP) or variable-pitch propeller is a type of propeller with blades that can
be rotated around their long axis to change their pitch. If the pitch can be set to negative values,
the reversible propeller can also create reverse thrust for braking or going backwards without the need of
changing the direction of shaft revolutions. Such propellers are used in propeller-driven aircraft to adapt the
propeller to different thrust levels and air speeds so that the propeller blades don't stall, hence degrading the
propulsion system's efficiency. Especially for cruising, the engine can operate in its most economical range
of rotational speeds. With the exception of going into reverse for braking after touch-down, the pitch is
usually controlled automatically without the pilot's intervention. A propeller with a controller that adjusts the
blades' pitch so that the rotational speed always stays the same is called a constant speed propeller (see
paragraph above). A propeller with controllable pitch can have a nearly constant efficiency over a range of
airspeeds.
Team Fusion NOTE: The Hurricane Mk I 2-pitch system could in fact be used with limitations as a Variable Pitch system.
Though not exactly designed with this in mind it was found by pilots that careful use of the Prop pitch control allowed them to
set any desired RPM rather than just Coarse or Fine pitch setting. This did not provide the complete flexibility of a dedicated
VP system but did allow intermediate RPM control.This was good for certain flight phases like climb and Cruise. Due to
limitations in the Pitch plunger design it does not really lend itself to combat flying. In this patch we have enabled the pilot to
select a desired RPM. Blade angle change rates are still the same as was used in the original 2 Pitch system. We have not
changed the 3d modelling of the Pitch lever, this will be done at a later stage. In the real aircraft the Pitch Change control
54
was of a plunger or Push Pull type control.

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Hurricane Ia
Rotol 100 oct

RADIATOR SETTING
INDICATOR

WATER RADIATOR LEVER


OPEN: DOWN
CLOSE: UP

ELEVATOR TRIM WHEEL


FWD: NOSE DOWN
AFT: NOSE UP

RUDDER TRIM WHEEL


FWD: TRIM RIGHT
AFT: TRIM LEFT
55

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Hurricane Ia
Rotol 100 oct

COCKPIT FLOOD
LIGHT CONTROLS

PROP PITCH / RPM CONTROLLER


AFT: COARSE / LOWER RPM
FWD: FINE / HIGHER RPM

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

MAGNETO 1 + 2
MIXTURE CONTROL
AFT: RICH (DEFAULT)
FWD: LEAN

THROTTLE

FUEL PUMP SELECTOR


(MAIN/RESERVE)

SLOW RUNNING
CUT-OUT (SHUTS
ENGINE DOWN)
56

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Hurricane Ia
Rotol 100 oct

LANDING GEAR
INDICATOR

OXYGEN REGULATOR SWITCH


(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

TACHOMETER
(X 100 RPM)

ARTIFICIAL
HORIZON

OXYGEN DELIVERY
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
OXYGEN SUPPLY
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(x10 MPH)

CLIMB RATE
INDICATOR
(1000 FT/MIN)

CLOCK

ALTIMETER
SHORT NEEDLE: 10,000 FT
LONG NEEDLE: 1000 FT
BOTTOM KNOB: SETS QFE

TURN & BANK


SIDE SLIP
INDICATOR

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO SETTER

P-8 MAGNETIC COMPASS &


COURSE SETTER

57

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

MANIFOLD / BOOST PRESSURE


(PSI, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS
POUNDS OF BOOST)

FUEL CONTENTS GAUGE SELECTOR


NOTE: CHOOSES WHETHER YOU
WANT TO SHOW THE FUEL
QUANTITY IN THE LEFT/PORT WING
(MAIN), THE RIGHT/STARBOARD
WING (MAIN) OR IN THE CENTRE
FUSELAGE (RESERVE).

GUNSIGHT ILLUMINATION
TOGGLE

FUEL PRESSURE
(PSI)
OIL PRESSURE
(PSI)

Hurricane Ia
Rotol 100 oct

FUEL TANK GAUGE (97 gal total)


34.5 gal LEFT/PORT MAIN WING TANK
34.5 gal RIGHT/STARBOARD MAIN WING TANK
28 gal CENTRE FUSELAGE RESERVE TANK
NOTE: NEEDLE SHOWS FUEL CONTENT BASED ON THE
POSITION OF THE FUEL CONTENT SELECTOR ABOVE IT.
NAVIGATION LIGHTS
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
WATER/GLYCOL RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

OIL RADIATOR TEMPERATURE


(DEG C)

58

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Hurricane Ia
Rotol 100 oct
LANDING GEAR / FLAPS LEVER
NOTE: BOTH SYSTEMS USE HYDRAULIC POWER.
YOU HAVE THREE SETTINGS: UP, NEUTRAL AND
DOWN. IN REAL LIFE, YOU WOULD OPERATE
FLAPS AND UNDERCARRIAGE BY HOLDING THE
LEVER IN THE UP OR DOWN POSITION, AND
RETURN THE LEVER IN THE NEUTRAL POSITION
ONCE THE FLAPS OR UNDERCARRIAGE IS IN THE
DESIRED POSITION. OBVIOUSLY, YOU WILL
SIMPLY WEAR DOWN YOUR HYDRAULIC PUMPS
IF YOU KEEP YOUR FLAPS IN THE UP POSITION
INSTEAD OF THE CORRECT NEUTRAL POSITION.

FLAP SETTING INDICATOR

HAND PUMP
USE WHEN LANDING GEAR FAILS TO RETRACT
COMPLETELY. YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THE LANDING
GEAR INDICATOR LIGHT WILL BE NEITHER RED NOR
GREEN, WHICH MEANS THAT THE LANDING IS NOT
COMPLETELY RETRACTED AND NOT COMPLETELY
DEPLOYED.

59

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Hurricane Ia
Rotol 100 oct

CONVERGENCE TABLE FOR FUEL GAUGE DIAL


CONVERSION TABLE FOR
FUEL GAUGE DIAL

RESERVE TANK
(GAL)

PORT OR STBD
MAIN TANKS
(GAL)

GAUGE
LEVEL FLIGHT

10

15

20

25

28

ACTUAL
CONTENT

12

16

21

25

28

GAUGE
LEVEL FLIGHT

10

15

20

25

30

34.5

3.5

13

21

26

30

33

ACTUAL
CONTENT

ENGINE LIMITATIONS

60

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CHECK THE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION FOR RECOMMENDED RADIATOR SETTINGS.

GLYCOL/WATER
RADIATOR

WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE
ENGINE, HIGH RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

OIL RADIATOR
SYSTEM

WATER RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL
THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

61

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS

WING SPARS

FUEL TANKS

.303 IN (8 TOTAL)
BROWNING MACHINE GUNS

CONTROL
CABLES

WATER
RADIATOR

AMMUNITION
BOXES

62

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

63

HAWKER HURRICANE (ALL MARKS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle secondary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

increase sight distance (gunsight range)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

decrease sight distance (gunsight range)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

adjust gunsight left (gunsight wingspan)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

adjust gunsight right (gunsight wingspan)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle gunsight illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - increase

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - decrease

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

directional gyro - increase

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

directional gyro - decrease

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator and rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

64

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE (ALL MARKS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

fuel contents gauge selector next / previous

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

lean to gunsight

NOT ESSENTIAL

fire guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

ESSENTIAL

throttle

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

boost cut-off (boost cut-out override)

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

increase mixture

ESSENTIAL

decrease mixture

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for


second throttle. Set to
keyboard otherwise.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch

ESSENTIAL

Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)

ESSENTIAL

Wheel brakes

ESSENTIAL

bail out

ESSENTIAL

engage emergency undercarriage system

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide


mouse cursor)

F10

ESSENTIAL

65

PART 4: CONTROLS

Unlike the Bf.109, the Hurricane uses differential braking instead of toe brakes.
In order to brake, you need to hold your Full Wheel Brakes key (which is physically mapped as a
lever on your control column) while you give rudder input to steer your aircraft. Make sure you
have adequate mixture, RPM and Manifold Pressure settings or your turn radius will suffer. Keep
in mind that that for British and Italian aircraft, you use this braking system (Full Wheel Brakes
key), while for the German aircraft you use toe brakes (Full Left/Right Wheel Brakes keys or
Left/Right Wheel Brakes axes in your controls).

LEFT RUDDER PUSHED


(WILL TURN LEFT)

66

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Machine-Gun Belt Loadout Browning Mk II (.303 in)


1. Incendiary, Nitrocellulose, Mark Viz, De Wilde
2. Armour Piercing, W. Nitrocellulose, Mark Iz
3. Incendiary/Tracer (White), B. Nitrocellulose, Mark Iz (recommended for outer guns only)
The Hurricane is armed with 8 .303 Browning machine-guns. Hispano Cannons only came with B wing marks (while the only
marks available in the game so far have the A wing) the This caliber is very unlikely to create structural damage, so you are
better off to aim for critical 109 components like the engine and water radiators under the wings. Recommended loadout is
a belt of mixed armour piercing and De Wilde incendiary. Incendiary/Tracer rounds can be used for outer guns to help you
adjust your aim. I recommend a horizontal convergence of 175 meters and a vertical convergence of 175 meters.
TAKEN FROM SPITFIRE
ARMAMENT TUTORIAL

67

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Your gun convergence is set in the loadout


menu, but you still need to adjust your
gunsight reticle to reflect what youve just
asked the ground crew to do. Keep in
mind that your gun convergence is
entered in meters (usually 150-200 m) in
the previous loadout menu. Your gunsight,
however, has these values set in YARDS (as
shown on the clickable reticle sight
distance control).

GUNSIGHT

Remember: 1 m = 1.1 yd and 1 yd = 0.91 m


For example, for a gun convergence set at
175 m, your gunsight should have it set for
approx. 190 yd.

If done properly, bullets


should meet at this point

Remember: unit in yards


Click on this to set gunsight distance

68

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Next is your wingspan adjustment on your


gunsight. The wingspan of an aircraft is the
distance between the tip of each wing (as
shown). The wingspan of the aircraft youre
hunting for should be included between the
inner edges of your crosshair. If the aircraft
wingspan in your gunsight appears smaller
than the distance youve set, this means the
aircraft is too far; you need to get closer. The
wingspan sight is a good indication of how far
you are to your target and allows you to judge
its range. The closer you are, the better. Pilots
usually fired from 200-400 yards, but more
aggressive pilots (such as the polish fighter
pilots) fired from 150-200 yards. The
wingspan you set is not limited to the
wingspan of a Bf.109: its a matter of the size
of your target.
Bf.109 fighter wingspan: approx. 32 ft (9.91 m)
Ju-88 bomber wingspan: approx. 60 ft (18 m)

Wingspan

GUNSIGHT

Bf.109 wing should fit in


there (as desired)
Wingspan unit is in feet (ft)

Click on this to set


target wingspan

69

70

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

71

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

72

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.
1.

Fuel Control to Reserve Tank Open.

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: You can start on Main tanks if you want, but in real life this wasn't achievable until the Hurricane Mk.II came into service. The real Hurricane Mk.I
cannot start up on the main tank as the fuel tanks are located below the engine and the pump does not turn on until after start up. The reserve (or gravity)
tank is located above the engine and is used for starting up

2.

Ensure that mixture is set to fully rich (by default it is).

3.

Set your prop pitch to full fine (100 %).

4.

Crack throttle half an inch forward.

5.

Water radiator shutter fully open.

6.

Turn both magnetos ON

7.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

8.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

9.

Fuel Control to Main Tank Open.

10.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and water rad temperature to reach at least 60 deg C.

11.

Taxi to the runway. You can taxi with low oil/water temps without any problem as long as you keep your throttle under 20 %. If you throttle up
while your oil is not yet warm, you will hear your engine shake and cough.

12.

Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right direction for takeoff.

13.

Flaps up. Once flaps are fully raised, set flaps to Neutral to lock them into the UP position.

Note: With the Hurricane, you need to cycle through 3 modes for flaps and landing gear. Up, Neutral and Down. Up and Down are straightforward,
but since the flaps in the Hurricane have a variable setting (unlike the Spitfire, which only has 2 settings Fully Raised or Fully Down), Neutral means that
the flaps stop moving. This way, you can have your flaps deployed to the angle you desire. This same methodology is used for the landing gear
(undercarriage).

14.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Flaps up, Rad fully open, Full Fine prop pitch, good oil & water rad temperatures.

15.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using right aileron and rudder pedals to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push
the control column forward to lift the tail.

16.

Rotation is at 110-120 mph.

17.

Raise landing gear and set RPM to 2850 max for climb.
73

PART 7: LANDING

1. Start your approach at 160 mph @ approx.


1500 ft.
2. Rads fully open (100 %) and RPM set to 3000
(max).
3. Deploy flaps (down) and landing gear.
4. Cut throttle and try to keep your nose
pointed to the end of the runway.
5. Touchdown at 90 mph in a 3-point landing.
6. Stick fully back.
7. Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop.
Be careful not to overheat your brakes or
force your aircraft to nose over into a prop
strike.

74

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

MERLIN II

MERLIN III
Like the Merlin II, the Merlin III was originally built to run on 87 octane Fuel. It had a number
of improvements to engine reliability over the Merlin II, and therefore was more capable of
sustaining the high power generated at +12 boost, but still needs to be treated with care. Like
the Merlin II, Pilots should be cautious of using +12 boost and 3000 rpm with the Merlin III
except in all out high speed level flight. Use of these ratings in low speed maneuver or steep
low speed climbs will cause rapid overheating.

Both the Spitfire I and Hurricane


I DH5-20 are equipped with the
Rolls-Royce Merlin II engine,
which is an earlier version of the
Merlin III. This engine is slightly
less refined than the Merlin III
and is more prone to overheat
and damage when stressed.
Pilots need to be aware of their
limits. The Merlin II was
originally built to run at a
maximum of +6 boost Manifold
pressure on 87 octane gasoline,
but advances in Gasoline refining
technology produced 100 octane
gasoline in time for the Battle of
Britain. With 100 octane fuel,
the Merlin II was capable of +12
boost pressure and greatly
improved horsepower. However,
as mentioned, this is an older
generation engine, and needs to
be treated with care when using
high boost and rpm.

75

76

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls


out his engine settings once in a while for the
pilots to know what settings they should use.
You can read your engine settings from the
gauges in the cockpit or from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) shows 3000 RPM. The boost
(2) reads +6 lbs/in2 (psi). The radiators can be
approximated from the lever position or read from
the info window in %
(100 % = fully open).
The resulting RPM is affected by both boost
pressure and prop pitch (5).
Water Radiator settings:

70 % during normal operation


70+ % during combat
40-50 % over 20,000 ft during cruise
100 % during takeoff & landing
(Unit)

HURRICANE
MK I
DH5-20

HURRICANE
MK I
DH5-20 100 OCT

HURRICANE
MK IA
ROTOL

HURRICANE
MK IA
ROTOL 100 OCT

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad (4) Min
Max
Oil Rad (3) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

60
115
40
95

60
115
40
95

4
77

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Boost cut-out override (BCO)


The Boost control override did not originate as an
emergency power setting, but was adapted to be so
by the British. In original form, it was just a way of
disabling the boost controller in case of malfunction,
thus making the system directly link the pilot handle
to the throttle valve and giving him the ability to set
any boost the supercharger was capable of (but
without control, boost would change with altitude).

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

The Hurricane is correct in that, unlike the Spitfire,


the red tab is replaced by a knob that pulls the cable
(the
"tit").
Although it is hard to find references on this, it is
easy to see how the BCO could become an unofficial
emergency power switch. A pilot could pull it and try
for a bit more boost than the rated 6.25 psi, and
hopefully get a bit more power without damaging
the engine.
78

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

120
390
175
160
90

In comparison to the Bf.109, the Hurricane has a


better turn rate. However, the Bf.109 has a
superior climb rate and dive speed. The preferred
way of fighting the 109 is when you have an
altitude advantage.
The Hurricane has better performance at higher
altitudes (over 20,000 ft) than the 109. Use this to
your advantage.
For more information on either aircraft or engine
performance, consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation Regiment Operations Checklist. It is a
fantastic resource (link below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/CLIFFS%20OF%
20DOVER%20Operations%20Checklist.pdf

79

80

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

81

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

WEAPONS + AMMO

82

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

If you see a 109 on your tail, do not think:


ACT. If you think, youre dead. This is why
you need to know instinctively what to do if
you have been unlucky enough to be put in
that situation.
Evasive manoeuvers when you have a 109
on your tail are only limited by your
imagination. As long as it is unexpected,
anything can work.
Typically, pilots do a half-roll to the right or
left and dive down by doing a Split-S.
The reason for using the Split-S is that it is a
positive-G
manoeuver.
Negative-G
manoeuvers are usually avoided by Spitfire
& Hurricane pilots (or any pilots flying
another aircraft with an early Merlin engine)
because the engine tends to cut-out.
This peculiarity of the Merlin is attributed to
the carburetor being starved of fuel during
negative Gs (when you push the nose down).
You can figure out why by shaking up and
down a bottle of water that is half-full. This
issue was eventually temporarily addressed
in later Merlin variants with Miss Shillings
Orifice, and later on fixed altogether with
fully pressurized carburetors in 1943 .
Bf.109s did not have this issue since they
used direct fuel injection in the DaimlerBenz engines. Therefore power dives were
frequently used to escape from Spitfires and
Hurricanes alike.

83

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass and the gyro is quite useful to know where
you are going.
The gyro indicator itself does not indicate your heading. You need to set it
manually in order to translate what the magnetic compass is telling you.
You must set up your magnetic compass first by adjusting the course
setter instrument on top of it, and once you can read your heading from
your compass, THEN you set your gyro to reflect the compass reading.
Sounds complicated? Its not. We will see why in the next slide.
Typically, you set your compass and gyro on the ground. It is not the kind of
stuff you want to do when you are flying 20,000 ft over France.
High-G manoeuvers can decalibrate your gyro and give you a wrong
reading. Be aware that once you start a dogfight, your gyro can give you
readings that dont make sense. Its normal: it is one of the real-life
drawbacks of this navigation system. The same issue is also recurrent in
todays civilian acrobatic prop planes.
84

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

HOW TO SET UP YOUR GYRO & COMPASS


1.

The white T on your P-8 magnetic compass indicates magnetic North. You always use that
as a reference. It is hard to see because of the control column hiding part of it.

2.

Align the red N on the white T by clicking on the course setter until both yellow-ish bars
are parallel with it the white T. You will obtain a resulting course from the course setter
(which is the blue text that pops up on your screen). Keep that number in mind. In our
case, the number is a heading of 256. However, in order to take into account the effects of
magnetic declination, you need to add 10 degrees to get the geographic north. For now,
consider that your current heading is 266 degrees.

3.

Set your directional gyro compass by clicking on the rotary knob to reflect the corrected
heading obtained on your magnetic compass. In our case, set the gyro to 266. You will see
the blue numbers pop again. You can use them as a way to fine tune your gyro.

4.

And thats it! You will now be able to use your gyro compass to orient yourself. If your
gyro accumulates error after high-G manoeuvers, you can try to re-set it using steps 1 to 3.

Parallel lines
(must be
aligned with T)

White T facing
the Red N

Magnetic
Compass
Heading
(256)

Gyro heading
(266)
3
2

85

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
86

87

BRISTOL BLENHEIM IV

88

TABLE OF CONTENT BLENHEIM IV

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY


PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL
PART 11: BOMBING TUTORIAL

89

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Designed by Frank Barnwell in 1935,


the Bristol Blenheim was a British light
bomber aircraft designed and built by
the Bristol Aeroplane Company that was used
extensively in the early days of the Second
World War. It was adapted as an interim longrange and night fighter, pending the
availability of the Beaufighter. It was one of
the first British aircraft to have allmetal
stressed-skin
construction,
retractable landing gear, flaps, a powered
gun turret and variable-pitch propellers. The
Mark IV variant was unsuccessful in its
daylight bombing role, suffering many losses
in the early stages of the war.

90

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Just one minute after Britain's formal declaration of war against Germany took effect on September 3, 1939, a
Blenheim IV of 139 Squadron took off to fly the RAF's first sortie of the war, a photo-reconnaissance operation. The
next day, Blenheims made the first Bomber Command attack by bombing enemy warships.
91

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Blenheim units operated throughout the battle of Britain, often taking heavy casualties, although they were never
accorded the publicity of the fighter squadrons. The Blenheim units raided German occupied airfields throughout July to
December 1940, both during daylight hours and at night. Some of these missions produced an almost 100% casualty rate
amongst the Blenheims.

The action on 12 August 1941 was


described by the Daily Telegraph in
2006 as the "RAF's most
audacious and dangerous lowlevel bombing raid, a large-scale
attack against power stations near
Cologne. The raid was a low-level
daylight raid by 54 Blenheims
under the command of Wing
Commander Nichol of No. 114
Squadron RAF. The Blenheims hit
their targets (Fortuna Power and
the Goldenberg Power Station) but
12 of the Blenheims were lost
during the raid, 22% of those that
took part, which was far above the
sustainable loss rate of less than
5%.

92

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Blenheim paid the price for being conceived in a period of rapid development which saw it arrive as
the premier medium day bomber of the time. The tension between urgent need to expand with modern
equipment, the rationale for pressing ahead with lightly armed day bombers in quantity, all while
developing eight-gun fighters capable of destroying them: these issues were certainly recognised. The
issues were complex: firepower, bomb load, weight, range, production volume and production lead
times were all in playamong a host of other concerns. In the end, the sort of medium bomber that the
Blenheim represented was a compromise: it was what was available to produce in 1937, in numbers
93
sufficient over the next few years to be ready for a war in 1939.

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

BLENHEIM
MK IV (BOMBER)

BLENHEIM
MK IVF (FIGHTER)

TEMPERATURES
Deg C

Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min


Max
Cylinder Head Temp Min
Max

Deg C

40
85
100
235

40
85
100
235

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


Engine & Fuel grade

Mercury XV- 100 octane fuel

Mercury XV- 100 octane fuel

2600 FINE

2600 FINE

+9 BCO-ON

+9 BCO-ON

2400 COARSE

2400 COARSE

+5

+5

2400 COARSE

2400 COARSE

+3.5

+3.5

2400 COARSE

2400 COARSE

+5

+5

2600 COARSE
5 min MAX

2600 COARSE
5 min MAX

+9 BCO ON

+9 BCO ON

Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure
Combat RPM

RPM

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

Emergency Power / Boost


Manifold Pressure @ Sea Level
Landing Approach RPM

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

Landing Approach Manifold


Pressure
Top Speed @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

266

266

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

Fit with a Hamilton Standard Two Speed Propeller,


maximum RPMs are not restricted by the propeller
governor. The two settings available are either 'Fine
Pitch' or 'Coarse Pitch'.

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

BLENHEIM Mk IVF
94 VARIANT
FIGHTER

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

95

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

The propeller installed on your aircraft means that a specific prop


mechanism is used. The Hamilton Standard two-pitch props were
used on the Blenheim, mainly during the Battle of Britain. These
propellers were produced by De Havilland under license from
Hamilton-Standard, after Bristol failed to produce its own variable
pitch props.

A controllable-pitch propeller (CPP) or variable-pitch


propeller is a type of propeller with blades that can be rotated
around their long axis to change their pitch. If the pitch can be
set to negative values, the reversible propeller can also create
reverse thrust for braking or going backwards without the
need of changing the direction of shaft revolutions. Such
propellers are used in propeller-driven aircraft to adapt the
propeller to different thrust levels and air speeds so that the
propeller blades don't stall, hence degrading the propulsion
system's efficiency. Especially for cruising, the engine can
operate in its most economical range of rotational speeds.
With the exception of going into reverse for braking after
touch-down, the pitch is usually controlled automatically
without the pilot's intervention. A propeller with a controller
that adjusts the blades' pitch so that the rotational speed
always stays the same is called a constant speed propeller
(see paragraph above). A propeller with controllable pitch can
96
have a nearly constant efficiency over a range of airspeeds.

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CREW MEMBERS

PILOT

DORSAL GUNNER

BOMBARDIER-NAVIGATOR

97

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

PILOT

98

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

FLAPS
INDICATOR

PILOT

LANDING GEAR /
UNDERCARRIAGE
INDICATOR

THROTTLE

MIXTURE

99

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

The Blenheim has 4 fuel tanks: 2 inner


tanks (which are filled first) and 2 outer
tanks.

PILOT

FUEL GAUGE (TOTAL: 468 gal)


INNER TANKS: 140 gal EACH
OUTER TANKS: 94 gal EACH
FUEL GAUGE CONTENTS
SELECTOR
INNER TANKS: AFT
OUTER TANKS: FWD

STARBOARD/RIGHT
FUEL GAUGE
PORT/LEFT
FUEL GAUGE

With a full bomb load (1000 lbs), the


maximum fuel load you can carry is about
60 % (approx. 280 gal, so just about
enough to completely fill your inner tanks
without having to use fuel for the outer
ones).
With Full Rich (strong) mixture for a boost
setting of +3.5 PSI and a RPM of 2400, you
consume approx. 112 gals/hour. Assuming
you are going at 240 mph in level flight (a
fairly reasonable assumption), you can fly
for about 2.5 hours at MAX Takeoff Weight.
This means that you have a range of about
300 miles, or about 480 km.
Fuel planning will be further elaborated in
the BOMBING TUTORIAL section.

100

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CARBURETTOR HEAT LEVERS

COCKPIT FLOOD LIGHTS

SLOW RUNNING CUT-OUT BTNS


(USED TO SHUT ENGINES DOWN)

PROPELLOR PITCH
FINE/COARSE

PILOT
BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

101

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

COWLING FLAP
SHUTTER

PILOT

ELEVATOR TRIM WHEEL

HAND PUMP
USE WHEN LANDING GEAR FAILS TO RETRACT
COMPLETELY. THIS IS USED IN CASES WHEN YOUR
WINGMAN TELLS YOU THAT HE SEES THAT YOUR
LANDING GEAR IS NOT COMPLETELY RETRACTED
AND NOT COMPLETELY DEPLOYED.

RUDDER TRIM WHEEL

FLAPS CONTROL
NOTE: FLAPS USE HYDRAULIC POWER. YOU HAVE THREE SETTINGS: UP, NEUTRAL AND
DOWN. IN REAL LIFE, YOU WOULD OPERATE FLAPS BY HOLDING THE LEVER IN THE UP OR
DOWN POSITION, AND RETURN THE LEVER IN THE NEUTRAL POSITION ONCE THE FLAPS
ARE IN THE DESIRED POSITION. OBVIOUSLY, YOU WILL SIMPLY WEAR DOWN YOUR
HYDRAULIC PUMPS IF YOU KEEP YOUR FLAPS IN THE UP POSITION INSTEAD OF THE
CORRECT NEUTRAL POSITION.

LANDING GEAR LEVER

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

102

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

CROSSFEED VALVE
2 POSITIONS: ON/OFF

PILOT

THIS VALVE IS USED IN CASE OF FUEL LEAK TO GET THE ENGINES TO


TAKE FUEL FROM FUEL TANKS FROM BOTH WINGS AT THE SAME
TIME.

FOR EXAMPLE: IF YOU HAVE A FUEL LEAK ON THE LEFT WING AND
GET TO A POINT WHERE YOU ARE OUT OF FUEL ON THE LEFT
INBOARD TANK (OUTBOARD TANKS ARE GENERALLY EMPTY
UNLESS YOU WANT TO GO FOR VERY LONG FLIGHTS) GENERALLY
WHAT HAPPENS IS YOUR LEFT ENGINE COUGHS AND DIES SINCE IT
RUNS OUT OF FUEL TO CONSUME. IF YOU OPEN YOUR CROSSFEED
VALVE, THE LEFT ENGINE WILL KEEP RUNNING EVEN IF THE LEFT
INNER TANKS ARE EMPTY. WHY? BECAUSE THE CROSSFEED VALVE
SET TO OPEN/ON WILL ALLOW THE LEFT ENGINE TO TAKE FUEL
FROM BOTH THE RIGHT AND THE LEFT WING TANKS!

FUEL COCK (PORT = RED)


3 POSITIONS:
OFF/INNER/OUTER TANKS
CYLINDER HEAD
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

FUEL COCK (STBD = GREEN)


3 POSITIONS:
OFF/INNER/OUTER TANKS

103

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

OIL RADIATOR TEMPERATURE


(DEG C)

OIL PRESSURE
(PSI)

TACHOMETER
(X 100 RPM)

PILOT

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(x10 MPH)

ARTIFICIAL
HORIZON

CLIMB RATE
INDICATOR
(1000 FT/MIN)

ALTIMETER
SHORT NEEDLE: 10,000 FT
LONG NEEDLE: 1000 FT
BOTTOM KNOB: SETS QFE

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

MANIFOLD / BOOST PRESSURE


(PSI, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS
POUNDS OF BOOST)

FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS
TURN & BANK
SIDE SLIP
INDICATOR
104

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

PILOT

P-8 MAGNETIC COMPASS &


COURSE SETTER

PNEUMATIC
PRESSURE (PSI)

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO SETTER

MAGNETOS

ELEVATOR TRIM
INDICATOR

NAVIGATION LIGHTS
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
OXYGEN DELIVERY
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

OXYGEN SUPPLY
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

OXYGEN REGULATOR SWITCH


(NOT FUNCTIONAL)

RUDDER TRIM
INDICATOR

105

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

BOMBARDIER

AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
TWO BOMB DISTRIBUTION
MODES: SALVO OR SINGLE

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

ALTIMETER

BOMB
RELEASE
BUTTON

106

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

BOMBARDIER

BOMBSIGHT
ALTITUDE SETTER

BOMBSIGHT
AIRSPEED SETTER

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

BOMBSIGHT WIND
CORRECTION
107

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DORSAL GUNNER

DORSAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-MOVE MOUNT LEFT: LEFT KEYBD ARROW
-MOVE MOUNT RIGHT: RIGHT KEYBD ARROW
-CRUISE POSITION: O
-FIRING POSITION: CUSTOM KEY
-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

108

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

TURRET IN
CRUISE POSITION

TURRET IN
FIRING POSITION

NOTES
Your gunner can call out fighters if you have your in-game chat info window enabled. However, if
you switcher to your gunner position and switched back to your pilot seat, it is possible that the AI
gunner will not take control of the gun. In other words, your gunner will not fire unless the AI takes
control of it. To give back the AI control of your turret, you should use the L_ALT+F2.
Your turret has 2 positions: CRUISE and FIRING. During aircraft cold start, you start in
CRUISE/PARKED position. In this mode, the gunner cannot fire his gun nor move his turret. This
mode is primarily used to generate less drag and consume less power. FIRING position, on the
other hand, is powered by the left engine. This mode allows you to use your gun and rotate your
turret to get a better view angle. It is useful to track targets or examine damage on the wings or
upper forward fuselage. Your gunner will only fire when the turret is in FIRING position.
Any turret or other air crew position (like the bombardier) can be manned by other players in
multiplayer. They just need to double-click on the available slot in multiplayer once they clicked
on the flag.

109

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

ENGINE COWLING FLAPS CLOSED (ALSO CALLED LOUVRES)


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

ENGINE COWLING FLAPS OPEN (ALSO CALLED LOUVRES)


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

110

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS
.303 BROWNING
MACHINE GUN

FUEL TANKS

WING SPARS

CONTROL
CABLES

DORSAL
TURRET
111

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

112

BRISTOL BLENHEIM (ALL MARKS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

View-Position #1 (pilot)

L_ALT+1

ESSENTIAL

View-position #2 (bombardier)

L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

View-position #3 (rear gunner) optional

L_ALT+3

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Previous Mode

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Next Mode

ESSENTIAL

course setter - increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

directional gyro - increase

NUMPAD / (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro - decrease

NUMPAD * (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator and rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

113

BRISTOL BLENHEIM (ALL MARKS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

fire guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

ESSENTIAL

drop ordnance (bomb)

ESSENTIAL

throttle

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

boost cut-off (boost cut-out override)

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

increase mixture

NON-ESSENTIAL

decrease mixture

NON-ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for ESSENTIAL


second throttle. Set to ESSENTIAL
keyboard otherwise.

decrease propeller pitch

ESSENTIAL

Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)

ESSENTIAL

Wheel brakes

ESSENTIAL

bail out

ESSENTIAL

Fuel Cock # 1, 2, 3

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide mouse cursor and


take control of your gun)

F10

ESSENTIAL

114

BRISTOL BLENHEIM (ALL MARKS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

previous bomb distributor mode (Salvo/Single)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

next bomb distributor mode (Salvo/Single)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Bombsight altitude + / -

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Bombsight velocity + / -

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Adjust Bombsight left / Right (adjusts


bombsight for crosswind)

NON-ESSENTIAL

engine #1 select

L_SHIFT+1

ESSENTIAL

engine #2 select

L_SHIFT+2

ESSENTIAL

all engines select

L_SHIFT+3 (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Turret Move Mount Left

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

Turret Move Mount Right

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

Turret Cruise Position

ESSENTIAL

Turret Firing Position

L_SHIFT+O (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

External View (Give Turret Gunner Control to AI)

L_ALT+F2

ESSENTIAL

Carburettor Heat # 1 / # 2
Open/Close Bomb Bay Door

NON-ESSENTIAL
N (CUSTOM)

NON-ESSENTIAL (bomb bay door


has an automatic closing system)
115

PART 4: CONTROLS

Unlike the German bombers, the Blenheim uses differential braking instead of toe brakes.
In order to brake, you need to hold your Full Wheel Brakes key (which is physically mapped as a
lever on your control column) while you give rudder input to steer your aircraft. Make sure you
have adequate mixture, RPM and Manifold Pressure settings or your turn radius will suffer. Keep
in mind that that for British and Italian aircraft, you use this braking system (Full Wheel Brakes
key), while for the German aircraft you use toe brakes (Full Left/Right Wheel Brakes keys or
Left/Right Wheel Brakes axes in your controls).

ONLY THE RIGHT/STBD


WHEEL IS BRAKING

RIGHT RUDDER PUSHED


(WILL TURN RIGHT)
BRAKE LEVER

116

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

The Blennie Fighter variant is armed with a rack of four .303 in Browning guns under its fuselage, a single .303 gun in its left
wing and a .303 gun turret. Aiming with the fixed gunsight while using TrackIR is very difficult. Recommended way of aiming is to
use tracers each 5-6 bullets and to correct after each short burst based on where the trail of bullets is going. Tracers are also
very useful for turret gunners if they want to aim properly. My typical ammunition belt loadout is made of DeWilde Incendiary
Rounds, Armour Piercing rounds and Incendiary/Tracer rounds.
BLENHEIM Mk IVF
FIGHTER VARIANT

117

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

The Blennie bomber variant is armed with a single .303 gun in its left
wing and a .303 gun turret. Aiming with the fixed gunsight while using
TrackIR is very difficult and overall rather ineffective since .303 caliber is
not very lethal in small firepower concentration. The recommended
way of aiming is to use tracers each 5-6 bullets and to correct after each
short burst based on where the trail of bullets is going. Tracers are also
very useful for turret gunners if they want to aim properly. My typical
ammunition belt loadout is made of DeWilde Incendiary Rounds,
Armour Piercing rounds and Incendiary/Tracer rounds.
118

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


1: PLANNING
PARTARMAMENT

Use adequate bomb and fuel loadout. Typically, I choose 20-30 % fuel (see BOMBING tutorial to know how to judge your
needed fuel quantity) and I choose 4 X 250 lb bombs rather than 2 X 500 lb bombs. Why? Simply because the current bomb
load in the Blenheim is very small and you need to maximize the number of targets you can bomb. For instance, having 2 bombs
on board means I can destroy 2 ships instead of 4. Having 4 bombs allows for more flexibility and gives you more options.
BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

Bombing missions typically require between 20 and 30 % fuel. Ensure that


aircraft is not overweight, or you will have trouble getting off the ground.

Ensure that aircraft is not overweight, or you will


have trouble getting off the ground.

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


1: PLANNING
PARTARMAMENT

Select proper fuse delay based on the type of bombing run you intend to do.
BLENHEIM Mk IV
BOMBER VARIANT

Ensure correct bomb is selected.

Skip bombing missions (typically used for attacking ships), dive bombing and low-level bombing raids
require fuse delay of 11 seconds to prevent damaging your aircraft during the bombing run.
High-altitude bombing fuse delay is preferably set between 0 and 1 second, or else the bombs might
bounce off your target, which is not recommended if you go for precision bombing.

121

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in
the sim.
1.

Click on both fuel cocks (Red and Green) 2 times to select inner fuel tanks. Make sure you have the proper fuel load by
checking the fuel gauges (selected to INNER tanks).

2.

Ensure that mixture is set to fully rich (by default it is).

3.

Select Engine # 1 (L_Shift + 1).

4.

Set your prop pitch to full fine (100 %).

5.

Crack throttle half an inch forward.

6.

Engine cowling flap fully open.

7.

Turn both magnetos for engine # 1 ON.

8.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

9.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

10.

Select Engine # 2 (L_Shift + 2).

11.

Repeat steps 3 to 9 but for engine # 2.

12.

Select BOTH engines (I have it custom mapped to L_Shift + 3).

13.

Ensure cowling flaps are fully open (100 %) and prop pitch is fully FINE (100 %).

14.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and the cylinder head temperature to reach at least 100 deg C.

15.

Taxi to the runway. You can taxi with low oil temps without any problem. If your throttle is set to idle, your oil you will
hear your engine shake and cough. Try to keep your throttle over 10 %.

16.

Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right direction for takeoff.

17.

Flaps up. Once flaps are fully raised, set flaps to Neutral to lock them into the UP position.

Note: With the Blenheim, you need to cycle through 3 modes for flaps and landing gear. Up, Neutral and Down. Up and
Down are straightforward, but since the flaps in the Blenheim have a variable setting (unlike the Spitfire, which only has 2
settings Fully Raised or Fully Down), Neutral means that the flaps stop moving. This way, you can have your flaps deployed to
the angle you desire. This same methodology is used for the landing gear (undercarriage).

18.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Flaps up, cowlings fully open, Full Fine prop pitch, good oil & cylinder head
temperatures.

19.

Set Boost Cut-Out Override ON.

20.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using right aileron and rudder pedals to keep the aircraft
straight. Slightly push the yoke forward to lift the tail.

21.

Rotation is at 110 mph.

22.

Raise landing gear and set prop pitch to COARSE. Adjust RPM to 2400 max for climb.

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE
122

PART 7: LANDING

1. Start your approach at 140 mph @ approx.


1500 ft.
2. Rads fully open (100 %) and RPM set prop
pitch to FINE (100 %).
3. Deploy flaps (down) and landing gear when
you slowed down to 120 mph or less.
4. Cut throttle and try to keep your nose
pointed to the end of the runway.
5. Touchdown at 85 mph in a 3-point landing.
6. Yoke fully back.
7. Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop.
Be careful not to overheat your brakes or
force your aircraft to nose over into a prop
strike.

123

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The Bristol Airplane Company is


probably best known for its
larger "sleeve valve" engines
such as the 1675 h.p. Hercules
which powered the four-engined
Halifax bomber and Lancaster
Mk. II's. However, Bristol also
produced the smaller Pegasus
and Mercury engines which had
"poppet" valves.
The Bristol Mercury XV
installed on the Blenheim IV has
four valves per cylinder, an
unusual number for a radial
engine. They are actuated by
lifter rods and valve levers.
Mercury engines had a single
carburetor and a gear-driven
supercharger.
Derived from the famous Jupiter
engine of the 1920s, the engine
developed 825 hp at 2,650 RPM
and weighs 1,065 lbs. It has a
diameter of 51.5 inches. Mercury
engines were manufactured in
20700 units of different versions
both by Bristol and under license
by other engine companies.

124

125

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine settings
once in a while for the pilots to know what settings they should
use.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Always remember that this is a twin-engine: you must select ALL


ENGINES in order to throttle up and change your cowling flap
settings.

You can read your engine settings from the gauges in the cockpit or
from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) shows 2150 RPM. The boost (2) reads
+5 lbs/in2 (psi). The oil radiators can be approximated by
looking at the engine cowlings from the window or read
from the info window in %. The control for cowling flaps is
the same as the one used for water radiators.
(100 % = fully open).
The resulting RPM is affected by both boost pressure and
prop pitch (5).
Cowling flaps settings:

70 % during normal operation


70+ % during combat
50-60 % over 20,000 ft during cruise
100 % during takeoff & landing

Engine Settings for Low-Level High-Speed


bombing run (skip bombing):

45 % cowling flaps / rad


110 % throttle (Boost Cut-Out Override ON)

During flight, I usually keep an eye on the


oil rad gauges (3) rather than the cylinder
head temp gauges (4). I usually overheat
my oil before my cylinder heads reach a
critical temperature.
(Unit)

BLENHEIM
MK IV

BLENHEIM
MK IVF

TEMPERATURES
Oil Rad (3)

Min
Max
Cylinder Head Temp (4) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

40
85
100
235

40
85
100
235

1
126

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Boost cut-out override (BCO)


The Boost control override did not originate as
an emergency power setting, but was adapted
to be so by the British. In original form, it was
just a way of disabling the boost controller in
case of malfunction, thus making the system
directly link the pilot handle to the throttle
valve and giving him the ability to set any boost
the supercharger was capable of (but without
control, boost would change with altitude).

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

Although it is hard to find references on this, it


is easy to see how the BCO could become an
unofficial emergency power switch. A pilot
could pull it and try for a bit more boost than
the rated 6.25psi, and hopefully get a bit more
power without damaging the engine.
127

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Carburettor Heat Control

CARBURETTOR HEAT

The carburettor heat is a system used


in
automobile
and
pistonpowered light aircraft engines to
prevent or clear carburetor icing. It
consists of a moveable flap which
draws hot air into the engine intake.
The air is drawn from the heat stove, a
metal plate around the (very
hot) exhaust manifold.
Access to Carb Heat Controls for each
engine are hard to see, so I
recommend mapping a key to each
one.
Set ON when you fly at less than +3.5
boost and air temperature is under 15
deg C or when you are flying above
2,500 ft, OR in conditions of high
humidity or cold weather.
Set OFF when you fly at more than
+3.5 boost (or during engine start,
128
takeoff and landing).

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

110
260
135
140
85

A max climb rate of 1000-1500 ft/min


is recommended. Anything higher will
overheat your engines.
For more information on either
aircraft or engine performance,
consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation
Regiment
Operations
Checklist. It is a fantastic resource (link
below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/
CLIFFS%20OF%20DOVER%20Operations%20Chec
klist.pdf

129

130

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

Fuel planning will be further elaborated in the


BOMBING TUTORIAL section.
131

132

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass and the gyro is quite useful to know where
you are going.
The gyro indicator itself does not indicate your heading. You need to set it
manually in order to translate what the magnetic compass is telling you.
You must set up your magnetic compass first by adjusting the course
setter instrument on top of it, and once you can read your heading from
your compass, THEN you set your gyro to reflect the compass reading.
Sounds complicated? Its not. We will see why in the next slide.
Typically, you set your compass and gyro on the ground. It is not the kind of
stuff you want to do when you are flying 20,000 ft over France.
High-G manoeuvers can decalibrate your gyro and give you a wrong
reading. Be aware that once you start a dogfight, your gyro can give you
readings that dont make sense. Its normal: it is one of the real-life
drawbacks of this navigation system. The same issue is also recurrent in
todays civilian acrobatic prop planes.
133

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

HOW TO SET UP YOUR GYRO & COMPASS


1.

The white T on your P-8 magnetic compass indicates magnetic North. You always use that
as a reference. It is hard to see because of the control column hiding part of it.

2.

Align the red N on the white T by clicking on the course setter until both yellow-ish bars
are parallel with it the white T. You will obtain a resulting course from the course setter
(which is the blue text that pops up on your screen). Keep that number in mind. In our
case, the number is a heading of 271. However, in order to take into account the effects of
magnetic declination, you need to add 10 degrees to get the geographic north. For now,
consider that your current heading is 281 degrees.

3.

Set your directional gyro compass by clicking on the rotary knob to reflect the corrected
heading obtained on your magnetic compass. In our case, set the gyro to 281. You will see
the blue numbers pop again. You can use them as a way to fine tune your gyro.

4.

And thats it! You will now be able to use your gyro compass to orient yourself. If your
gyro accumulates error after high-G manoeuvers, you can try to re-set it using steps 1 to 3.

Parallel lines
(must be
aligned with T)
White T facing
the Red N

3
Gyro heading
(281)

2
Magnetic
Compass
Heading (271)
134

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
135

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

Bombing is one of the most complex and rewarding features of flight


simulators. The bomber pilot has a thankless job, yet bombing is an
art form in itself.
This tutorial will be for high-altitude bombing as it encompasses all
aspects of bombing and navigation.
Bombers should work as a team. Not only with other bombers, but
with fighter escorts as well to keep them alive.
The mind of a bomber pilot is a patient and organized one. If you fail
to plan your mission properly, you certainly plan to fail and end up
in a smoldering pile of ashes.

136

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

A bombing operation can be separated in 6 phases:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Planning the mission


Takeoff and assembly of bomber force
Rendezvous with fighter escorts
Fly to target
Bombing run
Return to Base

We will explore phases 1, 4 and 5 together.

137

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


Before you even take off, you need to make sure you know the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Where am I?
Where am I going?
How much fuel do I need?
What am I doing?
How am I doing it?
What can help me?
What can kill me?
How do I get home?

Once you have all that stuff figured out, THEN you can takeoff.
The following example will show you a typical mission planning.
138

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?

Reading the bomber objectives


always helps to find a high-priority
target.
You can look at the bombing
objectives in the mission briefing
(can be accessed via aircraft selection
menu or by right-clicking, opening
the map, right-clicking on the map
and choosing Briefing).
Le Havre will be our target for today
and we will be spawning from
Shoreham.

Read bomber objectives and pick your targets. For instance:


Le Havre is located in grid AO05.9, which means it is located
in the upper-right corner of the Alpha-Oscar 05 grid square.
.9 is the location in the square based on the referential of a
numpad for the designated grid square (1 is lower left, 5 is
center, 9 is upper right).
139

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
Good! We now have a target (Le Havre
airfield), and we decided that we would
spawn at Shoreham.
Now, it is time to figure out how we get
there and drop them cabbage crates.
We need a heading and a distance.
Open your map and select (left click)
your Protractor tool to obtain your
heading to target.

Home Base

Target
Left-Click on the
protractor icon.

While map is selected, open up


your Tools menu (right click) and
use your protractor to find the
correct heading.

140

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
1) Click and hold left mouse button on Shoreham and
drag a vertical line. Once line is parallel with the
North, release mouse button.
2) Click and hold left mouse button on Shoreham and
drag a line to Le Havre Airfield. Once line is crossing
the center of the airfield icon, release mouse
button.
3) A heading number should pop next to Shoreham.
Remember this number. In our case, we get 169
degrees.
4) In case your target is West (to the left) to your
home base, the number that pops up will not be
your heading. The proper heading will be 360
minus the number that popped up. In our case, the
proper heading will be a 169 Geographic (map)
Heading.
5) Since the heading we obtained on the map is
geographic and not magnetic, the magnetic course
we will need to follow on our compasses is 169 +
10 = 179 deg. This is the heading we will follow on
our magnetic compass. We added 10 degrees to
take into account magnetic declination as shown in
previous compass navigation tutorial.

Step 1

Heading
169?
Step 2

141

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
We now know our target: Le Havre. We must know how high it is to take into account target
elevation when we will be bombing.
You can use the LOFTE tool available on ATAG:
theairtacticalassaultgroup.com/utils/lotfe7.html
A tutorial on how to use this tool is available in Chucks Blenheim High Altitude Bomber Guide 2.0
available here:
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/High-Altitude%20Bombing%20Guide%202.0.pdf

One quicker way to do it is to get the airfields altitude directly from the list on the next page
made by Ivank.
LOFTEs values tend to vary from point to point: values you get from this tool are an
approximation that must sometimes be taken with a grain of salt.
Le Havres altitude in the table is 96 m (314 ft), while on the LOFTE tool it is 79 m (240 ft).
Because my example is recycled from a previous guide using the LOFTE tool to get the
altitude, (and since Im too lazy to bother changing it) we will use a target elevation of 79 m
for Le Havre.

142

143

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW MUCH FUEL DO I NEED?
The heavier you are, the slower you are and the more
vulnerable you are.

MAX RANGE

Calculating your required fuel is easy.


We know our max range for Max Takeoff weight (@ 60%
fuel) is about 300 miles.

Use the Map Tool Ruler to get our targets range. Le


Havre is about 100 miles away from Shoreham. Since we
plan to return to base, we add another 100 miles. We can
add about 15 miles for loitering time, assembly and
rendezvous with fighters. We have a grand total of 215
miles.
To fly for 215 miles at 2400 RPM at 240 mph, we simply
multiply our max takeoff fuel load (60 %) by the ratio of
the distance we need to fly on the maximum range @
max takeoff weight (300 miles):
60 % * 215 miles / 300 miles = 43 % fuel. That is what we
need.

The Blenheim has 4 fuel tanks: 2 inner


tanks (which are filled first) and 2 outer
tanks. With a full bomb load (1000 lbs),
the maximum fuel load you can carry is
about 60 % (approx. 280 gal, so just about
enough to completely fill your inner tanks
without having to use fuel for the outer
ones).
With Full Rich (strong) mixture for a boost
setting of +3.5 PSI and a RPM of 2400, you
consume approx. 112 gals/hour. Assuming
you are going at 240 mph in level flight (a
fairly reasonable assumption), you can fly
for about 2.5 hours at MAX Takeoff Weight.
This means that you have a range of about
300 miles, or about 480 km.

Left click and drag


from point A to point
B to get a distance.

144

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT AM I DOING?
Now that we know where we are and where we are going and how much fuel we need, we need to
know what we will be doing.
We will load up 4 X 250 lbs bombs with 1 sec fuse. See the Weapons and Armament section to know
more.
Our bombing altitude will be 17,000 ft. We could go as high as 24,000 if we wanted to.
Why do we ask ourselves this question? Simply because the challenge of a bomber pilot is the sheer
workload behind it. You are doing by yourself the task that took two dedicated guys or more to do.
Therefore, our goal is to reduce the workload as much as possible by doing as much as we can on the
ground so we can concentrate on whats going on during the flight rather than prepare our
instruments in a hurry.
In a bomber flight, generally half the guys do not know how to use a bomb sight: they simply drop
their bombs on the bomber leads command. Keep in mind that having a bomber lead is not enough
to have a proper mission: fighter interceptors always go for the bomber lead because odds are that he
is the most experienced bomber pilot. Good bomber operations generally have a second or a third
leader to take No. 1s place in case he gets shot down or runs into engine trouble.
If you have 9 guys flying for an hour to get to a target that are waiting on your command to drop their
bombs, you better make sure that you know where youre aiming
Therefore, it is important to know at what speed and what altitude you plan to do your bomb run so
you can set up your bombsight in advance. I usually set my bombsight when I am on the ground. This
way, you just need to make small adjustments when you get to target rather than set everything up in
a hurry.
You will need your target elevation to set up your bombsight properly.
145

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Here is why you need to take into account target elevation in your bombsight:
Pressure altitude and Height are related to one another, but keep in mind that they are two
completely different things.

Height is the vertical physical distance between your aircraft and the ground. Pilots often
refer to height as AGL (Above Ground Level).
Pressure altitude is the altitude measured using a pressure datum reference. Pilots often
refer to altitude as AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level). Pressure Altitude reading can vary
based on meteorological conditions.
Bombsight height setting can be determined by simply reading the altimeter and
substracting the target elevation (assuming the altimeter pressure altitude was set correctly
for the pressure conditions in Home Base).

The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (17,000 ft) minus the target
elevation (240 ft). The bombsight height will have to be set at more or less 16,760 ft. Keep
in mind that the altitude can change due to many factors and that your bombsight height is
AGL, and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.
146

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING IT?

ALTITUDE: 17,000 ft AMSL


ABOVE SEA LEVEL

The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (17,000 ft)
minus the target elevation (240 ft). The bombsight height will have to be set
at more or less 16,760 ft. Keep in mind that the altitude can change due to
many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL (above ground level),
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.

BOMBSIGHT HEIGHT
16,760 ft AGL

NOTE: the max bombsight altitude for the Blenheim IV is 20,000 ft.
TARGET ELEVATION: 240 ft

SHOREHAM
ALTITUDE: 0 ft AMSL

ENGLISH CHANNEL
ALTITUDE: 0 m AMSL

LE HAVRE
ALTITUDE: 240 ft AMSL
147

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Caution: our altitude and speed set on the bombsight will not be the values
read on the altimeter and airspeed indicators.
We have already seen why the bombsight height must be the altitude value
read on the altimeter minus the target elevation.
Indicated Airspeed (IAS) is the speed you read on your airspeed indicator. It
is driven by your Pitot tube and a barometric static port. Air pressure varies
with altitude (the higher you go, the less air there is). IAS is corrected for the
surrounding air pressure but not for air density.
True Airspeed (TAS) is indicated airspeed corrected to take into account air
density (which, like we said, depends on your current altitude).
The bombsight requires a True Airspeed input, not an indicated airspeed.
Fortunately, there is an interpolation table available in the Cliffs of Dover
manual to help you get an approximation of TAS. We will see how to use this
table in the next page.
148

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
We will aim for an indicated airspeed (IAS) of 200 mph (read on the airspeed gauge) at an altitude of 16,760 ft.

1) Pick the appropriate row


for IAS (200 mph)
2) Pick the appropriate columns
for nearest altitudes (16,000
and 18,000 ft)
3) Take note of the TAS values in
the table 255 mph and 263
mph)
4) Because the TAS values are
close enough and that
bombsight airspeed only goes
into increments of 10, we can
approximate the resulting TAS
value to approx. an average
value of 260 mph. It is
not the exact value, but in our
case, it should work.
149

PART 10: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PRESUME ONE FACTOR, ALTITUDE OR TAS, IS CORRECT


AND THE OTHER INCORRECT. BOMB TRAJECTORY WILL BE
AFFECTED.
ALL BOMBSIGHTS IN THE SIM USE TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS).
DO NOT CONFUSE TAS WITH IAS INDICATED AIRSPEED,
WHICH IS WHAT YOU READ ON YOUR INSTRUMENTS.

1.

2.

INPUT TAS TOO LOW, PLANE IF FLYING FASTER


THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO LOW, PLANE IS FLYING
HIGHER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

1.
2.

INPUT TAS TOO HIGH, PLANE IF FLYING


SLOWER THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO HIGH, PLANE IS
FLYING LOWER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

TARGET
150

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Be smart: set up your bombsight in advance (set airspeed and altitude at which you want to bomb) while you are still on the ground. This will
save you time and trouble. In our case, we will enter a bombsight airspeed of 260 mph and an altitude of 16,760 ft.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(IAS)
ALTIMETER (AMSL)
DIRECTIONAL GYRO
BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED
INPUT (TAS)
BOMBSIGHT ALTITUDE
INPUT (AGL)
BOMB DISTRIBUTOR
MODE (SALVO/SINGLE)
DROP BOMBS
151

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME? HOW DO I GET HOME?

WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME?


Know where your enemy patrol routes are, where battles usually take place and avoid these
places when you are doing your flight plan.
Give fighter escorts a rendezvous point so they can link up with you and protect you.

HOW DO I GET HOME?


In our case, we will simply do a 180 once we dropped our bombs and head back home.

152

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

Once we have taken off, we will follow a heading of 179 to Le Havre.


You can use the compass traditionally to fly there manually, but you
can also use the auto-pilot.
The auto-pilot in the Blenheim is very similar to the one used in
German bombers.
In order to use the auto-pilot and know where you are going, you
will need to set up your magnetic compass and directional gyro
differently than shown in the P-8 tutorial section.

153

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET
79.
Set your course setter on
your magnetic compass
to a heading of 179.
Align your aircraft until
the two parallel lines
with the white T are
facing the red N on your
compass. Once the T and
the two // lines are
parallel to each other,
you are on course.

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

Correct heading

White T facing
the Red N

154

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

There are two auto-pilot modes: Course Mode and Mode 22. Make sure you have
mapped keys to cycle through these modes.

155

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

If you wish to control your aircraft while auto-pilot is engaged, you must do so by increasing or
decreasing your directional gyro (make sure you have proper keys mapped first).

Note: decreasing gyro will make the aircraft steer


to the right, increasing gyro will make it steer to
the left. Plan your keys accordingly or you might
think your auto-pilot is drunk.

156

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

Course Mode is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder control to make your
aircraft travel following a given heading. You still have control over ailerons and
elevator. Course mode is generally used when climbing or descending. In this mode,
climb rate is better controlled through elevator trim rather than pure elevator input.
Mode 22 (Straight n Level) is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder, elevator
and aileron controls to make your aircraft travel following a given heading. You will
have no control over any of your control surfaces. Mode 22 is used when cruising or
when level-bombing as this mode will want to make you stay level at a given
heading.
Note: Mode 22 will often make your aircraft go into a dive (-1000 ft/min approx) for
approximately 1 minute. It is normal: the aircraft will try to gain speed in the
process. You should lose from 1000 to 2000 ft after Mode 22 is engaged. The climb
rate will eventually stabilize to 0. If you intend on bombing the target from 18000
ft, make sure you are 1000-2000 ft higher before you engage Mode 22.
157

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

The auto-pilot works in a peculiar way since it is derived from the german auto-pilot code: the auto-pilot will
consult your directional gyro, read your current heading and automatically steer the aircraft towards a gyro
heading of 0. This 0 is not true North: it is your job to increase of decrease the directional gyro to make sure
that your aircraft will be going on course. Usually, we set the course setter to find true North, and then we
adjust the gyro to the value read on the compass. In this case, we are doing the opposite.

If set at 0, your
aircraft will be
going straight.

158

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

EXPLAINING THE AUTOPILOT

Steps to set auto-pilot on a given course (179 in our case)


1. Fly the aircraft to make sure you are going into the correct heading
179 by consulting your magnetic compass (explained previously). Do
not engage auto-pilot yet.
2. Once you are on course, increase or decrease your directional gyro
to set it to 0.
3. Once gyro reads 0, engage desired auto-pilot mode. The aircraft
will behave differently based on the mode, but should continue
going into your desired heading.
4. If your gyro does not indicate 0, the auto-pilot will steer the aircraft
until the gyro reads 0.
5. You can make heading adjustments using your increase/decrease
gyro keys mapped earlier. It gives you much better authority and
precision when making course corrections. Keep an eye on the
magnetic compass to make appropriate course corrections.
159

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET
BLENHEIM AUTOPILOT OPERATION TABLE
STEP

ACTION

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

SET A COURSE TO DESIRED HEADING USING THE COURSE SETTER

ALIGN AIRCRAFT WITH COURSE SETTER BY CONSULTING THE


MAGNETIC COMPASS (WHITE T).

WHEN AIRCRAFT IS ALIGNED WITH COURSE SETTER,


DIRECTIONAL GYRO TO 0 USING THE BOTTOM KNOB.

ENGAGE DESIRED AUTOPILOT MODE (COURSE MODE OR MODE 22)

WHEN AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED, STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE


AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS FOR BIG
CORRECTIONS. STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO
INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS FOR SMALL COURSE CORRECTIONS.
USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO IS USUALLY A BETTER WAY TO USE
THE AUTOPILOT AS THE PILOT HAS BETTER CONTROL OVER HIS SHIP.

SET

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO
160

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
BOMBSIGHT

BLENHEIM BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE


HIGH ALTITUDE LEVEL BOMBING
STEP ACTION
1

ENGAGE AUTO-PILOT IN MODE 22 WHEN YOU HAVE SIGHT ON


TARGET AND YOU ARE ALIGNED WITH IT. (SEE AUTOPILOT TABLE)

SELECT BOMB DISTRIBUTION MODE (SALVO/SINGLE).

CHECK AIRSPEED AND ALTITUDE IN THE BOMBARDIER SEAT.

CONVERT READ INDICATED AIRSPEED INTO TRUE AIRSPEED AND


USE THIS VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED INPUT.

CONVERT ALTITUDE INTO HEIGHT (READ ALTITUDE MINUS


TARGET ELEVATION) AND USE THIS VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT
ALTITUDE INPUT.

STEER THE AIRCRAFT USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO (SEE


AUTOPILOT TABLE) UNTIL THE BOMBSIGHT RETICLE IS ON
TARGET.

DROP ORDNANCE.

161

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS
(APPLICABLE TO BLENHEIM)
DROP BOMBS

SWITCH CREW POSITION


(BOMBARDIER/PILOT)

LEAN TO GUNSIGHT

JOYSTICK BTN
(CUSTOM KEY)

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE - PREVIOUS

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE NEXT

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE LEFT

L_CTRL+A

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE RIGHT

L_CTRL+S

This layout is created with ease of access in mind. Bombsight altitude, velocity and wind
correction are already clickable on the sight itself. This layout should allow the user to go
through everything he needs set up instinctively following the numpad from 0 to 9.

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THERE ARE NO CONFLICTS BETWEEN THESE


KEYS AND OTHER CONTROLS. YOU WILL HEAR A PING WHEN
YOU MAP A CONTROL IF THERE IS SUCH A CONFLICT.

CHUCKS BOMBER NUMPAD


(APPLICABLE TO BLENHEIM)

NUM

INCREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
COURSE
SETTER

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE PREVIOUS

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE NEXT

TOGGLE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
SHORT DELAY

INCREASE
COURSE
SETTER

DECREASE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

ENTER

DECREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

INCREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

DECREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

TOGGLE
BOMBSIGHT
AUTOMATION

SELECT BOMB BAY PREVIOUS

SELECT BOMB
BAY NEXT

162

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
So here is a quick reminder:
ON THE GROUND
1. Set your predicted bomb run altitude and airspeed in your bombsight while on the
ground.
2. Select desired distributor release mode (Salvo? Single?).
3. Unlike german bombers, you do not need to ARM your bombs. Just fly to target.

5.
6.
7.

IN THE AIR
Find target and reach targeted altitude and airspeed
Follow steps detailed in the BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE.
Thanks to all the work you did on the ground, you will see that there is not a whole lot
to do in previous step apart from putting your bombsight cursor on the target, adjust
slightly bombsight airspeed & altitude and drop bombs when you are on target.
8. Go home for tea and figgy duffs.
163

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

We had set our bombing altitude to 17000 ft. Reach 19000 ft


and engage Mode 22 auto-pilot mode as seen in Phase 4.
Make sure you have a correct heading. You should lose roughly
1000-2000 ft and gain back some airspeed: it is normal.

Use these airspeed and altitude values and


find the bombsight height and True Airspeed
values as previously shown.

Target is Le Havre Airfield


(hidden by the cloud)

164

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

Switch to Bombardier position and set your bombsight altitude and airspeed values to
those you read on your instrument panel. Remember to adjust these values for TAS (260
mph) and AGL (16,760) as shown in the Planning Phase of the tutorial.

Make necessary course corrections with gyro input until you are aligned with your target.

Select desired bomb distribution mode

Lean to bombsight (same as lean to gunsight button) and align your bombsight reticle
with your target.

Drop your bombs and enjoy the fireworks.

Bombsight reticle:
Bombs should
land there.

165

166

DE HAVILLAND DH.82A TIGER MOTH II

167

TABLE OF CONTENT TIGER MOTH


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL
168

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth is a 1930s biplane designed by Geoffrey de


Havilland and was operated by theRoyal Air Force (RAF) and others as a primary trainer. The
Tiger Moth remained in service with the RAF until replaced by the de Havilland Chipmunk in
1952, when many of the surplus aircraft entered civil operation. Many other nations used the
Tiger Moth in both military and civil applications, and it remains in widespread use as a
169
recreational aircraft in many countries.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

One distinctive characteristic of the Tiger Moth design is its


differential aileron control setup. The ailerons (on the lower wing only) on
a Tiger Moth are operated by an externally mounted circular bellcrank,
which lies flush with the lower wing's fabric undersurface covering.

This circular bellcrank is rotated by metal cables and chains from the cockpit's control
columns, and has the externally mounted aileron pushrod attached at a point 45 outboard
and forward of the bellcrank's centre, when the ailerons are both at their neutral position.
This results in an aileron control system operating, with barely any travel down at all on the
wing on the outside of the turn, while the aileron on the inside travels a large amount
170
upwards to counteract adverse yaw.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The DH.82 is still occasionally used as a primary training aircraft,


particularly for those pilots wanting to gain experience before
moving on to other tailwheel aircraft, although most Tiger Moths
have a skid. Many are now employed by various companies
offering trial lesson experiences. Those in private hands generally
fly far fewer hours and tend to be kept in concours condition. The
de Havilland Moth club founded 1975 is now a highly organized
owners' association offering technical support and focus for Moth
enthusiasts.

171

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Numerous examples of the Tiger Moth are still flying today (an estimated
250). The number of airworthy Tiger Moths has increased as previously neglected
aircraft (or those previously only used for static display in museums) have been
restored.

172

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

DH.82A
TIGER MOTH II

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max

Deg C

Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min


Max

Deg C

N/A
N/A

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


De Havilland Gypsy Major I
73 octane fuel

Engine & Fuel grade


Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Climb RPM
Climb Manifold Pressure

RPM

Normal Operation/Cruise RPM


Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure

RPM

Combat RPM

RPM

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

Emergency Power / Boost Manifold


Pressure @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Landing Approach RPM

RPM

Landing Approach Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Notes and Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2350
See
RPM Gauge
2100
See
RPM Gauge
2000
See
RPM Gauge
2100
See
RPM Gauge
2350

See
RPM Gauge
2350
See
RPM Gauge
Min Oil Press
35 psi
Max Oil Press
45 psi

173

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CREW MEMBERS

FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR
(CO-PILOT)
STUDENT PILOT

174

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
DH.82 TIGER MOTH

FRONT SEAT
INSTRUCTOR

175

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

FRONT SEAT
INSTRUCTOR

IF YOU ARE FLYING THE TIGER MOTH SOLO, DO NOT GO INTO THE
INSTRUCTOR SEAT WHILE YOU ARE IN THE AIR: THE AI WILL SIMPLY
CRASH YOU INTO THE GROUND.
IF YOU WANT TO FLY WITH SOMEONE ONLINE, DO THE FOLLOWING:
1)
2)
3)

STUDENT PILOT SPAWNS IN A TIGER MOTH.


INSTRUCTOR CLICKS ON THE FACTION FLAG TO SELECT A
MULTIPLAYER SLOT.
INSTRUCTOR SELECTS CO-PILOT SEAT, CLICKS FLY AND SPAWNS.

176

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

ARTIFICIAL
HORIZON

THROTTLE

OIL PRESSURE
(PSI)

MIXTURE
FWD: RICH
AFT: LEAN

P-8 MAGNETIC
COMPASS &
COURSE SETTER
177

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
(x 10 MPH)

TURN & BANK


SIDE SLIP
INDICATOR

RPM (x 100)

SPEED LIMITS

ALTIMETER
LONG NEEDLE: x 100 ft
MEDIUM THICK NEEDLE: x 1000 ft
SHORT THIN NEEDLE: x 10000 ft
BOTTOM KNOB SETS QFE

RPM LIMITS

178

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

ELEVATOR TRIM
INDICATOR

ELEVATOR TRIM
LEVER

179

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

INTERESTING FACT:
It seems that the fuel gauge for the Tiger Moth didnt have any graduations.
Therefore, the pilot would simply look at the gauge and guess how much fuel was
left. The picture on the right shows a gauge with 15 liters left. Since there are no
graduations or units on the gauge, my educated guess is that the label displayed is
the fuel quantity in liters since the Russian developers like to work with the metric
system.

FUEL GAUGE
IN-GAME CAPACITY: 60 L (13 GAL)
REAL-LIFE CAPACITY: 83 L (19 GAL)

180

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

FUEL COCK

181

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(IN MPH)

RED INDEX IS THE STALL SPEED.


AVOID IT!

LEADING EDGE SLAT


UNLOCKED
(UNLOCKED POSITION)

LEADING EDGE SLAT LOCK


(LOCKED POSITION)

TO LOCK OR UNLOCK
THE SLATS, YOU NEED
TO LEFT CLICK AND
DRAG ON THE LEVER.
182

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

SLAT (DEPLOYED)

SLAT (DEPLOYED)

LEADING EDGE SLATS ARE


AUTOMATICALLY
DEPLOYED
WHEN YOU ARE TURNING AT
LOW SPEEDS. HOWEVER, YOU
NEED TO MAKE SURE THAT THE
SLATS ARE UNLOCKED. IF THEY
ARE LOCKED, THE SLATS WILL
NOT DEPLOY.
183

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

FUEL GAUGE

STRUTS

CONTROL CABLES
184

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DH.82 TIGER MOTH

BACK SEAT
STUDENT

RPM LIMITS
IDLE: 800-900
CRUISE: 1900-2050
MAX (5 MIN): 2350
OIL PRESSURE
NORMAL: 40-45 PSI
MINIMUM: 35 PSI

MAGNETO # 2

MAGNETO # 1

AIRSPEED LIMITS
STALLING: 45 MPH
CLIMB: 66 MPH
CRUISE: 94 MPH

185

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS
FUEL TANK

STRUTS

WING SPARS

CONTROL
CABLES

1. D.H. Gipsy Major I Engine


2. Fixed Pitch Wooden Propellor
3. Fuel Tank (19 gallons)
4. Fuel Filler Point
5. Fuel Contents Gauge
6. Fuel Supply Pipe
7. Automatic Slats
8. Pitot Head
9. Intercom. Speaking Tube
10. Hinged Cockpit Side Panels
11. Dual Flying Controls
12. Sponge Rubber Padding
13. Welded Aluminium Seats
14. Luggage Locker Access Door
15. Plywood Decking
16. Anti-Spin Strakes
17. Steerable Tail Skid
18. Tailplane Bracing Tube
19. Fabric Covering
20. Luggage Locker
21. Welded Steel Tubing
22. Walkway
23. Divided Axle Type Undercarriage
24. Aileron Sprocket Housing
25. Spruce Spars and Ribs
26. Light Alloy Tip
27. Bracing Wire Spreader Bars
28. Oil Tank (2.1 gallons)
29. Oil Tank Filler
30. Rear View Mirror 186

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

187

DE HAVILLAND DH.82A TIGER MOTH II


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

View-Position #1, # 2

L_ALT+1, L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

course setter - increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

throttle

Throttle axis

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

increase mixture

ESSENTIAL

decrease mixture

ESSENTIAL

bail out
Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide mouse
cursor and take control of your gun)
Deploy / Retract Leading Edge Slats (Lock)

ESSENTIAL
F10

ESSENTIAL
CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

188

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

The Tiger Moth was a trainer: not a fighter. There are no weapons on
this plane in the current version of the game.

189

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified
in the sim.
1. Open fuel cock (ON)
2. Ensure that mixture is set to fully rich.
3. Crack throttle half an inch forward.
4. Turn both magnetos ON
5. Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)
6. Engine ignition! (press I by default)
7. Wait for oil pressure to reach at least 35 psi.
8. Taxi to the runway.
9. Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are
facing the right direction for takeoff.
10. Perform last takeoff checks: Hatch closed, good mixture, and good oil pressure.
11. Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using right
aileron and rudder pedals to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the control
column forward to lift the tail.
12. Rotation is at 55 mph.
13. Unlock automatic leading edge slats and set RPM to 2100 max for climb.
190

PART 7: LANDING

1. Start your approach at 55 mph @ approx.


1500 ft.
2. RPM set as required to maintain speed.
3. You do not need to deploy your landing gear:
it is fixed!
4. Cut throttle and try to keep your nose
pointed to the end of the runway.
5. Touchdown at 50 mph in a 3-point landing.
6. Stick fully back.
7. There are no brakes on the Tiger Moth. Just
cut throttle until you come to a stop.

191

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
The de Havilland Gipsy Major or Gipsy IIIA is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, inline engine used in a variety of
light aircraft produced in the 1930s, including the famous Tiger Moth biplane. Many Gipsy Major engines still
power vintage aircraft types worldwide today. The engine was a slightly modified Gipsy III, which was
effectively a de Havilland Gipsy engine modified to run inverted so that the cylinders pointed downwards
below the crankcase. This allowed the propeller shaft to be kept in a high position without having the
192
cylinders blocking the pilot's forward view over the nose of the aircraft.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

One initial disadvantage of the inverted configuration was the high oil consumption (up to four pints per hour)
requiring regular refills of the external oil tank, this problem improved over time with the use of modified piston
rings. The advent of World War II cut short all civilian flying and after the war de Havilland was too busy
concentrating on jet engines to put much energy into its piston engines. The Gipsy did not go without a fight
though. In Canada the Gipsy Major was the engine of choice for the DHC1 Chipmunk trainer, which later
replaced the Tiger Moth in the RAF. By that time however, the Gipsy Major was eclipsed by the Blackburn
Cirrus Major in Britain and the American Lycoming and Continental horizontally opposed engines abroad (in a
twist of irony, the Blackburn itself was based on Frank Halfords old ADC Cirrus engine of which Blackburn had
bought the licence in 1934). In its final supercharged form, the Gipsy Major used in helicopter applications
193
delivered 220 hp (164 kW).

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

ENGINE MANAGEMENT IN THE TIGER MOTH IS VERY


SIMPLE. YOU JUST NEED TO CONTROL YOUR
THROTTLE AND MONITOR YOUR RPM. THE
PROPELLER HAS A FIXED PITCH, AND THERE ARE NO
WATER RADIATOR CONTROLS

RPM LIMITS
IDLE: 800-900
CRUISE: 1900-2050
MAX (5 MIN): 2350
OIL PRESSURE
NORMAL: 40-45 PSI
MINIMUM: 35 PSI

194

195

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

50-55
160
66
55
50

The aircraft is quite easy to fly and very


forgiving, however it only has ailerons on
the bottom wing so its roll rate is not
quite as quick as other biplane aircraft.
For more information on either aircraft or
engine performance, consult the 2nd
Guards Composite Aviation Regiment
Operations Checklist. It is a fantastic
resource (link below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/CLI
FFS%20OF%20DOVER%20Operations%20Checklist.p
df
196

197

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

198

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

P-8 COMPASS TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass is quite useful to know where you
are going.
Unlike modern British fighters like the Spitfire and the
Hurricane, the Tiger Moth is not equipped with a directional
gyro. What you have instead is a simple compass indicating
magnetic north with a course setter allowing you to give you a
reference heading (that you set) to follow.
The magnetic compass is slow to respond after violent
manoeuvers. This is one of the real life drawbacks of this
system.
199

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

P-8 MAGNETIC COMPASS


The white T indicates magnetic north. You can use the course setter to help you reach a certain heading.
For that, you need to deduce your geographical heading based on your magnetic heading (shown by
compass). Here is an example:
1) You want to go to a geographic heading of 006. You need to take into account magnetic declination.
This means that we want to go to a magnetic heading of 006 + 010 degrees = 016
2) Set the course setter to 016 (magnetic heading). Steer the aircraft until the white T is facing the red N
and is parallel to it.
3) When you are properly aligned (as shown on following picture), this means that you are on course.
You are heading towards a REAL geographical heading of 006 by following a magnetic heading of 016.
White T facing
the Red N

Parallel lines
(must be
aligned with T)
200

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
201

202

MESSERSCHMITT BF.109 EMIL

TABLE OF CONTENT BF.109


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: NAVIGATION
204

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The first rule in air combat is to master your machine before you even
think about entering combat. Unlike todays modern fighter jets,
WWII piston engines required pilot input in order to operate within

The Messerschmitt Bf.109 was a German World War II fighter


aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser during
the early to mid-1930s. The "Bf 109" designation was issued by the
German ministry of aviation and represents the developing company
Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (at which the engineer Messerschmitt led
the development of the plane) and a rather arbitrary figure.

205

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The first major redesign since the early underpowered variants came with the E
series, including the naval variant, the Bf 109T (T standing for Trger, or carrier).
The Bf 109E, or "Emil", introduced a number of structural changes in order to
accommodate the heavier, but significantly more powerful 1,100 PS (1,085 HP)
Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine, heavier armament and increased fuel capacity.

Later variants of the Es introduced a fuselage bomb rack or provision for a long-range, standardized 300 litre (79 US
gallon) drop-tank, and used the DB 601N engine of higher power output. The 109E first saw service with the "Condor
Legion" during the last phase of the Spanish Civil War and was the main variant from the beginning of World War II until
mid-1941 when the 109F replaced it in the pure fighter role. From the end of 1941, the Bf.109 was steadily being
supplemented by the superior Focke-Wulf Fw 190.
206

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

It was one of the first truly modern fighters of the era, including such features as allmetal monocoque construction, a closed canopy, a retractable landing gear, and was powered
by a liquid-cooled, inverted-V12 aero engine.

207

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Originally conceived as an interceptor, later models were developed to fulfill multiple tasks, serving
as bomber escort, fighter-bomber, day-, night-, all-weather fighter, ground-attack aircraft, and
as reconnaissance aircraft. It was supplied to and operated by several states during World War II, and
served with several countries for many years after the war.

The Bf.109 was the most produced


fighter aircraft in history, with a total of
33,984 airframes produced from 1936
up to April 1945.

208

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

Bf.109
E-1

Bf.109
E-1/B

Bf.109
E-3

Bf.109
E-3/B

Bf.109
E-4

Bf.109
E-4/B

Bf.109
E-4/N DERATED

Bf.109
E-4/N

Deg C

40
100

40
100

40
100

40
100

40
100

40
100

40
100

40
100

Deg C

40
105

40
105

40
105

40
105

40
105

40
105

40
105

40
105

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 Aa
B-4 87 octane

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 Aa
B-4 87 octane

DB601 N-1 DERATED


C-3 100 octane

DB601 N-1
C-3 100 octane

2400

2400

2400

2400

2400

2400

2600

2600

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.35

1.35

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

2400
30 min MAX
1.25

2400
30 min MAX
1.25

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


Engine & Fuel Grade
Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure
Combat RPM

RPM

2200

2200

2200

2200

2200

2200

2300

2300

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

RPM

2400

2400

2400

2400

2400

2400

2600

2600

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

1.3
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX
1.40
1 min MAX

1.3
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX
1.40
1 min MAX

1.35
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX
1.45
1 min MAX

1.3
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX
1.40
1 min MAX

1.35
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX
1.45
1 min MAX

1.35
5 min MAX

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km
Emergency Power / Boost
Manifold Pressure @ Sea Level
Landing Approach RPM

1.3
5 min MAX
2500
1 min MAX
1.40
1 min MAX

1.35
5 min MAX
2600
1 min MAX
1.42
1 min MAX

2300

2300

2300

2300

2300

2300

2400

2400

Landing Approach Manifold


Pressure

GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

Top Speed @ Sea Level

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

490

490

500

510

500

510

510

510

MANUAL PITCH
4 x MG17
NO CANNON

MANUAL PITCH
4 x MG17
NO CANNON
BOMB LOAD

MANUAL PITCH
2 x MG17
2 x MG/FF
NO
MINENGSCH.

MANUAL PITCH
2 x MG17
2 x MG/FF
NO MINENGSCH.
BOMB LOAD

AUTO PITCH
2 x MG17
2 x MG/FFM
MINENGSCH.

AUTO PITCH
2 x MG17
2 x MG/FFM
MINENGSCH.
BOMB LOAD

AUTO PITCH
2 x MG17
2 x MG/FFM
MINENGSCH.
NO WEP

AUTO PITCH
2 x MG17
2 x MG/FFM
MINENGSCH.
SAW LITTLE TO NO ACTION

Notes

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

209

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

MG17 7.92mm
WING MACHINE GUNS

BF.109E-1

BF.109E-1/B

BOMB RACK

MG FF 20mm
WING CANNONS
(WITHOUT MINENGESCHO)

BF.109E-3/B

BF.109E-3

BOMB RACK

MG FF/M 20mm
WING CANNONS
(WITH MINENGESCHO)

BF.109E-4

BF.109E-4/B
MG FF/M 20mm
WING CANNONS
(WITH MINENGESCHO)

BF.109E-4/N

BOMB RACK

DERATED ENGINE
NO WEP

210

BF.109E-4/N-DeRated

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

MANUAL PROP PITCH

MANUAL PROP PITCH

BF.109E-1

BF.109E-3

BOMB PANEL
AUTOMATIC PROP PITCH

BF.109E-1/B

BF.109E-4
BF.109E-4/N
BF.109E-4/N DERATED

211

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B

212

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B

PITOT HEAT

HAND PUMP
USE WHEN LANDING GEAR FAILS TO RETRACT
COMPLETELY. YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THE LANDING
GEAR INDICATOR LIGHT WILL BE NEITHER RED NOR
GREEN, WHICH MEANS THAT THE LANDING IS NOT
COMPLETELY RETRACTED AND NOT COMPLETELY
DEPLOYED.

WATER RADIATOR
CONTROL CRANK
(MUST HOLD
RADIATOR BUTTON
TO OPEN IT)

213

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B
LEFT: FUEL PRESSURE (KG/M3)
RIGHT: OIL PRESSURE (KG/M3)

LANDING GEAR TOGGLE


(UP/NEUTRAL/DOWN)

CANNON AMMO
INDICATOR

FUEL GAUGE (LITERS)


CAPACITY: 390 L

WATER RADIATOR TEMP


(DEG C)
OIL RADIATOR TEMP
(DEG C)

LANDING GEAR
EMERGENCY HANDLE

LANDING GEAR
INDICATOR
RED/EIN = UP
GREEN/AUS = DOWN

BOMB ARMING PANEL

214

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B
ALTITUDE
INDICATOR (KM)
MAGNETOS

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

SUPERCHARGER PRESSURE GAUGE (ATA)


SIMILAR FUNCTION TO BOOST OR MANIFOLD
PRESSURE (THROTTLE)
NO PROP PITCH LEVER
(LEVER VISIBLE ON E-1, E-2
& E-3 ONLY)

RPM
(U/min)
PROP PITCH
INDICATOR
12:00 = MAX RPM

FUEL COCK

AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
(KM/H)
COCKPIT LIGHTS

215

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B

GUNSIGHT
DIMMER

CLOCK

216

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B

THROTTLE

PROPELLER PITCH CONTROL (ON AUTO PROP PITCH


E-4 VARIANTS).
NOTE: WILL ONLY WORK WHEN PROP PITCH
AUTOMATION IS OFF. IF AUTOMATION IS ON,
PITCH WILL BE AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED.

OIL RADIATOR
AFT = CLOSED
FWD = OPEN

HORIZONTAL STAB
TRIM INDICATOR
(ELEVATOR)
ZOOMED VIEW OF THROTTLE

217

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-4/B

FLAPS CONTROL
WHEEL
HORIZONTAL STAB
(ELEVATOR) TRIM WHEEL

218

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.109E-3
& BF.109E-1

MANUAL PROP PITCH

219

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CHECK THE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION FOR RECOMMENDED RADIATOR SETTINGS.

OIL RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

OIL RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE
ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

WATER RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL
THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

220

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS

WING SPAR
FUEL TANK
7.92 mm
MACHINEGUN
(2 TOTAL)

CONTROL
CABLES

WATER
RADIATOR

20 mm CANNON
(2 TOTAL)

OIL
RADIATOR
221

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

222

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

223

MESSERSCHMITT BF.109E (ALL VARIANTS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle secondary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

fire machine guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

ESSENTIAL

fire cannons

Joystick Cannon Trigger

ESSENTIAL

toggle prop pitch automation (E-4 MODELS ONLY)

ESSENTIAL

toggle gunsight illumination

ESSENTIAL

bomb mode selector next / previous (salvo/single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

bomb salvo quantity next / previous

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bombs armed

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bomb short delay

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Drop ordnance (bombs)

ESSENTIAL

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator/Horizontal Stab)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

224

MESSERSCHMITT BF.109E (ALL VARIANTS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight
throttle

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
NOT ESSENTIAL

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

War Emergency Power

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

Jettison canopy

ESSENTIAL

Open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

CUSTOM. DO NOT MAP TO


AXIS LIKE FOR THE RAF A/C.
MAP TO KEYS INSTEAD.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch


Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)

Left / Right Wheel brake

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

Map in AXES if pedals

ESSENTIAL

bail out

ESSENTIAL

engage emergency undercarriage system

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide


mouse cursor)

F10

ESSENTIAL
225

PART 4: CONTROLS

Most german aircraft, unlike the majority of British and Russian planes, has a toe brake or
heel brake system, which is linked to each individual wheel of your landing gear.
In order to brake, you need to hold either your left or right wheel toe brake key to steer your
aircraft. Applying rudder will also help you turn tighter.
The main landing wheel brake system employs hydraulically actuated disc-type brakes. Each
brake is operated by individual master brake cylinders located directly forward of the instrument
panel. The brakes are selectively controlled by means of toe pedals incorporated into the rudder
pedal assembly.
Be careful: your wheel brake command used for Differential braking aircraft will lock both your
brakes in a german plane. You can map left/right wheel brake axes if you have rudder pedals.

226

Recommended Machine-Gun Belt Loadout Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 17 (7.92 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.

2.
3.

7.9257, S.m.K.H. - Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, Hart- Improved AP round with tungsten core. Highly recommended if you want a straight AP. However, the S.m.K.H.
in-game is in fact a duplicate of the S.m.K., because the S.m.K.H. was never used on a fighter aircraft. Tungsten is a precious and expensive metal that was much
needed elsewhere for the german war effort.
7.9257, P.m.K. - Phosphor mit Stahlkern- Standard AP with an incendiary composition. A great round, can still pierce armor and set fires
7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (gelb) OR 7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (Weiss)- Standard AP with yellow (gelb) or white (Weiss) tracers. Good for aiming.

USE 400 m HORIZ & VERT CONVERGENCE


227

Recommended CANNON Belt Loadout OERLIKON/IKARIA MG FF OR MG FF/M (20 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.
2.

For Bf.109E-3 Variants (MG FF): Sprenggranate L'spur m.Zerl (134g AP round with small HE payload, with tracer and self destruction) A
very effective round, has the potential to do major structual damage while still piercing armor.
For Bf.109E-4 Variants (MG FF/M): M-Geschoss m.Zerl (92g HE with self destruction) Thin walled HE round. Has immense potential for
destruction, containing 3 times the amount of HE payload than that of a normal HE round. Arguably the best round for the MG FF/M.
However, it does not contain a tracer composition

USE 200 m HORIZ & 400 m VERT CONVERGENCE


228

20 mm MG/FF
7.92 mm MG17

229

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

230

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

231

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Bomb Loadout

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

1. For ship or low-level bombing: 4 X SC50 GP BOMB, Low Level Fuse, 14 sec delay
2. For high altitude dive bombing: 1 X SC250 BOMB, High Altitude Fuse, 0 sec delay

BOMB DROP PROCEDURE:


1) Arm Bombs
2) Choose Single or Salvo release mode
3) Select bomb delay (toggle with or without
delay)
4) Drop bombs (drop ordnance key)

232

233

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

234

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified
in the sim.
1. Fuel cock ON
2. Oil rad and water rad fully open (100 %)
3. If flying a Bf.109E-4, disengage Automatic Prop Pitch
4. Prop pitch full fine (12:00 position)
5. Deploy flaps at roughly 20 degrees
6. Crack throttle about an inch
7. Switch Magnetos to M1+M2
8. Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)
9. Engine ignition! (press I by default)
10. Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and water rad temperature to
reach at least 40 deg C.
11. Taxi to the runway.
12. Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are
facing the right direction for takeoff.
13. Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Water & Oil Rads fully open, Full
Fine prop pitch (12:00), good oil & water rad temperatures.
14. Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using rudder
pedals and small brake input to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the
control column forward to lift the tail.
15. Rotation is at 180 km/h.
16. Raise landing gear and flaps and throttle back to approx. 1.2 ATA. Lower prop
pitch until engine is operating at 2300 RPM while you are beginning your climb.

235

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 200


km/h @ approx. 800 m.

2.

Water and oil rads fully


open (100 %) and set prop
pitch to full fine (12:00).

3.

Deploy flaps (down) and


landing gear.

4.

Cut throttle and try to


keep your nose pointed to
the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 160 km/h in


a 3-point landing.

6.

Stick fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you


come to a full stop. Be
careful not to overheat
your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a
prop strike.

AIRSPEEDS ON PICTURE ARE SLIGHTLY HIGHER BECAUSE


IT WAS TAKEN FROM THE DCS BF.109K-4 MANUAL
236

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The earlier Mercedes-Benz DB 600


was rated at 1,050 hp at 2,400 rpm
for take-off and also developed this
power at an altitude of 13,100 ft. It
was equipped with a pressure
carburetor
between
the
supercharger and the intake
manifolds and an automatic timing
device which permitted a 10 percent
overload for a period of one minute.
Using 87-Octane gasoline, four of
these engines installed in a Junkers
Ju 90 airliner established a World's
Record by carrying a payload of
10,000 kg. (22,050 lb.) to an altitude
of 7,242 m. (23,750 ft.) on June 8,
1938 in Germany.
DB 601A
The Daimler-Benz DB 601 was a German aircraft engine built during World War II. It was a liquid-cooled inverted V12, and
powered the Messerschmitt Bf 109, among others. The DB 601 was basically an improved DB 600 with direct fuel injection.
Direct fuel injection gave the Luftwaffe an edge over the RAF during the Battle of Britain since the DB 601 was unaffected by
negative g's unlike the early Merlin models. The engine used dry cylinder liners, had roller bearing connector rods and had a
unique system of attaching the cylinders to the crankcase. It was used in several aircraft such as the Heinkel He-111
and Messerschmitt Bf 110 as well. By 1944, Daimler-Benz engines were so important to the Luftwaffe that it ran 8 major
237
factories with 6 more being run by other organizations.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

DB601-Aa
The DB601-Aa used a souped-up version of an older supercharger. Bf.109E fighter-bomber variants had the Aa version of
the DB 601, while the fighter versions had the DB 601 A. The DB601-Aa generates more horsepower at low altitudes than
the A model (but lesser at higher altitudes).
A cardinal fault of the Bf.109E - one which was corrected in the F and G models - was the design of the supercharger air
intake. The unit on the Emil was close to the fuselage and ingested the "dirty" boundary layer air which scrubbed along the
cowling surface. As a result, the supercharger ram recovery was 37.5% compared with the Spitfire's 50%. The lower ram
recovery meant that the critical altitude was reached at a lower altitude. Had the later design been used on the Bf.109E, as
much as 1000 ft may have been gained in ceiling and in best combat altitude. This would have nullified much of the
Spitfire's performance advantage at height.
Another important difference between the Bf.109E and the Spitfire Mk.IA lay in the supercharger design. The early Merlin
engines were equipped with gear-driven single-speed, single-stage units. The supercharger had to be throttles back at low
altitude to avoid over-boosting the engine. As altitude increased, more and more of the supercharger capability was used
and engine horsepower continued to increase until critical altitude was reached, after which power fell off rapidly.
The DB601Aa engine, on the other hand, was equipped with a single-stage supercharger with a hydraulic or fluid clutch.
While heavier and more complex than the gear-driven clutch, this unit had the capability of operating at an infinite
number of speed ratios. This meant that the supercharger could be slowed down without choking it and far more power
was delivered at lower altitudes. As the Bf.109 flew higher, an aneroid control caused the supercharger to run faster to
compensate for the decreased density of the air. The variable speed characteristics of this supercharger are obtained
through slippage, so it was necessary for the Bf.109 cooling system to contain more oil for cooling.
At low levels, the variable-speed supercharger of the DB601Aa allowed some 200 additional hp to be delivered to the
Bf.109. To a great extent, this was the measure of the low altitude superiority of the Messerschmitt fighter.
238

DB 601 N-1
239

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

A de-rated engine is allowed to operate at maximum power pretty much infinitely. In modern industrial facilities,
many gas turbines (which are derived from aero engines) are often requested to be de-rated by the customer
using them as a power plant. Why? Because industrial engines need to be working 24/7 at high regimes while
maintaining a certain security factor (you dont want to have the engine blow up in your face, eh?).

'De-rated' is a term the British used to denote an aircraft engine which had its intended maximum power
level reduced (by the manufacturer) to a lower level to reduce the chance of mechanical failure. An engine
would be derated if it was not deemed to be reliable enough at the higher power settings.
The DB 601 N-1 engine on the Bf.109E-4/N could reach a max manifold pressure of 1.42 ATA for about 5 minutes
before engine failure or damage. With the Bf.109E-4/N de-rated variant, you can reach a max manifold pressure
of 1.35 ATA for as long as you like.

It is reasonable to assume (despite the lack of proper documentation on that meticulous matter) that engine
reliability issues plagued the Bf.109E-4/N, which was only built in limited numbers and saw little to no action
during the Battle of Britain. It is important to note that the DB 601 N-1 also powered the Bf.109 F-2 version at
the same time period, which became much more successful once the DB 601E was implemented.
One of the main reasons why the Bf.109E received so few DB 601 N-1 engines was because at the height of the
Battle of Britain, the first Bf.109F models started rolling off the assembly line and were given a much higher
priority in terms of engine distribution, together with the Bf.110C, D and E series. With the Friedrich coming into
service, it did not make sense to retrofit the obsolete E series to the new engine configuration. At the time, the
Emil just had two to three months of operations planned until being put in reserve as a second-line fighter.
240

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine
settings once in a while for the pilots to know what settings
they should use.
You can read your engine settings from the gauges in the
cockpit or from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) shows 1600 RPM. The manifold pressure (2)
reads 1.0 ATA. The oil (3) and water (4) radiators can be
approximated from the crank position or read from the info
window in % (only the oil radiator can be read though as the water
rad info window will only tell you if you are opening or closing
them). Note: 100 % = fully open
The resulting RPM is affected by both manifold pressure and prop
pitch (5). 12:00 Pitch is fully fine, and generates maximum RPM.

2
1
5

Radiator settings:

65-75 % WATER / 50-60 % OIL during normal level flight (1.2 ATA)
75-100 % WATER / 60 % OIL during shallow climb (1.2 ATA)
85-100 % WATER / 85 % OIL during steep climb (Full power)
50-100 % WATER / 40 % OIL for WEP level flight (when extending or
pursued)
65-75 % WATER / 50 % OIL for full throttle no WEP (extending or pursued)
100 % WATER / 100 % OIL during takeoff & landing
(Unit)

Bf.109
E-1

Bf.109
E-1/B

Bf.109
E-3

40
100
40
105

40
100
40
105

40
100
40
105

Bf.109
E-3/B

Bf.109
E-4

Bf.109
E-4/B

Bf.109
E-4/N DERATED

40
100
40
105

40
100
40
105

40
100
40
105

Bf.109
E-4/N

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

40
100
40
105

40

241100
40
105

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

I must stress the importance of understanding how manual prop pitch works. Many new pilots
take the later variants of the Bf.109 (like the E-4) in the hopes that the automatic propeller
pitch control will reduce their work load. Does it? Yes and no.
Automatic prop pitch at this stage of development was not as good as the governor systems
installed on later 109 versions like the F, the G or the K variants. Auto prop pitch controls your
pitch for you, but it does it in a way that preserves the engine to a point where you have a
significant decrease in aircraft performance for no gain at all. Imagine your car limiting your
engine regime so you dont go over 80 km/h while on the Autobahn wouldnt that be
frustrating? In a game where speed is life, you cannot afford to lose speed in critical phases of
your mission.
But why are you telling me this, Chuck? This all seems a little overly dramatic, dont you think?
Not in the slightest. Learn how to use the manual prop pitch from the beginning. Engine RPM is
slower to respond to propeller pitch variation than, say, the RPM control in the Spitfire or the
Hurricane.
The only way you can dominate a Spitfire or a Hurricane is when you fight them in the vertical
plane (NEVER in the horizontal plane; dont e-v-e-r turn with them unless you like to
impersonate swiss cheese). The Bf.109 is a superb climber, but for that you need to use your
prop pitch intelligently so you milk every meter of altitude you can get in order to get as high as
possible as quickly as possible.
You do not have to check your prop pitch gauge. You can simply consult your RPM. Maintain it
between 2200 and 2400 max. RPM is too low? Get your prop pitch finer and your RPM will go
up. RPM is too high? Reduce RPM by getting your prop pitch coarser.
Experienced pilots can guess their RPM just by listening to the sound of their engine. Yep, they
do it by ear. With enough practice, you can do it to.
242

243

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
An excellent video tutorial to understand prop pitch:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIpZAu61OM8

244

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

In order not to exceed the maximal takeoff weight, I recommend to fly the fighter
version of the Bf.109 with 70 % fuel. JABO versions (fighter bombers) will
obviously need less fuel since the bombs are quite heavy.

JABO versions of the Bf.109 have a slightly more powerful


engines than pure fighter versions and are a little faster at
lower altitudes (without their bombs, of course). However,
the bomb rack generates additional drag and slows down
the aircraft. If you fly a JABO variant without bombs, make
sure to get rid of the bomb rack as well to enjoy these few
extra km/h.

245

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

180
750
240
200
160

In comparison to the Bf.109, the Spitfire has a better turn rate. However, the
Bf.109 has a superior climb rate and dive speed. The preferred way of
fighting the Spitfire is when you have an altitude advantage.

The Spitfire has better performance at higher altitudes (over 20,000 ft) than
the 109, but the 109 is generally faster and climbs better under 20,000 ft.
Use this to your advantage.

Never try to turn with a Spitfire. The 109 should be used as a pure energy
fighter (boom and zoom).

The Bf.109 will always have a superior dive speed. Use that to your
advantage if you want to bounce someone or use a power dive to escape
from a Spitfire.

For more information on either aircraft or engine performance, consult the


2nd Guards Composite Aviation Regiment Operations Checklist. It is a
fantastic resource (link below).

https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/CLIFFS%20OF%20DOVER%20Operatio
ns%20Checklist.pdf

246

247

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

248

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE BF.109, CHECK OUT THESE YOUTUBE CHANNELS. THESE GUYS
COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND HOW TO FLY THE BF.109 AND EXPLAIN IT CLEARLY AND EFFORTLESSLY.

APEOFTHEYEAR
Channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/Apeoftheyear/featured
Tutorials:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUyEbp1iw_PrgHx7nji2ohQyhHqBPluh1

JG4_KARAYA
Channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/JG52Karaya
Bf.109 Tutorial:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FjrVLQgqqso&index=7&list=PLQIkL6RW88E9cV_s8hxbuTam1fgAp
AahF

249

PART 10: NAVIGATION

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
250

251

MESSERSCHMITT BF.110

TABLE OF CONTENT BF.110


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: AUTOPILOT TUTORIAL
253

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Messerschmitt Bf.110 was a twinengine heavy fighter (Zerstrer


German for "Destroyer") and fighterbomber
(Jagdbomber
or
Jabo)
developed in Germany in the 1930s and
used by the Luftwaffe and others
during World War II. Throughout the
1930s, the air forces of the major military
powers were engaged in a transition
from biplane to monoplane designs.
Most concentrated on the singleengine fighter aircraft, but the problem of
range arose.

254

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The
Reichsluftfahrtministerium
(RLM),
pushed by Hermann Gring, issued a
request for a new multipurpose fighter
called the Kampfzerstrer (battle destroyer)
with long range and an internal bomb bay.
The request called for a twin-engine, threeseat, all-metal monoplane that was armed
with cannon as well as a bomb bay. Of the
original seven companies, only Bayerische
Flugzeugwerke (Messerschmitt), FockeWulf and Henschel responded to the
request.
255

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Willy Messerschmitts design prevailed over those of Focke-Wulf, Henschel and Arado. He was given the funds to
build several prototype aircraft. Messerschmitt omitted the internal bomb load requirement from the RLM directive to
increase the armament element of the RLM specification. The Bf.110 was far superior to its rivals in providing the
speed, range and firepower to meet its role requirements. By the end of 1935, the Bf.110 had evolved into an allmetal, low-wing cantilever monoplane of semi-monocoque design featuring twin rudders and powered by two
DB600A engines.

The basic problem faced by the Bf.110 was that it could not perform its job as a bomber escort against modern fighters. In earlier campaigns that weakness
had been concealed, either by the lack of such opponents in Poland and Norway, or by the speed of the German advance in France, which disrupted the
British and French air effort. It was only over Britain that the Bf 110 came up against a determined enemy equipped with modern fighters, and it simply could
not cope. If a Hurricane or Spitfire was unlucky enough to be caught in front of the guns of a Bf 110, then the British fighter would suffer serious damage, but
that rarely happened. Losses were heavy. During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe lost 223 Bf 110s, having started the battle with only 237. Replacements
256
could not be found quickly enough to make up these losses. After the Battle of Britain, the Bf 110 could no longer be seen as an elite day fighter.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Losses were heavy. During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe lost 223 Bf.110s, having
started the battle with only 237. Replacements could not be found quickly enough to make
up these losses. After the Battle of Britain, the Bf 110 could no longer be seen as an elite
day fighter.

The basic problem faced by the Bf.110 was that it could not perform its job as a bomber
escort against modern fighters. In earlier campaigns that weakness had been concealed,
either by the lack of such opponents in Poland and Norway, or by the speed of the German
advance in France, which disrupted the British and French air effort. It was only over Britain
that the Bf 110 came up against a determined enemy equipped with modern fighters, and it
simply could not cope. If a Hurricane or Spitfire was unlucky enough to be caught in front of
the guns of a Bf 110, then the British fighter would suffer serious damage, but that rarely
257
happened.

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

Bf.110
C-2

Bf.110
C-4

Bf.110
C-4/N DERATED

Bf.110
C-4/N

Bf.110
C-7

Bf.110
C-7 LATE

60
100
40
105

60
90
40
85

60
90
40
85

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C

Deg C

60
90
40
85

60
90
40
85

60
100
40
105

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


Engine & Fuel Grade

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 N-1 DERATED


C-3 100 octane

DB601 N-1
C-3 100 octane

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

DB601 A-1
B-4 87 octane

2400

2400

2600

2600

2400

2400

1.3

1.3

1.35

1.35

1.3

1.3

2300
30 min MAX
1.2

2300
30 min MAX
1.2

2400
30 min MAX
1.25

2400
30 min MAX
1.25

2300
30 min MAX
1.2

2300
30 min MAX
1.2

Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure

RPM

2200

2200

2300

2300

2200

2200

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

Combat RPM

RPM

2400

2400

2600
5 min MAX

2600
5 min MAX

2400

2400

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM
UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.3
5 min MAX
2400
5 min MAX
1.3
5 min MAX

1.35
5 min MAX

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km
Emergency Power / Boost
Manifold Pressure @ Sea Level
Landing Approach RPM

1.3
5 min MAX
2400
5 min MAX
1.3
5 min MAX

1.3
5 min MAX
2400
5 min MAX
1.3
5 min MAX

1.3
5 min MAX
2400
5 min MAX
1.3
5 min MAX

GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2300

2300

2400

1.35
5 min MAX
2600
1 min MAX
1.42
1 min MAX
2400

2300

2300

Landing Approach Manifold


Pressure
Top Speed @ Sea Level

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

As required

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

420

420

430

440

420

420

MANUAL PITCH
4 x MG17
2 x MG FF
NO MINENGSCH.

MANUAL PITCH
4 x MG17
2 x MG FF/M
MINENGSCH.

AUTO PITCH
4 x MG17
2 x MG FF/M
MINENGSCH.
NO WEP

AUTO PITCH
4 x MG17
2 x MG FF/M
MINENGSCH.

MANUAL PITCH
4 x MG17
2 x MG FF/M
MINENGSCH.
BOMB LOAD

AUTO PITCH
4 x MG17
2 x MG FF/M
258
MINENGSCH.
BOMB LOAD

Notes

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

BOMB PANEL

BF.110C-2
BF.110C-4

BF.110C-7

BF.110 Variant

Characteristic

BF.110C-2

Heavy Fighter / Manual Prop Pitch / MG FF Cannons (no Mineng.)

BF.110C-4

Heavy Fighter / Manual Prop Pitch / MG FF/M Cannons (with Mineng.)

BF.110C-4/N

Heavy Fighter / Automatic Prop Pitch / MG FF/M Cannons (with Mineng.)

BF.110C-4/N DERATED

Heavy Fighter / Automatic Prop Pitch / MG FF/M Cannons (with Mineng.) / No WEP

BF.110C-7

Fighter Bomber / Manual Prop Pitch / MG FF/M Cannons (with Mineng.)

BF.110C-7 LATE

Fighter Bomber / Automatic Prop Pitch / MG FF/M Cannons (with Mineng.)259

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

BF.110C-2 / BF.110C-4

BF.110C-7

260

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
CREW MEMBERS
PILOT

DORSAL GUNNER

261

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BF.110 C-4

PILOT

262

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

FUEL TRANSFER SYSTEM


(SEE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION FOR FUEL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT)263

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

COCKPIT LIGHTS
KNOB
264

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT
CANNON AMMO
INDICATOR

PROPELLER PITCH
INDICATORS
12:00 = MAX RPM
RPM (U/min)

SUPERCHARGER PRESSURE GAUGE


(ATA)
SIMILAR FUNCTION TO BOOST OR
MANIFOLD PRESSURE (THROTTLE)

265

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

CLOCK

GUNSIGHT
DIMMER
AUTOPILOT
SWITCH
REPEATER
COMPASS

AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
(KM/H)

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR

VARIOMETER
(VERTICAL VELOCITY IN
M/S)

266

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

AUTOPILOT MODE
SELECTOR
(COURSE MODE / OFF)
LORENZ BLIND LANDING
SYSTEM INDICATOR
VERTICAL SCALE: NAVIGATION BEACON
SIGNAL INTENSITY
HORIZONTAL SCALE: NAVIGATION
BEACON SIGNAL DIRECTION

ARTIFICIAL
HORIZON

ALTIMETER (KM)
BOTTOM KNOB: SETS QFE

267

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

FUEL GAUGE
CAPACITY: 1270 L (TOTAL)

WATER RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

FRONT LEFT TANK (MAIN): 375 L


FRONT RIGHT TANK (MAIN): 375 L
REAR LEFT TANK (RESERVE): 260 L
REAR RIGHT TANK (RESERVE): 260 L

FUEL WARNING LIGHTS


(LIT WHEN LESS THAN 90 L IN TANK)
TOP LEFT: FRONT LEFT MAIN FUEL TANK
BOTTOM LEFT: REAR LEFT RESERVE FUEL TANK
TOP RIGHT: FRONT RIGHT MAIN FUEL TANK
BOTTOM RIGHT: REAR RIGHT RESERVE FUEL TANK

WATER RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

WATER RAD
CONTROL

WATER RAD
CONTROL
FUEL GAUGE CONTENTS SELECTOR
0 : OFF (SHOWS 0 L)
1 (VL = VORN LINKS): FRONT LEFT MAIN TANK
2 (VR = VORN RECHTS): FRONT RIGHT MAIN TANK
3 (HL = HINTEN LINKS): REAR LEFT RESERVE TANK
4 (HR = HINTEN RECHTS): REAR RIGHT RESERVE TANK

268

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

Warning notice:

AUTOPILOT CONTROL
LANDING GEAR INDICATOR
RED/EIN = GEAR UP
GREEN/AUS = GEAR DOWN

Do not deploy landing gear


at speeds above 400 km/h.
Do not deploy flaps at
speeds above 240 km/h.

DIRECTIONAL GYRO
(UPPER BAND)

PROP PITCH
CONTROL

AUTOPILOT DIRECTION
(BOTTOM BAND)

SLIP INDICATOR

DIRECTIONAL GYRO
SETTTER KNOB
269

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT
NOTE: BOTH UNDERCARRIAGE AND FLAP
SYSTEMS USE HYDRAULIC POWER. YOU
HAVE THREE SETTINGS: UP, NEUTRAL AND
DOWN. IN REAL LIFE, YOU WOULD
OPERATE FLAPS AND UNDERCARRIAGE BY
HOLDING THE LEVER IN THE UP OR DOWN
POSITION, AND RETURN THE LEVER IN THE
NEUTRAL POSITION ONCE THE FLAPS OR
UNDERCARRIAGE IS IN THE DESIRED
POSITION. OBVIOUSLY, YOU WILL SIMPLY
WEAR DOWN YOUR HYDRAULIC PUMPS IF
YOU KEEP YOUR FLAPS IN THE UP
POSITION INSTEAD OF THE CORRECT
NEUTRAL POSITION.

LANDING GEAR CONTROL


EIN (UP)/NEUTRAL/ AUS (DOWN)

FLAPS CONTROL
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

EIN (UP)/NEUTRAL/ AUS (DOWN)

270

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

THROTTLES

ELEVATOR TRIM WHEEL

FLAP SETTING
INDICATOR (DEG)

ELEVATOR TRIM
SETTING INDICATOR

OIL RADIATOR
CONTROLS
AFT: OPEN (AUF)
FWD: CLOSED (ZU)

MAGNETOS
FUEL COCKS
ZU: CLOSED (OFF)
P1: ENGINE DRAWS FUEL FROM LEFT FRONT (MAIN) TANK
P2: ENGINE DRAWS FUEL FROM RIGHT FRONT (MAIN) TANK
P1 u P2: ENGINE DRAWS FUEL FROM BOTH RIGHT & LEFT FUEL TANKS (USE THIS)
NOTE: FUEL PUMPS DO NOT DRAW FUEL FROM AFT RESERVE TANKS. SEE ENGINE
MANAGEMENT SECTION TO KNOW HOW TO TRANSFER FUEL FROM RESERVE TO MAIN TANKS.

271

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-4

PILOT

OIL TEMPERATURE
(DEG C)

LEFT: FUEL PRESSURE


(KG/CM2)
RIGHT: OIL PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

272

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BF.110 C-7

PILOT

SALVO/SINGLE
DISTRIBUTION MODE

SHORT DELAY TOGGLE

BOMB ARMING SWITCH


BOMB ARMING LIGHT

BOMB PANEL
(C-7 VARIANTS ONLY)

273

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

TURRET IN
CRUISE POSITION

TURRET IN
FIRING POSITION

NOTES
Your gunner can call out fighters if you have your in-game chat info window enabled. However, if
you switcher to your gunner position and switched back to your pilot seat, it is possible that the AI
gunner will not take control of the gun. In other words, your gunner will not fire unless the AI takes
control of it. To give back the AI control of your turret, you should use the L_ALT+F2.
Your turret has 2 positions: CRUISE and FIRING. During aircraft cold start, you start in
CRUISE/PARKED position. In this mode, the gunner cannot fire his gun nor move his turret. This
mode is primarily used to generate less drag. FIRING position, on the other hand, allows you to
use your gun and rotate your turret to get a better view angle. It is useful to track targets or
examine damage on the wings or upper forward fuselage. Your gunner will only fire when the
turret is in FIRING position.
Any turret or other air crew position (like the bombardier) can be manned by other players in
multiplayer. They just need to double-click on the available slot in multiplayer once they clicked
on the flag.

274

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DORSAL GUNNER

DORSAL GUNNER CONTROLS


--CRUISE POSITION: O
-FIRING POSITION: CUSTOM KEY
-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

275

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CHECK THE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION FOR RECOMMENDED RADIATOR SETTINGS.


OIL RAD OPEN
GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE
ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

WATER RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL
THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

OIL RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

276

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS
FUEL TANKS

CONTROL
CABLES

OIL
RADIATOR
WATER
RADIATOR
WING SPAR
7.92 mm
MACHINEGUN
(4 TOTAL)

20 mm CANNON
(2 TOTAL)

277

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

278

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

279

MESSERSCHMITT BF.110 (ALL VARIANTS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

fire machine guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

ESSENTIAL

fire cannons

Joystick Cannon Trigger

ESSENTIAL

toggle prop pitch automation (C-7 LATE MODEL ONLY)

ESSENTIAL

toggle gunsight illumination

ESSENTIAL

Drop ordnance (bombs)

Fuel Cock Toggle #1 #2 #3 #4

ESSENTIAL
CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator/rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

engine #1 select

L_SHIFT+1

ESSENTIAL

engine #2 select

L_SHIFT+2

ESSENTIAL

all engines select

L_SHIFT+3 (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL
280

MESSERSCHMITT BF.110 (ALL VARIANTS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight
throttle

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
NOT ESSENTIAL

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

War Emergency Power

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

Jettison canopy

ESSENTIAL

Open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

CUSTOM. DO NOT MAP TO


AXIS LIKE FOR THE RAF A/C.
MAP TO KEYS INSTEAD.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch


Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)

Left / Right Wheel brake

ESSENTIAL

Map in AXES if pedals

bail out
Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide
mouse cursor)

ESSENTIAL

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

F10

ESSENTIAL

281

PART 4: CONTROLS

MESSERSCHMITT BF.110 (ALL VARIANTS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Turret Cruise Position

ESSENTIAL

Turret Firing Position

L_SHIFT+O (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

External View (Give Turret Gunner Control to AI)

L_ALT+F2

ESSENTIAL

View-Position #1 (pilot)

L_ALT+1

ESSENTIAL

View-position #2 (dorsal gunner)

L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Previous Mode (Course or OFF)

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Next Mode (Course mode or OFF)

ESSENTIAL

course setter increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

course setter decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro increase

NUMPAD / (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro decrease

NUMPAD * (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot left (aircraft turns left while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + A (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot right (aircraft turns right while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + S (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

bomb mode selector next / previous (salvo/single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bombs armed

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bomb short delay

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL
282

PART 4: CONTROLS

Most german aircraft, unlike the majority of British and Russian planes, has a toe brake or
heel brake system, which is linked to each individual wheel of your landing gear.
In order to brake, you need to hold either your left or right wheel toe brake key to steer your
aircraft. Applying rudder will also help you turn tighter.
The main landing wheel brake system employs hydraulically actuated disc-type brakes. Each
brake is operated by individual master brake cylinders located directly forward of the instrument
panel. The brakes are selectively controlled by means of toe pedals incorporated into the rudder
pedal assembly.
Be careful: your wheel brake command used for Differential braking aircraft will lock both your
brakes in a german plane. You can map left/right wheel brake axes if you have rudder pedals.

283

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

4 X Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 17
(7.92 mm)

OERLIKON/IKARIA MG FF (BF.110 C-2)


OR MG FF/M (BF.110 C-4/C-7)
(20 mm)

284

Recommended Machine-Gun Belt Loadout Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 17 (7.92 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.

2.
3.

7.9257, S.m.K.H. - Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, Hart- Improved AP round with tungsten core. Highly recommended if you want a straight AP. However, the S.m.K.H.
in-game is in fact a duplicate of the S.m.K., because the S.m.K.H. was never used on a fighter aircraft. Tungsten is a precious and expensive metal that was much
needed elsewhere for the german war effort.
7.9257, P.m.K. - Phosphor mit Stahlkern- Standard AP with an incendiary composition. A great round, can still pierce armor and set fires
7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (gelb) OR 7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (Weiss)- Standard AP with yellow (gelb) or white (Weiss) tracers. Good for aiming.

USE 400 m HORIZ & VERT CONVERGENCE


285

Recommended CANNON Belt Loadout OERLIKON/IKARIA MG FF OR MG FF/M (20 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.
2.

For Bf.110C-2 Variants (MG FF): Sprenggranate L'spur m.Zerl (134g AP round with small HE payload, with tracer and self destruction) A
very effective round, has the potential to do major structual damage while still piercing armor.
For Bf.109C-4 or C-7 Variants (MG FF/M): M-Geschoss m.Zerl (92g HE with self destruction) Thin walled HE round. Has immense potential
for destruction, containing 3 times the amount of HE payload than that of a normal HE round. Arguably the best round for the MG FF/M.
However, it does not contain a tracer composition

USE 200 m HORIZ & 400 m VERT CONVERGENCE


286

Recommended Dorsal Gunner Machine-Gun Belt Loadout Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 15 (7.92 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.

2.
3.

7.9257, S.m.K.H. - Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, Hart- Improved AP round with tungsten core. Highly recommended if you want a straight AP. However, the S.m.K.H.
in-game is in fact a duplicate of the S.m.K., because the S.m.K.H. was never used on a fighter aircraft. Tungsten is a precious and expensive metal that was much
needed elsewhere for the german war effort.
7.9257, P.m.K. - Phosphor mit Stahlkern- Standard AP with an incendiary composition. A great round, can still pierce armor and set fires
7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (gelb) OR 7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (Weiss)- Standard AP with yellow (gelb) or white (Weiss) tracers. Good for aiming.

287

20 mm MG/FF
7.92 mm MG17

288

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

289

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

290

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Bomb Loadout


1. For ship or low-level bombing: 2 X SC 250 GP BOMB, Low Level Fuse, 14 sec delay ( 50 % fuel)
2. For high altitude dive bombing: 2 X SC 500 GP BOMB, High Altitude Fuse, 0 sec delay (50 % fuel)
NOTE: 2 x SC 250 bombs weighs 782 kg, while 2 x SC 500 bombs weighs 1286 kg. With around 55 % fuel, you will reach your max takeoff weight for SC 250 bombs.
However, if you load SC 500 bombs, you are overweight even with no fuel at all. It doesnt mean that you cant takeoff if you are overweight: it just means that you
will have to use more runway. With 100 % fuel and 2 x SC 500 bombs, you can still fly. You will just be very, VERY heavy and your controls will be sluggish.

BOMB DROP PROCEDURE:


1) Arm Bombs
2) Choose Single or Salvo release mode
3) Select bomb delay (toggle with or
without delay)
4) Drop bombs (drop ordnance key)

291

292

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

BOMB DROP PROCEDURE:

3
1

1) Arm Bombs
2) Choose Single or Salvo
bomb release mode
3) Select bomb delay (toggle
with or without delay)
4) Drop bombs (drop
293
ordnance key)

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.

1.

Fuel cocks for both engines (throttle quadrant) set to P1 U P2 (engine will pump fuel from both
front main tanks). Make sure that your engine fuel tanks are filled by selecting front fuel tanks
with the Fuel Contents Gauge Selector (1 VL for front left main fuel tank).

2.

Select Engine # 1 (L_Shift + 1).

3.

Oil rad and water rad fully open (100 %)

4.

If flying a Bf.110C-7 Late, disengage Automatic Prop Pitch

5.

Prop pitch full fine (12:00 position)

6.

Deploy flaps at roughly 10 degrees

7.

Crack throttle about an inch

8.

Switch Magnetos to M1+M2

9.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

10.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

11.

Select Engine # 2 (L_Shift + 2) and repeat steps 2 to 10.

12.

Select both engines (L_Shift + 3).

13.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and water rad temperature to reach at least
60 deg C.

14.

Taxi to the runway.

15.

Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right
direction for takeoff.

16.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Water & Oil Rads fully open, Full Fine prop pitch
(12:00), good oil & water rad temperatures.

17.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using rudder pedals and small
brake input to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the control column forward to lift the tail.

18.

Rotation is at 190 km/h.

19.

Raise landing gear and flaps and throttle back to approx. 1.2 ATA. Lower prop pitch until engine is
operating at 2300 RPM while you are beginning your climb.

294

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 220 km/h @ approx. 800


m (1500 ft AGL).

2.

Water and oil rads fully open (100 %) and set prop
pitch to full fine (12:00).

3.

Deploy flaps (fully down) and landing gear.

4.

Cut throttle and try to keep your nose pointed to


the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 180 km/h in a 3-point landing.

6.

Stick fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop. Be


careful not to overheat your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a prop strike.

295

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The earlier Mercedes-Benz DB 600


was rated at 1,050 hp at 2,400 rpm
for take-off and also developed this
power at an altitude of 13,100 ft. It
was equipped with a pressure
carburetor
between
the
supercharger and the intake
manifolds and an automatic timing
device which permitted a 10 percent
overload for a period of one minute.
Using 87-Octane gasoline, four of
these engines installed in a Junkers
Ju 90 airliner established a World's
Record by carrying a payload of
10,000 kg. (22,050 lb.) to an altitude
of 7,242 m. (23,750 ft.) on June 8,
1938 in Germany.
DB 601A
The Daimler-Benz DB 601 was a German aircraft engine built during World War II. It was a liquid-cooled inverted V12, and
powered the Messerschmitt Bf 109, among others. The DB 601 was basically an improved DB 600 with direct fuel injection.
Direct fuel injection gave the Luftwaffe an edge over the RAF during the Battle of Britain since the DB 601 was unaffected by
negative g's unlike the early Merlin models. The engine used dry cylinder liners, had roller bearing connector rods and had a
unique system of attaching the cylinders to the crankcase. It was used in several aircraft such as the Heinkel He-111
and Messerschmitt Bf 110 as well. By 1944, Daimler-Benz engines were so important to the Luftwaffe that it ran 8 major
296
factories with 6 more being run by other organizations.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

COMPARISON WITH BRITISH ENGINES


A cardinal fault of the Bf.109E (which had the same engine installed as the Bf.110 at that time) - one which
was corrected in the F and G models - was the design of the supercharger air intake. The unit on the Emil
was close to the fuselage and ingested the "dirty" boundary layer air which scrubbed along the cowling
surface. As a result, the supercharger ram recovery was 37.5% compared with the Spitfire's 50%. The lower
ram recovery meant that the critical altitude was reached at a lower altitude. Had the later design been used
on the Bf.109E, as much as 1000 ft may have been gained in ceiling and in best combat altitude. This would
have nullified much of the Spitfire's performance advantage at height.
Another important difference between the DB engines and the early Merlin engines lay in the supercharger
design. The early Merlin engines were equipped with gear-driven single-speed, single-stage units. The
supercharger had to be throttles back at low altitude to avoid over-boosting the engine. As altitude
increased, more and more of the supercharger capability was used and engine horsepower continued to
increase until critical altitude was reached, after which power fell off rapidly.
The DB601A engine, on the other hand, was equipped with a single-stage supercharger with a hydraulic or
fluid clutch. While heavier and more complex than the gear-driven clutch, this unit had the capability of
operating at an infinite number of speed ratios. This meant that the supercharger could be slowed down
without choking it and far more power was delivered at lower altitudes. As the Bf.110 flew higher, an
aneroid control caused the supercharger to run faster to compensate for the decreased density of the air.
The variable speed characteristics of this supercharger are obtained through slippage, so it was necessary for
the Bf.110 cooling system to contain more oil for cooling.
297

DB 601 N-1
298

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

A de-rated engine is allowed to operate at maximum power pretty much infinitely. In modern industrial facilities, many gas
turbines (which are derived from aero engines) are often requested to be de-rated by the customer using them as a power
plant. Why? Because industrial engines need to be working 24/7 at high regimes while maintaining a certain security factor
(you dont want to have the engine blow up in your face, eh?).

'De-rated' is a term the British used to denote an aircraft engine which had its intended maximum power level reduced
(by the manufacturer) to a lower level to reduce the chance of mechanical failure. An engine would be derated if it was not
deemed to be reliable enough at the higher power settings.

The DB 601 N-1 engine on the Bf.110C-4/N could reach a max manifold pressure of 1.42 ATA for about 5 minutes before engine
failure or damage. With the Bf.110C-4/N de-rated variant, you can reach a max manifold pressure of 1.35 ATA for as long as you
like.
One of the main reasons why the Bf.110C-4 received few DB 601 N-1 engines was because at the height of the Battle of Britain,
the first Bf.109F models started rolling off the assembly line and were given a much higher priority in terms of engine
distribution, together with the Bf.110 D and E series. With the Friedrich coming into service, it did not make sense to retrofit
the obsolete E series to the new engine configuration. The Bf.110 itself had proven its obsolescence during the Battle of Britain
and was about to be discontinued in favour of the more modern Me 210 and Me 410 models. The first examples of the Me 210
were ready in 1939, but they proved to have unacceptably poor flight characteristics from serious, unanticipated design flaws.
A large-scale operational testing program throughout 1941 and early 1942 did not cure the aircraft's problems. The design
eventually entered limited service in 1943, but was almost immediately replaced by its successor, the Me 410, which was a
further development of the Me 210, renamed so as to avoid the 210's notoriety. The failure of the Me 210's development
program meant that the Luftwaffe was forced to continue fielding the outdated Bf 110, despite mounting losses.
299

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine
settings once in a while for the pilots to know what settings
they should use. You can read your engine settings from the
gauges in the cockpit or from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) shows 1200 RPM. The manifold
pressure (2) reads 0.83 ATA. The oil (3) and water (4)
radiators can be approximated from the crank position or
read from the info window in %. Note: 100 % = fully open
The resulting RPM is affected by both manifold pressure
and prop pitch (5). 12:00 Pitch is fully fine, and generates
maximum RPM.
Red notches
Radiator settings:
indicate d

65-75 % WATER / 50-60 % OIL during normal level flight (1.2 ATA)
75-100 % WATER / 60 % OIL during shallow climb (1.2 ATA)
85-100 % WATER / 85 % OIL during steep climb (Full power)
50-100 % WATER / 40 % OIL for WEP level flight (when extending or pursued)
65-75 % WATER / 50 % OIL for full throttle no WEP (extending or pursued)
100 % WATER / 100 % OIL during takeoff & landing

(Unit)

Water Rad Min


Max

Deg C

Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min


Max

Deg C

Bf.110
C-2
60
90
40
85

Bf.110
Bf.110
C-4
C-4/N DERATED
TEMPERATURES
60
90
40
85

60
100
40
105

(infinite), 30
min and 5
min engine
settings.

2
4

Bf.110
C-4/N

Bf.110
C-7

Bf.110
C-7 LATE

60
100
40
105

60
90
40
85

60
90
40
85

300GAUGE IS ON THE
ENGINE ITSELF!

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

I must stress the importance of understanding how manual prop pitch works. Many new pilots
take the C-7 Late variant of the Bf.110 in the hopes that the automatic propeller pitch control
will reduce their work load. Does it? Yes and no.
Automatic prop pitch at this stage of development was not as good as the governor systems
installed on later 109 versions like the F, the G or the K variants. Auto prop pitch controls your
pitch for you, but it does it in a way that preserves the engine to a point where you have a
significant decrease in aircraft performance for no gain at all. Imagine your car limiting your
engine regime so you dont go over 80 km/h while on the Autobahn wouldnt that be
frustrating? In a game where speed is life, you cannot afford to lose speed in critical phases of
your mission.
But why are you telling me this, Chuck? This all seems a little overly dramatic, dont you think?
Not in the slightest. Learn how to use the manual prop pitch from the beginning. Engine RPM is
slower to respond to propeller pitch variation than, say, the RPM control in the Spitfire or the
Hurricane.
While the Bf.109 is a superb climber, the Bf.110 is not because it is much heavier. In order to
survive against anything (the Bf.110 is at a serious disadvantage against any british fighter) for
that you need to use your prop pitch intelligently so you milk every meter of altitude you can
get in order to get as high as possible as quickly as possible. The Bf.110 was best used as a
bomber-killer.
You do not have to check your prop pitch gauge. You can simply consult your RPM. Maintain it
between 2200 and 2400 max. RPM is too low? Get your prop pitch finer and your RPM will go
up. RPM is too high? Reduce RPM by getting your prop pitch coarser.
Experienced pilots can guess their RPM just by listening to the sound of their engine. Yep, they
do it by ear. With enough practice, you can do it to.
301

302

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
An excellent video tutorial to understand prop pitch:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIpZAu61OM8

303

FUEL MANAGEMENT DURING NORMAL OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

One of the peculiarities of the Bf.110 is that the fuel pumps take fuel from the main front tanks only, NOT from the rear
reserve tanks.
When your front tanks run out of fuel (which is indicated by the fuel warning lights next to your fuel gauge), you need
to use auxiliary fuel transfer pumps to get fuel from the reserve tanks to the front tanks.
Transfer pumps take fuel from BOTH rear reserve tanks.

PROCEDURE:

VORN LINKS (FRONT LEFT)


FUEL IS BEING TRANSFERRED TO
THE FRONT RIGHT MAIN TANK

1)
VORN RECHTS (FRONT RIGHT)
2)
FUEL IS BEING TRANSFERRED TO
THE FRONT RIGHT MAIN TANK
3)
AUS= OFF
NO FUEL
TRANSFER

4)

Select right or left front tank with Fuel Cock #3


Select EIN (ON) to turn on the fuel transfer pump. Monitor fuel level
in desired front tank to know when it is full.
When desired front tank is full, you can select the opposite tank as
well and fill it up too.
Select AUS (OFF) to turn off the fuel transfer pump.

FUEL COCK # 4
PUMP ON/OFF
FUEL COCK # 3
SETS WHERE FUEL
IS TRANSFERRED TO

EIN = ON
FUEL TRANSFER!

EXAMPLE: VORN LINKS SELECTED AND EIN SELECTED.


PUMPS ARE ON AND FUEL IS TRANSFERRED TO FRONT LEFT
(VORN LINKS) MAIN TANK.

304

FUEL MANAGEMENT HOW TO DEAL WITH A PERFORATED FUEL TANK

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

In combat, you can see one of your fuel tanks damaged. Shit happens.
EXAMPLE: If your front right fuel tank is perforated (or even worse, on fire!!!) and you see fuel leaking from it, what would
you do? The best solution is to tell your engines to take fuel from the intact tank, not the damaged one.
In our case, the intact fuel tank is the left one.
Your left engine fuel cock should be set to P2 (Left engine draws from left front tank only).
Your right engine fuel cock should be set to P1 (Right engine draws from left front tank only).
TRICK: For each fuel cock/engine, P1 U P2 means I take my fuel from BOTH main tanks. P2 means I take my fuel
from the tank on MY SIDE only and P1 means I take my fuel from the tank on the OTHER SIDE only.
Since both engines will now drain the same tank (front right), the front left tank will be emptied twice as fast. You might
want to send fuel from the reserve tanks. Go to the Transfer Pump fuel cocks (as seen in previous slide), select VORN
LINKS (front left) and EIN (ON) and fuel will be transferred from the perforated rear right tank to the intact front left
one. Ta-dah!

EXAMPLE: VORN LINKS SELECTED AND EIN


SELECTED. PUMPS ARE ON AND FUEL IS TRANSFERRED
TO FRONT LEFT (VORN LINKS) MAIN TANK.

305

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

190
620
270
220
180

It is interesting to notice that the top speed of the


Bf.110 modelled in-game is about 420-440 km/h.
This top speed is closer to the recorded top speed
of the earlier Jumo 210B-powered Bf.110s (which
were severely underpowered due to a shortage of
DB 600 engines). In reality, the DB 600-powered
Bf.110C variants could reach a top speed of 523
km/h. The flight models are currently being
revised by Team Fusion for the upcoming patch.
For more information on either aircraft or engine
performance, consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation Regiment Operations Checklist. It is a
fantastic resource (link below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/CLIFFS%20OF%
20DOVER%20Operations%20Checklist.pdf

306

307

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

308

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

Match-Ups and Relative Performance (from II./KG53 Bomber Schule)


The Bf.110 was best used as a fighter-bomber, a ground attack aircraft or a bomber hunter. Bf.110 squadrons
paid a very heavy price when they were sent against fighter squadrons during the Battle of Britain. The losses
taken by the 110 forced german high command to revisit their approach to the role of a heavy fighter.
Bf.110C vs Hurricane
This is the only plane where you have a speed advantage. In fact, you can actually outclimb this plane. Assuming that you
start with an energy advantage, you can actually take on a Hurricane and win reliably. However, where there are Hurricanes,
there are Spitfires. If you stumble upon a Hurricane all by itself, and you have an energy advantage, savor the moment.
Bf.110C vs Spitfire
Death on wings. There is no area where the Spitfire has a disadvantage except firepower. Engage only with caution, and write
your will if a Spitfire shows above you and chooses you as his next meal. If you have a shot on one, take it (unless he doesn't
know you're there and you can escape first). You won't get another, so blow your ammo supply on him to try to get a few
lucky hits. If a couple 20mm land on his wing, he's much less of a threat and may decide to leave. There's a reason this plane
has a 3:1 kill/loss ratio on the Bf.110C.
Summary
In the air-to-air role it does not sound too good for the 110 driver. But all is not lost when you have a partner. Good
communication and airmanship can overcome the single bandit. On an active server, like ATAG, most of the Red jockeys only
know one-speed - flat out! Judicious use of speed, in a Bf.109 or Bf.110, can see you turning the tables on your opponent
who is always presuming they have the better turn rate. A barrel roll, with deceleration at the top of the roll, may cause an
overshoot. Of course, with the 110 you always have to be aware of its slow acceleration so if you decide to play make sure
you have some height
309

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THE BF.110, CHECK OUT THESE YOUTUBE CHANNELS. THESE GUYS
COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND HOW TO FLY THE BF.110 AND EXPLAIN IT CLEARLY AND EFFORTLESSLY.

APEOFTHEYEAR
Channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/Apeoftheyear/featured
Tutorials:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUyEbp1iw_PrgHx7nji2ohQyhHqBPluh1
Bf.110 Tutorial:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DhS9kiTPDw

JG4_KARAYA
Channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/JG52Karaya
Bf.110 Tutorial:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsD4bpkgTPs

310

PART 10: AUTOPILOT

Unlike German bombers, the Bf.110 does not have a Mode 22 autopilot mode. It only has a
Course Mode. In this mode, the auto-pilot takes over rudder control to make your aircraft travel
following a given heading. You still have control over ailerons and elevator. Course mode is
generally used when climbing or descending. In this mode, climb rate is better controlled through
elevator trim rather than pure elevator input.

BF.110 AUTOPILOT OPERATION TABLE


STEP

REPEATER
COMPASS

ACTION

SET/SYNCHRONIZE DIRECTIONAL GYRO TO THE SAME HEADING READ


ON THE MAGNETIC COMPASS.

SET A COURSE TO DESIRED HEADING USING THE COURSE SETTER ON


THE REPEATER COMPASS

ALIGN AIRCRAFT WITH COURSE SETTER BY CONSULTING THE


REPEATER COMPASS (FOLLOW THE WHITE INDICATOR).

WHEN AIRCRAFT IS ALIGNED WITH COURSE SETTER, ALIGN


AUTOPILOT BAND WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO BAND USING THE
AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS.

WHEN AUTOPILOT/GYRO BANDS ARE LINED UP, ENGAGE DESIRED


AUTOPILOT MODE (COURSE MODE)

WHEN AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED, STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE


AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS FOR BIG
CORRECTIONS. STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO
INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS FOR SMALL COURSE CORRECTIONS.
USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO IS USUALLY A BETTER WAY TO USE
THE AUTOPILOT AS THE PILOT HAS BETTER CONTROL OVER HIS SHIP.

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO
MAGNETIC
COMPASS
AUTOPILOT

311

EXAMPLE:

PART 10: AUTOPILOT

If we want to go to go full north, we will have to follow a magnetic heading


of 010 (we add 10 degrees because of magnetic declination).
1.

Align Directional Gyro with Magnetic Compass using the DG setter knob.

2.

Set your Course Setter to 010 on your repeater compass.

3.

Navigate towards desired heading (until course setter and repeater


compass are aligned).

4.

Align Autopilot band with Directional Gyro band using the Autopilot
Left/Right controls.

5.

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO
4
AUTOPILOT

Once AP and DG bands are aligned, you can now engage course
autopilot.

COURSE SETTER

MAGNETIC
COMPASS
1

REPEATER
COMPASS

2
312

PART 10: AUTOPILOT

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
313

314

JUNKERS JU-87 B-2 STUKA

TABLE OF CONTENT JU-87 STUKA


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: DIVE BOMBING TUTORIAL
316

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Junkers Ju-87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive


bomber") was a two-man (pilot and rear gunner) German dive
bomber and ground-attack aircraft. Designed by Hermann
Pohlmann, the Stuka first flew in 1935 and made its combat
debut in 1936 as part of the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion during
the Spanish Civil War.
The aircraft was easily recognisable by its
inverted gull wings and fixed spatted undercarriage.
Upon the leading edges of its faired maingear legs
were mounted the Jericho-Trompete ("Jericho
Trumpet")
wailing
sirens,
becoming
the
propaganda symbol of German air power and
the Blitzkrieg victories of 19391942. The Stuka's
design included several innovative features,
including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both
wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its
attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the
high g-forces.
317

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Ju-87 was a single-engined all-metal cantilever monoplane. It had a


fixed undercarriage and could carry a two-person crew. The main
construction material was duralumin, and the external coverings were made
of Duralumin sheeting. Parts that were required to be of strong
construction, such as the wing flaps, were made of Pantal (a German
aluminum alloy containing titanium as a hardening element) and its
components made of Elektron. Bolts and parts that were required to take
heavy stress were made of steel.

The Stuka was fitted with detachable hatches and removable coverings to
aid
and
ease
maintenance
and
overhaul.
The
designers
avoided welding parts wherever possible, preferring moulded and cast parts
instead. Large airframe segments were interchangeable as a complete unit,
which increased speed of repair. The airframe was also subdivided into
sections to allow transport by road or rail. The wings were of standard
Junkers double-wing construction. This gave the Ju-87 considerable
advantage on take-off; even at a shallow angle, large lift forces were created
through the aerofoil, reducing take-off and landing runs.

318

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Some notable airmen flew the Ju-87. Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the
most successful Stuka ace and the most highly decorated German
serviceman of the Second World War. The vast majority of German ground
attack aces flew this aircraft at some point in their careers.

319

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Stuka operated with further success after the


Battle of Britain, and its potency as a precision
ground-attack aircraft became valuable to German
forces in the Balkans Campaign, the African and
Mediterranean theaters and the early stages of
the Eastern Front campaigns where Soviet fighter
resistance was disorganised and in short supply.

Although sturdy, accurate, and very


effective against ground targets, the
Ju-87, like many other dive bombers
of the war, was vulnerable to
modern fighter aircraft. Its flaws
became apparent during the Battle
of Britain; poor manoeuvrability and
a lack of both speed and defensive
armament meant that the Stuka
required heavy fighter escort to
operate effectively.

320

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

JU-87
B-2

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C
Deg C

38
95
30
95

ENGINE SETTINGS
Engine & Fuel grade

Jumo 211 D-1


B-4 - 87 octane fuel

Takeoff RPM
Takeoff Manifold Pressure

RPM

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure

RPM

Combat RPM
Combat Manifold Pressure

RPM

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

2300
1 min MAX

Emergency Power / Boost


Manifold Pressure @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M

Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

1.35
1 min max
0
1500
1500+

Landing Approach RPM


Landing Approach Manifold
Pressure

RPM

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG
UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2300
1.35
2300
30 min MAX
1.15
2200
1.1
2300
1.15

(AUTO/MAN MODES)

2000
As required
No Abrupt Throttling

321

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
CREW MEMBERS
DORSAL GUNNER
PILOT

322

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
JU-87 B-2

PILOT

323

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
JU-87 B-2

PILOT

DIVE ANGLE
REFERENCE

324

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

PILOT

CANOPY HATCH
HANDLE

PITOT HEAT

325

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

PILOT

WING / FUSELAGE
BOMB SELECTOR

HAND PUMP

WING/FUSELAGE/BOTH

WING BOMB
ARMING
LIT = ARMED

OIL RADIATOR
CONTROL
FLOOR WINDOW
CONTROL

EIN/UP = CLOSED
AUS/DOWN = OPEN

326

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

COURSE
SETTER

BOMB ALTIMETER

REPEATER
COMPASS

WHITE NEEDLE: ALTITUDE (KM)


RED NEEDLE: BOMB RELEASE
ALTITUDE
BOTTOM KNOB: RELEASE ALTITUDE
SETTER

AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
(KM/H)

WATER
RADIATOR
INDICATOR
DOWN = OPEN
UP = CLOSED

JU-87 B-2

PILOT

RPM (X 100)
BOMB
JETTISON
SWITCH
FUSELAGE
BOMB
RACK PANEL

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR

ALTIMETER
(KM)
(BOTTOM KNOB
SETS QFE)

SUPERCHARGER PRESSURE GAUGE (ATA)

LORENZ BLIND LANDING


SYSTEM INDICATOR
VERTICAL SCALE: NAVIGATION
BEACON SIGNAL INTENSITY
HORIZONTAL SCALE:
NAVIGATION BEACON SIGNAL
DIRECTION

VARIOMETER

SIMILAR FUNCTION TO BOOST OR MANIFOLD PRESSURE


(THROTTLE)

(VERTICAL VELOCITY
IN M/S)

WING BOMB
RACK PANEL

327

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

PILOT

FUEL GAUGE (L)


TOTAL CAPACITY: 480 L
LEFT WING TANKS: 240 L
RIGHT WING TANKS: 240 L

FUEL PRESSURE
(KM/CM2)

OIL PRESSURE
(KM/CM2)

OIL TEMPERATURE
(DEG C)
WATER RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)
FUEL CONTENTS
SELECTOR

FUSELAGE BOMB
ARMING

(RIGHT/LEFT WING TANKS)

328

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

WATER RADIATOR
CONTROLS
AUS PUSHED: OPEN
ZU PUSHED: CLOSE

PILOT

CLOCK
VOLT-AMPEREMETER
SUPERCHARGER HANDLE
PUSHED = AUTO (GEAR 1)
PULLED = MANUAL (GEAR 2)
MACHINE-GUN AMMO
COUNT
MAGNETIC COMPASS

COCKPIT LIGHT

329

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

GUNSIGHT ILLUMINATION

330

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

PILOT
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

FUEL COCK

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

331

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

PILOT

WAR EMERGENCY POWER


(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
MAGNETOS

THROTTLE

PROP
PITCH

332

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-87 B-2

PILOT
AIRBRAKE CONTROL
FWD: RETRACTED
MIDDLE: NEUTRAL
AFT: DEPLOYED

RUDDER TRIM

ELEVATOR TRIM INDICATOR


FLAPS CONTROL
DOWN / NEUTRAL / NEUTRAL / UP
ELEVATOR TRIM WHEEL

333

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

FIXED LANDING GEAR

JERICHO
TRUMPET
(SIREN SOUND WHEN
AIRBRAKES ARE DEPLOYED)

334

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

UNLOCK TAILWHEEL

LOCK TAILWHEEL
TAILWHEEL IS NOT STRAIGHT: KEEP TAIL SKID UNLOCKED

TAILWHEEL IS STRAIGHT: YOU CAN NOW LOCK TAIL SKID

NOTE: THERE IS NO VISIBLE LEVER FOR TAILWHEEL LOCK IN THE


COCKPIT. USE A CUSTOM KEY BINDING FOR IT (TAIL SKID LOCK)

335

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

AIRBRAKES RETRACTED

AIRBRAKES DEPLOYED
336

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DORSAL GUNNER

DORSAL GUNNER CONTROLS


--CRUISE POSITION: O
-FIRING POSITION: CUSTOM KEY
-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

337

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

TURRET IN
CRUISE POSITION

TURRET IN
FIRING POSITION

NOTES
Your gunner can call out fighters if you have your in-game chat info window enabled. However, if
you switcher to your gunner position and switched back to your pilot seat, it is possible that the AI
gunner will not take control of the gun. In other words, your gunner will not fire unless the AI takes
control of it. To give back the AI control of your turret, you should use the L_ALT+F2.
Your turret has 2 positions: CRUISE and FIRING. During aircraft cold start, you start in
CRUISE/PARKED position. In this mode, the gunner cannot fire his gun nor move his turret. This
mode is primarily used to generate less drag. FIRING position, on the other hand, allows you to
use your gun and rotate your turret to get a better view angle. It is useful to track targets or
examine damage on the wings or upper forward fuselage. Your gunner will only fire when the
turret is in FIRING position.
Any turret or other air crew position (like the bombardier) can be manned by other players in
multiplayer. They just need to double-click on the available slot in multiplayer once they clicked
on the flag.

338

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CHECK THE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION FOR RECOMMENDED RADIATOR SETTINGS.


WATER RAD OPEN
GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL
THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

OIL RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE
ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

OIL RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

339

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

FLOOR WINDOW OPEN

FLOOR WINDOW CLOSED

340

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS

OIL
RADIATOR
WATER
RADIATOR

FUEL TANKS

7.92 mm
MACHINEGUN
(2 TOTAL)

CONTROL
CABLES

FUEL TANKS

WING SPARS

341

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

342

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

343

JUNKERS JU-87 B-2

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

fire machine guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

toggle gunsight illumination

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator/Horizontal Stab)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

Fuel Cock Toggle #1

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Extend /Retract Airbrake

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

course setter increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

course setter decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Open/Close Window Toggle (floor window used for dive


bombing)
Close Window (floor window used for dive bombing)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT
SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT
344

JUNKERS JU-87 B-2


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight
throttle

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
NOT ESSENTIAL

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

War Emergency Power

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

Jettison canopy

ESSENTIAL

Open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch

CUSTOM. DO NOT MAP TO


AXIS LIKE FOR THE RAF A/C.
MAP TO KEYS INSTEAD.

Left / Right Wheel brake

Map in AXES if pedals

ESSENTIAL

bail out
Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide
mouse cursor)
increase /decrease sight altitude (sets bomb altimeter

ESSENTIAL

ESSENTIAL
F10

ESSENTIAL
CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

release altitude)

Lock Tail Skid (Tailwheel lock toggle not visible in cockpit)

ESSENTIAL

345

PART 4: CONTROLS

JUNKERS JU-87 B-2


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Turret Cruise Position

ESSENTIAL

Turret Firing Position

L_SHIFT+O (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

External View (Give Turret Gunner Control to AI)

L_ALT+F2

ESSENTIAL

View-Position #1 (pilot)

L_ALT+1

ESSENTIAL

View-position #2 (dorsal gunner)

L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

bomb mode selector next / previous (salvo/single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Select bomb bay previous/Next

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Selected Supercharger Previous Step

L_CTRL+Q (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Selected Supercharger Next Step

Q (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

toggle bombs armed

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Drop ordnance (bombs)

ESSENTIAL

Bombsight altitude + / -

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

346

PART 4: CONTROLS

Most german aircraft, unlike the majority of British and Russian planes, has a toe brake or
heel brake system, which is linked to each individual wheel of your landing gear.
In order to brake, you need to hold either your left or right wheel toe brake key to steer your
aircraft. Applying rudder will also help you turn tighter.
The main landing wheel brake system employs hydraulically actuated disc-type brakes. Each
brake is operated by individual master brake cylinders located directly forward of the instrument
panel. The brakes are selectively controlled by means of toe pedals incorporated into the rudder
pedal assembly.
Be careful: your wheel brake command used for Differential braking aircraft will lock both your
brakes in a german plane. You can map left/right wheel brake axes if you have rudder pedals.
NOTE: The landing gear is FIXED on the Stuka. Dont look for an undercarriage lever there isnt any.

347

Recommended Machine-Gun Belt Loadout Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 17 (7.92 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.

2.
3.

7.9257, S.m.K.H. - Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, Hart- Improved AP round with tungsten core. Highly recommended if you want a straight AP. However, the S.m.K.H.
in-game is in fact a duplicate of the S.m.K., because the S.m.K.H. was never used on a fighter aircraft. Tungsten is a precious and expensive metal that was much
needed elsewhere for the german war effort.
7.9257, P.m.K. - Phosphor mit Stahlkern- Standard AP with an incendiary composition. A great round, can still pierce armor and set fires
7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (gelb) OR 7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (Weiss)- Standard AP with yellow (gelb) or white (Weiss) tracers. Good for aiming.

348

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

7.92 mm MG17
349

350

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Bomb Loadout


1. For low-level bombing:
1.
2.

4 X SC50 GP bomb, Low Level Fuse, 14 sec delay


1 X SC-500 GradeIII-J bomb, Low Level Fuse, 14 sec delay

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

2. For dive bombing:


1.
2.

4 X SC50 GP bomb, Low Level Fuse, 14 sec delay


1 X SC250 GP bomb, Dive Bombing Altitude Fuse, 8 sec delay

BOMB DROP PROCEDURE:


1) Arm Bombs
2) Choose Bomb Bay (Wing bombs or
Fuselage rack)
3) Drop bombs (drop ordnance key)

351

352

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.

1.

Fuel cock ON

2.

Oil rad and water rad fully closed (0 %)

3.

Prop pitch full fine

4.

Crack throttle about an inch

5.

Switch Magnetos to M1+M2

6.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

7.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

8.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 30 deg C and water rad temperature to reach at
least 40 deg C.

9.

Oil & water radiators fully open (100 %)

10.

Taxi to the runway.

11.

Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right
direction for takeoff.

12.

Line up on the runway and straighten up your tailwheel by moving forward in a straight
line. Lock your tailwheel by pressing a custom key binding for Tail Skid Lock (lever not
visible in cockpit).

13.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, flaps up, Water & Oil Rads fully open, Full Fine
prop pitch, good oil & water rad temperatures.

14.

Gradually throttle up. Do not throttle too fast: the engine is sensitive to abrupt changes in
manifold pressure. Compensate for engine torque and wind using rudder pedals and small
brake input to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the control column forward to lift the
tail.

15.

Rotation is at 170 km/h.

16.

You dont need to retract your landing gear: it is fixed!

17.

Throttle back to approx. 1.15 ATA. Lower prop pitch until engine is operating at 2300 RPM
while you are beginning your climb.

353

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 170 km/h @ approx. 800


m (1500 ft AGL).

2.

Water and oil rads fully open (100 %) and set prop
pitch to full fine (100 %).

3.

Deploy flaps (fully down).

4.

Cut throttle and try to keep your nose pointed to


the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 150 km/h in a 3-point landing.

6.

Stick fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop. Be


careful not to overheat your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a prop strike.

354

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
The Jumo 211 was an inverted V-12 aircraft engine, Junkers Motoren's primary aircraft
engine of World War II. It was the direct competitor to the famous Daimler-Benz DB 601 and closely
paralleled its development. While the Daimler-Benz engine was mostly used in single-engined and
twin-engined fighters, the Jumo engine was primarily used in bombers such as Junkers' own Ju87 and Ju-88, and Heinkel's H-series examples of the Heinkel He 111 medium bomber. It was the
most-produced German aero engine of the war, with almost 70,000 examples completed.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The Jumo 211 was developed by Dr.


Franz Josef Neugebauer as scaledup successor to the earlier Jumo 210.
In 1934, even before the new Jumo
210 had completed its acceptance
tests, the RLM sent out a request for
a new 1,000 PS-class engine of about
500
kg
weight.
Both
Jumo
and Daimler-Benz responded, and in
order to reach service before the
new Daimler-Benz DB 600, the Jumo
team decided to make their new
design as similar as possible to
their 210H model, currently in testing.
The resulting Jumo 211 was first
prototyped at Jumo's Dessau plant in
1935 and started testing in April
1936. Like the 210H, it featured a
mechanical direct fuel injection
system using small pistons driven off
the crankshaft, three valves per
cylinder, and an inverted V layout. It
also had an open-cycle 356
cooling
system, not pressurized.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Development of the 211 continued with the 211B being released in 1938, with a slightly
increased maximum RPM of 2,400 which boosted power to 1,200 PS (1,200 hp; 880 kW).
The later 211C and 211D differed primarily in the propeller gear ratios and other features.
A major upgrade was started in 1940 in order to better compete with the 601, following in
its footsteps with a pressurized cooling system. The resulting 211E proved to be able to
run at much higher power settings without overheating, so it was quickly followed by
the 211F which included a strengthened crankshaft and a more efficient supercharger.
The Jumo 211 became the major bomber engine of the war, in no small part due to
Junkers also building a majority of the bombers then in use. Of course, since it was the
Luftwaffe that selected the final engine to be used after competitive testing on prototypes
(such as the Dornier Do 217), there is certainly more to it. Limited production capacity for
each type, and the fact that the Jumo was perfectly capable (if not superior) in a bomber
installation meant that it made sense to use both major types to the fullest; since the
Daimler had a slight edge in a lightweight, single-engine application, that left the Jumo to
fill in the remaining roles as a bomber engine. Even this wasn't enough in the end, and
radial engines like the BMW 801 were increasingly put into service alongside the Jumo
and DB series, most often in multi-engine installations like the Jumo.
357

358

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine
settings once in a while for the pilots to know what settings they
should use. You can read your engine settings from the gauges in
the cockpit or from an info window.

The RPM indicator (1) and the manifold pressure (2) are what
you should check every minute. Constantly monitor oil (3) and
water (4) rad temperatures. Oil rad position (5) can be seen on
the info window and water rad position (6) can be seen on the
water rad position indicator.

The resulting RPM is affected by both manifold pressure and


prop pitch (5). Be careful with manifold pressure input: the
engine is very sensitive to abrupt throttling.

Radiator settings:
75 % WATER / 50 % OIL during climb & normal operation
100 % WATER / 100 % OIL during takeoff & landing
0 % WATER / 0 % OIL during engine warm-up
(Unit)

JU-87
B-2

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max

Deg C

Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min


Max

Deg C

38
95
30
95

359

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

There are a lot of misconceptions and rumours about the use of superchargers. Time to reveal the truth!
A supercharger is an engine-driven air pump or compressor that provides compressed air to the engine to provide additional pressure
to the induction air so the engine can produce additional power. It increases manifold pressure and forces the fuel/air mixture into the
cylinders. The higher the manifold pressure, the more dense the fuel/air mixture, and the more power an engine can produce.
With a normally aspirated engine, it is not possible to have manifold pressure higher than the existing atmospheric pressure. A
supercharger is capable of boosting manifold pressure above 30 "Hg (for german planes it would be an ATA value). For example, at 8,000
feet a typical engine may be able to produce 75 percent of the power it could produce at mean sea level (MSL) because the air is less
dense at the higher altitude. The supercharger compresses the air to a higher density allowing a supercharged engine to produce the
same manifold pressure at higher altitudes as it could produce at sea level.
Thus, an engine at 8,000 feet MSL could still produce 25 "Hg of manifold pressure whereas without a supercharger it could produce only
22 "Hg. Superchargers are especially valuable at high altitudes (such as 18,000 feet) where the air density is 50 percent that of sea level.
The use of a supercharger in many cases will supply air to the engine at the same density it did at sea level. With a normally aspirated
engine, it is not possible to have manifold pressure higher than the existing atmospheric pressure.

360

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

This is what a two-speed centrifugal


supercharger looks like.

EXAMPLES OF A CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGER


(BRISTOL HERCULES)

REAL-LIFE CENTRIFUGAL
SUPERCHARGER FOR THE JUMO 211

361

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION
Some of the large radial engines developed during World War II have a single-stage, two-speed
supercharger. This is what we have on the Jumo 211. With this type of supercharger, a single impeller may
be operated at two speeds.
The low impeller speed is often referred to as the low blower setting, while the high impeller speed is
called the high blower setting. On engines equipped with a two-speed supercharger, a lever or switch in the
flight deck activates an oil-operated clutch that switches from one speed to the other.

Supercharger vs Turbosupercharger (or Turbocharger)


While there is no turbocharger installed on the Jumo 211, it is interesting to explain the differences
between a turbocharger (installed on the P-47 Thunderbolt for example) and a supercharger. Why? Simply
because people often confuse them.
The most efficient method of increasing horsepower in an engine is by use of a turbosupercharger or
turbocharger. Installed on an engine, this booster uses the engines exhaust gases to drive an air
compressor to increase the pressure of the air going into the engine through the carburetor or fuel
injection system to boost power at higher altitude.
The major disadvantage of the gear-driven supercharger use of a large amount of the engines power
output for the amount of power increase produced is avoided with a turbocharger, because
turbochargers are powered by an engines exhaust gases. This means a turbocharger recovers energy from
hot exhaust gases that would otherwise be lost.
A second advantage of turbochargers over superchargers is the ability to maintain control over an engines
rated sea level horsepower from sea level up to the engines critical altitude. Critical altitude is the
maximum altitude at which a turbocharged engine can produce its rated horsepower. Above the critical
362
altitude, power output begins to decrease like it does for a normally aspirated engine.

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION TUTORIAL (PART 1)

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

(Unit)

The supercharger on the Jumo 211 is a two-speed centrifugal type


TEMPERATURES
UK: ft
supercharger with automatic boost control
Supercharger Stage 1 (AUTOMATIC)
GER: M
Operation Altitude
There is a slight difference in terminology between the supercharger used Supercharger Stage 2 (MANUAL)
UK: ft
GER: M
in the Stuka and the one used in the Ju-88.
Operation Altitude
ITA: M
The Stuka supercharger has AUTOMATIC and MANUAL modes. AUTOMATIC
mode is used under 1500 m (which will leave the supercharger in first gear)
while the MANUAL mode (which will engage the second gear) is used over
1500 m.
You switch between first (low blower - AUTO) and second (high blower MANUAL) supercharger gears using the Selected Supercharger Previous /
Next Step controls.
Do not use the Selected Supercharger Cycle control. It is bugged and
does not work.
My key custom bindings are: Selected Supercharger Previous Step
mapped to LCTRL+Q and Selected Supercharger Next Step mapped to
SUPERCHARGER GEAR SWITCH
Q.
CONTROL
Supercharger has no effect at low altitudes (under 1500 m), whether in
PUSHED = AUTO (GEAR 1)
AUTO or MANUAL mode. You need to be above 1500 m to see a difference:
PULLED = MANUAL (GEAR 2)
AUTO mode will MANUAL mode.
COMP at 0 % means the supercharger is in first gear / AUTO. COMP at
100 % means the supercharger is in second gear / MANUAL.

JU-87
B-2
0
1500

1500+

AUTO MODE = GEAR 1 = LOW BLOWER = LOW MANIFOLD PRESSURE = COMP 0 % = USED BETWEEN 0 AND 1,500 M.
MANUAL MODE = GEAR 2 = HIGH BLOWER = HIGH MANIFOLD PRESSURE = COMP 100 % = USED AT 1,500 M OR HIGHER.
DURING DIVE BOMBING, LEAVE SUPERCHARGER IN AUTO (GEAR 1).
363

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION TUTORIAL (PART 2)

To switch gears, you need to do it individually for each engine:

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

1.

Check your altitude. If you are under 1500 m or you are about to go on a
dive bombing run, you need to have your supercharger in first gear
(AUTO). If you are over 1500 m, you need to have your supercharger in
second gear.
2. Hit Q to switch to second gear (high blower - MANUAL) or hit
LCTRL+Q to switch to first gear (low blower - AUTO).
3. If you switch to second gear, you will see an increase in manifold pressure
(ATA) and RPM (but only if you are over 1,500 m). Make sure to adjust
throttle so your ATA and RPM are not over safety limits. If you ATA is too
high, you can cook the engine very easily in the Stuka.
In this example, I deliberately chose to fly high (2000+ m) and run the engine on
the first supercharger gear (low blower - AUTO) and switched the second
supercharger gear (high blower - MANUAL) to show you the difference between
supercharger gear behaviour.
In AUTO mode, engine has an ATA of 1.0 and a RPM of 1800. (supercharger gear
1)
In MANUAL mode, engine has an ATA of 1.3 and a RPM of 1800. (supercharger
gear 2)
And yet, both situations had the engine at the same throttle & prop pitch
settings!
Had we been flying lower (under 1,500 m), we would not have seen any
difference in manifold pressure or RPM, no matter the supercharger mode
selected.
(Unit)
JU-87

AUTO
THTL: 52 %
PROP: 43 %
ATA: 1.0
RPM: 1800
ALTITUDE: 2,000 m

MANUAL
THTL: 52 %
PROP: 43 %
ATA: 1.3
RPM: 1800
ALTITUDE: 2,000 m

B-2
TEMPERATURES
Supercharger Stage 1 (AUTOMATIC)
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2 (MANUAL)
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M

0
1500

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

1500+

364

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

170
720
215
170
150

For more information on either


aircraft or engine performance,
consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation Regiment Operations
Checklist. It is a fantastic resource
(link below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586
543/CLIFFS%20OF%20DOVER%20Operations
%20Checklist.pdf

365

366

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

367

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 10: DIVE BOMBING


TUTORIAL

Dive bombing is an art that was perfected by Stuka pilots of the


Blitzkrieg such as the famous Hans-Ulrich Rudel. Here is a
tutorial on how to dive bomb using the Automatic Recovery
system. Dont worry, it is very simple.

The Automatic Recovery System was a system implemented


specifically for dive bombing. But what is it, and why should
you care?

Dive bombing requires you to dive straight to the ground. In the


process, you gain a considerable amount of airspeed. Gaining
airspeed isnt a problem unless you need to change direction.
Think of it as a rollercoaster: you are feeling fine when you are
at the top, but when you start doing sharp turns, you will feel
yourself being crushed into your seat: this is what we call G
acceleration forces. These g-forces drain blood away from the
brain and cause cerebral hypoxia (the pilot will see a black veil,
blacking out). Pilots could then enter a G-LOC state, which
means a G-force induced Loss Of Consciousness.

During dive bombing runs, some pilots blacked out because the
G-forces were too much for them to handle. A solution was
proposed by german engineers: to create a system to force the
aircraft to pull away from the dive automatically which means
that even if the pilot momentarily blacks out and cannot control
his plane, the aircraft will naturally climb back up to safety.

368

PART 10: DIVE BOMBING


TUTORIAL

THIS IS HOW PILOTS REALLY DID IT.

THIS IS WHAT THEY TEACH IN


HOLLYWOOD FLIGHT SCHOOL.

Movies often show the famous Split S reversed roll being used as a dive bombing tactic. While it is pretty and cool to look at, it is not very
practical as it disorients the pilot needlessly and puts him at risk.
In real life, pilots would simply spot their target with the floor window open, arm their bombs, set their release altitude and start diving right
away by pushing the aircrafts nose down (by doing it manually or by using the airbrakes, more on that later).
Always plan your bomb run ahead: know at which altitude you intend to start your dive, and at which altitude you want to pull out of the dive.
You can set your bomb release altitude with the knob under the Bomb Altimeter and the red/white needle. This is when your bombs will be
dropped and the aircraft will pull up.
Typically, bomb runs would be started from about 4,500 m.
Bomb release altitude is critical: make sure you know what is your targets altitude so the Automatic Recovery System doesnt send you
crashing into the ground. For instance, if you set your bomb release altitude at 750 m and your target is actually at 800 m, the Automatic
Recovery System will only work when it is too late which is 50 m under the ground. Approximate your targets altitude using tables next page.
A minimum bomb release altitude of 650 m above target is recommended if you want to stay clear of the bomb blast.
369
Recommended bomb release altitude = Target Altitude + 650 m

370

PART 10: DIVE BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PART 10: DIVE BOMBING


TUTORIAL

DIVE BOMBING PROCEDURE


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

Make sure your gunsight illumination is ON


Open up your floor window (hold left mouse btn)
Select the bombs you want to drop on the bomb
arming panel (wing bombs or fuselage bomb or both)
Arm your bombs (either wing or fuselage bomb
arming buttons will do)
Set bomb release altitude with the knob on the bomb
altimeter. 650 m or more is recommended.
Make sure you are trimmed for level flight by using
your elevator trim and your variometer (vertical
velocity = 0 m/s).
Ensure supercharger is in AUTO mode.

SELECT BOMBS YOU WANT TO DROP

371

PART 10: DIVE BOMBING


TUTORIAL

DIVE BOMBING PROCEDURE


8. Spot your target through the floor window
9. Wait until it disappears, cut throttle to idle
and deploy airbrakes!
10. Aircraft will start nosing down. Do not touch
your elevator trim: use rudder, aileron and
elevator input to keep gunsight on target.
11. Maintain optimal dive angle around 85 deg.
12. At 650 m, bombs are dropped and your
aircraft will automatically pull up. Retract
dive brakes, throttle up and enjoy the
fireworks.

THAT MAN LIVING IN THE LIGHTHOUSE SAID HE


DIDNT LIKE BRATWURST HES GONNA GET IT!

ANGLE REFERENCE
LINE

60 DEG

11
MUST WRECK PROPERTY!

12

HORIZON LINE

BY CHECKING QUICKLY THROUGH THE


WINDOW, WE SEE THAT WE ARE AT
ABOUT 60 DEG. PUSH THE NOSE
FURTHER DOWN TO GET TO 80-85 DEG.

10

372

PART 10: DIVE BOMBING


TUTORIAL

CHUCKS BOMBER NUMPAD


(APPLICABLE TO JU-87)
OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS
(APPLICABLE TO JU-87)
DROP BOMBS

ARM BOMBS (AXIS BOMBERS ONLY)

L_CTRL+W

SWITCH CREW POSITION


(BOMBARDIER/PILOT)

LEAN TO GUNSIGHT

JOYSTICK BTN
(CUSTOM KEY)

AIRBRAKES TOGGLE

L_CTRL + F

OPEN / CLOSE WINDOW

CUSTOM KEY
R_CTRL + N

This layout is created with ease of access in mind. Bombsight altitude, velocity and wind
correction are already clickable on the sight itself. This layout should allow the user to go
through everything he needs set up instinctively following the numpad from 0 to 9.

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THERE ARE NO CONFLICTS BETWEEN THESE


KEYS AND OTHER CONTROLS. YOU WILL HEAR A PING WHEN
YOU MAP A CONTROL IF THERE IS SUCH A CONFLICT.

NUM

INCREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
COURSE
SETTER

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE PREVIOUS

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE NEXT

TOGGLE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
SHORT DELAY

INCREASE
COURSE
SETTER

DECREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

ENTER

DECREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

INCREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

DECREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

TOGGLE
BOMBSIGHT
AUTOMATION

SELECT BOMB BAY PREVIOUS

SELECT BOMB
BAY NEXT

373

374

JUNKERS JU-88 A-1

375

TABLE OF CONTENT JU-88

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY


PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: COMPASS NAVIGATION TUTORIAL
PART 11: BOMBING TUTORIAL

376

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Designed by W. H. Evers and Alfred Gassner of Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke (JFM) in the mid-1930s, the
Ju-88 was to be a so-called Schnellbomber ("fast bomber") which would be too fast for any of the fighters of its era
to intercept. The Junkers Ju-88 suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its
development and early operational roles, but became one of the most versatile combat aircraft of the war. Like a
number of other Luftwaffe bombers, it was used successfully as a bomber, dive bomber, night fighter, torpedo
bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, heavy fighterand even, during the closing stages of the conflict in Europe, as
377
a flying bomb.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Ju-88 was designed as a twin engine high speed bomber that became one of the most
versatile bombers in the Luftwaffe and was called The Maid of all Work (probably a feminine
version of Jack of all Trades). The A-1 is capable of level bombing, glide bombing, and dive
bombing just like a Stuka. It is capable of carrying a 2400 Kg bomb load.

378

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

It was during the closing days of the Battle


of Britain that the flagship Ju-88 A-4 went
into service. Although slower yet than the
A-1, nearly all of the troubles of the A-1
were gone, and finally the Ju 88 matured
into a superb warplane. The A-4 actually
saw additional improvements including
more powerful engines, but, unlike other
aircraft in the Luftwaffe, did not see a
model code change.

By August 1940, Ju-88 A-1s and A-5s were


reaching operational units, just as the
Battle of Britain was intensifying.
The battle proved very costly. Its higher
speed did not prevent Ju-88 losses
exceeding those of its Dornier Do 17 and
Heinkel He-111 stablemates, despite being
deployed in smaller numbers than either.

379

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Despite its protracted development, the aircraft became one of the Luftwaffe's most important assets. The
assembly line ran constantly from 1936 to 1945, and more than 16,000 Ju-88s were built in dozens of
variants, more than any other twin-engine German aircraft of the period. Throughout the production, the basic
structure of the aircraft remained unchanged.

The Ju-88 was to prove a very capable and valuable asset to the
Luftwaffe in the east. The Ju-88 units met with instant success,
attacking enemy airfields and positions at low level and causing
enormous losses for little damage in return.
380

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

JU-88
A-1

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C

40
90
40
80

Deg C

ENGINE SETTINGS
Engine & Fuel grade

Jumo 211 B-1


B-4 - 87 octane fuel

Takeoff RPM
Takeoff Manifold Pressure

RPM

2400

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.35

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure

RPM

Combat RPM
Combat Manifold Pressure

RPM

2300

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.15

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

2400
1 min MAX

Emergency Power / Boost


Manifold Pressure @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M

1.35
1 min max
0
1220

Landing Approach RPM


Landing Approach Manifold
Pressure

RPM

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M
UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2300
30 min MAX

1.15
2100
1.1

1220+
2100
As required

Engine very sensitive to ata/rpm


Dive Brakes

381

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

382

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CREW MEMBERS

DORSAL GUNNER
PILOT

NOSE GUNNER / BOMBARDIER

VENTRAL GUNNER

383

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
JU-88 A-1

PILOT

384

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

PILOT

PROP PITCH
(MAX: 12:00)

ENGINE SETTINGS SHOWN


ON NACELLE.
YES YOU NEED TO LOOK
THROUGH THE WINDOW.
AND YES IT WAS A RATHER
WEIRD DESIGN CHOICE.

ENGINE OIL
TEMPERATURE
(DEG C)
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

385

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

NOTE 1: IN THE JU-88, THE PROP PITCH WORKS JUST LIKE IN THE SPITFIRE OR
HURRICANE. YOU CAN MAP YOUR PROP PITCH TO AN AXIS RATHER THAN A SWITCH (AS
USED IN BF.109 AND BF.110).
NOTE 2: THE JU-88 COCKPIT IS NOTORIOUS FOR HAVING ABYSMAL VISIBILITY FOR
TRACK IR USERS, WHICH IS WHY WE CANT SEE THE FUEL COCKS, PROP PITCH LEVERS
AND WATER RADIATOR CONTROLS AS THEY ARE HIDDEN BY THE PILOT SEAT. DONT
FORGET TO MAP FUEL COCK # 1 AND # 2 TOGGLES IN YOUR CONTROLS. IT IS
MANDATORY IF YOU WANT TO START YOUR ENGINE. MY PERSONAL KEY BINDINGS FOR
FUEL COCK # 1 AND # 2 ARE LCTRL + 1 AND LCTRL + 2.

JU-88 A-1

PILOT

FUEL COCKS
#1&#1
(HIDDEN)
PROP PITCH
(HIDDEN)

SUPERCHARGER
TOGGLE # 1 & # 1
(HIDDEN)

WATER & OIL


RADIATOR CONTROLS
(HIDDEN)

386

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

PILOT

NOTE: FLAPS USE HYDRAULIC POWER. YOU HAVE THREE SETTINGS: UP, NEUTRAL AND
DOWN. IN REAL LIFE, YOU WOULD OPERATE FLAPS BY HOLDING THE LEVER IN THE UP OR
DOWN POSITION, AND RETURN THE LEVER IN THE NEUTRAL POSITION ONCE THE FLAPS
ARE IN THE DESIRED POSITION. OBVIOUSLY, YOU WILL SIMPLY WEAR DOWN YOUR
HYDRAULIC PUMPS IF YOU KEEP YOUR FLAPS IN THE UP POSITION INSTEAD OF THE
CORRECT NEUTRAL POSITION.

LANDING GEAR LEVER


FWD: EIN (UP)
AFT: AUS (DOWN)

AILERON TRIM
WHEEL
RUDDER TRIM
INDICATOR
ELEVATOR TRIM
WHEEL

FLAPS LEVER
RUDDER TRIM WHEEL

AIRBRAKE LEVER
THROTTLE

FULL FWD: FLAPS UP


LANDEKL: FLAPS DOWN (50 DEG)
0: NEUTRAL
FULL AFT: FLAPS UP
387

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

LANDING GEAR
INDICATOR
AFT: DEPLOYED
FWD: RETRACTED

FLAPS INDICATOR
AFT: DEPLOYED
FWD: RETRACTED
AIRBRAKE INDICATOR
AFT: DEPLOYED
FWD: RETRACTED

388

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

FUEL COCKS # 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 & 8 (NUMBERS


INCORRECTLY LABELLED WHEN HOVERING MOUSE)
DOWN = EIN (ON)
UP = AUS (OFF)

SEE ENGINE MANAGEMENT SECTION TO KNOW MORE ABOUT THE FUEL


SYSTEM.

389

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

PILOT
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(KM/H)
ALTIMETER (KM)
BOTTOM KNOB: SETS QFE
LORENZ BLIND LANDING
SYSTEM INDICATOR

ALTIMETER (KM)
RED NEEDLE: ALTITUDE FROM
WHICH YOU WILL START YOUR
DIVE BOMBING RUN.

VERTICAL SCALE: NAVIGATION


BEACON SIGNAL INTENSITY
HORIZONTAL SCALE: NAVIGATION
BEACON SIGNAL DIRECTION.

AUTOPILOT MODE
SELECTOR
(OFF/COURSE/MODE 22)

MAGNETOS

CLOCK

390

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

AUTOPILOT COURSE

PILOT

ARTIFICIAL HORIZON

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR
VARIOMETER
(VERTICAL VELOCITY)
(M/S)
AUTOPILOT LIGHT
LIT = AUTOPILOT ENGAGED

391

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

REPEATER COMPASS

PILOT
DIRECTIONAL GYRO
(UPPER BAND)
AUTOPILOT DIRECTION
(BOTTOM BAND)

SLIP INDICATOR
DIRECTIONAL GYRO
SETTTER KNOB

MAGNETIC COMPASS

392

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

BOMBARDIER
NOSE GUNNER

NOSE GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

393

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

GREEN INDEX: SETTING FOR INFINITE OPERATION


YELLOW INDEX: 30 MINUTES MAX OPERATION LIMIT
RED INDEX: 1 MINUTE MAX OPERATION LIMIT

SUPERCHARGER PRESSURE GAUGE (ATA)

JU-88 A-1

BOMBARDIER
NOSE GUNNER

SIMILAR FUNCTION TO BOOST OR MANIFOLD


PRESSURE (THROTTLE)

RPM (U/min)

FUEL PRESSURE (KG/CM2)


UP: OIL PRESSURE
DOWN: FUEL PRESSURE

WATER RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

394

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

BOMBARDIER
NOSE GUNNER

FUEL GAUGE (L)


(ALL TANKS ON LEFT SIDE)

FUEL CONTENTS SELECTOR


(TOTAL CAPACITY: 1720 L FUEL, 240 L OIL)
1: RUMPF - FRONT FUSELAGE FUEL TANK (NOT IMPLEMENTED)
2: AUEN - OUTER FUEL TANKS (430 L EACH)
3: INNEN - INNER FUEL TANKS (430 L EACH)
4: LINKS LEFT OIL TANK (120 L)
5: RECHTS RIGHT OIL TANK (120 L)

FUEL GAUGE (L)


(ALL TANKS ON RIGHT SIDE)
AMBIENT AIR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

COCKPIT PRIMARY
ILLUMINATION

COCKPIT SECONDARY
ILLUMINATION

395

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

BOMBARDIER
NOSE GUNNER

BOMB BAY MANUAL


CRANK

396

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

BOMBARDIER
NOSE GUNNER

BOMBSIGHT

TAILWHEEL LOCK
397

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

VENTRAL
GUNNER

VENTRAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

398

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

JU-88 A-1

DORSAL
GUNNER

DORSAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

399

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

NOTES
Your gunner can call out fighters if you have your in-game chat info window enabled. However, if you
switcher to your gunner position and switched back to your pilot seat, it is possible that the AI gunner will
not take control of the gun. In other words, your gunner will not fire unless the AI takes control of it. To give
back the AI control of your turret, you should use the L_ALT+F2.
Any turret or other air crew position (like the bombardier) can be manned by other players in multiplayer.
They just need to double-click on the available slot in multiplayer once they clicked on the flag.

400

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

ANNULAR WATER RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL
THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

ANNULAR WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH
RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

401

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS
FUEL TANKS
CONTROL
CABLES

WING SPARS

WATER
RADIATOR
(ANNULAR)
402

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

403

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

404

JUNKERS JU-88 A-1

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle secondary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Drop ordnance (bombs)

ESSENTIAL

Fuel Cock Toggle #1 #2

ESSENTIAL (NOT CLICKABLE!)

Fuel Cock Toggle #6 #7

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator/rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

engine #1 select

L_SHIFT+1

ESSENTIAL

engine #2 select

L_SHIFT+2

ESSENTIAL

all engines select

L_SHIFT+3 (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Retract Airbrakes

ESSENTIAL

Extend Airbrakes

ESSENTIAL

Open / Close Bomb Bay Doors

N / LCTRL+N (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

405

JUNKERS JU-88 A-1


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight
throttle

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

Jettison canopy

ESSENTIAL

Open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for second


throttle. Set to keyboard otherwise.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch


Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)
Left / Right Wheel brake

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

Map in AXES if pedals

bail out

ESSENTIAL

ESSENTIAL

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide mouse


cursor)

F10

ESSENTIAL

External View (Give Turret Gunner Control to AI)

L_ALT+F2

ESSENTIAL

View-Position #1 (pilot)

L_ALT+1

ESSENTIAL

View-position #2 (bombardier)

L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

View-position #5 (ventral gunner)

L_ALT+3

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

406

PART 4: CONTROLS

JUNKERS JU-88 A-1


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Previous Mode

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Next Mode

ESSENTIAL

course setter increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

course setter decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro increase

NUMPAD / (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro decrease

NUMPAD * (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot left (aircraft turns left while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + A (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot right (aircraft turns right while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + S (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

bomb mode selector next / previous (salvo/series/single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease bomb distributor salvo quantity

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bombs armed

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bomb short delay

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease bomb distributor delay

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease sight distance

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Select bomb bay previous/Next

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Bombsight altitude + / -

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Bombsight velocity + / -

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Toggle bombsight automation

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Selected Supercharger Previous Step

L_CTRL+Q (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Selected Supercharger Next Step

Q (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

407

PART 4: CONTROLS

Most german aircraft, unlike the majority of British and Russian planes, has a toe brake or
heel brake system, which is linked to each individual wheel of your landing gear.
In order to brake, you need to hold either your left or right wheel toe brake key to steer your
aircraft. Applying rudder will also help you turn tighter.
The main landing wheel brake system employs hydraulically actuated disc-type brakes. Each
brake is operated by individual master brake cylinders located directly forward of the instrument
panel. The brakes are selectively controlled by means of toe pedals incorporated into the rudder
pedal assembly.
Be careful: your wheel brake command used for Differential braking aircraft will lock both your
brakes in a german plane. You can map left/right wheel brake axes if you have rudder pedals.

408

Recommended Gunner Machine-Gun Belt Loadouts Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 15 (7.92 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.

2.
3.

7.9257, S.m.K.H. - Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, Hart- Improved AP round with tungsten core. Highly recommended if you want a straight AP. However, the S.m.K.H.
in-game is in fact a duplicate of the S.m.K., because the S.m.K.H. was never used on a fighter aircraft. Tungsten is a precious and expensive metal that was much
needed elsewhere for the german war effort.
7.9257, P.m.K. - Phosphor mit Stahlkern- Standard AP with an incendiary composition. A great round, can still pierce armor and set fires
7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (gelb) OR 7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (Weiss)- Standard AP with yellow (gelb) or white (Weiss) tracers. Good for aiming.

409

410

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

FRONT BOMB BAY

FUSE DELAY

RECOMMENDED: 18 x GP SC 50

FOR HIGH ALTITUDE: 0 SEC

REAR BOMB BAY

FUSE DELAY

RECOMMENDED: 10 x GP SC 50

WING RACK

FOR DIVE BOMBING: 8 SEC

8 weeks??? No wonder Jerry


lost the Battle of Britain!

RECOMMENDED: 4 x GP SC 250

FUSE DELAY
FOR LOW ALTITUDE/SKIP BOMBING:
14 SEC

411

412

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.

1.

Fuel cocks for both engines set to BOTH (not visible in cockpit, use key bindings. Mine are
LCTRL+1 and LCTRL+2 for fuel cock # 1 and # 2 toggle). Make sure that your engine fuel tanks
are filled by selecting inner tanks with the Fuel Contents Gauge Selector (3 inner main fuel
tanks).

2.

Select Engine # 1 (L_Shift + 1).

3.

Oil rad and water rad fully open (100 %)

4.

Prop pitch full fine (RPM @ 100 %).

5.

Crack throttle about an inch

6.

Switch Magnetos to M1+M2

7.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

8.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

9.

Select Engine # 2 (L_Shift + 2) and repeat steps 3 to 8.

10.

Select both engines (L_Shift + 3).

11.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and water rad temperature to reach at
least 40 deg C.

12.

Taxi to the runway.

13.

Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right
direction for takeoff.

14.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Water & Oil Rads fully open, Full Fine prop pitch
(100 %), good oil & water rad temperatures.

15.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using rudder pedals and
small brake input to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the yoke forward to lift the tail,
which should lift off by itself naturally.

16.

Rotation is at 185 km/h. Be very careful as your tyres will burst at around 200 km/h.

17.

Raise landing gear and flaps and throttle back to approx. 1.15 ATA (orange line). Lower prop
pitch until engine is operating at 2300 RPM while you are beginning your climb. Your best
climb rate is at 250 km/h.

413

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 200 km/h @ approx. 800


m (1500 ft AGL).

2.

Water and oil rads fully open (100 %) and set prop
pitch to full fine (100 %).

3.

Deploy flaps (fully down) and landing gear.

4.

Cut throttle and try to keep your nose pointed to


the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 180 km/h in a 3-point landing.

6.

Yoke fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop. Be


careful not to overheat your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a prop strike.

414

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
The Jumo 211 was an inverted V-12 aircraft engine, Junkers Motoren's primary aircraft
engine of World War II. It was the direct competitor to the famous Daimler-Benz DB 601 and closely
paralleled its development. While the Daimler-Benz engine was mostly used in single-engined and
twin-engined fighters, the Jumo engine was primarily used in bombers such as Junkers' own Ju
87 and Ju 88, and Heinkel's H-series examples of the Heinkel He 111 medium bomber. It was the
most-produced German aero engine of the war, with almost 70,000 examples completed.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The Jumo 211 was developed by Dr.


Franz Josef Neugebauer as scaledup successor to the earlier Jumo 210.
In 1934, even before the new Jumo
210 had completed its acceptance
tests, the RLM sent out a request for
a new 1,000 PS-class engine of about
500
kg
weight.
Both
Jumo
and Daimler-Benz responded, and in
order to reach service before the
new Daimler-Benz DB 600, the Jumo
team decided to make their new
design as similar as possible to
their 210H model, currently in testing.
The resulting Jumo 211 was first
prototyped at Jumo's Dessau plant in
1935 and started testing in April
1936. Like the 210H, it featured a
mechanical direct fuel injection
system using small pistons driven off
the crankshaft, three valves per
cylinder, and an inverted V layout. It
also had an open-cycle 416
cooling
system, not pressurized.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Development of the 211 continued with the 211B being released in 1938, with a slightly
increased maximum RPM of 2,400 which boosted power to 1,200 PS (1,200 hp; 880 kW).
The later 211C and 211D differed primarily in the propeller gear ratios and other features.
A major upgrade was started in 1940 in order to better compete with the 601, following in
its footsteps with a pressurized cooling system. The resulting 211E proved to be able to
run at much higher power settings without overheating, so it was quickly followed by
the 211F which included a strengthened crankshaft and a more efficient supercharger.
The Jumo 211 became the major bomber engine of the war, in no small part due to
Junkers also building a majority of the bombers then in use. Of course, since it was the
Luftwaffe that selected the final engine to be used after competitive testing on prototypes
(such as the Dornier Do 217), there is certainly more to it. Limited production capacity for
each type, and the fact that the Jumo was perfectly capable (if not superior) in a bomber
installation meant that it made sense to use both major types to the fullest; since the
Daimler had a slight edge in a lightweight, single-engine application, that left the Jumo to
fill in the remaining roles as a bomber engine. Even this wasn't enough in the end, and
radial engines like the BMW 801 were increasingly put into service alongside the Jumo
and DB series, most often in multi-engine installations like the Jumo.
417

418

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine
settings once in a while for the pilots to know what settings
they should use. You can read your engine settings from the
gauges in the cockpit or from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) and the manifold pressure (2) are
what you should check every minute. The green, orange
and red indexes are visual markers to remind you of the
limits for 1 min operation (red), 30 min operation (orange)
and infinite operation (green). The oil (3) and water (4)
radiators can be approximated from the crank position or
read from the info window in % (only the oil radiator can
be read though as the water rad info window will only tell
you if you are opening or closing them). Note: 100 % =
fully open
The resulting RPM is affected by both manifold pressure
and prop pitch (5).
Radiator settings:

5
GAUGE IS ON THE
ENGINE ITSELF!

75 % WATER / 50 % OIL during climb & normal operation


100 % WATER / 100 % OIL during takeoff & landing
(Unit)

JU-88
A-1

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max

Deg C

Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min


Max

Deg C

40
90
40
80

419

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

There are a lot of misconceptions and rumours about the use of superchargers. Time to reveal the truth!
A supercharger is an engine-driven air pump or compressor that provides compressed air to the engine to provide additional pressure
to the induction air so the engine can produce additional power. It increases manifold pressure and forces the fuel/air mixture into the
cylinders. The higher the manifold pressure, the more dense the fuel/air mixture, and the more power an engine can produce.
With a normally aspirated engine, it is not possible to have manifold pressure higher than the existing atmospheric pressure. A
supercharger is capable of boosting manifold pressure above 30 "Hg (for german planes it would be an ATA value). For example, at 8,000
feet a typical engine may be able to produce 75 percent of the power it could produce at mean sea level (MSL) because the air is less
dense at the higher altitude. The supercharger compresses the air to a higher density allowing a supercharged engine to produce the
same manifold pressure at higher altitudes as it could produce at sea level.
Thus, an engine at 8,000 feet MSL could still produce 25 "Hg of manifold pressure whereas without a supercharger it could produce only
22 "Hg. Superchargers are especially valuable at high altitudes (such as 18,000 feet) where the air density is 50 percent that of sea level.
The use of a supercharger in many cases will supply air to the engine at the same density it did at sea level. With a normally aspirated
engine, it is not possible to have manifold pressure higher than the existing atmospheric pressure.

420

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

This is what a two-speed centrifugal


supercharger looks like.

EXAMPLES OF A CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGER


(BRISTOL HERCULES)

REAL-LIFE CENTRIFUGAL
SUPERCHARGER FOR THE JUMO 211

421

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION
Some of the large radial engines developed during World War II have a single-stage, two-speed
supercharger. This is what we have on the Jumo 211. With this type of supercharger, a single impeller may
be operated at two speeds.
The low impeller speed is often referred to as the low blower setting, while the high impeller speed is
called the high blower setting. On engines equipped with a two-speed supercharger, a lever or switch in the
flight deck activates an oil-operated clutch that switches from one speed to the other.

Supercharger vs Turbosupercharger (or Turbocharger)


While there is no turbocharger installed on the Jumo 211, it is interesting to explain the differences
between a turbocharger (installed on the P-47 Thunderbolt for example) and a supercharger. Why? Simply
because people often confuse them.
The most efficient method of increasing horsepower in an engine is by use of a turbosupercharger or
turbocharger. Installed on an engine, this booster uses the engines exhaust gases to drive an air
compressor to increase the pressure of the air going into the engine through the carburetor or fuel
injection system to boost power at higher altitude.
The major disadvantage of the gear-driven supercharger use of a large amount of the engines power
output for the amount of power increase produced is avoided with a turbocharger, because
turbochargers are powered by an engines exhaust gases. This means a turbocharger recovers energy from
hot exhaust gases that would otherwise be lost.
A second advantage of turbochargers over superchargers is the ability to maintain control over an engines
rated sea level horsepower from sea level up to the engines critical altitude. Critical altitude is the
maximum altitude at which a turbocharged engine can produce its rated horsepower. Above the critical
422
altitude, power output begins to decrease like it does for a normally aspirated engine.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION TUTORIAL (PART 1)


The supercharger on the Jumo 211 is a twospeed centrifugal type supercharger with automatic boost
control
You switch between first (low blower) and second (high
blower) supercharger gears using the Selected
Supercharger Previous / Next Step controls.
Do not use the Selected Supercharger Cycle control. It is
bugged and does not work.
My key custom bindings are: Selected Supercharger
Previous Step mapped to LCTRL+Q and Selected
Supercharger Next Step mapped to Q.
Supercharger has no effect at low altitudes (under 1200 m).
You need to be above 1500 m to see a difference.
COMP at 0 % means the supercharger is in first gear.
COMP at 100 % means the supercharger is in second gear.
(Unit)

SUPERCHARGER GEAR SWITCH


CONTROL (HIDDEN)

JU-88
A-1

TEMPERATURES
Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M

0
1220

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

1220+

423

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION TUTORIAL (PART 2)

To switch gears, you need to do it individually for each engine:

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Check your altitude. If you are under 1200 m, you need to have your
supercharger in first gear. If you are over 1500 m, you need to have your
supercharger in second gear.
Select Engine # 1 (LSHIFT+1)
Hit Q to switch to second gear (high blower) or hit LCTRL+Q to switch to
first gear (low blower).
If you switch to second gear, you will see an increase in manifold pressure (ATA)
and RPM. Make sure to adjust throttle so your ATA and RPM are not over the
orange index. If you ATA is too high, you can cook the engine.
Select Engine # 2 (LSHIFT+2) and repeat steps 2 to 4.
Select all engines (LSHIFT+3) and youre done!

SUPERCHARGER GEAR SWITCH


CONTROL (HIDDEN)

In this example, I deliberately chose to fly high (4000+ m) and run the left
engine on the first supercharger gear (low blower) and the right engine on
the second supercharger gear (high blower) to show you the difference
between supercharger gear behaviour.
Left engine has an ATA of 0.85 and a RPM of 1800. (supercharger gear 1)
Right engine has an ATA of 1.12 and a RPM of 2000. (supercharger gear 2)
And yet, both engines have their throttle & prop pitch at the same
position!
(Unit)

JU-88
A-1

TEMPERATURES
Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M
UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

0
1220
1220+
(AUTO/MAN MODES)

424

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


The switch box is used to control fuel
transfer pumps.
Aus (UP) is OFF.
Ein (DOWN) is ON.
The nine-lamp indicator is used as a
pumping diagram. This basically tells
you what is going on with each fuel tank.
You can see the fuel diagram below:

SWITCH BOX

EXTERNAL DROP TANK (NOT IN GAME)


(RED)
NINE-LAMP
INDICATOR

OUTER TANK
(GREEN)

OIL TANK
(BLACK)

INNER TANK
(YELLOW)

425

FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

NOTE: Your engines only take fuel from the inner (main) tanks NOT from the outer (reserve) tanks.

1.
2.
3.
4.

There are six fuel lamps on the panel on the left of the pilot seat. You can read letters in them: V-V-L-L-V-V.
The "V" indicates filling/pumping and the "L" indicates emptying.
The outer lamps with the red V are the fuel pumps of your engines. They should be lit at all times.
The inner lamps with yellow V are the fuel pumps that transfer fuel from BOTH outer tanks to either the
left inner tank (left V lit) or the right
inner tank (right V lit).
5. Left yellow V lit = fuel transfer pump is
3
sending fuel from BOTH outer reserve
6
tanks to left inner main tank only.
6. Right yellow V lit = fuel transfer pump is
7
sending fuel from BOTH outer reserve
tanks to right inner main tank only.
7. Inner red L lamps are lit when either
left or right inner main tanks are under
7
50 %. It is basically a reminder to let you
know hey dude, start transferring fuel
5
from reserve tanks to main tanks!
OVERALL, just remember that when you
have a red L lit up, its time to take fuel
from your outer reserve tanks to your inner
main tanks (see next slide).

426

FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

These switches are pretty but what do they do?


Visible switch label

In-Game Label

Kraftst.Pump.links
Kraftst.Pump.rechts

--

1
2

1
2

--

Action
(always on)
(always on)

Fuel cock #3

EIN: ON / AUS: OFF


Pump fuel from left drop tank to the left inner tank only. Left yellow V should be lit.
(FUNCTIONAL, BUT USELESS SINCE WE DONT HAVE EXTERNAL FUEL TANKS)

Fuel cock #4

EIN: ON / AUS: OFF


Pump fuel from right drop tank to the right inner tank only. Right yellow V should be lit.
(FUNCTIONAL, BUT USELESS SINCE WE DONT HAVE EXTERNAL FUEL TANKS)
EIN: ON / AUS: OFF
Pump fuel from forward fuselage tank to both inner tanks. Both yellow V should be lit.
(FUNCTIONAL, BUT USELESS SINCE FWD AND REAR FUSELAGE TANKS ARE NOT IMPLEMENTED IN CLOD)

Fuel cock #5

Fuel cock #6

Fuel cock #7

Fuel cock #8

EIN: ON / AUS: OFF


Pump fuel from LEFT outer tank to both inner tanks. Both yellow V should be lit.
EIN: ON / AUS: OFF
Pump fuel from RIGHT outer tank to both inner tanks. Both yellow V should be lit.
EIN: ON / AUS: OFF
Pump fuel from rear fuselage tank to both inner tanks. Both yellow V should be lit.
(FUNCTIONAL, BUT USELESS SINCE FWD AND REAR FUSELAGE TANKS ARE NOT IMPLEMENTED IN CLOD)

In other words, items switches highlighted in RED are


useless junk that you should forget. GREEN is what
you should remember.
Just remember that switch 5 (fuel cock # 6) transfers
fuel from the outer left tank to both inner tanks, and
that switch 6 (fuel cock # 7) transfers fuel from the
outer right tank to both inner tanks.

427

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

185
675
250
200
180

Best airspeed for climb: 250 km/h


It For more information on either
aircraft or engine performance,
consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation
Regiment
Operations
Checklist. It is a fantastic resource (link
below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/
CLIFFS%20OF%20DOVER%20Operations%20Chec
klist.pdf

428

429

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

430

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING COURSE SETTER


(RED TRIANGLE)

MAGNETIC COMPASS (MC)


GIVES YOU YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING. THE
WHITE INDICATOR IS YOUR COURSE SETTER AND
THE RED TRIANGLE IS YOUR ACTUAL HEADING.
WHEN YOU SET A COURSE WITH THE COURSE
SETTER AND THE RED TRIANGLE AND THE WHITE
INDICATOR ARE ALIGNED, IT MEANS THAT YOU
ARE ON COURSE.
AS YOU CAN SEE IN THE PICTURE ABOVE, WE ARE
ABOUT 8 DEGREES OFF-COURSE.

COURSE SETTER

REPEATER COMPASS (RC) + COURSE


SETTER (CS)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (TOP BAND)


AUTO-PILOT SETTER (BOTTOM BAND)

REPEATS WHAT THE MAGNETIC COMPASS


IS SHOWING (SINCE YOU DONT HAVE AN
EXTRA SET OF EYES).

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) CAN BE SET TO


ANY HEADING YOU WANT.
IT IS
RECOMMENDED FOR THE DG TO BE SET TO
YOUR CURRENT HEADING SHOWN BY THE
MAGNETIC COMPASS (AND REPEATER).
THIS WAY, YOUR MG, RC AND DG ALL SHOW
THE SAME HEADING, WHICH IS A
MAGNETIC HEADING, NOT GEOGRAPHIC.
THE AUTO-PILOT SETTER MUST BE LINED
UP WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO. THE
AUTO-PILOT WILL STEER THE431
AIRCRAFT TO
LINE UP BOTH TOP AND BOTTOM BANDS.

COURSE SETTER ALLOWS YOU TO CREATE A


REFERENCE MARK ON THE COMPASS TO A
HEADING OF YOUR CHOICE. THIS WAY, YOU
JUST NEED TO STEER THE AIRCRAFT (AND
MOVE THE REPEATER NEEDLE) TOWARDS
THE COURSE SET ON THE COURSE SETTER.

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING COURSE SETTER


(RED TRIANGLE)

MAGNETIC COMPASS (MC)

COURSE SETTER

REPEATER COMPASS (RC) + COURSE


SETTER (CS)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (TOP BAND)


AUTO-PILOT SETTER (BOTTOM BAND)

There is no mechanical/electrical relationship between the directional gyro and the compasses. The
autopilot could be set without any reference to the magnetic compass. However, it is good practice to
align the compasses with the directional gyro. In practice, only the lead aircraft has the option of
engaging the autopilot. The other planes in the formation fly manually due to the demands of
formation flying. Having the magnetic/repeater compass setup gives the pilot a visual reference to
the current course. In some cases the leader may prefer to fly using the magnetic/repeater compass
rather than setting up the auto-pilot. The complexity of the mission plan (course), length of leg (etc.)
will usually dictate the practicality of employing the auto-pilot.
432

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

HOW TO SET UP YOUR GYRO & COMPASS


1.

Align your Course Setter with the heading you are facing. You can do that by either consulting the magnetic
compass (red triangle) or the repeater compass. You will see a value in blue text pop up: that value is your
current magnetic heading. Remember this value.

2.

In our case, the number is a heading of 060. This heading is in reference to the magnetic north, NOT the
geographic north.

3.

Set your directional directional gyro compass by clicking on the rotary knob to reflect the magnetic heading
obtained on your magnetic compass. In our case, set the gyro to 060. This way, the directional gyro will give
us a magnetic heading that is correct. You will see the blue numbers pop again. You can use them as a way
to fine tune your gyro.

4.

And thats it! You will now be able to use your directional gyro to orient yourself. If your gyro accumulates
error after high-G manoeuvers, you can try to re-set it using steps 1 to 3.

5.

You could also set your directional gyro to 050 (060 minus 10 deg of magnetic declination) instead if you
wanted to, which would give you your geographical heading instead of your magnetic one. But for
simplicitys sake, we will use the DG, MC and RC all synchronized.

COURSE SETTER
(HEADING 0)
NOT ALIGNED
WITH CURRENT
MAGNETIC
HEADING (060)

NOTE: To navigate from point A to point B, open the map, find a geographical heading to follow, add 10 degrees to
this heading and it will give you the magnetic heading to follow on your MG, RC and DG (if they are all synchronized,
of course).

Course setter
and current
heading
aligned!

Upper band (DG) set to 060 (magneticl


heading). We are now havigating in
relationship to the magnetic north, not
the geographic north!

1
1
3
Course setter and current heading aligned on
magnetic compass as well!
433

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

COMPASS NAVIGATION TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass and the directional gyro is quite useful to know where you are going.

The directional gyro indicator itself does not indicate your heading. You need to set it manually in order to
translate what the magnetic compass and the repeater compass are telling you.
Typically, you set your compass and gyro on the ground. It is not the kind of stuff you want to do when you are
flying 6,000 m over England.
High-G manoeuvers can decalibrate your gyro and give you a wrong reading. Be aware that once you start a
dogfight, your gyro can give you readings that dont make sense. Its normal: it is one of the real-life drawbacks
of this navigation system. The same issue is also recurrent in todays civilian acrobatic prop planes.
There is a difference between a magnetic heading and a geographical heading. If you follow a magnetic heading
of 0 (which is what you read on your magnetic and repeater compasses), you will be following the magnetic
North Pole, not the geographical one. Keep that in mind when you are navigating.
If you consult your in-game map and want to go North, in fact you will have to take into account magnetic
declination, which means that you will have to navigate to a magnetic heading of 0 + 10 deg = 010 deg.
In other words, if you want to follow a specific heading, take that heading and add 10 degrees. This value is what
you will have to follow on your magnetic and repeater compass.

You can also look at it the other way: if you want to go North and you decide to follow your compass to 0
(magnetic North), you will in fact be 10 degrees off course. The next slide will explain why.

434

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
435

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

Bombing is one of the most complex and rewarding features of flight


simulators. The bomber pilot has a thankless job, yet bombing is an
art form in itself.
This tutorial will be for high-altitude bombing as it encompasses all
aspects of bombing and navigation.
Bombers should work as a team. Not only with other bombers, but
with fighter escorts as well to keep them alive.
The mind of a bomber pilot is a patient and organized one. If you fail
to plan your mission properly, you certainly plan to fail and end up
in a smoldering pile of ashes.

436

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

A bombing operation can be separated in 6 phases:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Planning the mission


Takeoff and assembly of bomber force
Rendezvous with fighter escorts
Fly to target
Bombing run
Return to Base

We will explore phases 1, 4 and 5 together.

437

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


Before you even take off, you need to make sure you know the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Where am I?
Where am I going?
How much fuel do I need?
What am I doing?
How am I doing it?
What can help me?
What can kill me?
How do I get home?

Once you have all that stuff figured out, THEN you can takeoff.
The following example will show you a typical mission planning.
438

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?

Reading the bomber objectives


always helps to find a high-priority
target.
You can look at the bombing
objectives in the mission briefing
(can be accessed via aircraft selection
menu or by right-clicking, opening
the map, right-clicking on the map
and choosing Briefing).
Hawkinge will be our target for
today.

Read bomber objectives and pick your targets.


For instance: the Faversham Railyard is located in grid AU25.6, which means
it is located in the middle-right corner of the Alpha-Uniform 25 grid square.
.6 is the location in the square based on the referential of a numpad for the
designated grid square (1 is lower left, 5 is center, 6 is middle right, 9 is
upper right, etc)
However, Hawkinge seems like a juicier target. Well choose this one instead.
439

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
Good! We now have a target
(Hawkinge airfield), and we
decided that we would spawn at
Calais-Marck.
Now, it is time to figure out how
we get there and drop them
cabbage crates. We need a
heading and a distance.
Open your map and select (left
click) your Protractor tool to
obtain your heading to target.

Target
Home Base

Left-Click on the
protractor icon.

While map is selected, open up


your Tools menu (right click) and
use your protractor to find the
correct heading.

440

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
1) Click and hold left mouse button on Calais-Marck and drag a vertical line. Once
line is parallel with the North, release mouse button.
2) Click and hold left mouse button on Calais and drag a line to Hawkinge Airfield.
Once line is crossing the center of the airfield icon, release mouse button.

3) A heading number should pop next to Calais. Remember this number. In our case, we
get 074 degrees.
4) In case your target is West (to the left) to your home base, the number that pops up will
not be your heading. The proper heading will be 360 minus the number that popped up.
In our case, the proper heading will be 360 74 = 286 Geographic (map) Heading.

STEP 6:

LEFT CLICK ON
RULER AND DRAG A LINE
BETWEEN CALAIS-MARCK AND
HAWKINGE TO OBTAIN THE
DISTANCE BETWEEN BOTH
AIRFIELDS.

Step 1
DISTANCE:
58.1 km

Step 2

Heading
(074)?

5) Since the heading we obtained on the map is geographic and not magnetic, the
magnetic course we will need to follow on our compasses is 286 + 10 = 296 deg.
This is the heading we will follow on our compass, course setter, DG and repeater
compass. We added 10 degrees to take into account magnetic declination as shown
in previous compass navigation tutorial.
6) Obtain distance to target by clicking on the ruler and dragging a line441
from Calais to
Hawkinge. In our case, we get a distance of approx. 58 km.

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW MUCH FUEL DO I NEED?
The heavier you are, the slower you are and the more vulnerable
you are.
Calculating your required fuel is easy.
Based on in-game tests I performed, the Ju-88 consumes
approximately 475 Liters of fuel per hour if we stay at engine
settings for a max climb rate.
If we fly at 350 km/h, based on fuel capacity, we can deduce that @
100 % fuel we can fly around for 3.6 hours of flight time, which gives
us a max flying distance of 1260 km (which is 2 times the max
range).
Use the Map Tool Ruler to get our targets range. Hawkinge is
about 60 km away from Calais. Since we plan to return to base, we
add another 60 km. We can add about 40 km for loitering time,
assembly and rendezvous with fighters and another 40 km for
reserve fuel in case we need to find a secondary airfield. We have a
grand total of 200 km.
To fly for 200 km at 2300 RPM at 350 km/h, we simply multiply our
max takeoff fuel load (100 %) by the ratio of the distance we need to
fly on the maximum distance @ max takeoff weight (1260 km):
100 % * 200 km / 1260 km = 16 % fuel approx. That is what we
need.
We can round that up to 20 % to be very conservative. So there we
go, we need roughly 20 % fuel.
Note: you could also takeoff with a full fuel load and full bomb load
if you wanted to. The Ju-88 can still fly. This practice is simply to
teach you how to plan your fuel for a real mission intelligently.

DISTANCE: 58.1 km

Left click and drag


from point A to point
B to get a distance.

442

443

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
We now know our target: Hawkinge. We must know how high it is to take into account target
elevation when we will be bombing.
You can use the LOFTE tool available on ATAG:
theairtacticalassaultgroup.com/utils/lotfe7.html
A tutorial on how to use this tool is available in Chucks Blenheim High Altitude Bomber Guide 2.0
available here:
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/High-Altitude%20Bombing%20Guide%202.0.pdf

One quicker way to do it is to get the airfields altitude directly from the list on the next page
made by Ivank.
LOFTEs values tend to vary from point to point: values you get from this tool are an
approximation that must sometimes be taken with a grain of salt.
Hawkinges altitude in the table is 158 m (518 ft).

444

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT AM I DOING?
Now that we know where we are and where we are going and how much fuel we need, we need to
know what we will be doing.
We will load up
FRONT BOMB BAY: 18 X SC 50 GP bombs with a C-50 fuse (high altitude) with a 0 sec fuse delay.
REAR BOMB BAY: 10 X SC 50 GP bombs with a C-50 fuse (high altitude) with a 0 sec fuse delay.
WING RACK: 4 X SC 250 GP bombs with a C-50 fuse (high altitude) with a 0 sec fuse delay.
See the Weapons and Armament section to know more.
Our bombing altitude will be 6,000 m. We could go as high as 8,000 if we wanted to.
Why do we ask ourselves this question? Simply because the challenge of a bomber pilot is the sheer
workload behind it. You are doing by yourself the task that took two dedicated guys or more to do.
Therefore, our goal is to reduce the workload as much as possible by doing as much as we can on the
ground so we can concentrate on whats going on during the flight rather than prepare our
instruments in a hurry.
In a bomber flight, generally half the guys do not know how to use a bomb sight: they simply drop
their bombs on the bomber leads command. Keep in mind that having a bomber lead is not enough
to have a proper mission: fighter interceptors always go for the bomber lead because odds are that
he is the most experienced bomber pilot. Good bomber operations generally have a second or a third
leader to take No. 1s place in case he gets shot down or runs into engine trouble.
If you have 9 guys flying for an hour to get to a target that are waiting on your command to drop their
bombs, you better make sure that you know where youre aiming
Therefore, it is important to know at what speed and what altitude you plan to do your bomb run so
you can set up your bombsight in advance. I usually set my bombsight when I am on the ground. This
way, you just need to make small adjustments when you get to target rather than set everything up in
a hurry.
445
You will need your target elevation to set up your bombsight properly.

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Here is why you need to take into account target elevation in your bombsight:
Pressure altitude and Height are related to one another, but keep in mind that they are two
completely different things.
Height is the vertical physical distance between your aircraft and the ground. Pilots often refer to
height as AGL (Above Ground Level).
Pressure altitude is the altitude measured using a pressure datum reference. Pilots often refer to
altitude as AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level). Pressure Altitude reading can vary based on
meteorological conditions.
Bombsight height setting can be determined by simply reading the altimeter and substracting the
target elevation (assuming the altimeter pressure altitude was set correctly for the pressure
conditions in Home Base).
The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (6,000 m) minus the target
elevation (158 m). The bombsight height will have to be set at more or less 5,840 m. Keep in
mind that the altitude can change due to many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL,
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.

446

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING IT?

ALTITUDE: 6,000 M AMSL


ABOVE SEA LEVEL

BOMBSIGHT HEIGHT
5,842 m AGL

The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (6000 m)
minus the target elevation (158 m). The bombsight height will have to be set
at more or less 5840 m. Keep in mind that the altitude can change due to
many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL (above ground level),
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.
NOTE: the max bombsight altitude for the Ju-88 is 6,000 m.

TARGET ELEVATION: 158 m

HAWKINGE
ALTITUDE: 158 m AMSL

ENGLISH CHANNEL
ALTITUDE: 0 m AMSL

CALAIS MARCK
ALTITUDE: 2 m AMSL

447

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Caution: our altitude and speed set on the bombsight will not be the values read on the
altimeter and airspeed indicators.
We have already seen why the bombsight height must be the altitude value read on the
altimeter minus the target elevation.
Indicated Airspeed (IAS) is the speed you read on your airspeed indicator. It is driven by
your Pitot tube and a barometric static port. Air pressure varies with altitude (the higher you
go, the less air there is). IAS is corrected for the surrounding air pressure but not for air
density.
True Airspeed (TAS) is indicated airspeed corrected to take into account air density (which,
like we said, depends on your current altitude).
The bombsight requires a True Airspeed input, not an indicated airspeed.
Fortunately, there is an interpolation table available in the Cliffs of Dover manual to help you
get an approximation of TAS. We will see how to use this table in the next page.

448

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

We will aim for an indicated airspeed (IAS) of 300 km/h (read on the airspeed gauge) at an altitude of 5,840 m.
1. Pick the appropriate row for IAS
(300 km/h).

2. Pick the appropriate columns for


nearest altitudes (5,000 and
6,000 m)
3. Take note of the TAS values in the
table 386 km/h and 407 km/h)
4. Because the TAS values are close
enough and that bombsight
airspeed only goes into
increments of 10, we can
approximate the resulting TAS
value to approx. an average value
of 400 km/h. It is not the exact
value, but in our case, since we
are too lazy to take a calculator
and do the interpolation
manually, it should be precise
enough.
449

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PRESUME ONE FACTOR, ALTITUDE OR TAS, IS CORRECT


AND THE OTHER INCORRECT. BOMB TRAJECTORY WILL BE
AFFECTED.
ALL BOMBSIGHTS IN THE SIM USE TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS).
DO NOT CONFUSE TAS WITH IAS INDICATED AIRSPEED,
WHICH IS WHAT YOU READ ON YOUR INSTRUMENTS.

1.

2.

INPUT TAS TOO LOW, PLANE IF FLYING FASTER


THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO LOW, PLANE IS FLYING
HIGHER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

1.
2.

INPUT TAS TOO HIGH, PLANE IF FLYING


SLOWER THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO HIGH, PLANE IS
FLYING LOWER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

TARGET
450

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Be smart: set up your bombsight in advance (set airspeed and altitude at which you want to
bomb) while you are still on the ground. This will save you time and trouble. In our case, we will
enter a bombsight airspeed of 400 km/h and an altitude of 5840 m.

1.
2.

1
3

3.

4.
5.
6.

WIND CORRECTION
BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED
INPUT (TAS)
BOMBSIGHT ALTITUDE
INPUT (AGL)
BOMB DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY
BOMB SALVO QTY
DROP BOMBS

2
4

451

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME? HOW DO I GET HOME?

WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME?


Know where your enemy patrol routes are, where battles usually take place and avoid these
places when you are doing your flight plan.
Give fighter escorts a rendezvous point so they can link up with you and protect you.

HOW DO I GET HOME?


In our case, we will simply do a 180 once we dropped our bombs and head back home.

452

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET
Once we have taken off, we will follow a magnetic heading of 296 to Hawkinge.
You can use the compass traditionally to fly there manually, but you can also use the auto-pilot.
In order to use the auto-pilot and know where you are going, you will need to set up your
magnetic compass and directional gyro differently than shown in the compass navigation
section.
Course Mode is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder control to make your aircraft travel
following a given heading. You still have control over ailerons and elevator. Course mode is
generally used when climbing or descending. In this mode, climb rate is better controlled
through elevator trim rather than pure elevator input.
Mode 22 (Straight n Level) is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder, elevator and aileron
controls to make your aircraft travel following a given heading. You will have no control over
any of your control surfaces. Mode 22 is used when cruising or when level-bombing as this
mode will want to make you stay level at a given heading.
Note: Mode 22 will often make your aircraft go into a dive (- 5 m/s approx) for approximately
one minute. It is normal: the aircraft will try to gain speed in the process. You should lose from
500 to 800 m after Mode 22 is engaged. The climb rate will eventually stabilize to 0. If you
intend on bombing the target from 6,000 m, make sure you are 500-800 m higher before you
engage Mode 22.
453

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO BAND

COURSE SETTER

JU-88 AUTOPILOT OPERATION TABLE


STEP

ACTION

SET/SYNCHRONIZE DIRECTIONAL GYRO TO THE SAME HEADING READ


ON THE MAGNETIC COMPASS.

SET A COURSE TO DESIRED HEADING USING THE COURSE SETTER ON


THE REPEATER COMPASS

ALIGN AIRCRAFT WITH COURSE SETTER BY CONSULTING THE


REPEATER COMPASS (FOLLOW THE WHITE INDICATOR).

WHEN AIRCRAFT IS ALIGNED WITH COURSE SETTER, ALIGN


AUTOPILOT BAND WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO BAND USING THE
AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS.

WHEN AUTOPILOT/GYRO BANDS ARE LINED UP, ENGAGE DESIRED


AUTOPILOT MODE (COURSE MODE OR MODE 22)

WHEN AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED, STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE


AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS FOR BIG
CORRECTIONS. STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO
INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS FOR SMALL COURSE CORRECTIONS.
USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO IS USUALLY A BETTER WAY TO USE
THE AUTOPILOT AS THE PILOT HAS BETTER CONTROL OVER HIS SHIP.

AUTOPILOT BAND

REPEATER
COMPASS

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

454

BOMBING TUTORIAL

JU-88 BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE


HIGH ALTITUDE LEVEL BOMBING (AUTO MODE)

PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

STEP ACTION

BOMBSIGHT

BOMBSIGHT

ENGAGE AUTO-PILOT IN MODE 22 WHEN YOU HAVE SIGHT ON TARGET AND YOU ARE ALIGNED WITH IT. (SEE AUTOPILOT
TABLE)

FIND YOUR TARGET USING THE INCREASE/DECREASE SIGHT DISTANCE CONTROLS AND YOUR AUTOPILOT CONTROLS.

OPEN BOMB BAY DOORS AND ARM YOUR BOMBS IF NOT DONE ALREADY ON THE GROUND.

SELECT BOMB BAYS 1 & 2 (ALL).

SELECT BOMB DISTRIBUTION MODE (SINGLE/SERIES/SALVO). FOR HIGH ALTITUDE, SALVO IS RECOMMENDED.

SELECT BOMB DISTRIBUTOR DELAY (0 IS RECOMMENDED FOR HIGH ALTITUDE PRECISION BOMBING)

SELECT BOMB SALVO QTY (MAX IS RECOMMENDED IF YOU WANT TO DROP ALL YOUR PAYLOAD).

CHECK AIRSPEED AND ALTITUDE IN THE BOMBARDIER SEAT.

CONVERT READ INDICATED AIRSPEED INTO TRUE AIRSPEED AND USE THIS VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED INPUT.

10

CONVERT ALTITUDE INTO HEIGHT (READ ALTITUDE MINUS TARGET ELEVATION) AND USE THIS VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT
ALTITUDE INPUT.

11

STEER THE AIRCRAFT USING THE AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS (SEE AUTOPILOT TABLE) AND
USE YOUR INCREASE/DECREASE BOMBSIGHT DISTANCE CONTROLS TO LINE UP BOMBSIGHT RETICLE ON THE TARGET.
YOU CAN FINE-TUNE COURSE CORRECTIONS WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS.

12

TOGGLE BOMBSIGHT AUTOMATION, MAKE SURE THE BOMBSIGHT IS TRACKING THE TARGET. IN AUTO MODE, RETICLE
DRIFT WILL OCCUR IF WRONG BOMBSIGHT INPUT IS ENTERED OR IF THE AIRCRAFT IS DRIFTING LATERALLY FROM THE
TARGET. YOU CAN COMPENSATE FOR SMALL DRIFT BY INCREASING SLIGHTLY BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED INPUT WITHOUT A
MAJOR IMPACT ON DROP PRECISION. YOU CAN FINE-TUNE COURSE CORRECTIONS WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO
INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS.

13

WAIT FOR THE FIREWORKS. BOMBS SHOULD BE RELEASED AUTOMATICALLY BETWEEN APPROX. 28 DEG @ 4,000
METERS AND 22 DEG FOR 6,000 METERS. BOMBSIGHT RETICLE SPLITS (OR SPREAD) THE BOMBS, WHICH MEANS
THAT MOST BOMBS WILL BE DROPPED IN FRONT OF THE RETICLE AND THE REST BEHIND THE RETICLE.

455

BOMBING TUTORIAL

CHUCKS BOMBER NUMPAD


(APPLICABLE TO JU-88)

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN


OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS
(APPLICABLE TO JU-88)

NUM

INCREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
COURSE
SETTER

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE PREVIOUS

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE NEXT

TOGGLE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
SHORT DELAY

INCREASE
COURSE
SETTER

DECREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

DROP BOMBS

OPEN BOMB BAY DOOR

CLOSE BOMB BAY DOOR

L_CTRL+N

ARM BOMBS (AXIS BOMBERS ONLY)

L_CTRL+W

SWITCH CREW POSITION


(BOMBARDIER/PILOT)

LEAN TO GUNSIGHT

JOYSTICK BTN
(CUSTOM KEY)

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE - PREVIOUS

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE NEXT

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE LEFT

L_CTRL+A

ENTER

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE RIGHT

L_CTRL+S

DECREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

INCREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

DECREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

TOGGLE
BOMBSIGHT
AUTOMATION

This layout is created with ease of access in mind. Bombsight altitude, velocity and wind
correction are already clickable on the sight itself. This layout should allow the user to go
through everything he needs set up instinctively following the numpad from 0 to 9.

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THERE ARE NO CONFLICTS BETWEEN THESE


KEYS AND OTHER CONTROLS. YOU WILL HEAR A PING WHEN
YOU MAP A CONTROL IF THERE IS SUCH A CONFLICT.

SELECT BOMB BAY PREVIOUS

SELECT BOMB
BAY NEXT

456

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
So here is a quick reminder:
ON THE GROUND
1. Set your predicted bomb run altitude and airspeed in your bombsight while on the ground.
2. For Ju-88, select desired bomb bays to be used (preferably all bomb bays selected). Select desired
salvo quantity, release delay, distributor release mode (Salvo? Single?).
3. ARM bombs and fly to target.

5.
6.
7.
8.

IN THE AIR
Find target and reach targeted altitude and airspeed
Open bomb bay doors
Follow steps detailed in the BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE.
Thanks to all the work you did on the ground, you will see that there is not a whole lot to do in
previous step apart from putting your bombsight cursor on the target, adjust slightly bombsight
airspeed & altitude and press the Bombsight Automation key.
9. Jump into your ventral gunner to see hits on target.
10. Close bomb bay doors.
11. Go home for cookies and bratwurst.
457

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

BOMBS DOOR OPEN!

458

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

BOMBS WILL FALL


IN FRONT AND BEHIND
THIS POINT.

BOMBSIGHT AUTOMATION ENABLED

459DEG
BOMBS ARE DROPPED AT APPROX 22

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

CLOSE ENOUGH!

460

461

HEINKEL HE-111 H-2

462

TABLE OF CONTENT HE-111

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY


PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: COMPASS NAVIGATION TUTORIAL
PART 11: BOMBING TUTORIAL

463

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Heinkel He-111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter
Gnter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in the early 1930s. It has sometimes been described as a
"wolf in sheep's clothing" because it masqueraded as a cargo plane though its actual
purpose was to provide the nascent Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber since Germany
had been prohibited by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles from having an air force.

464

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Perhaps the best-recognised German bomber due to the


distinctive, extensively glazed "greenhouse" nose of later
versions, the Heinkel 111 was the most numerous and the
primary Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II.
It fared well until the Battle of Britain, when its weak defensive
armament, relatively low speed, and poor manoeuvrability were
exposed.

Nevertheless, it proved capable of sustaining


heavy damage and remaining airborne. As
the war progressed, the He-111 was used in
a variety of roles on every front in
the European theatre. It was used as
a strategic bomber during the Battle of
Britain, a torpedo bomber during the Battle of
the Atlantic, and a medium bomber and a
transport aircraft on the Western, Eastern,
Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North
African Fronts.
465

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

In February 1937, the German Condor Legion began


flying in Spain, in support of Franco's Nationalists in
the Civil War. The B-2, equipped with 950hp DB
600CG engines, met considerable success in this
conflict, infamously with the indiscriminate bombing of
Guernica in July. As a result, the Luftwaffe drew
exaggerated conclusions from this experience,
thinking that masses of medium bombers like the He
111 would be irresistible. In fact, even the vastly
more lethal four-engine heavy bombers of the U.S.
Eighth Air Force were not sufficient, by themselves, to
bring an industrial country to its knees.

In the late 1930s, these early models of the He 111 (the B, D, and E) were
considered very fast for the time. Only carrying three machines, they could
make a respectable speed. But, in the Battle of Britain, the Hurricanes and
Spitfires cut them down, leaving the Luftwaffe with no recourse but to arm
the bombers with more defensive firepower: additional machine guns in the
nose and tail, and a 20mm cannon in the ventral gondola, necessarily with
more crew to serve the guns. And all this slowed the Heinkels considerably.
In short, by 1942, the He 111 was an outmoded design, no longer capable
of supporting powerful enough engines. And by this time, it was too late to
begin development of a replacement, and the Reich continued to crank them
466production
out, about 7,000 overall, by late 1944 when almost all bomber
ceased, in favor of desperately needed fighters.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The H variant of the He 111 series was more


widely produced and saw more action
during World War II than any other Heinkel
variant. Owing to the uncertainty surrounding the
delivery and availability of the DB 601 engines,
Heinkel switched to 820 kW (1,100 hp) Junkers
Jumo 211 powerplants, whose somewhat greater
size and weight were regarded as unimportant
considerations in a twin-engine design. When the
Jumo was fitted to the P model it became the
He-111 H.

To meet demand for numbers, Heinkel constructed a factory


at Oranienburg. On 4 May 1936, construction began, and
exactly one year later the first He 111 rolled off the production
line. The Ministry of Aviation Luftwaffe administration office
suggested that Ernst Heinkel lend his name to the factory. The
"Ernst Heinkel GmbH" was established with a share capital of
5,000,000 Reichsmarks (RM). Heinkel was given a 150,000
RM share. The factory itself was built by, and belonged to, the
German state. Heinkel wrote in his memoirs: "1940s
production suffered extreme losses during the Battle of Britain,
with 756 bombers lost.

467

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Although constantly upgraded, the Heinkel He-111 became obsolete during the latter
part of the war. It was intended to be replaced by the Luftwaffe's Bomber B project,
but the delays and eventual cancellation of the project forced the Luftwaffe to
continue using the He-111 until the end of the war.

468

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

HE-111
H-2

HE-111
P-2

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max

Deg C

38
95
35
95

Deg C

40
100
40
105

ENGINE SETTINGS
Engine & Fuel grade

Jumo 211 A-1


B-4 - 87 octane fuel

DB601 A-1
B-4 - 87 octane fuel

Takeoff RPM

RPM

2400

2400

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.35

1.3

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA

2300
30 min MAX
1.15

2300
30 min MAX
1.23

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure

RPM

2200

2200

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.10

1.15

Combat RPM

RPM

2300

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.15

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

2400
1 min MAX

2400
5 min MAX
1.3
5 min MAX
2400
1 min MAX

Emergency Power / Boost Manifold


Pressure @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

1.4
1 min MAX

Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

UK: ft
GER: M

1.35
1 min MAX
0
1220
1220+

Landing Approach RPM


Landing Approach Manifold
Pressure

RPM

2300
As required

2300
As required

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M
UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Eng. very sensitive to ata/rpm

N/A
N/A

Eng. very sensitive to ata/rpm


One less gun in nose turret

469

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

470

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

HE-111H-2

HE-111P-2

The P-2 version, unlike its name might suggest, is in fact an earlier version of the H-2.
Differences with H-2 are: Different engine, less guns in nose, different supercharger.

471

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CREW MEMBERS

PILOT
DORSAL GUNNER

WAIST
GUNNER

NOSE GUNNER / BOMBARDIER

VENTRAL GUNNER
472

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HE-111 H-2

PILOT

473

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HE-111 H-2

PILOT

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

CLOCK

474

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

LEFT: FUEL PRESSURE


(KG/CM2)
RIGHT: OIL PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

RPM (U/min)

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

OIL RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

SUPERCHARGER PRESSURE GAUGE (ATA)


SIMILAR FUNCTION TO BOOST OR MANIFOLD
PRESSURE (THROTTLE)

WATER RADIATOR
TEMPERATURE (DEG C)

475

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

LORENZ BLIND LANDING


SYSTEM INDICATOR

AUTOPILOT LIGHT
LIT = AUTOPILOT ENGAGED

VERTICAL SCALE: NAVIGATION


BEACON SIGNAL INTENSITY
HORIZONTAL SCALE: NAVIGATION
BEACON SIGNAL DIRECTION.

REPEATER COMPASS

AUTOPILOT COURSE
ARTIFICIAL HORIZON

DIRECTIONAL GYRO
(UPPER BAND)

ALTIMETER (KM)
BOTTOM KNOB: SETS QFE

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR

VARIOMETER
(VERTICAL VELOCITY)
(M/S)

SLIP INDICATOR

AUTOPILOT DIRECTION
(BOTTOM BAND) 476

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

PROP PITCH
(MAX: 12:00)

FLAPS INDICATOR
(DEG)
LANDING GEAR
INDICATOR
RED: GEAR UP
GREEN: GEAR DOWN

477

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

PITOT HEAT

TOGGLE PRIMARY
COCKPIT ILLUMINATION
(ON/OFF)

478

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

FLAPS LEVER
LANDEN: DOWN
0: NEUTRAL
REISE: UP
NOTE: FLAPS USE HYDRAULIC POWER. YOU HAVE THREE
SETTINGS: UP, NEUTRAL AND DOWN. IN REAL LIFE, YOU
WOULD OPERATE FLAPS BY HOLDING THE LEVER IN THE
UP OR DOWN POSITION, AND RETURN THE LEVER IN
THE NEUTRAL POSITION ONCE THE FLAPS ARE IN THE
DESIRED POSITION. OBVIOUSLY, YOU WILL SIMPLY WEAR
DOWN YOUR HYDRAULIC PUMPS IF YOU KEEP YOUR
FLAPS IN THE UP POSITION INSTEAD OF THE CORRECT
NEUTRAL POSITION.

479

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

THROTTLE
AUTOPILOT CONTROLS
LANDING GEAR LEVER
MAGNETOS

AILERON TRIM
CONTROL

SUPERCHARGER
CONTROLS (SEE ENGINE
MANAGEMENT SECTION)

PROP PITCH
CONTROL

FUEL COCKS # 1 & # 2


AFT: CLOSED
FWD: OPEN

OIL RADIATOR
CONTROLS
AFT/EIN= CLOSED
FWD/AUS = OPEN

PRIMARY
ILLUMINATION
SETTER
480

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

RUDDER TRIM
CONTROL

FUEL COCK # 4 (SHORT)


SELECTS WHERE TO
TRANSFER FUEL TO
WATER RADIATOR
SEE ENGINE
CONTROLS
MANAGEMENT SECTION
FUEL COCK # 3 (LONG)
SELECTS WHERE TO
TRANSFER FUEL FROM
SEE ENGINE
MANAGEMENT SECTION

HAND PUMP

ELEVATOR
TRIM WHEEL

USE WHEN LANDING GEAR FAILS TO RETRACT


COMPLETELY. YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THE LANDING
GEAR INDICATOR LIGHT WILL BE NEITHER RED NOR
GREEN, WHICH MEANS THAT THE LANDING IS NOT
COMPLETELY RETRACTED AND NOT COMPLETELY
DEPLOYED.

481

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

PILOT

LOW FUEL WARNING LIGHT


(LIT WHEN FUEL REACHES 150 L
OR LESS)

SECONDARY ILLUMINATION
SETTER

AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE


(DEG C)

FUEL CONTENTS SELECTOR


FOR LEFT WING TANKS
INNER: INNER TANK
AUSSER: OUTER TANK

FUEL CONTENTS SELECTOR


FOR RIGHT WING TANKS
INNER: INNER TANK
AUSSER: OUTER TANK

482

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

TOTAL FUEL CAPACITY: 3400 L


INNER (MAIN) LEFT TANK: 675 L
INNER (MAIN) RIGHT TANK: 675 L
OUTER (RESERVE) LEFT TANK: 990 L
OUTER (RESERVE) RIGHT TANK: 990 L

PILOT

RIGHT OUTER
TANK SELECTED

LEFT INNER
TANK SELECTED

INNER SELECTED:
READ UPPER SCALE
READING: 600 L

OUTER SELECTED:
READ LOWER SCALE
READING: 990 L

HOW TO READ A FUEL GAUGE:

FUEL CONTENT SELECTOR SET TO INNER FOR INNER TANKS OR AUSSER FOR OUTER TANKS.
FUEL GAUGE READS LINKER FOR THE LEFT TANKS OR RECHTER FOR THE RIGHT TANKS.
READ THE UPPER SCALE OF THE FUEL GAUGE IF THE INNER TANK IS SELECTED (GOES FROM 0 TO 6 x 100 L)
READ THE LOWER SCALE OF THE FUEL GAUGE IF THE OUTER TANK IS SELECTED (GOES FROM 0 TO 10 X 100 L)

483

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

A sweet feature of the He-111 is the sliding hatch.


If you press your hatch toggle key and hit the
Raise Seat (custom key needs to be mapped for
that one in
CONTROLS OPTIONS > VIEW -> RAISE SEAT
You will be able to look above the fuselage. It`s
useful if you are having visibility issues during
critical phases of flight.

PILOT

HATCH OPEN

The pilot's seat could actually be elevated, with the


pilot's eyes above the level of the upper glazing,
complete with a small pivoted windscreen panel,
to get the pilot's head above the level of the top of
the "glass tunnel" for a better forward view during
takeoffs and landings.

SEAT RISES!

484

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HE-111 H-2

BOMBARDIER

BOMBSIGHT

485

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

BOMBARDIER
LOWER NOSE GUN

NOSE GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

486

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

BOMBARDIER
UPPER NOSE GUN

NOSE GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

487

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

DORSAL GUNNER

DORSAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-CRUISE POSITION: O
-FIRING POSITION: CUSTOM KEY
-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

488

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

Your dorsal gunner can call out fighters if you have your ingame chat info window enabled. However, if you switcher
to your gunner position and switched back to your pilot
seat, it is possible that the AI gunner will not take control
of the gun. In other words, your gunner will not fire unless
the AI takes control of it. To give back the AI control of
your turret, you should use the L_ALT+F2.
Your turret has 2 positions: CRUISE and FIRING. During
aircraft cold start, you start in CRUISE/PARKED position.
In this mode, the gunner cannot fire his gun nor move his
turret. This mode is primarily used to generate less drag.
FIRING position, on the other hand, allows you to use
TURRET IN
your gun.
FIRING POSITION Any turret or other air crew position (like the bombardier)
can be manned by other players in multiplayer. They just
need to double-click on the available slot in multiplayer
once they clicked on the flag.

TURRET IN
CRUISE POSITION

489

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

VENTRAL GUNNER

VENTRAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

490

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

WAIST GUNNER
STARBOARD GUN

WAIST GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

491

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

HE-111 H-2

WAIST GUNNER
PORTSIDE GUN

WAIST GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

492

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

WATER RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

WATER RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE,
HIGH RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

493

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS

FUEL TANKS

CONTROL
CABLES

OIL
RADIATOR

WING SPARS
WATER
RADIATOR
494

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

495

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

496

JUNKERS HE-111 (ALL VARIANTS)

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle secondary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Drop ordnance (bombs)

ESSENTIAL

Fuel Cock Toggle #1 #2

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Fuel Cock Toggle #3 #4

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator/rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

engine #1 select

L_SHIFT+1

ESSENTIAL

engine #2 select

L_SHIFT+2

ESSENTIAL

all engines select

L_SHIFT+3 (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

497

JUNKERS HE-111 (ALL VARIANTS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight
throttle

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

Jettison canopy

ESSENTIAL

Open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for second


throttle. Set to keyboard otherwise.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch


Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)
Left / Right Wheel brake

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

Map in AXES if pedals

bail out

ESSENTIAL

ESSENTIAL

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide mouse


cursor)

F10

ESSENTIAL

External View (Give Turret Gunner Control to AI)

L_ALT+F2

ESSENTIAL

View-Position #1 (pilot)

L_ALT+1

ESSENTIAL

View-position #2 (bombardier)

L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

View-position #6 (ventral gunner)

L_ALT+4

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

498

PART 4: CONTROLS

JUNKERS HE-111 (ALL VARIANTS)


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Previous Mode

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Next Mode

ESSENTIAL

course setter increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

course setter decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro increase

NUMPAD / (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro decrease

NUMPAD * (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot left (aircraft turns left while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + A (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot right (aircraft turns right while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + S (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

bomb mode selector next / previous (salvo/series/single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease bomb distributor salvo quantity

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bombs armed

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease bomb distributor delay

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease sight distance

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Bombsight altitude + / -

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Bombsight velocity + / -

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Toggle bombsight automation

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Selected Supercharger Previous Step

L_CTRL+Q (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Selected Supercharger Next Step

Q (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL
499

PART 4: CONTROLS

Most german aircraft, unlike the majority of British and Russian planes, has a toe brake or
heel brake system, which is linked to each individual wheel of your landing gear.
In order to brake, you need to hold either your left or right wheel toe brake key to steer your
aircraft. Applying rudder will also help you turn tighter.
The main landing wheel brake system employs hydraulically actuated disc-type brakes. Each
brake is operated by individual master brake cylinders located directly forward of the instrument
panel. The brakes are selectively controlled by means of toe pedals incorporated into the rudder
pedal assembly.
Be careful: your wheel brake command used for Differential braking aircraft will lock both your
brakes in a german plane. You can map left/right wheel brake axes if you have rudder pedals.

500

Recommended Gunner Machine-Gun Belt Loadouts Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 15 (7.92 mm)

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

1.

2.
3.

7.9257, S.m.K.H. - Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, Hart- Improved AP round with tungsten core. Highly recommended if you want a straight AP. However, the S.m.K.H.
in-game is in fact a duplicate of the S.m.K., because the S.m.K.H. was never used on a fighter aircraft. Tungsten is a precious and expensive metal that was much
needed elsewhere for the german war effort.
7.9257, P.m.K. - Phosphor mit Stahlkern- Standard AP with an incendiary composition. A great round, can still pierce armor and set fires
7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (gelb) OR 7.9257, S.m.K. Lspur (Weiss)- Standard AP with yellow (gelb) or white (Weiss) tracers. Good for aiming.

501

502

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

FUSE DELAY

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Bomb Loadout

FOR HIGH ALTITUDE: 0 SEC

8 x GP SC 250 bombs is the more popular loadout.


Why? Simply because GP SC 250 bombs has more explosive
power than 32 x SC 50 bombs and has more flexibility in fuse
choice (can be used for high altitude, dive bombing or skip
bombing) than SC 250 Semi-AP bombs, which are suited for
high altitude only.

FUSE DELAY
FOR DIVE BOMBING: 8 SEC

8 weeks??? No wonder Jerry


lost the Battle of Britain!

FUSE DELAY
FOR LOW ALTITUDE/SKIP BOMBING:
14 SEC

503

504

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.

1.

Drag fuel cocks #1 and # 2 all the way forward with your left mouse button. Make sure that your
engine fuel tanks are filled by selecting inner tanks with the Fuel Contents Gauge Selector
(INNER = main inner fuel tanks).

2.

Select Engine # 1 (L_Shift + 1).

3.

Oil rad and water rad fully open (100 %)

4.

Prop pitch full fine (RPM @ 100 %).

5.

Crack throttle about an inch

6.

Switch Magnetos to M1+M2

7.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

8.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

9.

Select Engine # 2 (L_Shift + 2) and repeat steps 3 to 8.

10.

Select both engines (L_Shift + 3).

11.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 40 deg C and water rad temperature to reach at least
40 deg C.

12.

Taxi to the runway.

13.

Make sure you are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right
direction for takeoff.

14.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Water & Oil Rads fully open, Full Fine prop pitch
(100 %), good oil & water rad temperatures.

15.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using rudder pedals and small
brake input to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the yoke forward to lift the tail, which
should lift off by itself naturally.

16.

Rotation is at 150 km/h. Be very careful as your tyres will burst at around 200 km/h.

17.

Raise landing gear and flaps and throttle back to approx. 1.15 ATA. Lower prop pitch until engine
is operating at 2300 RPM while you are beginning your climb. Your best climb rate is at 240
km/h.
505

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 200 km/h @ approx. 800


m (1500 ft AGL).

2.

Water and oil rads fully open (100 %) and set prop
pitch to full fine (100 %).

3.

Deploy flaps (fully down) and landing gear.

4.

Cut throttle and try to keep your nose pointed to


the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 140 km/h in a 3-point landing.

6.

Yoke fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop. Be


careful not to overheat your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a prop strike.

506

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
The Jumo 211 was an inverted V-12 aircraft engine, Junkers Motoren's primary aircraft
engine of World War II. It was the direct competitor to the famous Daimler-Benz DB 601 and closely
paralleled its development. While the Daimler-Benz engine was mostly used in single-engined and
twin-engined fighters, the Jumo engine was primarily used in bombers such as Junkers' own Ju
87 and Ju 88, and Heinkel's H-series examples of the Heinkel He 111 medium bomber. It was the
most-produced German aero engine of the war, with almost 70,000 examples completed.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The Jumo 211 was developed by Dr.


Franz Josef Neugebauer as scaledup successor to the earlier Jumo 210.
In 1934, even before the new Jumo
210 had completed its acceptance
tests, the RLM sent out a request for
a new 1,000 PS-class engine of about
500
kg
weight.
Both
Jumo
and Daimler-Benz responded, and in
order to reach service before the
new Daimler-Benz DB 600, the Jumo
team decided to make their new
design as similar as possible to
their 210H model, currently in testing.
The resulting Jumo 211 was first
prototyped at Jumo's Dessau plant in
1935 and started testing in April
1936. Like the 210H, it featured a
mechanical direct fuel injection
system using small pistons driven off
the crankshaft, three valves per
cylinder, and an inverted V layout. It
also had an open-cycle 508
cooling
system, not pressurized.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Development of the 211 continued with the 211B being released in 1938, with a slightly
increased maximum RPM of 2,400 which boosted power to 1,200 PS (1,200 hp; 880 kW).
The later 211C and 211D differed primarily in the propeller gear ratios and other features.
A major upgrade was started in 1940 in order to better compete with the 601, following in
its footsteps with a pressurized cooling system. The resulting 211E proved to be able to
run at much higher power settings without overheating, so it was quickly followed by
the 211F which included a strengthened crankshaft and a more efficient supercharger.
The Jumo 211 became the major bomber engine of the war, in no small part due to
Junkers also building a majority of the bombers then in use. Of course, since it was the
Luftwaffe that selected the final engine to be used after competitive testing on prototypes
(such as the Dornier Do 217), there is certainly more to it. Limited production capacity for
each type, and the fact that the Jumo was perfectly capable (if not superior) in a bomber
installation meant that it made sense to use both major types to the fullest; since the
Daimler had a slight edge in a lightweight, single-engine application, that left the Jumo to
fill in the remaining roles as a bomber engine. Even this wasn't enough in the end, and
radial engines like the BMW 801 were increasingly put into service alongside the Jumo
and DB series, most often in multi-engine installations like the Jumo.
509

510

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out


his engine settings once in a while for the pilots to
know what settings they should use. You can read
your engine settings from the gauges in the
cockpit or from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) and the manifold pressure
(2) are what you should check every minute. The
red indexes are visual markers to remind you of
the limits for 1 min operation (red). The oil (3) and
water (4) radiators can be approximated from the
crank position or read from the info window in %
(only the oil radiator can be read though as the
water rad info window will only tell you if you are
opening or closing them). Note: 100 % = fully open
The resulting RPM is affected by both manifold
pressure and prop pitch (5).
Radiator settings:

75 % WATER / 50 % OIL during climb & normal operation


100 % WATER / 100 % OIL during takeoff & landing

(Unit)

HE-111
H-2

HE-111
P-2

38
95
35
95

40
100
40
105

TEMPERATURES
Water Rad Min
Max

Deg C

Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min


Max

Deg C

2
4

511

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

There are a lot of misconceptions and rumours about the use of superchargers. Time to reveal the truth!
A supercharger is an engine-driven air pump or compressor that provides compressed air to the engine to provide additional pressure
to the induction air so the engine can produce additional power. It increases manifold pressure and forces the fuel/air mixture into the
cylinders. The higher the manifold pressure, the more dense the fuel/air mixture, and the more power an engine can produce.
With a normally aspirated engine, it is not possible to have manifold pressure higher than the existing atmospheric pressure. A
supercharger is capable of boosting manifold pressure above 30 "Hg (for german planes it would be an ATA value). For example, at 8,000
feet a typical engine may be able to produce 75 percent of the power it could produce at mean sea level (MSL) because the air is less
dense at the higher altitude. The supercharger compresses the air to a higher density allowing a supercharged engine to produce the
same manifold pressure at higher altitudes as it could produce at sea level.
Thus, an engine at 8,000 feet MSL could still produce 25 "Hg of manifold pressure whereas without a supercharger it could produce only
22 "Hg. Superchargers are especially valuable at high altitudes (such as 18,000 feet) where the air density is 50 percent that of sea level.
The use of a supercharger in many cases will supply air to the engine at the same density it did at sea level. With a normally aspirated
engine, it is not possible to have manifold pressure higher than the existing atmospheric pressure.

512

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

This is what a two-speed centrifugal


supercharger looks like.

EXAMPLES OF A CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGER


(BRISTOL HERCULES)

REAL-LIFE CENTRIFUGAL
SUPERCHARGER FOR THE JUMO 211

513

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION
Some of the large radial engines developed during World War II have a single-stage, two-speed
supercharger. This is what we have on the Jumo 211. With this type of supercharger, a single impeller may
be operated at two speeds.
The low impeller speed is often referred to as the low blower setting, while the high impeller speed is
called the high blower setting. On engines equipped with a two-speed supercharger, a lever or switch in the
flight deck activates an oil-operated clutch that switches from one speed to the other.

Supercharger vs Turbosupercharger (or Turbocharger)


While there is no turbocharger installed on the Jumo 211, it is interesting to explain the differences
between a turbocharger (installed on the P-47 Thunderbolt for example) and a supercharger. Why? Simply
because people often confuse them.
The most efficient method of increasing horsepower in an engine is by use of a turbosupercharger or
turbocharger. Installed on an engine, this booster uses the engines exhaust gases to drive an air
compressor to increase the pressure of the air going into the engine through the carburetor or fuel
injection system to boost power at higher altitude.
The major disadvantage of the gear-driven supercharger use of a large amount of the engines power
output for the amount of power increase produced is avoided with a turbocharger, because
turbochargers are powered by an engines exhaust gases. This means a turbocharger recovers energy from
hot exhaust gases that would otherwise be lost.
A second advantage of turbochargers over superchargers is the ability to maintain control over an engines
rated sea level horsepower from sea level up to the engines critical altitude. Critical altitude is the
maximum altitude at which a turbocharged engine can produce its rated horsepower. Above the critical
514
altitude, power output begins to decrease like it does for a normally aspirated engine.

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION TUTORIAL (PART 1)

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The supercharger on the Jumo 211 is a two-speed centrifugal type


supercharger with automatic boost control, which is installed on the He111 H-2.
NOTE: a different type of supercharger is installed for the He-111 P-2 (with
DB 601 engines). Disregard this section for the P-2: you do not need to
control the supercharger.
You switch between first (low blower) and second (high blower)
supercharger gears using the Selected Supercharger Previous / Next
Step controls.
Do not use the Selected Supercharger Cycle control. It is bugged and
does not work.
My key custom bindings are: Selected Supercharger Previous Step
mapped to LCTRL+Q and Selected Supercharger Next Step mapped
to Q.
Supercharger has no effect at low altitudes (under 1200 m). You need to
be above 1500 m to see a difference.
COMP at 0 % means the supercharger is in first gear. COMP at 100 %
means the supercharger is in second gear.
(Unit)

HE-111
H-2

HE-111
P-2

UK: ft
GER: M

0
1220

N/A

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

1220+

N/A

SUPERCHARGER GEAR SWITCH

TEMPERATURES
Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

515

SUPERCHARGER OPERATION TUTORIAL (PART 2)

To switch gears, you need to do it individually for each engine:

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Check your altitude. If you are under 1200 m, you need to have your
supercharger in first gear. If you are over 1500 m, you need to have your
supercharger in second gear.
Select Engine # 1 (LSHIFT+1)
Hit Q to switch to second gear (high blower) or hit LCTRL+Q to switch to
first gear (low blower).
If you switch to second gear, you will see an increase in manifold pressure (ATA)
and RPM. Make sure to adjust throttle so your ATA and RPM are not over the
orange index. If you ATA is too high, you can cook the engine.
Select Engine # 2 (LSHIFT+2) and repeat steps 2 to 4.
Select all engines (LSHIFT+3) and youre done!

SUPERCHARGER GEAR SWITCH

In this example, I deliberately chose to fly high (4000+ m) and run the right
engine on the first supercharger gear (low blower) and the left engine on
the second supercharger gear (high blower) to show you the difference
between supercharger gear behaviour.
Right engine has an ATA of 0.65 and a RPM of 2150. (supercharger gear 1)
Left engine has an ATA of 1.0 and a RPM of 2600. (supercharger gear 2)
And yet, both engines have their throttle & prop pitch at the same
position!
(Unit)

HE-111
H-2

HE-111
P-2

UK: ft
GER: M

0
1220

N/A

UK: ft
GER: M
ITA: M

1220+

N/A

TEMPERATURES
Supercharger Stage 1
Operation Altitude
Supercharger Stage 2
Operation Altitude

516

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUEL COCK # 3 (LONG)

Your engines take fuel from your (main) inner wing tanks
only. Once you dry these up, you will need to transfer
fuel from your (reserve) outer tanks to your inner tanks.
Fuel cocks # 1 and # 2 are the red levers on your throttle
quadrant. You are already familiar with them.
But what about these 2 obscure black levers on the right
side of your seat, also called fuel cock # 3 and # 4? Time
to solve this mystery.
1. You can move these levers by left clicking on them and
dragging them with the mouse. Clicking alone will not be
enough: you need to physically move them with the left
mouse button held, and either drag it UP or DOWN.
2. Fuel Cock # 3 (long lever) is used to select from which
tank you want to pump your fuel. Where do you want to
grab your fuel from? Fuel tanks # 1 and # 2 are the left
and right inner tanks, while fuel tanks # 3 and # 4 are the
left and right outer wing tanks.
3. Fuel Cock # 3 (short lever) is used to select where you
want to transfer your fuel to. You can select either fuel
tanks # 1 (inner left) or # 2 (inner right) or you can
simply send fuel to BOTH your inner tanks at once!

WHERE YOU TRANSFER FUEL FROM


CHOICE: either tank # 1 (inner left), # 2 (inner
right), #3 (outer left), # 4 (outer right) or OFF.

FUEL COCK # 4 (SHORT)


WHERE YOU TRANSFER FUEL TO
CHOICE: either tank # 1 (inner
left), # 2 (inner right), or both
tanks # 1 & # 2.

EXAMPLE
SITUATION: Inner tanks show 100 L remaining almost empty!
ACTIONS:
1.

2.
3.

4.

Drag Fuel cock # 3 (long) to position No. 4. We want to take fuel


from the outer right tank.
Drag Fuel cock # 4 (short) to position BOTH. We want the pumps to
transfer fuel to both left and right inner wing tanks.
Once the inner tanks are half full, drag Fuel cock # 3 (long) to position
No. 3. We want to take fuel from the outer left tank this time. Why?
Simply because the aircraft will be unbalanced and harder to control
if one side is full of fuel and the other side is empty. 517
Select Fuel cock # 3 (long) and drag it to OFF once youre done.

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

150
600
240
200
140

Best airspeed for climb: 240 km/h


It For more information on either
aircraft or engine performance,
consult the 2nd Guards Composite
Aviation
Regiment
Operations
Checklist. It is a fantastic resource (link
below).
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/
CLIFFS%20OF%20DOVER%20Operations%20Chec
klist.pdf

518

519

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

520

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING


(RED TRIANGLE)

COURSE SETTER

MAGNETIC COMPASS (MC)


GIVES YOU YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING. THE
WHITE INDICATOR IS YOUR COURSE SETTER
AND THE RED TRIANGLE IS YOUR ACTUAL
HEADING.
WHEN YOU SET A COURSE WITH THE
COURSE SETTER AND THE RED TRIANGLE
AND THE WHITE INDICATOR ARE ALIGNED,
IT MEANS THAT YOU ARE ON COURSE.

COURSE SETTER

REPEATER COMPASS (RC) + COURSE


SETTER (CS)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (TOP BAND)


AUTO-PILOT SETTER (BOTTOM BAND)

REPEATS WHAT THE MAGNETIC COMPASS


IS SHOWING (SINCE YOU DONT HAVE AN
EXTRA SET OF EYES)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) CAN BE SET TO ANY


HEADING YOU WANT. IT IS RECOMMENDED FOR
THE DG TO BE SET TO YOUR CURRENT HEADING
SHOWN BY THE MAGNETIC COMPASS (AND
REPEATER). THIS WAY, YOUR MG, RC AND DG ALL
SHOW THE SAME HEADING, WHICH IS A
MAGNETIC HEADING, NOT GEOGRAPHIC.
THE AUTO-PILOT SETTER MUST BE LINED UP
WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO. THE AUTO-PILOT
WILL STEER THE AIRCRAFT TO LINE521
UP BOTH TOP
AND BOTTOM BANDS.

COURSE SETTER ALLOWS YOU TO CREATE A


REFERENCE MARK ON THE COMPASS TO A
HEADING OF YOUR CHOICE. THIS WAY, YOU
JUST NEED TO STEER THE AIRCRAFT (AND
MOVE THE REPEATER NEEDLE) TOWARDS
THE COURSE SET ON THE COURSE SETTER.

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING


(RED TRIANGLE)

COURSE SETTER

MAGNETIC COMPASS (MC)

COURSE SETTER

REPEATER COMPASS (RC) + COURSE


SETTER (CS)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (TOP BAND)


AUTO-PILOT SETTER (BOTTOM BAND)

There is no mechanical/electrical relationship between the directional gyro and the compasses. The
autopilot could be set without any reference to the magnetic compass. However, it is good practice to
align the compasses with the directional gyro. In practice, only the lead aircraft has the option of
engaging the autopilot. The other planes in the formation fly manually due to the demands of
formation flying. Having the magnetic/repeater compass setup gives the pilot a visual reference to
the current course. In some cases the leader may prefer to fly using the magnetic/repeater compass
rather than setting up the auto-pilot. The complexity of the mission plan (course), length of leg (etc.)
will usually dictate the practicality of employing the auto-pilot.
522

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

HOW TO SET UP YOUR GYRO & COMPASS


1.

Align your Course Setter with the heading you are facing. You can do that by either consulting the magnetic
compass (red triangle) or the repeater compass. You will see a value in blue text pop up: that value is your
current magnetic heading. Remember this value.

2.

In our case, the number is a heading of 060. This heading is in reference to the magnetic north, NOT the
geographic north.

3.

Set your directional directional gyro compass by clicking on the rotary knob to reflect the magnetic heading
obtained on your magnetic compass. In our case, set the gyro to 060. This way, the directional gyro will give
us a magnetic heading that is correct. You will see the blue numbers pop again. You can use them as a way
to fine tune your gyro.

4.

And thats it! You will now be able to use your directional gyro to orient yourself. If your gyro accumulates
error after high-G manoeuvers, you can try to re-set it using steps 1 to 3.

5.

You could also set your directional gyro to 050 (060 minus 10 deg of magnetic declination) instead if you
wanted to, which would give you your geographical heading instead of your magnetic one. But for
simplicitys sake, we will use the DG, MC and RC all synchronized.

COURSE SETTER
(HEADING 0)
NOT ALIGNED
WITH CURRENT
MAGNETIC
HEADING (060)

NOTE: To navigate from point A to point B, open the map, find a geographical heading to follow, add 10 degrees to
this heading and it will give you the magnetic heading to follow on your MG, RC and DG (if they are all synchronized,
of course).

Course setter
and current
heading
aligned!

Upper band (DG) set to 060 (magneticl


heading). We are now havigating in
relationship to the magnetic north, not
the geographic north!

1
1
3
Course setter and current heading aligned on
magnetic compass as well!
523

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

COMPASS NAVIGATION TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass and the directional gyro is quite useful to know where you are going.

The directional gyro indicator itself does not indicate your heading. You need to set it manually in order to
translate what the magnetic compass and the repeater compass are telling you.
Typically, you set your compass and gyro on the ground. It is not the kind of stuff you want to do when you are
flying 6,000 m over England.
High-G manoeuvers can decalibrate your gyro and give you a wrong reading. Be aware that once you start a
dogfight, your gyro can give you readings that dont make sense. Its normal: it is one of the real-life drawbacks
of this navigation system. The same issue is also recurrent in todays civilian acrobatic prop planes.
There is a difference between a magnetic heading and a geographical heading. If you follow a magnetic heading
of 0 (which is what you read on your magnetic and repeater compasses), you will be following the magnetic
North Pole, not the geographical one. Keep that in mind when you are navigating.
If you consult your in-game map and want to go North, in fact you will have to take into account magnetic
declination, which means that you will have to navigate to a magnetic heading of 0 + 10 deg = 010 deg.
In other words, if you want to follow a specific heading, take that heading and add 10 degrees. This value is what
you will have to follow on your magnetic and repeater compass.

You can also look at it the other way: if you want to go North and you decide to follow your compass to 0
(magnetic North), you will in fact be 10 degrees off course. The next slide will explain why.

524

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
525

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

Bombing is one of the most complex and rewarding features of flight


simulators. The bomber pilot has a thankless job, yet bombing is an
art form in itself.
This tutorial will be for high-altitude bombing as it encompasses all
aspects of bombing and navigation.
Bombers should work as a team. Not only with other bombers, but
with fighter escorts as well to keep them alive.
The mind of a bomber pilot is a patient and organized one. If you fail
to plan your mission properly, you certainly plan to fail and end up
in a smoldering pile of ashes.

526

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

A bombing operation can be separated in 6 phases:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Planning the mission


Takeoff and assembly of bomber force
Rendezvous with fighter escorts
Fly to target
Bombing run
Return to Base

We will explore phases 1, 4 and 5 together.

527

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


Before you even take off, you need to make sure you know the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Where am I?
Where am I going?
How much fuel do I need?
What am I doing?
How am I doing it?
What can help me?
What can kill me?
How do I get home?

Once you have all that stuff figured out, THEN you can takeoff.
The following example will show you a typical mission planning.
528

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?

Reading the bomber objectives


always helps to find a high-priority
target.
You can look at the bombing
objectives in the mission briefing
(can be accessed via aircraft selection
menu or by right-clicking, opening
the map, right-clicking on the map
and choosing Briefing).
Hawkinge will be our target for
today.

Read bomber objectives and pick your targets.


For instance: the Faversham Railyard is located in grid AU25.6, which means
it is located in the middle-right corner of the Alpha-Uniform 25 grid square.
.6 is the location in the square based on the referential of a numpad for the
designated grid square (1 is lower left, 5 is center, 6 is middle right, 9 is
upper right, etc)
However, Hawkinge seems like a juicier target. Well choose this one instead.
529

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
Good! We now have a target
(Hawkinge airfield), and we
decided that we would spawn at
Calais-Marck.
Now, it is time to figure out how
we get there and drop them
cabbage crates. We need a
heading and a distance.
Open your map and select (left
click) your Protractor tool to
obtain your heading to target.

Target
Home Base

Left-Click on the
protractor icon.

While map is selected, open up


your Tools menu (right click) and
use your protractor to find the
correct heading.

530

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
1) Click and hold left mouse button on Calais-Marck and drag a vertical line. Once
line is parallel with the North, release mouse button.
2) Click and hold left mouse button on Calais and drag a line to Hawkinge Airfield.
Once line is crossing the center of the airfield icon, release mouse button.

3) A heading number should pop next to Calais. Remember this number. In our case, we
get 074 degrees.
4) In case your target is West (to the left) to your home base, the number that pops up will
not be your heading. The proper heading will be 360 minus the number that popped up.
In our case, the proper heading will be 360 74 = 286 Geographic (map) Heading.

STEP 6:

LEFT CLICK ON
RULER AND DRAG A LINE
BETWEEN CALAIS-MARCK AND
HAWKINGE TO OBTAIN THE
DISTANCE BETWEEN BOTH
AIRFIELDS.

Step 1
DISTANCE:
58.1 km

Step 2

Heading
(074)?

5) Since the heading we obtained on the map is geographic and not magnetic, the
magnetic course we will need to follow on our compasses is 286 + 10 = 296 deg.
This is the heading we will follow on our compass, course setter, DG and repeater
compass. We added 10 degrees to take into account magnetic declination as shown
in previous compass navigation tutorial.
6) Obtain distance to target by clicking on the ruler and dragging a line531
from Calais to
Hawkinge. In our case, we get a distance of approx. 58 km.

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
We now know our target: Hawkinge. We must know how high it is to take into account target
elevation when we will be bombing.
You can use the LOFTE tool available on ATAG:
theairtacticalassaultgroup.com/utils/lotfe7.html
A tutorial on how to use this tool is available in Chucks Blenheim High Altitude Bomber Guide 2.0
available here:
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/High-Altitude%20Bombing%20Guide%202.0.pdf

One quicker way to do it is to get the airfields altitude directly from the list on the next page
made by Ivank.
LOFTEs values tend to vary from point to point: values you get from this tool are an
approximation that must sometimes be taken with a grain of salt.
Hawkinges altitude in the table is 158 m (518 ft).

532

533

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW MUCH FUEL DO I NEED?
The heavier you are, the slower you are and the more vulnerable
you are.
Calculating your required fuel is easy.
Based on in-game tests I performed, the He-111 consumes
approximately 500 Liters of fuel per hour if we stay at engine
settings for a max climb rate.
If we fly at 300 km/h, based on fuel capacity, we can deduce that @
100 % fuel we can fly around for 6.8 hours of flight time, which
gives us a max flying distance of 2040 km (which is 2 times the max
range).
Use the Map Tool Ruler to get our targets range. Hawkinge is
about 60 km away from Calais. Since we plan to return to base, we
add another 60 km. We can add about 40 km for loitering time,
assembly and rendezvous with fighters and another 40 km for
reserve fuel in case we need to find a secondary airfield. We have a
grand total of 200 km.
To fly for 200 km at 2300 RPM at 300 km/h, we simply multiply our
max takeoff fuel load (100 %) by the ratio of the distance we need
to fly on the maximum range @ max takeoff weight (2040 km):
100 % * 200 km / 2040 km = 10 % fuel approx. That is what we
need.
We can round that up to 15 % to be very conservative. So there we
go, we need roughly 15 % fuel.
Note: you could also takeoff with a full fuel load and full bomb load
if you wanted to. The He-111 can still fly. This practice is simply to
teach you how to plan your fuel for a real mission intelligently.

DISTANCE: 58.1 km

Left click and drag


from point A to point
B to get a distance.

534

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT AM I DOING?
Now that we know where we are and where we are going and how much fuel we need, we need
to know what we will be doing.
We will load up 8 X SC 250 GP bombs with a C-50 fuse (high altitude) with a 0 sec fuse delay.
See the Weapons and Armament section to know more.
Our bombing altitude will be 6,000 m. We could go as high as 8,000 if we wanted to.
Why do we ask ourselves this question? Simply because the challenge of a bomber pilot is the
sheer workload behind it. You are doing by yourself the task that took two dedicated guys or
more to do. Therefore, our goal is to reduce the workload as much as possible by doing as much
as we can on the ground so we can concentrate on whats going on during the flight rather than
prepare our instruments in a hurry.
In a bomber flight, generally half the guys do not know how to use a bomb sight: they simply
drop their bombs on the bomber leads command. Keep in mind that having a bomber lead is not
enough to have a proper mission: fighter interceptors always go for the bomber lead because
odds are that he is the most experienced bomber pilot. Good bomber operations generally have
a second or a third leader to take No. 1s place in case he gets shot down or runs into engine
trouble.
If you have 9 guys flying for an hour to get to a target that are waiting on your command to drop
their bombs, you better make sure that you know where youre aiming
Therefore, it is important to know at what speed and what altitude you plan to do your bomb run
so you can set up your bombsight in advance. I usually set my bombsight when I am on the
ground. This way, you just need to make small adjustments when you get to target rather than set
everything up in a hurry.
You will need your target elevation to set up your bombsight properly.
535

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Here is why you need to take into account target elevation in your bombsight:
Pressure altitude and Height are related to one another, but keep in mind that they are two
completely different things.
Height is the vertical physical distance between your aircraft and the ground. Pilots often refer to
height as AGL (Above Ground Level).
Pressure altitude is the altitude measured using a pressure datum reference. Pilots often refer to
altitude as AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level). Pressure Altitude reading can vary based on
meteorological conditions.
Bombsight height setting can be determined by simply reading the altimeter and substracting the
target elevation (assuming the altimeter pressure altitude was set correctly for the pressure
conditions in Home Base).
The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (6,000 m) minus the target
elevation (158 m). The bombsight height will have to be set at more or less 5,840 m. Keep in
mind that the altitude can change due to many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL,
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.

536

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING IT?

ALTITUDE: 6,000 M AMSL


ABOVE SEA LEVEL

BOMBSIGHT HEIGHT
5,842 m AGL

The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (6000 m)
minus the target elevation (158 m). The bombsight height will have to be set
at more or less 5840 m. Keep in mind that the altitude can change due to
many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL (above ground level),
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.
NOTE: the max bombsight altitude for the He-111 is 6,000 m.

TARGET ELEVATION: 158 m

HAWKINGE
ALTITUDE: 158 m AMSL

ENGLISH CHANNEL
ALTITUDE: 0 m AMSL

CALAIS MARCK
ALTITUDE: 2 m AMSL

537

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Caution: our altitude and speed set on the bombsight will not be the values read on the
altimeter and airspeed indicators.
We have already seen why the bombsight height must be the altitude value read on the
altimeter minus the target elevation.
Indicated Airspeed (IAS) is the speed you read on your airspeed indicator. It is driven by
your Pitot tube and a barometric static port. Air pressure varies with altitude (the higher you
go, the less air there is). IAS is corrected for the surrounding air pressure but not for air
density.
True Airspeed (TAS) is indicated airspeed corrected to take into account air density (which,
like we said, depends on your current altitude).
The bombsight requires a True Airspeed input, not an indicated airspeed.
Fortunately, there is an interpolation table available in the Cliffs of Dover manual to help you
get an approximation of TAS. We will see how to use this table in the next page.

538

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

We will aim for an indicated airspeed (IAS) of 300 km/h (read on the airspeed gauge) at an altitude of 5,840 m.
1. Pick the appropriate row for IAS
(300 km/h).

2. Pick the appropriate columns for


nearest altitudes (5,000 and
6,000 m)
3. Take note of the TAS values in the
table 386 km/h and 407 km/h)
4. Because the TAS values are close
enough and that bombsight
airspeed only goes into
increments of 10, we can
approximate the resulting TAS
value to approx. an average value
of 400 km/h. It is not the exact
value, but in our case, since we
are too lazy to take a calculator
and do the interpolation
manually, it should be precise
enough.
539

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PRESUME ONE FACTOR, ALTITUDE OR TAS, IS CORRECT


AND THE OTHER INCORRECT. BOMB TRAJECTORY WILL BE
AFFECTED.
ALL BOMBSIGHTS IN THE SIM USE TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS).
DO NOT CONFUSE TAS WITH IAS INDICATED AIRSPEED,
WHICH IS WHAT YOU READ ON YOUR INSTRUMENTS.

1.

2.

INPUT TAS TOO LOW, PLANE IF FLYING FASTER


THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO LOW, PLANE IS FLYING
HIGHER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

1.
2.

INPUT TAS TOO HIGH, PLANE IF FLYING


SLOWER THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO HIGH, PLANE IS
FLYING LOWER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

TARGET
540

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Be smart: set up your bombsight in advance (set airspeed
and altitude at which you want to bomb) while you are still
on the ground. This will save you time and trouble. In our
case, we will enter a bombsight airspeed of 400 km/h and
an altitude of 5840 m.

5
3

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

AIRSPEED INDICATOR (IAS)


ALTIMETER (AMSL)
BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED
INPUT (TAS)
BOMBSIGHT ALTITUDE
INPUT (AGL)
BOMB DISTRIBUTOR
SALVO QTY

4
541

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME? HOW DO I GET HOME?

WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME?


Know where your enemy patrol routes are, where battles usually take place and avoid these
places when you are doing your flight plan.
Give fighter escorts a rendezvous point so they can link up with you and protect you.

HOW DO I GET HOME?


In our case, we will simply do a 180 once we dropped our bombs and head back home.

542

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET
Once we have taken off, we will follow a magnetic heading of 296 to Hawkinge.
You can use the compass traditionally to fly there manually, but you can also use the auto-pilot.
In order to use the auto-pilot and know where you are going, you will need to set up your
magnetic compass and directional gyro differently than shown in the compass navigation
section.
Course Mode is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder control to make your aircraft travel
following a given heading. You still have control over ailerons and elevator. Course mode is
generally used when climbing or descending. In this mode, climb rate is better controlled
through elevator trim rather than pure elevator input.
Mode 22 (Straight n Level) is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder, elevator and aileron
controls to make your aircraft travel following a given heading. You will have no control over
any of your control surfaces. Mode 22 is used when cruising or when level-bombing as this
mode will want to make you stay level at a given heading.
Note: Mode 22 will often make your aircraft go into a dive (- 5 m/s approx) for approximately
one minute. It is normal: the aircraft will try to gain speed in the process. You should lose from
500 to 800 m after Mode 22 is engaged. The climb rate will eventually stabilize to 0. If you
intend on bombing the target from 6,000 m, make sure you are 500-800 m higher before you
engage Mode 22.
543

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

AUTOPILOT
CONTROLS

HE-111 AUTOPILOT OPERATION TABLE


STEP

ACTION

SET/SYNCHRONIZE DIRECTIONAL GYRO TO THE SAME HEADING READ


ON THE MAGNETIC COMPASS.

SET A COURSE TO DESIRED HEADING USING THE COURSE SETTER ON


THE REPEATER COMPASS

ALIGN AIRCRAFT WITH COURSE SETTER BY CONSULTING THE


REPEATER COMPASS (FOLLOW THE WHITE INDICATOR).

WHEN AIRCRAFT IS ALIGNED WITH COURSE SETTER, ALIGN


AUTOPILOT BAND WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO band USING THE
AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS.

WHEN AUTOPILOT/GYRO BANDS ARE LINED UP, ENGAGE DESIRED


AUTOPILOT MODE (COURSE MODE OR MODE 22)

WHEN AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED, STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE


AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS FOR BIG
CORRECTIONS. STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO
INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS FOR SMALL COURSE CORRECTIONS.
USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO IS USUALLY A BETTER WAY TO USE
THE AUTOPILOT AS THE PILOT HAS BETTER CONTROL OVER HIS SHIP.

MAGNETIC
COMPASS
COURSE SETTER

REPEATER
COMPASS
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

AUTOPILOT
544

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
HE-111 BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE
HIGH ALTITUDE LEVEL BOMBING (AUTO MODE)
STEP

ACTION

ENGAGE AUTO-PILOT IN MODE 22 WHEN YOU HAVE SIGHT ON TARGET AND YOU ARE ALIGNED WITH IT. (SEE
AUTOPILOT TABLE)

FIND YOUR TARGET USING THE INCREASE/DECREASE SIGHT DISTANCE CONTROLS AND YOUR AUTOPILOT
CONTROLS.

OPEN BOMB BAY DOORS AND ARM YOUR BOMBS IF NOT DONE ALREADY ON THE GROUND.

SELECT BOMB DISTRIBUTOR DELAY (0 IS RECOMMENDED FOR HIGH ALTITUDE PRECISION BOMBING)

SELECT BOMB SALVO QTY (MAX IS RECOMMENDED IF YOU WANT TO DROP ALL YOUR PAYLOAD).

CHECK AIRSPEED AND ALTITUDE IN THE BOMBARDIER SEAT.

CONVERT READ INDICATED AIRSPEED INTO TRUE AIRSPEED AND USE THIS VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED
INPUT.

CONVERT ALTITUDE INTO HEIGHT (READ ALTITUDE MINUS TARGET ELEVATION) AND USE THIS VALUE FOR
BOMBSIGHT ALTITUDE INPUT.

STEER THE AIRCRAFT USING THE AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS (SEE AUTOPILOT TABLE)
AND USE YOUR INCREASE/DECREASE BOMBSIGHT DISTANCE CONTROLS TO LINE UP BOMBSIGHT RETICLE ON
THE TARGET. YOU CAN FINE-TUNE COURSE CORRECTIONS WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO INCREASE/DECREASE
CONTROLS.

10

TOGGLE BOMBSIGHT AUTOMATION, MAKE SURE THE BOMBSIGHT IS TRACKING THE TARGET. IN AUTO MODE,
RETICLE DRIFT WILL OCCUR IF WRONG BOMBSIGHT INPUT IS ENTERED OR IF THE AIRCRAFT IS DRIFTING
LATERALLY FROM THE TARGET. YOU CAN COMPENSATE FOR SMALL DRIFT BY INCREASING SLIGHTLY BOMBSIGHT
AIRSPEED INPUT WITHOUT A MAJOR IMPACT ON DROP PRECISION. YOU CAN FINE-TUNE COURSE CORRECTIONS
WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS.

11

WAIT FOR THE FIREWORKS. BOMBS SHOULD BE RELEASED AUTOMATICALLY BETWEEN APPROX. 28 DEG @ 4,000
METERS AND 22 DEG FOR 6,000 METERS. THE BOMBSIGHT RETICLE IS WHERE THE LAST BOMB WILL HIT.

BOMBSIGHT

BOMBSIGHT
545

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS
(APPLICABLE TO HE-111)

CHUCKS BOMBER NUMPAD


(APPLICABLE TO HE-111)

NUM

INCREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
COURSE
SETTER

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE PREVIOUS

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE NEXT

TOGGLE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
SHORT DELAY

INCREASE
COURSE
SETTER

DECREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

DROP BOMBS

OPEN BOMB BAY DOOR

CLOSE BOMB BAY DOOR

L_CTRL+N

ARM BOMBS (AXIS BOMBERS ONLY)

L_CTRL+W

SWITCH CREW POSITION


(BOMBARDIER/PILOT)

LEAN TO GUNSIGHT

JOYSTICK BTN
(CUSTOM KEY)

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE - PREVIOUS

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE NEXT

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE LEFT

L_CTRL+A

ENTER

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE RIGHT

L_CTRL+S

DECREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

INCREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

DECREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

TOGGLE
BOMBSIGHT
AUTOMATION

This layout is created with ease of access in mind. Bombsight altitude, velocity and wind
correction are already clickable on the sight itself. This layout should allow the user to go
through everything he needs set up instinctively following the numpad from 0 to 9.

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THERE ARE NO CONFLICTS BETWEEN THESE


KEYS AND OTHER CONTROLS. YOU WILL HEAR A PING WHEN
YOU MAP A CONTROL IF THERE IS SUCH A CONFLICT.

SELECT BOMB BAY PREVIOUS

SELECT BOMB
BAY NEXT

546

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
So here is a quick reminder:

1.
2.
3.
4.

ON THE GROUND
Set your predicted bomb run altitude and airspeed in your bombsight while on the ground.
For He-111, you only have one bomb bay (unlike the Ju-88, which has 2 bomb bay and one bomb rack).
Select desired salvo quantity, release delay, distributor release mode (Salvo? Single?).
ARM bombs and fly to target.

5.
6.
7.
8.

IN THE AIR
Find target and reach targeted altitude and airspeed
Open bomb bay doors
Follow steps detailed in the BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE.
Thanks to all the work you did on the ground, you will see that there is not a whole lot to do in
previous step apart from putting your bombsight cursor on the target, adjust slightly bombsight
airspeed & altitude and press the Bombsight Automation key.
9. Jump into your ventral gunner to see hits on target.
10. Close bomb bay doors.
11. Go home for cookies and bratwurst.
547

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

BOMBS DOOR OPEN!


548

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

LAST BOMB FALLS HERE.

BOMBSIGHT AUTOMATION ENABLED

549DEG
BOMBS ARE DROPPED AT APPROX 22

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

CLOSE ENOUGH!

550

551

FIAT G.50 FRECCIA SERIE II

552

TABLE OF CONTENT G.50


PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY
PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
553

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The Fiat G.50 Freccia ("Arrow"), designed by Giuseppe Gabrielli, was a World War II Italian fighter
aircraft. First flown in February 1937, the G.50 was Italys first single-seat, all-metal monoplane with
an enclosed cockpit and retractable Undercarriage to go into production. In early 1938,
the Freccias served in the Regia Aeronautica (the Italian Air Force), and with its expeditionary arm,
the Aviazione Legionaria, in Spain, where they proved to be fast and, as with most Italian designs,
very manoeuvrable. However, it had inadequate weaponry (two Breda-SAFAT 12.7-mm machine
guns). The Fiat G.50 was also used in small numbers by theCroatian Air Force and 35 were flown to
554
Finland, where they served with distinction, with an unprecedented kill/loss ratio of 33/1.

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The G.50 was by all accounts


an aircraft that was durable,
efficient, reluctant to break
and easy to repair. It was easy
to manoeuver and could
sustain an appreciable amount
of stress during violent turns.

555

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

In September 1940, 20 Gruppo (351/352/353 Squadrons), commanded


by Maggiore Bonzano and equipped with Fiat G.50, was part of 56 Stormo,
formed to operate during the Battle of Britain as part of the Corpo Aereo
Italiano (Italian Air Corps, CAI) based in Belgium. The G.50s were
hampered by their slow speed, open cockpits and short range.

556

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The experiences of the early G.50s over Britain showed their


inadequacies. Their operations were almost useless in the campaign,
because they were too short-ranged and stationed too far from enemy
territory. The G.50s had limited endurance, and missions rarely
exceeded one hour. The G.50 bis with its larger fuel tanks was
already in production, but it was not sent to 20 Gruppo in time.

557

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

G.50 SERIE II

TEMPERATURES
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max
Cylinder Head Temp Min
Max

Deg C

50
90
140
240

Deg C

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


FIAT A.74 / R.C.38
87 octane fuel

Engine & Fuel grade


Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

890 BCO ON

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2400
30 min MAX
700

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure

RPM

Combat RPM

RPM

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

Emergency Power / Boost Manifold


Pressure @ Sea Level

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Landing Approach RPM

RPM

Landing Approach Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Top Speed @ Sea Level


Notes & Peculiarities

UK: MPH
GER-ITA: km/h

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2520

2100
690
2400
700
2520
3 min MAX
890 BCO ON
3 min MAX
2400
As required
410
Boost Cut-Out Override (BCO)
during takeoff often required

558

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
G.50

559

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

G.50

HAND PUMP
USE WHEN LANDING GEAR FAILS TO RETRACT
COMPLETELY. YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THE LANDING
GEAR INDICATOR LIGHT WILL BE NEITHER RED NOR
GREEN, WHICH MEANS THAT THE LANDING IS NOT
COMPLETELY RETRACTED AND NOT COMPLETELY
DEPLOYED.

FUEL GAUGE
TOTAL CAPACITY: 312 L
WING TANKS: 46 L EACH
FWD FUSELAGE TANK: 68 L
AFT FUSELAGE TANK: 100 L
RESERVE TANK (NOURRICE): 52 L

560

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

ALTIMETER (KM)
(BOTTOM KNOB SETS
QFE)

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(x 10 KM/H)

ADJUST ANEMOMETER
KNOB
(ROTATES BOTH AIRSPEED INDICATORS
NOBODY REALLY KNOWS WHY)

ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD


TEMPERATURE
(x100 DEG C)

CYLINDER
TEMPERATURE
DISPLAY SELECTOR
(SEE ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
SECTION)

VARIOMETER
(VERTICAL
VELOCITY IN M/S)

G.50

OIL TEMPERATURE
(DEG C)

561

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

G.50

GUNSIGHT

TOGGLE GUNSIGHT
ILLUMINATION

562

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

G.50

AMMO COUNTER

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

AMMO COUNTER

LANDING GEAR INDICATOR


GREEN = GEAR DOWN
RED = GEAR UP

ENGINE COWLINGS
CONTROL
UP = OPEN
DOWN = CLOSED

PNEUMATIC AIR
CONTAINER PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

CLOCK
PNEUMATIC PRESSURE
FOR BRAKE IS UP = BRAKING

BRAKE LEVER
(ON STICK)

NOTE: IN REALITY THIS WAS THE ACTUAL BRAKE... THE IN-GAME


BRAKE IS IN FACT THE GUN TRIGGER. IT APPEARS THE DEVS GOT
THE GUN TRIGGER AND THE BRAKE BUTTON
CONFUSEDOBVIOUSLY, YOU ARE ALLOWED TO NOT GIVE A SHIT.

563

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

G.50

RPM (x 100)
LANDING GEAR LEVER
UP = GEAR UP
MIDDLE = NEUTRAL
DOWN = GEAR DOWN

OIL PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)
FUEL PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

FLAPS LEVER
UP = RETRACTED
MIDDLE = NEUTRAL
DOWN = DEPLOYED

MANIFOLD PRESSURE LIMIT INDEXES ARE


NOT APPLICABLE IN CURRENT GAME
VERSION: THESE LIMITS ARE BASED FOR
THE A.80 ENGINE USED ON THE BR.20, NOT
the A.74 ENGINE USED ON THE G.50.

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR

MAGNETOS
BUG: YOU CANNOT
REVERT BACK MAGNETOS
TO OFF BY CLICKING ON
THEM... WHICH MEANS
YOU CANT SHUT DOWN
THE ENGINE UNLESS YOU
HAVE A KEY BINDING
MAPPED FOR
MAGNETO #1 - OFF

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(x 10 KM/H)

OIL RADIATOR CONTROL


UP = CLOSE / DOWN = OPEN

MANIFOLD PRESSURE
ADJUST ANEMOMETER KNOB
(MM HG X 10)

(ROTATES BOTH AIRSPEED INDICATORS


NOBODY REALLY KNOWS WHY)

564

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

G.50

HATCH DOOR HANDLE


ODDLY ENOUGH, ITALIAN THROTTLE QUADRANT
CONVENTIONS
ARE
REVERSED
WHEN
COMPARED TO GERMAN AND BRITISH
STANDARDS.
THROTTLING UP IN A BRITISH OR GERMAN
PLANE WOULD BE DONE BY MOVING THE
THROTTLE FORWARD. IN ITALIAN PLANES, YOU
PULL THE THROTTLE BACK TOWARDS YOU TO
THROTTLE UP.
THIS EXAMPLE SHOWS YOU WHAT THROTTLE
QUADRANT LOOKS LIKE WITH FULL THROTTLE,
PITCH FULL FINE AND MIXTURE FULLY RICH.

ELEVATOR TRIM
INDICATOR

MIXTURE
FWD = 0 % LEAN
AFT = 100 % RICH
THROTTLE
FWD = 0 %
AFT = 100 %

CONVENTION:
THROTTLE: FWD = 0 % / AFT = 100 %
PROP PITCH: FWD = 0 % / AFT = 100 %
MIXTURE: FWD = 0 % LEAN / AFT = 100 % RICH

FUEL COCK
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
ELEVATOR TRIM WHEEL

PROP PITCH
FWD = 0 %
AFT = 100 %

565

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

WHY TWO AIRSPEED GAUGES?

You might notice that there are two airspeed gauges on the plane. Now why is that?

The short answer is that the G.50 was a stall-prone aircraft. Therefore, it is essential for the pilot to be absolutely sure 100
% of the time of what his airspeed is if he wants to avoid nasty stalls. For security and redundancy reasons, the designer
of the G.50 thought that putting two pitot tubes (one on each wing, you can check!) would be useful in case one of the
pitot tubes has a wrong reading. This is why you have two independent airspeed gauges.
TOTAL PRESSURE (DOG FEELS THE WIND SPEED + AMBIENT PRESSURE)

The long answer is there is a relationship between airspeed


and a pitot tube.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Airspeed can be found with air pressure sensors placed on the aircraft.
There are 2 types of pressure: static and dynamic.
Static pressure is the ambient air pressure
Dynamic pressure is based on the pressure differential between you and a moving
fluid (like wind!)
5. Total pressure = dynamic pressure + static pressure
6. Dynamic pressure = total pressure - static pressure
7. Dynamic pressure is a function of air density (which varies with altitude) and
airspeed.
1
8. Dynamic Pressure = ()2
2
9. From that equation, we know that airspeed is found from dynamic pressure.
10. Therefore, if we have sensors for the total pressure (obtained from pitot tube,
which is like a dog with its head out of a car) and a static pressure (obtained from
a static port, more on that next slide), we can find easily your airspeed!
11. =


0.5 ( )

STATIC PRESSURE (DOG FEELS AMBIANT PRESSURE ONLY)

( ) ( )
0.5 ( )

566

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

WHY TWO AIRSPEED GAUGES?


Hence we need 2 sensors: a static port (static pressure) and a pitot tube (total pressure) to obtain an
airspeed.
A pitot tube is usually fit on the wings, which is where there is the most airflow to get the most accurate
measurement of total pressure possible (since you need to be aligned with the moving fluid).
A static port is a pressure sensor that needs to be placed in a particular place in order to measure a proper
static pressure (which means in an area undisturbed by wind, undisturbed by dynamic effects). This means
that the static port must be placed in a way that the sensor is perpendicular to the wind (and will not feel its
pressure effect).
PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM
STATIC PORT

The static port pressure sensor will feel


the pressure of the air laterally (or from
the side of the aircraft), but will not feel
the dynamic pressure created by the
motion of the aircraft. See the dog in
car analogy from previous page.567

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

ENGINE COWLING FLAPS OPEN (ALSO CALLED LOUVRES)


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

OIL RAD CLOSED


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE
ENGINE, HIGH RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

ENGINE COWLING FLAPS CLOSED (ALSO CALLED LOUVRES)


GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH RISK OF ENGINE OVERHEAT

OIL RAD OPEN


GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO THE
OIL COOLER
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

568

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

569

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS
2x 12.7 mm (0.5 in)
MACHINE GUNS
WING FUEL
TANK

RESERVE FUEL
TANK (NOURRICE)
FWD FUSELAGE
FUEL TANK

WING FUEL
TANK

WING SPARS

AFT FUSELAGE
FUEL TANK

CONTROL
CABLES
570

FIAT G.50 FRECCIA

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

Wheel brakes

ESSENTIAL

bail out

ESSENTIAL

Operate Hand Pump

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

increase gunsight illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

decrease gunsight illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal


axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

Magneto # 1 OFF (in-game bug prevents you from


clicking magnetos back to OFF position)

ESSENTIAL

571

FIAT G.50 FRECCIA


DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
NOT ESSENTIAL

fire guns

Joystick Gun Trigger

ESSENTIAL

throttle

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

boost cut-off (boost cut-out override)

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

increase mixture

ESSENTIAL

decrease mixture

ESSENTIAL

open radiator

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator

Down Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for


second throttle. Set to
keyboard otherwise.

ESSENTIAL

decrease propeller pitch


Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)
Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide
mouse cursor)

ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

F10

ESSENTIAL

572

PART 4: CONTROLS

Unlike the German aircraft, the G.50 uses differential braking instead of toe brakes.
In order to brake, you need to hold your Full Wheel Brakes key (which is physically mapped as a
lever on your control column) while you give rudder input to steer your aircraft. Make sure you
have adequate mixture, RPM and Manifold Pressure settings or your turn radius will suffer. Keep
in mind that that for British and Italian aircraft, you use this braking system (Full Wheel Brakes
key), while for the German aircraft you use toe brakes (Full Left/Right Wheel Brakes keys or
Left/Right Wheel Brakes axes in your controls).
BRAKE LEVER

PNEUMATIC LINES

PNEUMATIC AIR
CONTAINER PRESSURE
RUDDER INPUT (KG/CM2)

PNEUMATIC PRESSURE
FOR BRAKE IS UP = BRAKING
WHEEL
BRAKE

RIGHT RUDDER PUSHED


(WILL TURN RIGHT)

BRAKE LEVER
COMPRESSED AIR
TANK

573

Recommended Machine-Gun Belt Loadouts

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Mitragliatrice Breda Avio model S.A.F.A.T. (12.7 mm / 0.50 in)


1.
2.
3.
4.

12.7x81SR, Armour Piercing/Tracer (Red)


12.7x81SR, High Explosive Incendiary/Tracer (Red)
12.7x81SR, Armour Piercing Incendiary
12.7x81SR, High Explosive
USE 150 M HORIZ & 200 M VERTICAL
CONVERGENCE

SELECT THE SECOND


LOADOUT WITH TWO
GUNS (THE ONE WITH
108 KG, NOT THE ONE
WITH 57 KG, WHICH IS
FOR ONE GUN ONLY)

574

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been
simplified in the sim.
1.

Make sure you have the proper fuel load by checking the fuel gauge.

2.

Ensure that mixture is set to fully rich.

3.

Set your prop pitch to full fine (100 %).

4.

Crack throttle about 10 %.

5.

Engine cowling flap and oil radiator flaps fully closed.

6.

Magnetos to BOTH (M1 + M2).

7.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

8.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

9.

Open cowling flaps 100 %, oil radiator flaps 50 % and prop pitch is fully FINE (100 %).

10.

Click on the Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge Selector (Sender) and set to any cylinder.

11.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 50 deg C and the cylinder head temperature to
reach at least 140 deg C.

12.

Taxi to the runway. You can taxi with low oil temps without any problem. Make sure you
are facing yellow panels on the runway. This means you are facing the right direction for
takeoff.

13.

Perform last takeoff checks: door hatch closed, cowlings fully open, oil rad 50 %, Full Fine
prop pitch, good oil & cylinder head temperatures.

14.

Set Boost Cut-Out Override ON (not visible in cockpit, use key binding).

15.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using right aileron and
rudder pedals to keep the aircraft straight. Slightly push the stick forward to lift the tail.

16.

Rotation is at 175 km/h.

17.

Raise landing gear and flaps UP and adjust engine settings to 2100 RPM and 740 mm HG
max for climb. Set Boost Cut-Out Override OFF (not visible in cockpit, use key binding).
575

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 175 km/h @ approx. 800


m (1500 ft AGL).

2.

Cowling flaps and oil rads fully open (100 %) and


set prop pitch to full fine (100 %).

3.

Deploy flaps (fully down) and landing gear.

4.

Cut throttle and try to keep your nose pointed to


the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 160 km/h in a 3-point landing.

6.

Stick fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop. Be


careful not to overheat your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a prop strike.

576

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Fiat A.74 / R.C.38 Engine

Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp Engine


(A.74 design derived from it)

The Fiat A.74 / R.C.38 is a 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial engine with reduction gear and supercharger, rated
altitude 3,800 m. The A.74 was important in that it marked a transition for Fiat from liquid-cooled inline engines, to
large air-cooled radial engines. Fiat had made a number of smaller radial air engines over the years but the A.74
marked a major increase in power and size. The A.74 family was widely produced and spawned a number of related
engines such as the A.76, A.80, and A.82. Each successive generation being larger and more powerful than the
previous. The entire series grew from 14 cylinders to 18 cylinders with a power output of 870 hp to 1,400 hp.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine settings once in a
while for the pilots to know what settings they should use.

You can read your engine settings from the gauges in the cockpit or from an
info window.
The RPM indicator (1) shows 2100 RPM. The manifold pressure (2)
reads 700 mm HG.
The oil radiators (3) can be approximated by looking at the oil rad lever
or read from the info window in %. The control for cowling flaps is the
same as the one used for water radiators. (100 % = fully open). Cowling
flaps influence the cylinder head temperatures. (4)
The engine is equipped with a carburetor which requires mixture
settings to be adjusted according to altitude.

3
1

Mixture settings:

0-2000m: 100% mix


2000-4000m: 95% mix
4000-6000m: 90% mix
6000-8000m: 85% mix

Boost Cut-Out override can be turned on as long as you do not exceed


safety manifold pressure. However, keep in mind that there is no
physical switch in the cockpit: you need to use a key binding for it.
The resulting RPM is affected by manifold pressure (2), prop pitch (6)

Cowling flaps settings:


0 % during engine warm-up
100 % during normal operation

Oil radiator settings:

0 % during engine warm-up


50 % during normal operation
75 % during climb
(Unit)

BR.20M

TEMPERATURES
Oil Rad

Min
Deg C
Max
Cylinder Head Temp
Min Deg C
Max

50
90
140
240

578

CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURES

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

In order to monitor cylinder head temperatures, you only


have one gauge to do so.
The Fiat A.74 R.C.38 is a 14-cylinder air-cooled radial

engine.

Click on the Cylinder Head Temperature Next Sender


selector to choose which individual pair of cylinders will
have its temperature displayed on the temperature gauge.
In theory, all cylinders should have approximately the same
temperature, which is why in-game you can only click once
on the selector, monitor a single cylinder, and have a good
idea how the temperature state of your whole engine.
A diligent pilot would probably check each pair of cylinders
periodically to make sure all cylinders are operating within
safety parameters. Fortunately, we dont really have to do
that in CloD
If your engine is damaged by flak or enemy fire, using the
Cylinder Head Temp Selector switch is a good way to know
how many cylinders are still functioning. The loss of a single
cylinder does not mean that the engine stops running
Thats the beauty of radial engines: they will keep running
even when they are falling apart!

579

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Boost cut-out override (BCO)


Keep in mind that there is no physical switch in the
cockpit: you need to use a key binding for it.
The Boost control override did not originate as an
emergency power setting, but was adapted to be so.
In original form, it was just a way of disabling the
boost controller in case of malfunction, thus making
the system directly link the pilot handle to the
throttle valve and giving him the ability to set any
boost the supercharger was capable of (but without
control, boost would change with altitude).
Although it is hard to find references on this, it is
easy to see how the BCO could become an unofficial
emergency power switch. A pilot could pull it and try
for a bit more boost than the rated 740 mm HG, and
hopefully get a bit more power without damaging
the engine.
580

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

SPECIFICATIONS
ENGINE

FIAT A.74 R.C.38

175

WEIGHTS

600

SPEED LIMITS

210
175
160

A climb speed of 210 km/h is


recommended.
When diving, pilots should partially
close their Air Louvres (cowling flaps)
and Oil Radiators to prevent the
Cylinder Heads and oil from cooling
too much otherwise misfiring and
rough running may result.
Unfortunately, there is not a whole lot
of information on the G.50s
performance.

Stall Speed

150 km/h

Max Diving Speed

720 km/h

While the G.50 is one of the slower fighter


aircraft in CloD, it has an excellent turn rate
that can surprise many Spitfire and
Hurricane pilots. Use this turn rate to your
advantage.
The G.50 is also very resilient. It is not rare
for Spitfire pilots to spend much more
ammunition than they would expect to
shoot down a G.50. The G.50s fuel tanks
are well protected and the pilot has an
armor plate behind his seat for protection.
The G.50s radial engine can still function
despite having some cylinders damaged.
581

582

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

583

FIAT BR.20M CICOGNA

584

TABLE OF CONTENT BR.20M

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY


PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS
PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT FAMILIARIZATION
PART 4: THE CONTROLS
PART 5: WEAPONS AND ARMAMENT
PART 6: TAKEOFF
PART 7: LANDING
PART 8: ENGINE MANAGEMENT
PART 9: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
PART 10: COMPASS NAVIGATION TUTORIAL
PART 11: BOMBING TUTORIAL

585

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

Designed by Celestino Rosatelli, thus gaining the prefix BR for "Bombardiere Rosatelli,
the Fiat BR.20 Cicogna ("stork") was a low-wing twin-engine medium bomber produced
from the mid-1930s until the end of World War II by the Turin firm. When it entered service
in 1936 it was the first all-metal Italian bomber and it was regarded as one of the most
modern medium bomber of the world. It had its baptism of fire in summer 1937,
with Aviazione Legionaria, during the Spanish Civil War, when it formed the backbone of
Nationalist bombing operations along with the Heinkel He 111. It was then used
successfully by the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

586

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

The M in BR.20M stands for Modificato, or modified. This version was an improved version of the BR.20. It
featured a strengthened center fuselage, protective armor for the crew, longer nose, revised tailwheel, another
dorsal turret with same gun (more aerodynamic), and other aerodynamic improvements.

587

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

In 1934, Regia Aeronautica requested Italian aviation manufacturers to


submit proposals for a new medium bomber. Despite the BR.20 being the
winner of the bomber competition, the Savoia Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero,
a non-competitor which was developed at practically the same time, gained
a reputation that overshadowed the Cicogna, partly because of its
performance in air-racing. The reasons for the Sparviero's success lay in
its flying characteristics. The Sparvieros three engines gave more power
than the two of the BR.20. The Sparviero, weighing around the same, had
a reserve of power and was capable of performing acrobatic manoeuvers,
even rolls. Its engines were more reliable than those of the BR.20 and had
enough power to return to base even with one shut down. The Sparviero's
superior agility enabled it to perform as a torpedo-bomber, while
the Cicogna was never even considered for that role.

588

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

When Italy entered war in 1940, the BR.20 was the standard medium
bomber of Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) but it was already showing
its age. By 1942, it was mostly used for maritime patrol and operational
training for bomber crews. More than 500 were produced by the end of the
war.

589

PART 1: AIRCRAFT HISTORY

It was against the British on the Channel that for the very first time the BR.20 showed its
limitations. On 10 September 1940, was formed the Corpo Aereo Italiano, with 13 and
43 Stormi equipped with 80 brand-new BR.20Ms, to fight in the Battle of Britain. During the
ferry operation from Italy to their bases in Belgium, five aircraft crash-landed for technical
failures and a further 17 were forced to land en route due to poor visibility. On 10 January
1941, the 43 Stormo flew back to Italy, followed by the 13 before the end590
of the month.
During 12 days of bombing missions, the Cicognas dropped 54,320 kg of bombs.

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

(Unit)

BR.20M

TEMPERATURES
Oil Rad (OUTBOUND) Min
Max
Cylinder Head Temp Min
Max

Deg C

50
90
140
240

Deg C

ENGINE SETTINGS & PROPERTIES


FIAT A.80 / R.C.41
87 octane fuel

Engine & Fuel grade


Takeoff RPM

RPM

Takeoff Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

820 BCO ON

Climb RPM

RPM

Climb Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

2100
30 min MAX
740

Normal Operation/Cruise
RPM
Normal Operation/Cruise
Manifold Pressure
Combat RPM

RPM

Combat Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Emergency Power/ Boost


RPM @ km

RPM

Emergency Power / Boost Manifold


Pressure @ Sea Level
Landing Approach RPM

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Landing Approach Manifold Pressure

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

Notes & Peculiarities

UK: PSI
GER: ATA
ITA: mm HG

RPM

RPM

2200

2100
670
2100
740
2200
5 min MAX
820 BCO ON
5 min MAX
2200
As required
Boost Cut-Out Override (BCO) ON
during takeoff often required

591

PART 2: AIRCRAFT VARIANTS

592

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

DORSAL GUNNER
12.7 mm MG

OBSERVER / RADIO
OPERATOR

VENTRAL GUNNER
7.7 mm MG

CREW MEMBERS

PILOT (LEFT SEAT)


CO-PILOT AI (RIGHT SEAT)

NOSE GUNNER / BOMBARDIER


7.7 mm MG

593

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BR.20M

PILOT

594

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

350 KM/H IS THE


CRUISE SPEED
FOR MAXIMAL
ENDURANCE (RANGE)

PILOT

ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
VARIOMETER
(VERTICAL VELOCITY)
M/S

AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(KM/H x 10)

PNEUMATIC AIR PRESSURE


USED WHEN BRAKING (KG/CM2)

ADJUST ANEMOMETER
KNOB
(ROTATES THE AIRSPEED
INDICATOR NOBODY
REALLY KNOWS WHY)

PNEUMATIC AIR
CONTAINER PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

SIDE SLIP
INDICATOR

ALTIMETER
(BOTTOM KNOB SETS
QFE)

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

GYRO SETTER

CLOCK

595

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

RPM x 100

PILOT

MANIFOLD PRESSURE
(MM HG X 10)

NOTE: THIS SIDE OF THE


COCKPIT LAYOUT IS
SYMMETRICAL
(FOR CO-PILOT).

RADIO LOOP
COMPASS
(USED FOR RADIO
NAVIGATION)
ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD
TEMPERATURE
BOTH ENGINES (x 100 DEG C)

CYLINDER
TEMPERATURE
DISPLAY SELECTOR
(SEE ENGINE
MANAGEMENT
SECTION)

OIL TEMPERATURE
LEFT ENGINE (DEG C)
ENGINE CARBURETTOR
TEMPERATURE
LEFT ENGINE (DEG C)

FUEL PRESSURE
LEFT ENGINE (KG/CM2)

OIL PRESSURE
LEFT ENGINE (KG/CM2)

FUEL PRESSURE
RIGHT ENGINE (KG/CM2)

596

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

PILOT

SECONDARY COCKPIT LIGHTS SWITCH

PRIMARY COCKPIT LIGHTS SWITCH

597

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

CANOPY JETTISON HANDLE

PILOT

LANDING GEAR
INDICATOR LIGHTS
GREEN = DOWN
RED = UP

MAGNETOS

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

COURSE SETTER
COURSE SETTER
ADJUSTMENT KNOB

SLAVED COMPASS
SEE COMPASS
NAVIGATION
SECTION
598

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

PILOT

FIRE EXTINGUISHER
CARBURETTOR HEAT
(NOT FUNCTIONAL)
MIXTURE
AFT = FULL RICH
FWD = FULL LEAN

THROTTLE
FWD = 0 % THROTTLE
AFT = 100 % THROTTLE
BOOST CUT-OUT OVERRIDE
FLIPPED FWD = OFF
FLIPPED AFT = ON

599

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

PILOT

RUDDER TRIM WHEEL


(DIREZIONE)
ELEVATOR TRIM
WHEEL (PROFONDITA)
ELEVATOR TRIM
INDICATOR

RUDDER TRIM
INDICATOR

PROP PITCH
AFT = COARSE (LOWER RPM)
FWD = FINE (HIGHER RPM)
TIP: CHECK NUMBERS ON
THROTTLE QUADRANT.

COWLING FLAPS
FWD = CLOSED
AFT = OPEN

OIL RADIATOR
CONTROL
FWD = CLOSED
AFT = OPEN
AILERON TRIM
WHEEL (ALETTONI)

AILERON TRIM
INDICATOR
600

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

PILOT

ODDLY ENOUGH, ITALIAN THROTTLE QUADRANT


CONVENTIONS ARE REVERSED WHEN COMPARED TO
GERMAN AND BRITISH STANDARDS (EXCEPT FOR PROP
PITCH).
THROTTLING UP IN A BRITISH OR GERMAN PLANE
WOULD BE DONE BY MOVING THE THROTTLE
FORWARD. IN ITALIAN PLANES, YOU PULL THE THROTTLE
BACK TOWARDS YOU TO THROTTLE UP.
THIS EXAMPLE SHOWS YOU WHAT THROTTLE
QUADRANT LOOKS LIKE WITH FULL THROTTLE, PITCH
FULL FINE, OPEN OIL & WATER RADS, AND BOOST CUTOUT OVERRIDE ON.
CONVENTION:
THROTTLE: FWD = 0 % / AFT = 100 %
PROP PITCH: FWD = 100 % / AFT = 0 %
OIL RAD: FWD = 0 % / AFT = 100 %
COWLING FLAPS: FWD = 0 % / AFT = 100 %
BOOST CUT-OUT OVERRIDE: FWD = OFF / AFT = ON

601

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BR.20M

PILOT

BRAKE LEVER

602

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

FUEL GAUGES (TOTAL: 3620 L)

PILOT

FORWARD CENTER FUSELAGE (ANTERIORE): 725 L


AFT CENTER FUSELAGE (POSTERIORE): 725 L
RIGHT WING TANKS (DESTRO): 545 + 540L = 1085 L

The BR.20M has 6 self-sealing


fuel tanks: 2 in the center
fuselage (which are filled first)
and 4 fuel tanks in the wings.
With a full bomb load (2 X 800
kg), the maximum fuel load you
can carry is about 50% (approx.
1810 L).
Fuel planning will be further
elaborated in the BOMBING
TUTORIAL section.

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
(KG/CM2)

EACH WING TANK FUEL GAUGE MEASURES THE COMBINED


FUEL QUANTITY IN EACH WING (WHICH HAS 2 TANKS EACH).
FUEL PUMPS TAKE FUEL FROM ALL TANKS SIMULTANEOUSLY.
LANDING GEAR LEVER
FWD = RAISED / AFT = LOWERED

603

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

PILOT

FUEL GAUGES (TOTAL: 3620 L)


LEFT WING TANKS (SINISTRO): 545 + 540 L = 1085 L

604

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M
FLAPS INDICATOR
UP = RETRACTED
DOWN = DEPLOYED

CO-PILOT (AI)

FLAPS LEVER (HIDDEN)


UP / NEUTRAL / DOWN

605

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

IMPELLER
THE IMPELLER IS A
SLIPSTREAM-DRIVEN
GENERATOR FOR EMERGENCY
ELECTRICAL POWER.

606

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

BOMBARDIER
NOSE GUN

NOSE GUNNER CONTROLS


-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

607

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

BOMBARDIER
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
(KM/H X 10)

ALTIMETER (KM)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO

608

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BR.20M

BOMBARDIER
BOMB JETTISON

609

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

BOMBARDIER

BOMB DOOR WINCH


(ANIMATED, BUT NOT
CLICKABLE)

610

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BR.20M

BOMBARDIER

BOMBSIGHT

611

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
BR.20M

OBSERVER
RADIO OPERATOR

612

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

TURRET IN
CRUISE POSITION

TURRET IN
CRUISE POSITION

TURRET IN
FIRING POSITION
TURRET IN
FIRING POSITION

613

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

NOTES
Your gunners can call out fighters if you have your in-game chat info window enabled. However, if you switcher to your gunner
position and switched back to your pilot seat, it is possible that the AI gunner will not take control of the gun. In other words,
your gunner will not fire unless the AI takes control of it. To give back the AI control of your turret, you should use the
L_ALT+F2.
Your ventral and dorsal turrets have 2 positions: CRUISE and FIRING. During aircraft cold start, you start in CRUISE/PARKED
position. In this mode, the gunner cannot fire his gun nor move his turret. This mode is primarily used to generate less drag and
consume less power. FIRING position, on the other hand, is powered by the left engine. This mode allows you to use your gun
and rotate your turret to get a better view angle. It is useful to track targets or examine damage on the wings or upper forward
fuselage. Your gunner will only fire when the turret is in FIRING position.
Any turret or other air crew position (like the bombardier) can be manned by other players in multiplayer. They just need to
double-click on the available slot in multiplayer once they clicked on the flag.

614

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

DORSAL
GUNNER

DORSAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-MOVE MOUNT LEFT: LEFT KEYBD ARROW
-MOVE MOUNT RIGHT: RIGHT KEYBD ARROW
-CRUISE POSITION: O
-FIRING POSITION: CUSTOM KEY
-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

615

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

BR.20M

VENTRAL
GUNNER

VENTRAL GUNNER CONTROLS


-CRUISE POSITION: O
-FIRING POSITION: CUSTOM KEY
-LEAN TO GUNSIGHT: CUSTOM KEY
-FIRE WEAPON: LEFT MOUSE BUTTON
-SWITCH GUNNER/BOMBARDIER POSITION: C
-CHANGE MANNED POSITION: L_SHIFT_C
-GIVE GUNNER CONTROL TO AI: L_ALT+F2
-TAKE CONTROL OF GUN (TOGGLE INDEPENDENT MODE): F10

616

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

ENGINE COWLING FLAPS (ALSO CALLED LOUVRES)


NOT ANIMATED IN GAME (BUG)
WHEN FLAPS ARE OPEN:
GOOD = LESS DRAG, MORE SPEED
BAD = LESS AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE, HIGH RISK OF ENGINE
OVERHEAT
WHEN FLAPS ARE CLOSED:
GOOD = MORE AIRFLOW TO COOL THE ENGINE
BAD = MORE DRAG, LESS SPEED

617

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION

CRITICAL COMPONENTS

CONTROL
CABLES

FUEL TANKS

WING SPARS
618

PART 3: AIRCRAFT & COCKPIT


FAMILIARIZATION
HOW TO RECOGNIZE
A TAIL NUMBER

619

BR.20M

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Wheel Chocks

ESSENTIAL

toggle primary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

toggle secondary cockpit illumination

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

View-Position #1, # 2, #3, #4, # 5, #6

L_ALT+1, L_ALT+2

ESSENTIAL

Next Manned Position (Cycles through air crew)

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Previous Mode

ESSENTIAL

Course autopilot Next Mode

ESSENTIAL

course setter - increase

NUMPAD + (CUSTOM)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

course setter - decrease

NUMPAD - (CUSTOM)

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

directional gyro - increase

NUMPAD / (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

directional gyro - decrease

NUMPAD * (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

toggle selected engine (ignition)

I by default

ESSENTIAL

directional controls (ailerons, elevators, and rudder)

Joystick & Rudder Pedal axes

ESSENTIAL

Trim controls (elevator and rudder)

Joystick hat switch

ESSENTIAL

Field of View + (allows you to zoom out)

ESSENTIAL

Field of View (allows you to zoom in)

ESSENTIAL

Cylinder Head Temperature Next/Previous Sender

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

620

BR.20M
DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

PART 4: CONTROLS

lean to gunsight

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL
ESSENTIAL

drop ordnance (bomb)

ESSENTIAL

throttle

Throttle axis

ESSENTIAL

boost cut-off (boost cut-out override)

ESSENTIAL

toggle canopy/hatch

ESSENTIAL

increase mixture

NON-ESSENTIAL (NOT FUNCTIONAL)

decrease mixture

NON-ESSENTIAL (NOT FUNCTIONAL)

open radiator (engine cowlings)

Up Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close radiator (engine cowlings)

Down Arrow keyboard ESSENTIAL

open oil radiator

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

close oil radiator

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

increase propeller pitch

Usually set to Axis for ESSENTIAL


second throttle. Set to ESSENTIAL
keyboard otherwise.

decrease propeller pitch


Toggle undercarriage (landing gear)

ESSENTIAL

Wheel brakes

ESSENTIAL

bail out

ESSENTIAL

Toggle Independent Mode (allows you to use/hide mouse cursor and


take control of your gun)

F10

ESSENTIAL

621

BR.20M

PART 4: CONTROLS

DESCRIPTION

MAPPED TO

ESSENTIAL / NON-ESSENTIAL

Bombsight altitude + / -

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Bombsight velocity + / -

CLICKABLE IN COCKPIT

Adjust Bombsight left / right (adjusts bombsight for crosswind)

NON-ESSENTIAL

engine #1 select

L_SHIFT+1

ESSENTIAL

engine #2 select

L_SHIFT+2

ESSENTIAL

all engines select

L_SHIFT+3 (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Turret Move Mount Left

Left Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

Turret Move Mount Right

Right Arrow keyboard

ESSENTIAL

Turret Cruise Position

ESSENTIAL

Turret Firing Position

L_SHIFT+O (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

External View (Give Turret Gunner Control to AI)

L_ALT+F2

ESSENTIAL

Open Bomb Bay Doors

N (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Close Bomb Bay Doors

L_CTRL+N (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

bomb mode selector next / previous (salvo/series/single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Increase/decrease bomb distributor salvo quantity

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

previous bomb distributor mode (Salvo/Single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

next bomb distributor mode (Salvo/Single)

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

toggle bombs armed

SEE BOMBER NUMPAD

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot left (aircraft turns left while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + A (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

Autopilot right (aircraft turns right while in autopilot)

L_CTRL + S (CUSTOM)

ESSENTIAL

622

PART 4: CONTROLS

Unlike the German bombers, the BR.20M uses differential braking instead of toe brakes.
In order to brake, you need to hold your Full Wheel Brakes key (which is physically mapped as a
lever on your control column) while you give rudder input to steer your aircraft. Make sure you
have adequate mixture, RPM and Manifold Pressure settings or your turn radius will suffer. Keep
in mind that that for British and Italian aircraft, you use this braking system (Full Wheel Brakes
key), while for the German aircraft you use toe brakes (Full Left/Right Wheel Brakes keys or
Left/Right Wheel Brakes axes in your controls).
PNEUMATIC PRESSURE
FOR BRAKE IS UP = BRAKING

PNEUMATIC AIR
CONTAINER PRESSURE
BRAKE LEVER
LEFT RUDDER PUSHED
(WILL TURN LEFT)

623

Recommended Gunner Machine-Gun Belt Loadouts

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Mitragliatrice Breda Avio model S.A.F.A.T. (7.7 mm) FOR NOSE & VENTRAL GUNNERS
1.
2.
3.
4.

12.7x81SR, Armour Piercing/Tracer (Red)


12.7x81SR, High Explosive Incendiary/Tracer (Red)
12.7x81SR, Armour Piercing
12.7x81SR, Incendiary

624

625

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Gunner Machine-Gun Belt Loadouts

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Mitragliatrice Breda Avio model S.A.F.A.T. (12.7 mm / 0.50 in) FOR DORSAL GUNNER
1.
2.
3.
4.

12.7x81SR, Armour Piercing/Tracer (Red)


12.7x81SR, High Explosive Incendiary/Tracer (Red)
12.7x81SR, Armour Piercing
12.7x81SR, Incendiary

626

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

Recommended Bomb Loadout

HIGH ALTITUDE:
2 x 800 kg AP bombs

2 x Semi AP 800 kg bombs are best used for high altitude


bombing (more explosive tonnage than every other loadout).
Make sure you do not carry 100 % fuel, as you will be
overweight.
12 x GP 100 kg bombs are best used for area bombing and skip
bombing.

DIVE OR SKIP:
12 x 100 kg GP bombs
NOTE: Press Short Bomb
Delay (see bomber numpad)
to allow a bomb fuse delay
before you drop them if you
value your virtual life you
dont want them to explode
in your face!

627

628

PART 5: WEAPONS AND


ARMAMENT

PART 6: TAKEOFF

NOTE: This procedure is NOT the real-life start-up procedure, it has been simplified in the sim.
1.

Make sure you have the proper fuel load by checking the fuel gauges.

2.

Ensure that mixture is set to fully rich (by default it is).

3.

Select Engine # 1 (L_Shift + 1).

4.

Set your prop pitch to full fine (100 %).

5.

Crack throttle about 10 %.

6.

Engine cowling flap and oil radiator flaps fully closed.

7.

Turn both magnetos for engine # 1 ON.

8.

Make sure your propeller is clear (Clear prop!)

9.

Engine ignition! (press I by default)

10.

Select Engine # 2 (L_Shift + 2).

11.

Repeat steps 3 to 9 but for engine # 2.

12.

Select BOTH engines (I have it custom mapped to L_Shift + 3).

13.

Open cowling flaps 100 %, oil radiator flaps 50 % and prop pitch is fully FINE (100 %).

14.

Click on the Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge Selector (Sender) and set to any cylinder.

15.

Wait for oil temperature to reach at least 50 deg C and the cylinder head temperature to reach at least 140 deg
C.

16.

Taxi to the runway. You can taxi with low oil temps without any problem. Make sure you are facing yellow panels
on the runway. This means you are facing the right direction for takeoff.

17.

Deploy flaps to approx. 10 degrees (first notch on flaps indicator). When flaps are set, set flaps to Neutral to
lock them into position.

Note: With the BR20M, you need to cycle through 3 modes for flaps and landing gear. Up, Neutral and Down. Up
and Down are straightforward, but since the flaps in the BR20 have a variable setting. Neutral means that the flaps
stop moving. This way, you can have your flaps deployed to the angle you desire.

18.

Perform last takeoff checks: Canopy Closed, Flaps at 10 deg, cowlings fully open, oil rad 50 %, Full Fine prop
pitch, good oil & cylinder head temperatures.

19.

Set Boost Cut-Out Override ON.

20.

Gradually throttle up. Compensate for engine torque and wind using right aileron and rudder pedals to keep the
aircraft straight. Slightly push the yoke forward to lift the tail.

21.

Rotation is at 175 km/h.

22.

Raise landing gear and flaps UP and adjust engine settings to 2100 RPM and 740 mm HG max for climb. Set
Boost Cut-Out Override OFF.

629

PART 7: LANDING

1.

Start your approach at 175 km/h @ approx. 800


m (1500 ft AGL).

2.

Cowling flaps and oil rads fully open (100 %) and


set prop pitch to full fine (100 %).

3.

Deploy flaps (fully down) and landing gear.

4.

Cut throttle and try to keep your nose pointed to


the end of the runway.

5.

Touchdown at 160 km/h in a 3-point landing.

6.

Yoke fully back.

7.

Tap your brakes until you come to a full stop. Be


careful not to overheat your brakes or force your
aircraft to nose over into a prop strike.

630

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Fiat A.80 / R.C.41 Engine

Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet Engine


(A.80 design derived from it)

The Fiat A.80 / R.C.41 is a 18-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial engine with reduction gear and
supercharger, rated altitude 4,100 m. Rated at 1,000 hp (745 kW), it was a more powerful development
of the Fiat A.74. At the time it was designed, the BR.20 was a good overall design, but it rapidly became
obsolete, and the lack of improved versions condemned it to be only a second-line machine,
underpowered and lacking in defensive firepower.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

The engine was designed in 1935 by Tranquillo Zerbi and Antonio Fessia, simultaneously with the
Fiat A.74. Both were conceptually derived from US models (Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet for
the A.80 and R-1830 Twin Wasp with 14 cylinders for the A.74). Fiat acquired a building license,
but implemented numerous design differences such as engine bore and stroke. These decisions
were made by the need to simplify production and to use the materials at hand. The A.80 was
intended for bombers and civilian transport aircraft, while the A.74 with a smaller diameter was
intended for fighter aircraft.
The engine was approved on November 10, 1937, after passing the usual test run for a cycle of
150 consecutive hours. The sad reality was that the A.80s operational capability was seriously
reduced due to a number of factors. For instance, Italy only had access to poor qualify wartime
fuel. The A.80 was far less popular than its little brother the A.74 as it ran into important
reliability issues despite attempts in production to fix these issues. These problems earned the
A.80 a bad reputation among Italian pilots.

On the other hand, it is interesting to note that the Japanese (which also used licensed BR.20s
during the second Sino-Japanese War) did not complain about such engine reliability issues.

During a mission, the flight lead usually calls out his engine settings
once in a while for the pilots to know what settings they should
use.

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Always remember that this is a twin-engine: you must select ALL


ENGINES in order to throttle up and change your cowling flap
settings.
You can read your engine settings from the gauges in the cockpit or
from an info window.
The RPM indicator (1) shows 2100 RPM. The manifold
pressure (2) reads 700 mm HG.
The oil radiators (3) can be approximated by looking at the oil
rad lever or read from the info window in %. The control for
cowling flaps is the same as the one used for water radiators.
(100 % = fully open). Cowling flaps influence the cylinder
head temperatures. (4)
Mixture lever is present in cockpit (5) but not functional.
Boost Cut-Out override (7) can be turned on as long as you
do not exceed safety manifold pressure.
The resulting RPM is affected by manifold pressure (2), prop
pitch (6)

7
1

Cowling flaps settings:

0 % during engine warm-up


100 % during normal operation

Oil radiator settings:

0 % during engine warm-up


50 % during normal operation
(Unit)

BR.20M

3
3

TEMPERATURES
Oil Rad

Min
Deg C
Max
Cylinder Head Temp
Min Deg C
Max

50
90
140
240

633

CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURES

In order to monitor cylinder head temperatures,


you only have one gauge to do so.
The Fiat A.80 R.C.41 is a 18-cylinder air-cooled

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

radial engine.

Click on the Cylinder Head Temperature Next


Sender selector to choose which individual pair
of cylinders will have its temperature displayed
on the temperature gauge.
In theory, all cylinders should have
approximately the same temperature, which is
why in-game you can only click once on the
selector, monitor a single cylinder, and have a
good idea how the temperature state of your
whole engine.
A diligent pilot (or co-pilot) would probably
check each pair of cylinders periodically to make
sure all cylinders are operating within safety
parameters. Fortunately, we dont really have to
do that in CloD
If your engine is damaged by flak or enemy fire,
using the Cylinder Head Temp Selector switch is
a good way to know how many cylinders of each
engine are still functioning. The loss of a single
cylinder does not mean that the engine stops
running Thats the beauty of radial engines:
they will keep running even when they are
falling apart!

634

PART 8: ENGINE
MANAGEMENT

Boost cut-out override (BCO)


The Boost control override did not originate as
an emergency power setting, but was adapted
to be so. In original form, it was just a way of
disabling the boost controller in case of
malfunction, thus making the system directly
link the pilot handle to the throttle valve and
giving him the ability to set any boost the
supercharger was capable of (but without
control, boost would change with altitude).

BOOST CUT-OUT
OVERRIDE

Although it is hard to find references on this, it


is easy to see how the BCO could become an
unofficial emergency power switch. A pilot
could pull it and try for a bit more boost than
the rated 740 mm HG, and hopefully get a bit
more power without damaging the engine.
635

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

AIRSPEEDS
Takeoff
Rotation
Max Dive Speed UK:
mph
Optimal Climb
Speed
Landing
Approach
Landing
Touchdown

GER/ITA:
km/h

SPECIFICATIONS
175
600
210

CREW
ENGINE

Take-off weight

10100 kg

Empty weight

6400 kg

175
160

A climb speed of 210 km/h is


recommended.
When diving, pilots should partially
close their Air Louvres (cowling flaps)
and Oil Radiators to prevent the
Cylinder Heads and oil from cooling
too much otherwise misfiring and
rough running may result.
Unfortunately, there is not a whole lot
of information on the BR.20s
performance.

4-5
2 x FIAT A.80 R.C.41, 735kW
WEIGHTS

SPEED LIMITS
Stall Speed

150 km/h

Max Diving Speed

410 km/h

636

637

PART 9: AIRCRAFT
PERFORMANCE

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

COURSE SETTER
YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING

MAGNETIC COMPASS (UPPER BAND)


GIVES YOU YOUR MAGNETIC HEADING. THE
WHITE INDICATOR IS YOUR COURSE SETTER AND
THE WHITE NEEDLE IS YOUR ACTUAL HEADING.
WHEN YOU SET A COURSE WITH THE COURSE
SETTER AND THE RED TRIANGLE AND THE WHITE
INDICATOR ARE ALIGNED, IT MEANS THAT YOU
ARE ON COURSE.
AS YOU CAN SEE IN THE PICTURE ABOVE, WE ARE
ABOUT 8 DEGREES OFF-COURSE.

COURSE SETTER

COURSE SETTER (LOWER BAND)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO

THE COURSE SETTER ALLOWS YOU TO


CREATE A REFERENCE MARK ON THE
COMPASS TO A HEADING OF YOUR CHOICE.
THIS WAY, YOU JUST NEED TO STEER THE
AIRCRAFT TOWARDS THE COURSE SET ON
THE COURSE SETTER.

DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) CAN BE SET TO


ANY HEADING YOU WANT.
IT IS
RECOMMENDED FOR THE DG TO BE SET TO
YOUR CURRENT HEADING SHOWN BY THE
MAGNETIC COMPASS. THIS WAY, YOUR
MAGNETIC COMPASS AND DIRECTIONAL
GYRO ALL SHOW THE SAME MAGNETIC
HEADING.

638

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

MAGNETIC COMPASS (UPPER BAND)

COURSE SETTER (LOWER BAND)

DIRECTIONAL GYRO

There is no mechanical/electrical relationship between the directional gyro and the compasses. The
autopilot could be set without any reference to the magnetic compass. However, it is good practice to
align the compasses with the directional gyro. In practice, only the lead aircraft has the option of
engaging the autopilot. The other planes in the formation fly manually due to the demands of
formation flying. Having the magnetic compass setup gives the pilot a visual reference to the current
course. In some cases the leader may prefer to fly using the magnetic compass rather than setting up
the auto-pilot. The complexity of the mission plan (course), length of leg (etc.) will usually dictate the
practicality of employing the auto-pilot.
639

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

COURSE SETTER

SLAVED COMPASS (MIDDLE BAND)


Historically, the function of the slaved compass was to
be a gyroscopically stabilized compass that would read
correctly in turns while a magnetic compass would
only read true when you are flying straight and level
for a while. The magnetic compass has a much slower
response than gyroscopes.
In the earlier versions of the game, the slaved compass
was powered by a separate motor compressor,
which would require to be started too. However, in the
latest versions of the game the slaved compass is
simply powered by the left engine (# 1). Therefore,
you dont need to start anything.
When you spawn, your slaved compass will not work.
Its normal: your # 1 engine is not running yet. Your
slaved compass will only work once your engine
reaches RPM high enough to get the gyros fired up.
However: the slaved compass is often off by a couple
of degrees. It is not very reliable since you always need
to check your magnetic compass to make sure it is
align. Therefore, I recommend to just disregard the
slaved compass. Its a nice, expensive toy but not
much else.

YOUR HEADING

640

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

HOW TO SET UP YOUR GYRO & COMPASS


1.

Check your magnetic compass and read your current heading. Our
heading of 024. This heading is in reference to the magnetic north, NOT
the geographic north.

2.

Set your directional directional gyro compass by clicking on the rotary


knob to reflect the magnetic heading obtained on your magnetic
compass. In our case, set the gyro to 024. This way, the directional gyro
will give us a magnetic heading that is correct. You will see the blue
numbers pop again. You can use them as a way to fine tune your gyro.

3.

And thats it! You will now be able to use your directional gyro to orient
yourself. If your gyro accumulates error after high-G manoeuvers, you
can try to re-set it using steps 1 to 2.

4.

You could also set your directional gyro to 014 (024 minus 10 deg of
magnetic declination) instead if you wanted to, which would give you
your geographical heading instead of your magnetic one. But for
simplicitys sake, we will use the DG and MC all synchronized.

COURSE SETTER
(HEADING 0)
NOT ALIGNED
WITH CURRENT
MAGNETIC
HEADING (024)

NOTE: To navigate from point A to point B, open the map, find a geographical
heading to follow, add 10 degrees to this heading and it will give you the
magnetic heading to follow on your MG and DG (if they are all synchronized,
of course).
Directional Gyro set to approx. 024
(magneticl heading). We are now
Course setter and current
heading aligned on
havigating in relationship to the magnetic
magnetic compass as
well!
north,
not the geographic north!

2
641

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

COMPASS NAVIGATION TUTORIAL


Using the magnetic compass and the directional gyro is quite useful to know where you are going.

The directional gyro indicator itself does not indicate your heading. You need to set it manually in order to
translate what the magnetic compass compass is telling you.
Typically, you set your compass and gyro on the ground. It is not the kind of stuff you want to do when you are
flying 2,700 m over England.
High-G manoeuvers can decalibrate your gyro and give you a wrong reading. Be aware that once you start a
dogfight, your gyro can give you readings that dont make sense. Its normal: it is one of the real-life drawbacks
of this navigation system. The same issue is also recurrent in todays civilian acrobatic prop planes.
There is a difference between a magnetic heading and a geographical heading. If you follow a magnetic heading
of 0 (which is what you read on your magnetic and repeater compasses), you will be following the magnetic
North Pole, not the geographical one. Keep that in mind when you are navigating.
If you consult your in-game map and want to go North, in fact you will have to take into account magnetic
declination, which means that you will have to navigate to a magnetic heading of 0 + 10 deg = 010 deg.
In other words, if you want to follow a specific heading, take that heading and add 10 degrees. This value is what
you will have to follow on your magnetic compass.

You can also look at it the other way: if you want to go North and you decide to follow your compass to 0
(magnetic North), you will in fact be 10 degrees off course. The next slide will explain why.

642

PART 10: COMPASS TUTORIAL

About Magnetic Declination


The direction in which a compass needle points is
known as magnetic north. In general, this is not
exactly the direction of the North Magnetic Pole
(or of any other consistent location). Instead, the
compass aligns itself to the local geomagnetic
field, which varies in a complex manner over the
Earth's surface, as well as over time. The local
angular difference between magnetic north
and true north is called the magnetic declination.
Most map coordinate systems are based on true
north, and magnetic declination is often shown
on map legends so that the direction of true
north can be determined from north as indicated
by a compass.
This is the reason why in Cliffs of Dover, the
magnetic compass needs to be adjusted to take
into account this magnetic declination of the
magnetic North pole (which is actually modelled
in the sim, which is pretty neat).
In 1940, the magnetic declination required an
adjustment of 10 degrees and 8 minutes. We
round that to 10 deg.
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole
across the Canadian arctic, 18312007.
643

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

Bombing is one of the most complex and rewarding features of flight


simulators. The bomber pilot has a thankless job, yet bombing is an
art form in itself.
This tutorial will be for high-altitude bombing as it encompasses all
aspects of bombing and navigation.
Bombers should work as a team. Not only with other bombers, but
with fighter escorts as well to keep them alive.
The mind of a bomber pilot is a patient and organized one. If you fail
to plan your mission properly, you certainly plan to fail and end up
in a smoldering pile of ashes.

644

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL - INTRO

A bombing operation can be separated in 6 phases:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Planning the mission


Takeoff and assembly of bomber force
Rendezvous with fighter escorts
Fly to target
Bombing run
Return to Base

We will explore phases 1, 4 and 5 together.

645

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


Before you even take off, you need to make sure you know the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Where am I?
Where am I going?
How much fuel do I need?
What am I doing?
How am I doing it?
What can help me?
What can kill me?
How do I get home?

Once you have all that stuff figured out, THEN you can takeoff.
The following example will show you a typical mission planning.
646

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?

Reading the bomber objectives


always helps to find a high-priority
target.
You can look at the bombing
objectives in the mission briefing
(can be accessed via aircraft selection
menu or by right-clicking, opening
the map, right-clicking on the map
and choosing Briefing).
Hawkinge will be our target for
today.

Read bomber objectives and pick your targets.


For instance: the Faversham Railyard is located in grid AU25.6, which means
it is located in the middle-right corner of the Alpha-Uniform 25 grid square.
.6 is the location in the square based on the referential of a numpad for the
designated grid square (1 is lower left, 5 is center, 6 is middle right, 9 is
upper right, etc)
However, Hawkinge seems like a juicier target. Well choose this one instead.
647

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
Good! We now have a target
(Hawkinge airfield), and we
decided that we would spawn at
Calais-Marck.
Now, it is time to figure out how
we get there and drop them
cabbage crates. We need a
heading and a distance.
Open your map and select (left
click) your Protractor tool to
obtain your heading to target.

Target
Home Base

Left-Click on the
protractor icon.

While map is selected, open up


your Tools menu (right click) and
use your protractor to find the
correct heading.

648

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
1) Click and hold left mouse button on Calais-Marck and drag a vertical line. Once
line is parallel with the North, release mouse button.
2) Click and hold left mouse button on Calais and drag a line to Hawkinge Airfield.
Once line is crossing the center of the airfield icon, release mouse button.

3) A heading number should pop next to Calais. Remember this number. In our case, we
get 074 degrees.
4) In case your target is West (to the left) to your home base, the number that pops up will
not be your heading. The proper heading will be 360 minus the number that popped up.
In our case, the proper heading will be 360 74 = 286 Geographic (map) Heading.

STEP 6:

LEFT CLICK ON
RULER AND DRAG A LINE
BETWEEN CALAIS-MARCK AND
HAWKINGE TO OBTAIN THE
DISTANCE BETWEEN BOTH
AIRFIELDS.

Step 1
DISTANCE:
58.1 km

Step 2

Heading
(074)?

5) Since the heading we obtained on the map is geographic and not magnetic, the
magnetic course we will need to follow on our compasses is 286 + 10 = 296 deg.
This is the heading we will follow on our compass, course setter, DG and repeater
compass. We added 10 degrees to take into account magnetic declination as shown
in previous compass navigation tutorial.
6) Obtain distance to target by clicking on the ruler and dragging a line649
from Calais to
Hawkinge. In our case, we get a distance of approx. 58 km.

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHERE AM I? WHERE AM I GOING?
We now know our target: Hawkinge. We must know how high it is to take into account target
elevation when we will be bombing.
You can use the LOFTE tool available on ATAG:
theairtacticalassaultgroup.com/utils/lotfe7.html
A tutorial on how to use this tool is available in Chucks Blenheim High Altitude Bomber Guide 2.0
available here:
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20586543/High-Altitude%20Bombing%20Guide%202.0.pdf

One quicker way to do it is to get the airfields altitude directly from the list on the next page
made by Ivank.
LOFTEs values tend to vary from point to point: values you get from this tool are an
approximation that must sometimes be taken with a grain of salt.
Hawkinges altitude in the table is 158 m (518 ft).

650

651

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW MUCH FUEL DO I NEED?
The heavier you are, the slower you are and the more vulnerable
you are.
Calculating your required fuel is easy.
With a full bomb load (2 X 800 kg), the maximum fuel load you can
carry is about 50% (approx. 1810 L).
Based on in-game tests I performed, the BR.20M consumes
approximately 680 Liters of fuel per hour if we stay at engine
settings for a max climb rate.
If we fly at 300 km/h, based on fuel capacity, we can deduce that @
50 % fuel we can fly around for 2.6 hours of flight time, which gives
us a max flying distance of 780 km (which is 2 times the max range).
Use the Map Tool Ruler to get our targets range. Hawkinge is
about 60 km away from Calais. Since we plan to return to base, we
add another 60 km. We can add about 40 km for loitering time,
assembly and rendezvous with fighters and another 40 km for
reserve fuel in case we need to find a secondary airfield. We have a
grand total of 200 km.
To fly for 200 km at 2100 RPM at 300 km/h, we simply multiply our
max takeoff fuel load (50 %) by the ratio of the distance we need to
fly on the maximum distance @ max takeoff weight (780 km):
50 % * 200 km / 780 km = 13 % fuel approx. That is what we need.
We can round that up to 20 % to be very conservative. So there we
go, we need roughly 20 % fuel.
Note: you could also takeoff with a full fuel load and full bomb load
if you wanted to. The BR.20M can still fly. This practice is simply to
teach you how to plan your fuel for a real mission intelligently.

DISTANCE: 58.1 km

Left click and drag


from point A to point
B to get a distance.

652

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT AM I DOING?
Now that we know where we are and where we are going and how much fuel we need, we need
to know what we will be doing.
We will load up 2 X 800 kg Semi-AP bombs with a Type A Mechanical Detonator (high altitude).
See the Weapons and Armament section to know more.
Our bombing altitude will be 2,700 m. We could go as high as 7,000 m if we wanted to but with
our bombsights max altitude setting of 2,700, our precision will greatly suffer.
Why do we ask ourselves this question? Simply because the challenge of a bomber pilot is the
sheer workload behind it. You are doing by yourself the task that took two dedicated guys or
more to do. Therefore, our goal is to reduce the workload as much as possible by doing as much
as we can on the ground so we can concentrate on whats going on during the flight rather than
prepare our instruments in a hurry.
In a bomber flight, generally half the guys do not know how to use a bomb sight: they simply
drop their bombs on the bomber leads command. Keep in mind that having a bomber lead is not
enough to have a proper mission: fighter interceptors always go for the bomber lead because
odds are that he is the most experienced bomber pilot. Good bomber operations generally have
a second or a third leader to take No. 1s place in case he gets shot down or runs into engine
trouble.
If you have 9 guys flying for an hour to get to a target that are waiting on your command to drop
their bombs, you better make sure that you know where youre aiming
Therefore, it is important to know at what speed and what altitude you plan to do your bomb run
so you can set up your bombsight in advance. I usually set my bombsight when I am on the
ground. This way, you just need to make small adjustments when you get to target rather than set
everything up in a hurry.
You will need your target elevation to set up your bombsight properly.
653

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Here is why you need to take into account target elevation in your bombsight:
Pressure altitude and Height are related to one another, but keep in mind that they are two
completely different things.
Height is the vertical physical distance between your aircraft and the ground. Pilots often refer to
height as AGL (Above Ground Level).
Pressure altitude is the altitude measured using a pressure datum reference. Pilots often refer to
altitude as AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level). Pressure Altitude reading can vary based on
meteorological conditions.
Bombsight height setting can be determined by simply reading the altimeter and substracting the
target elevation (assuming the altimeter pressure altitude was set correctly for the pressure
conditions in Home Base).
The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (2,700 m) minus the target
elevation (158 m). The bombsight height will have to be set at more or less 2,542 m. Keep in
mind that the altitude can change due to many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL,
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.

654

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING IT?

ALTITUDE: 2,700 M AMSL


ABOVE SEA LEVEL

BOMBSIGHT HEIGHT
2,542 m AGL

The bombsight height, in our case will be our altimeter altitude (2,700 m)
minus the target elevation (150 m). The bombsight height will have to be set
at more or less 2,700 m. Keep in mind that the altitude can change due to
many factors and that your bombsight height is AGL (above ground level),
and will always require you to substract target elevation to be accurate.
NOTE: the max bombsight altitude for the BR.20M is 2,700 m.

TARGET ELEVATION: 158 m

HAWKINGE
ALTITUDE: 158 m AMSL

ENGLISH CHANNEL
ALTITUDE: 0 m AMSL

CALAIS MARCK
ALTITUDE: 2 m AMSL

655

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?
Caution: our altitude and speed set on the bombsight will not be the values read on the
altimeter and airspeed indicators.
We have already seen why the bombsight height must be the altitude value read on the
altimeter minus the target elevation.
Indicated Airspeed (IAS) is the speed you read on your airspeed indicator. It is driven by
your Pitot tube and a barometric static port. Air pressure varies with altitude (the higher you
go, the less air there is). IAS is corrected for the surrounding air pressure but not for air
density.
True Airspeed (TAS) is indicated airspeed corrected to take into account air density (which,
like we said, depends on your current altitude).
The bombsight requires a True Airspeed input, not an indicated airspeed.
Fortunately, there is an interpolation table available in the Cliffs of Dover manual to help you
get an approximation of TAS. We will see how to use this table in the next page.

656

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


HOW AM I DOING?

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

We will aim for an indicated airspeed (IAS) of 300 km/h (read on the airspeed gauge) at an altitude of 5,840 m.
1. Pick the appropriate row for IAS
(300 km/h).

2. Pick the appropriate columns for


nearest altitudes (2,000 and
3,000 m)
3. Take note of the TAS values in the
table 331 km/h and 348 km/h)
4. Because the TAS values are close
enough and that bombsight
airspeed only goes into
increments of 10, we can
approximate the resulting TAS
value to approx. an average value
of 340 km/h. It is not the exact
value, but in our case, since we
are too lazy to take a calculator
and do the interpolation
manually, it should be precise
enough.
657

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PRESUME ONE FACTOR, ALTITUDE OR TAS, IS CORRECT


AND THE OTHER INCORRECT. BOMB TRAJECTORY WILL BE
AFFECTED.
ALL BOMBSIGHTS IN THE SIM USE TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS).
DO NOT CONFUSE TAS WITH IAS INDICATED AIRSPEED,
WHICH IS WHAT YOU READ ON YOUR INSTRUMENTS.

1.

2.

INPUT TAS TOO LOW, PLANE IF FLYING FASTER


THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO LOW, PLANE IS FLYING
HIGHER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

1.
2.

INPUT TAS TOO HIGH, PLANE IF FLYING


SLOWER THAN INPUT AIRSPEED
INPUT ALTITUDE TOO HIGH, PLANE IS
FLYING LOWER THAN INPUT ALTITUDE

TARGET
658

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

HOW AM I DOING?
Be smart: set up your bombsight
in advance (set airspeed and
altitude at which you want to
bomb) while you are still on the
ground. This will save you time
and trouble. In our case, we will
enter a bombsight airspeed of
340 km/h and an altitude of
2,542 m.

FIRE WEAPON HANDLE DOES


NOT WORK (BUG). USE
DROP ORDNANCE KEY
INSTEAD TO DROP BOMBS.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

AIRSPEED INDICATOR (IAS)


ALTIMETER (AMSL)
DIRECTIONAL GYRO
BOMBSIGHT WIND DRIFT
ADJUSTMENT
BOMBSIGHT AIRSPEED
INPUT (TAS)
BOMBSIGHT ALTITUDE
INPUT (AGL)

3
659

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL PHASE 1: PLANNING THE MISSION


WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME? HOW DO I GET HOME?

WHAT CAN HELP ME OR KILL ME?


Know where your enemy patrol routes are, where battles usually take place and avoid these
places when you are doing your flight plan.
Give fighter escorts a rendezvous point so they can link up with you and protect you.

HOW DO I GET HOME?


In our case, we will simply do a 180 once we dropped our bombs and head back home.

660

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET
Once we have taken off, we will follow a magnetic heading of 296 to Hawkinge.
You can use the compass traditionally to fly there manually, but you can also use the auto-pilot.
In order to use the auto-pilot and know where you are going, you will need to set up your
magnetic compass and directional gyro differently than shown in the compass navigation
section.
Course Mode is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder control to make your aircraft travel
following a given heading. You still have control over ailerons and elevator. Course mode is
generally used when climbing or descending. In this mode, climb rate is better controlled
through elevator trim rather than pure elevator input.
Mode 22 (Straight n Level) is a mode where auto-pilot takes over rudder, elevator and aileron
controls to make your aircraft travel following a given heading. You will have no control over
any of your control surfaces. Mode 22 is used when cruising or when level-bombing as this
mode will want to make you stay level at a given heading.
Note: Mode 22 will often make your aircraft go into a dive (- 5 m/s approx) for approximately
one minute. It is normal: the aircraft will try to gain speed in the process. You should lose from
500 to 800 m after Mode 22 is engaged. The climb rate will eventually stabilize to 0. If you
intend on bombing the target from 2,700 m, make sure you are 500-800 m higher before you
engage Mode 22.
661

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 4: FLYING TO TARGET

MAGNETIC
COMPASS

BR.20M AUTOPILOT OPERATION TABLE


STEP

ACTION
COURSE SETTER

SET A COURSE TO DESIRED HEADING USING THE COURSE SETTER

ALIGN AIRCRAFT WITH COURSE SETTER BY CONSULTING THE


MAGNETIC COMPASS.

WHEN AIRCRAFT IS ALIGNED WITH COURSE SETTER,


DIRECTIONAL GYRO TO 0 USING THE BOTTOM KNOB.

ENGAGE DESIRED AUTOPILOT MODE (COURSE MODE OR MODE 22)

WHEN AUTOPILOT IS ENGAGED, STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE


AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS FOR BIG
CORRECTIONS. STEER AIRCRAFT USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO
INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS FOR SMALL COURSE CORRECTIONS.
USING THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO IS USUALLY A BETTER WAY TO USE
THE AUTOPILOT AS THE PILOT HAS BETTER CONTROL OVER HIS SHIP.

SET

DIRECTIONAL
GYRO
662

BOMBING TUTORIAL

BR.20M BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE


HIGH ALTITUDE LEVEL BOMBING

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN


STEP

BOMBSIGHT

ACTION

ENGAGE AUTO-PILOT IN MODE 22 WHEN YOU HAVE SIGHT ON TARGET AND YOU ARE ALIGNED
WITH IT. (SEE AUTOPILOT TABLE)

TIP: SWITCH BACK AND FORTH TO NOSE GUNNER SEAT TO GET BETTER FRONTAL VIEW IF YOU
WANT TO HAVE AN EASIER TIME SPOTTING YOUR TARGET.

OPEN BOMB BAY DOORS AND ARM YOUR BOMBS IF NOT DONE ALREADY ON THE GROUND.

SELECT BOMB DISTRIBUTION MODE (SINGLE/SERIES/SALVO). FOR HIGH ALTITUDE, SALVO IS


RECOMMENDED.

SELECT BOMB DISTRIBUTOR DELAY (0 IS RECOMMENDED FOR HIGH ALTITUDE PRECISION


BOMBING)

SELECT BOMB SALVO QTY (MAX IS RECOMMENDED IF YOU WANT TO DROP ALL YOUR PAYLOAD).

CHECK AIRSPEED AND ALTITUDE IN THE BOMBARDIER SEAT.

CONVERT READ INDICATED AIRSPEED INTO TRUE AIRSPEED AND USE THIS VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT
AIRSPEED INPUT.

CONVERT ALTITUDE INTO HEIGHT (READ ALTITUDE MINUS TARGET ELEVATION) AND USE THIS
VALUE FOR BOMBSIGHT ALTITUDE INPUT.

10

STEER THE AIRCRAFT USING THE AUTOPILOT RIGHT OR AUTOPILOT LEFT CONTROLS (SEE
AUTOPILOT TABLE) AND LINE UP BOMBSIGHT RETICLE ON THE TARGET. YOU CAN FINE-TUNE
COURSE CORRECTIONS WITH THE DIRECTIONAL GYRO INCREASE/DECREASE CONTROLS
(RECOMMENDED).

11

DROP ORDNANCE (USE YOUR KEYBOARD SHORTCUT, NOT THE BOMB LEVER IT DOES NOT WORK).
663

BOMBING TUTORIAL

CHUCKS BOMBER NUMPAD


(APPLICABLE TO BR.20M)

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN


OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS
(APPLICABLE TO BR.20M)

NUM

INCREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
DIRECTIONAL
GYRO

DECREASE
COURSE
SETTER

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE PREVIOUS

BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
MODE NEXT

TOGGLE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
SHORT DELAY

INCREASE
COURSE
SETTER

DECREASE BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
BOMB
DISTRIBUTOR
DELAY

INCREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

DROP BOMBS

OPEN BOMB BAY DOOR

CLOSE BOMB BAY DOOR

L_CTRL+N

ARM BOMBS (AXIS BOMBERS ONLY)

L_CTRL+W

SWITCH CREW POSITION


(BOMBARDIER/PILOT)

LEAN TO GUNSIGHT

JOYSTICK BTN
(CUSTOM KEY)

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE - PREVIOUS

COURSE AUTO-PILOT MODE NEXT

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE LEFT

L_CTRL+A

ENTER

COURSE AUTO-PILOT
ADJUST COURSE RIGHT

L_CTRL+S

DECREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

INCREASE
BOMB SALVO
QUANTITY

DECREASE
SIGHT
DISTANCE

TOGGLE
BOMBSIGHT
AUTOMATION

This layout is created with ease of access in mind. Bombsight altitude, velocity and wind
correction are already clickable on the sight itself. This layout should allow the user to go
through everything he needs set up instinctively following the numpad from 0 to 9.

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THERE ARE NO CONFLICTS BETWEEN THESE


KEYS AND OTHER CONTROLS. YOU WILL HEAR A PING WHEN
YOU MAP A CONTROL IF THERE IS SUCH A CONFLICT.

SELECT BOMB BAY PREVIOUS

SELECT BOMB
BAY NEXT

664

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
So here is a quick reminder:
ON THE GROUND
1. Set your predicted bomb run altitude and airspeed in your bombsight while on the ground.
2. Select desired salvo quantity, release delay (only applicable if you are skip bombing or dive bombing),
distributor release mode (Salvo? Single?).
3. ARM bombs and fly to target.

5.
6.
7.
8.

IN THE AIR
Find target and reach targeted altitude and airspeed
Open bomb bay doors
Follow steps detailed in the BOMBSIGHT OPERATION TABLE.
Thanks to all the work you did on the ground, you will see that there is not a whole lot to do in
previous step apart from putting your bombsight cursor on the target, adjust slightly bombsight
airspeed & altitude and drop your bombs when your bombsight reticle is on target!.
9. Jump into your ventral gunner to see hits on target (dont forget to put him in Firing Position or you
will not see anything because the ventral door will be shut).
10. Close bomb bay doors.
11. Go home for cookies and spaghetti.
665

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN

BOMBS DOOR OPEN!

666

PART 11: BOMBING


TUTORIAL

BOMBING TUTORIAL
PHASE 5: BOMBING RUN
BOMBS WILL FALL
AT THIS POINT.
HAWKINGE

KABOOM!

You can switch between your bombardier


and nose gunner seats to get a better
frontal view to spot the target.

Switch to ventral gunner position to get a


view of the damage!

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