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10

VITI

TESTA ESAGONALE

CON

Nel presente capitolo vengono presentate le viti speciali


a testa esagonale. Le possibilit di produzione del
Gruppo Agrati sono dettagliate nella relativa tabella,
mentre per quanto riguarda le tipologie, si preferito
presentare separatamente le varie caratteristiche del
TE

prodotto (testa, piano sotto testa, gambo, estremit,


eventuale rondella assemblata) lasciando a ciascuno la
possibilit di comporre la vite secondo le proprie
effettive necessit. Le prescrizioni e le norme di
riferimento sono specificate a fondo pagina.
G

ST

Versione con rondella assemblata


PROSPETTO
TE
ST
G

PROSPETTO

DESCRIZIONE
Geometria della testa esagonale
Geometria del piano sotto testa
Forma del gambo

E
R

DESCRIZIONE
Estremit della vite
Tipologia rondelle assemblate

CARATTERISTICHE E NORME DI RIFERIMENTO


Acciaio

Materiale
Prescrizioni generali
Filettatura
Propriet
meccaniche
Tolleranze
Finitura

Norma internazionale
Tolleranza

Grado di precisione
Posizione
Norme

4 5 6
e f g h
ISO 965-2 ISO 965-3 o su richiesta.

ISO 261

Classe

4.8 6.8 8.8 10.9 12.9 o su richiesta.

Norme

ISO 898-1 o altre norme applicabili

Norma internazionale
Norme

ISO 4759-1
ISO 4042 o altre norme applicabili
I rivestimenti elettrolitici sono esclusi per la classe 12.9
I limiti dei difetti superficiali sono riportati
nelle ISO 6157-1 e ISO 6157-3.

Difetti superficiali

ISO 8992

Prescrizioni
ecologiche

Norme

Collaudo

Norme

AGRATI

VDA 232-101 o altre norme applicabili


ISO 3269

GROUP

ISO 16426 o altre norme applicabili

ED. 2001-A

11

PROSPETTO
Filettatura

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

M10 M12

M14 M16

M18

M20 M22 M24 M27 M30

0.7

0.8

1.25
1

1.5
1.25
1

2
1.5

2
1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5
1.5

3
2

3
2

3.5
2

8
10

11

10
12
13

13
14
15
16
17

21
22
24

22
24
27

27
30

27
30
32
34

32
34
36

36
41

41
46

46

Passo

Dimensione
di manovra
esagonale
S

GAMMA DI PRODUZIONE

1.75
1.5
1.25
1
17
18
19
22

Lunghezze
8
10
12
16
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
La gamma di produzione compresa tra le linee a gradini continue.
Le viti totalmente filettate possono essere eseguite fino al limite massimo definito dalla linea a gradini tratteggiata.
In grassetto i valori di S secondo ISO 272 serie normale.
In corsivo i valori di S per serie pesante.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

12

VITI

CON

PROSPETTO TE

TESTA ESAGONALE
:

GEOMETRIA DELLA TESTA

TE1 : Esagonale

TE2 : Con impronte radiali

TE3 : Con intaglio

TE4 : Con impronta circolare

TE5 : Con doppio bisello

TE6 : Senza bisello

TE7 : Bombata con impronta a croce

TE8 : Bombata

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

13

VITI
PROSPETTO ST

CON

TESTA ESAGONALE

GEOMETRIA DEL PIANO SOTTO TESTA

ST1 : Con finta rondella

ST2 : Senza finta rondella

ST3 : Con finta rondella e gola

ST4 : Senza finta rondella con gola

ST5 : Con piano svasato

ST6 : Senza finta rondella con corona circolare

ST7 : Dentellatura tipo A

ST8 : Dentellatura tipo B

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

14

VITI

CON

TESTA ESAGONALE

PROSPETTO G

FORMA DEL GAMBO

G1 : Totalmente filettato

G2 : Parzialmemte filettato

G3 : Parzialmemte filettato con


gambo liscio = medio filetto

G4 : Parzialmemte filettato
con mozzetto

G5 : Parzialmemte filettato con


gambo liscio sagomato

G6 : Parzialmemte filettato con


gambo liscio maggiorato

G7 : Parzialmemte filettato con zigrinatura

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

15

VITI

CON

PROSPETTO E

TESTA ESAGONALE
:

ESTREMIT DELLA VITE

E1 : Smussata

E2 : Smussata lunga

E3 : Cilindrica

E4 : Cilindroconica

E5 : Conica

E6 : Cilindrica smussata

E7 : Cilindrica ogivale

E8 : Ogivale

E9 : Pilota quadra

E10 : Autoraschiante tipo A

E11 : Autoraschiante tipo B

E12 : Autoraschiante tipo C

E13 : Autoraschiante tipo D

E14 : Autoraschiante tipo E

E15 : Autoraschiante tipo F

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

16

VITI

CON

PROSPETTO R

TESTA ESAGONALE

TIPOLOGIA RONDELLE ASSEMBLATE

R1 : Piana normale

R2 : Piana larga o extra-larga

R3 : Piana con spessore extra

R4 : Piana con dentini

R5 : Ondulata

R6 : Ondulata spaccata

R7 : Elastica dentata

R8 : Elastica conica

R9 : Ondulata e piana

R10 : Ondulata spaccata e piana

R11 : Elastica dentata e piana

R12 : Elastica conica e piana

R13 : Piana sagomata tipo A

R14 : Piana sagomata tipo B

R15: Piana normale e piana larga

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

20

FLANGED BOLTS
This chapter shows special flanged bolts and screws. The
production range of the Agrati Group is shown in the
corresponding table, while, with reference to the
typologies, the preferred choice of presentation has been
to introduce separately the different characteristics of the
TF

AND

products (head, bearing surface, shaft, end, possible


assembled washer) leaving the freedom to assembly the
bolt or screw according to anyones own requirement.
Reference standards and requirements are indicated at
the foot of the page.
G

SF

SCREWS

Version with captive washer

TABLE

TF
SF
G

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION

TABLE

Head shape
Underhead shape
Shaft shape

E
R

Screw ends
Captive washer version

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Steel

General requirements
Thread

Tolerance

Grades
Positions
Standards

Mechanical
Properties
Tolerances

ISO 8992

International Std.

Class
Standards

4 5 6
e f g h
ISO 965-2 ISO 965-3 or upon request.

ISO 261

4.8 6.8 8.8 10.9 12.9 or upon request.


ISO 898-1 or other applicable standard
ISO 4759-1

International Std.
Standards

ISO 4042 or other applicable standard

Finish
Electroplated coatings excluded for class 12.9
Surface
discontinuities

Limits for surface discontinuities are covered


in ISO 6157-1 and ISO 6157-3.

Environmental
prescriptions

Standards

Acceptability

Standards

AGRATI

VDA 232-101 or other applicable standard


ISO 3269

GROUP

ISO 16426 or other applicable standard

ED. 2001-A

21
PRODUCTION RANGE
Thread

M5

M6

M7

M8

M10

M12

M14

M16

M18

M20

0.8

1.25
1

1.5
1.25
1

1.75
1.5
1.25
1

2
1.5

2
1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5
2
1.5

7
8

8
10

11

10
13

13
15
16
17

18
19
21

21
22
24

27
30

11.00
12.00

13.50
17.50

15.50
19.50

17.00
21.50

20.50
25.00

15
16
17
18
19
24.50
29.00

28.50
33.00

32.50
35.00

43.00

Pitch

HEXAGONAL

Across
flats

HEAD

Flange diameter
From

up to

12

12 points
external
drive

POINTS HEAD

7
8

8
10

11

10
13

13
16

16
18

18
21

21
24

30

11.00
12.00

13.50
17.50

15.50
19.50

17.00
21.50

20.50
25.00

24.50
29.00

28.50
33.00

32.50
35.00

43.00

Flange diameter
From

up to

HEXALOBULAR

Hexalobular
external
drive

Flange diameter
From

up to
Lengths

HEAD

E6
E8

E8
E10

E10
E12

E12
E14

E14
E18

E18
E20

E20
E24

E24
E28

E24
E32

8.00
12.00

10.00
14.00

13.00
18.00

16.00
22.00

18.00
26.00

21.00
30.00

24.00
35.00

30.00
39.00

33.00
43.00

10
12
16
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
Production range between the heavy stepped lines.
Completed threaded screws may be produced up to the maximum limit defined by the dashed stepped line.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

22

FLANGED BOLTS
TABLE TF

AND

SCREWS

HEAD SHAPE

TF2 : Hexagonal with flat flange

TF1 : Hexagonal with flange

Sockets or recesses

TF3 : Lightened hexagonal with flange

TF4 : Hexagonal with socket or recess and flange

TF5 : Hexagonal with large flange

TF6 : Hexagonal with indentation and flange

TF7 : Hexalobular with flange

TF8 : 12 points with flange

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

23

FLANGED BOLTS
TABLE SF

AND

SCREWS

UNDERHEAD SHAPE

SF1 : Concave

SF2 : Plain

SF3 : Convex

SF4 : With concave washer face

SF5 : With plain washer face

SF6 : With convex


washer face

SF7 : With gorge type A

SF8 : With gorge type B

SF9 : Countersunk

SF10 : With indentation type A

SF11 : With indentation type B

SF12 : With indentation type C

SF13 : With indentation type D

SF14 : With indentation type E

SF15 : With indentation type F

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

24

FLANGED BOLTS
TABLE G

AND

SCREWS

SHAFT SHAPE

G1 : Threaded up to the head

G2 : Partially threaded

G3 : Partially threaded
with shaft ~ pitch diameter

G4 : Partially threaded
with two shaft diameters

G5 : Partially threaded
with undercut shaft diameter

G6 : Partially threaded
with large body diameter

G7 : Partially threaded with knurling

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

25

FLANGED BOLTS
TABLE E

AND

SCREWS

SCREW ENDS

E1 : Chamfered

E2 : Long chamfered

E3 : Dog point

E4 : Pilot point with cone point

E5 : Truncated cone point

E6 : Pilot point with truncated point

E7 : Pilot ogival point

E8 : Ogival point

E9 : Pilot square point

E10 : Scrape point type A

E11 : Scrape point type B

E12 : Scrape point type C

E13 : Scrape point type D

E14 : Scrape point type E

E15 : Scrape point type F

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

26

FLANGED BOLTS
TABLE R

AND

SCREWS

ASSEMBLED WASHERS

R1 : Plain

R2 : Plain large or extra large

R3 : Thick plain

R4 : Plain with projections

R5 : Curved spring

R6 : Spring crinkled

R7 : Serrated lock

R8 : Conical spring

R9 : Curved spring plus plain

R10 : Spring crinkled plus plain

R11 : Serrated lock plus plain

R12 : Conical spring plus plain

R13 : Shaped plain type A

R14 : Shaped plain type B

R15: Plain plus plain large

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

30

BOLTS

SCREWS

AND

This chapter shows special bolts and screws with socket.


The production range of the Agrati Group is shown in the
corresponding table, while, with reference to the
typologies, the preferred choice of presentation has been
to introduce separately the different characteristics of the

TC

WITH

products (head, bearing surface, shaft, end, possible


assembled washer) leaving the freedom to assembly the
bolt or screw according to anyones own requirement.
Reference standards and requirements are indicated at
the foot of the page.

PT

SOCKET

Version with captive washer

TABLE
TC
PT
G

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION

TABLE

Cylindrical head shape


Underhead shape
Shaft shape

E
R

Screw ends
Captive washer version

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Steel

Material
General requirements
Thread

International Std.
Tolerance

Grades
Positions
Standards

Mechanical
Properties
Tolerances
Finish

ISO 8992

Class
Standards

4 5 6
e f g h
ISO 965-2 ISO 965-3 or upon request.

ISO 261

4.8 6.8 8.8 10.9 12.9 or upon request.


ISO 898-1 or other applicable standard

International Std.
Standards

ISO 4759-1
ISO 4042 or other applicable standard
Electroplated coatings excluded for class 12.9
Limits for surface discontinuities are covered in
ISO 6157-1 and ISO 6157-3.

Surface discontinuities

Environmental
prescriptions

Standards

VDA 232-101 or other applicable standard

Acceptability

Standards

ISO 3269 ISO 16426 or other applicable standard

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

31
PRODUCTION RANGE
Thread

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10

M12

M14

M16

M18

M20

M22

M24

0.7

0.8

1.25
1

1.5
1.25
1

1.75
1.5
1.25
1

2
1.5

2
1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5
1.5

3
2

Pitch

HEXAGONAL SOCKET

Across
flats

8.5

10

10

12

14

14

17

17

19

13

16

18

21

24

27

30

33

36

Diameter of the cylindrical head

12 POINTS SOCKET

12 points
internal
drive

10

12

14

14

17

17

19

Diameter of the cylindrical head

8.5

10

13

16

18

21

24

27

30

33

36

HEXALOBULAR SOCKET

Hexalobular
internal
drive

Diameter of the cylindrical head

T20
T25
7

T20
T25
T27
8.5

T30

T40
T45

T50

T55

T60

T70

T80

10

13

16

18

21

24

27

Lengths
10
12
16
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
Production range between the heavy stepped lines.
Completed threaded screws may be produced up to the maximum limit defined by the dashed stepped line.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

32

BOLTS

AND

SCREWS

TABLE TC

WITH

SOCKET

HEAD SHAPE

TC1 : Knurled cylindrical

TC2 : Cylindrical
not knurled

TC3 : Round

TC4 : Low
cylindrical

TC5 : Raised cheese

TC6 : Countersunk

TC7 : Extra low


cylindrical

TC8 : Extra low large


cylindrical

TC10 : Cylindrical with


flat flange

TC11 : Cylindrical with


flat large flange

TC12 : Cylindrical with


conical flange

TC9 : Large round


with double shaft

SOCKETS

HEXAGONAL

HEXALOBULAR

AGRATI

GROUP

12 POINTS

ED. 2001-A

33

BOLTS

AND

TABLE PT

SCREWS
:

SOCKET

WITH

UNDERHEAD SHAPE

PT1 : Concave

PT2 : Square plain

PT3 : Convex

PT4 : With gorge type A

PT5 : With gorge type B

PT6 : With gorge type C

PT7 : Square plain supported

PT8 : With thick washer face

AGRATI

PT9 : Indented

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

34

BOLTS

AND

SCREWS

TABLE G

WITH

SOCKET

SHAFT SHAPE

G1 : Threaded up to the head

G2 : Partially threaded

G3 : Partially threaded
with shaft ~ pitch diameter

G4 : Partially threaded
with two shaft diameters

G5 : Partially threaded
with undercut shaft diameter

G6 : Partially threaded
with large body diameter

G7 : Partially threaded with knurling

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

35

BOLTS

AND

SCREWS

TABLE E

WITH

SOCKET

SCREW ENDS

E1 : Chamfered

E2 : Long chamfered

E3 : Dog point

E4 : Pilot point with cone point

E5 : Truncated cone point

E6 : Pilot point with truncated point

E7 : Pilot ogival point

E8 : Ogival point

E9 : Pilot square point

E10 : Scrape point type A

E11 : Scrape point type B

E12 : Scrape point type C

E13 : Scrape point type D

E14 : Scrape point type E

E15 : Scrape point type F

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

36

BOLTS

AND

TABLE R

SCREWS
:

WITH

SOCKET

ASSEMBLED WASHERS

R1 : Plain

R2 : Plain large or extra large

R3 : Thick plain

R4 : Plain with projections

R5 : Curved spring

R6 : Spring crinkled

R7 : Serrated lock

R8 : Conical spring

R9 : Curved spring plus plain

R10 : Spring crinkled plus plain

R11 : Serrated lock plus plain

R12 : Conical spring plus plain

R13 : Shaped plain type A

R14 : Shaped plain type B

R15: Plain plus plain large

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

40

SCREWS

TO

FORM

These families group products extremely different one


from the other, either in shape or in application.
In order to clarify the possibilities of the Agrati Group for
the most varied requirements, the various product

TS

THE

THREAD

characteristics are presented separately (head, thread,


point, assembled washer) leaving the freedom to
assembly the screw according to the individual
requirements.

TF

Version with captive washer

TABLE
TF
TS

DESCRIPTION
Thread profiles and points
Head shape

TABLE
R

DESCRIPTION
Captive washer version

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Tolerances

ISO 4759-1

International Std.

Plain
Finish

Requirements for electroplating are covered in ISO 4042.


If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

41

SCREWS

TO

FORM

THE

THREAD

TAPPING FOR METALS


TABLE TF1 : THREAD AND END
EN ISO 1478
Rounded corners
P

d2

d1

60
Thread profile

Thread (ST)
y

d3

455

Type C point

Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
Pitch
d1
d2
d3
c
y ref.

N
P
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
type C
type F

ST
2.2
2
0.8
2.24
2.10
1.63
1.52
1.47
1.37
0.10
2.00
1.60

ST
2.6
3
0.9
2.57
2.43
1.90
1.80
1.73
1.60
0.10
2.30
1.80

Type F point

ST
2.9
4
1.1
2.90
2.76
2.18
2.08
2.01
1.88
0.10
2.60
2.10

ST
3.3
5
1.3
3.30
3.12
2.39
2.29
2.21
2.08
0.10
3.00
2.50

ST
3.5
6
1.3
3.53
3.35
2.64
2.51
2.41
2.26
0.10
3.20
2.50

ST
3.9
7
1.3
3.91
3.73
2.92
2.77
2.67
2.51
0.10
3.50
2.70

ST
4.2
8
1.4
4.22
4.04
3.10
2.95
2.84
2.69
0.10
3.70
2.80

ST
4.8
10
1.6
4.80
4.62
3.58
3.43
3.30
3.12
0.15
4.30
3.20

ST
5.5
12
1.8
5.46
5.28
4.17
3.99
3.86
3.68
0.15
5.00
3.60

ST
6.3
14
1.8
6.25
6.03
4.88
4.70
4.55
4.34
0.15
6.00
3.60

ST
8
16
2.1
8.00
7.78
6.20
5.99
5.84
5.64
0.15
7.50
4.20

mm.
ST
9.5
20
2.1
9.65
9.43
7.85
7.59
7.44
7.24
0.15
8.00
4.20

Approximate hole sizes, see extract UNI 6946. (page 162-163)

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Casehardening steel
HV 450 min.

Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

Core hardness

HV 270 390

International Std.

EN ISO 2702

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

42

SCREWS

TO

FORM

THE

THREAD

TAPPING FOR METALS


TABLE TF2 : THREAD AND END
ASME B18.6.4

Rounded corners

455

d2

d1

60

Type AB point

Nominal thread
diameter
Designation

Thread per inch


Pitch
d1
d2
c

P
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.

Thread profile

mm.
ST
9.5
3/8

ST
2.9
4

ST
3.3
5

ST
3.5
6

ST
3.9
7

ST
4.2
8

ST
4.8
10

ST
5.5
12

ST
6.3
1/4

ST
8
5/16

24

20

20

19

18

16

14

14

12

12

1.058
2.896
2.743
2.184
2.083
0.101

1.270
3.302
3.124
2.388
2.286
0.101

1.270
3.531
3.353
2.642
2.515
0.101

1.337
3.912
3.734
2.921
2.769
0.101

1.411
4.216
4.039
3.099
2.946
0.101

1.588
4.801
4.623
3.581
3.429
0.152

1.814
5.461
5.283
4.166
3.988
0.152

1.814
6.248
6.020
4.877
4.699
0.152

2.117
8.001
7.772
6.198
5.994
0.152

2.117
9.652
9.423
7.849
7.595
0.152

Approximate Hole sizes, see extract ASME B18.6.4. (page 164)

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Casehardening steel
HR 15N

Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

83 min.

Core hardness

HRC 28 38

Standard

ASME B18.6.4

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

43

SCREWS
TAPPING

TO

FORM

THE

THREAD

SCREWS FOR PLASTIC MATERIALS

TABLE TF3 : DUBLE START THREAD AND


POINT FOR SOFT OR PLASTIC MATERIALS
UNI 9702
P/2
c2
Rounded corners

c1

60

d4

455

d3

d2

30

Two profile double


start thread

d1

Rounded corners

y1

y2
Type TZ.point

Type TA point
Nominal thread
diameter
Pitch
d1
d2
d3
d4
c1 = c2
y1
y2
Approximate
Hole sizes

mm.

3.5

4.5

5.5

P
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
max.
max.

2.10
3.15
2.95
2.59
2.39
1.95
1.75
1.90
1.70
0.15
2.30
1.90

2.50
3.65
3.35
2.89
2.59
2.15
1.85
2.00
1.80
0.15
2.60
2.40

2.70
4.10
3.80
3.29
2.99
2.45
2.15
2.30
2.10
0.15
3.00
2.60

2.80
4.65
4.35
3.59
3.29
2.65
2.35
2.50
2.30
0.15
3.20
3.00

3.00
5.10
4.80
3.94
3.64
3.00
2.70
2.80
2.60
0.20
3.70
3.60

3.00
5.60
5.30
4.44
4.14
3.50
3.20
3.25
3.05
0.20
4.30
3.90

3.10
6.10
5.80
4.94
4.64
3.90
3.60
3.65
3.45
0.20
4.80
4.00

3.50
7.15
6.85
5.89
5.59
4.85
4.55
4.60
4.35
0.20
5.80
4.20

max.

2.30

2.60

2.90

3.30

3.70

4.20

4.70

5.60

min.

2.00

2.20

2.50

2.80

3.10

3.60

4.00

4.90

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Casehardening steel

Material
Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

HV 450 min.

Core hardness

HV 270 390

Standard

UNI 7323-12

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

44

SCREWS
TAPPING

FORM

TO

THE

THREAD

SCREWS FOR PLASTIC MATERIALS

TABLE TF4 : TWO PROFILE DOUBLE


START THREAD AND END POINT
P/2
F

Rounded corners

Rounded corners

60 5

30 5

Two profile double start thread

455

d2

d1

Type TZ point

Type TA point

mm.
Nominal thread
diameter
Pitch
d
d1
d2
F
Approximate
Hole sizes

3.5

4.5

5.5

10

12

P
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.

2
3.10
2.80
2.80
2.60
2.15
2.00
0.15

2.5
3.60
3.40
3.00
2.80
2.30
2.15
0.15

2.5
4.10
3.85
3.30
3.10
2.45
2.30
0.15

2.5
4.60
4.35
3.60
3.30
2.70
2.40
0.15

3
5.10
4.85
4.00
3.65
3.00
2.70
0.20

3
5.60
5.35
4.50
4.15
3.50
3.20
0.20

3
6.10
5.85
5.00
4.65
3.90
3.60
0.20

3/3.5
7.10
6.85
5.90
5.55
4.80
4.50
0.20

3.5
8.10
7.80
6.90
6.50
5.80
5.50
0.25

3.5
10.10
9.80
8.90
8.40
7.80
7.45
0.25

3.5
12.20
11.80
10.80
10.30
9.80
9.40
0.25

max.

2.30

2.60

2.90

3.30

3.70

4.20

4.70

5.60

6.50

8.50

10.50

min.

2.00

2.20

2.50

2.80

3.10

3.60

4.00

4.90

5.90

7.90

9.90

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Casehardening steel

Material

HV 450 min.

Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

Core hardness

HV 270 390

Standard

UNI 7323 - 12

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

45

SCREWS

TO

FORM

THE

THREAD

TAPPING SCREWS FOR PLASTIC MATERIALS


TABLE TF5 : TYPE K`` THREAD AND END POINT

d2

d1

30

Nominal
Pitch
d1
d2

K
P

K30
1.35
3
1.62

K35
1.56
3.5
1.90

K40
1.78
4
2.16

K50
2.2
5
2.70

K60
2.6
6
3.27

K70
3.14
7
3.67

K80
3.59
8
4.18

mm.
K100
4.49
10
5.20

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Casehardening steel

Material
Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

HV 450 min.

Core hardness

HV 270 390

International Std.

EN ISO 2702

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

46

SCREWS

FORM

TO

THREAD
TABLE TF6

THE

THREAD

ROLLING SCREWS

THREAD AND END


UNI 8109

c2
P

c1

c3

End with trilobular cross section TT

mm.
Nominal thread
diameter
Pitch
d*
c1 *
c2
c3

M2.5

M3

M3.5

M4

M5

P
0.45
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
5.00
max.
2.10
2.50
2.90
3.40
4.40
max.
2.57
3.07
3.58
4.08
5.09
max.
2.13
2.58
2.99
3.40
4.31
max.
1.60
1.80
2.10
2.40
2.80
max.
y
0.90
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
min.
*These dimensions indicate the diametral measure set on an apex of the triangular section.

M6

M8

1
6.00
5.20
6.10
5.30
3.50
2.00

1.25
8.00
7.10
8.13
6.92
4.40
2.50

Approximate Hole sizes, See extract UNI 8108 (page 167)

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Casehardening steel or other agreed material


Surface hardness

Mechanical
properties

Thread cutting
point features

HV 450 min.

Core hardness

HV 270 390

International Std.

EN ISO 7085
The formed thread shall accept fasteners having tolerance class 6h

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

47

SCREWS

FORM

TO

THREAD

THE

THREAD

CUTTING SCREWS

TABLE TF7 : THREAD AND END


DIN 7513 DIN 7516

The screw thread shall be such that the thread formed by the
screw shall be capable of accepting a threaded fastener

tolerance class 6h. Threaded point:

d/2

mm.
Nominal thread
diameter
Pitch

Approximate
Hole sizes

d
P

M2.5

M3

M4

M5

M6

M8

0.45

0.5

0.7

0.8

1.25

max.

2.26

2.76

3.67

4.57

5.57

7.49

min.

2.20

2.70

3.60

4.50

5.50

7.40

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Casehardening steel or other agreed materials


HV 450 min.

Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

Core hardness

HV 240 370
DIN 7513 DIN 7516

Standard

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

48

SCREWS

TO

FORM

THE

THREAD

DRILLING SCREWS
TABLE TF8 : THREAD AND
EN ISO 1478

END
UNI 8115

WITH

Rounded corners

d2

d1

60
Thread profile

d3

Thread (ST)

First full thread

Y
Drilling point
mm.
Size N2

Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
Pitch
d1
d2
d3
c
y
Plate
thickness

Size N3

N
P
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.
min.
max.

ST
2.9
4

ST
3.5
6

ST
4.2
8

ST
4.8
10

ST
5.5
12

ST
6.3
14

ST
3.5
6

ST
4.2
8

ST
4.8
10

ST
5.5
12

ST
6.3
14

1.1
2.90
2.76
2.18
2.08
2.29
2.18
0.10
4.10

1.3
3.53
3.35
2.64
2.51
2.80
2.67
0.10
4.80

1.4
4.22
4.04
3.10
2.95
3.28
3.15
0.10
5.40

1.6
4.80
4.62
3.58
3.43
3.76
3.63
0.15
6.00

1.8
5.46
5.28
4.17
3.99
4.32
4.19
0.15
7.00

1.8
6.25
6.03
4.88
4.70
5.03
4.90
0.15
8.10

1.3
3.53
3.35
2.64
2.51
2.89
2.79
0.10
5.60

1.4
4.22
4.04
3.10
2.95
3.45
3.33
0.10
6.40

1.6
4.80
4.62
3.58
3.43
3.96
3.83
0.15
7.60

1.8
5.46
5.28
4.17
3.99
4.57
4.44
0.15
9.00

1.8
6.25
6.03
4.88
4.70
5.79
5.66
0.15
10.00

max.

2.00

2.30

2.50

2.80

3.60

4.40

2.80

3.60

4.40

5.30

5.30

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Casehardening steel or other agreed materials


HV 530 min.

Surface hardness
Mechanical
properties

Core hardness

d ST4.2 HV5 320 400

EN ISO 10666

International Std.

d > ST4.2 HV10 320 400

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

49

SCREWS

TO

FORM
:

TABLE TS

THE

THREAD

HEAD SHAPE

Optional indentation
Optional socket or recess

Pz recess

Ph recess

Ph combined
recess

Pz comb
ned recess

Hexalobular
socket

TS1 : Hexagonal
Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
S
K

ST2.2

ST2.9

ST3.5

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

ST9.5

2
3.20
1.60

4
5.00
2.30

6
5.50
2.60

8
7.00
3.00

10
8.00
3.80

12
8.00
4.10

14
10.00
4.70

16
13.00
6.00

20
16.00
7.50

Optional indentation
Optional socket or recess

Ph recess

s
dc

Pz recess

Ph combined
recess

Pz combined
recess

Hexalobular
socket

TS2 : Hexagonal with collar

ST2.2

ST2.9

ST3.5

ST3.9

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

2
3.00
2.00
4.20

4
4.00
2.80
6.30

6
5.50
3.40
8.30

7
5.50
3.40
8.30

8
7.00
4.10
8.80

10
8.00
4.30
10.50

12
8.00
5.40
11.00

14
10.00
5.90
13.50

16
13.00
7.00
18.00

dk

Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
S
K
d2

k
TS3 : Pan with slot
Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
dk
K

ST2.2

ST2.9

ST3.5

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

ST9.5

2
4.00
1.30

4
5.60
1.80

6
7.00
2.10

8
8.00
2.40

10
9.50
3.00

12
11.00
3.20

14
12.00
3.60

16
16.00
4.80

20
20.00
6.00

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

50

SCREWS

TO

FORM
:

THREAD

HEAD SHAPE

dk

90

TABLE TS

THE

Slot

Ph recess

Pz recess

Hexagonal Hexalobular Hexalobular


socket socket with pin
socket

Antiheft
recess

k
TS4 : Countersunk with slot, recess or socket

ST2.2

ST2.9

ST3.5

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

ST9.5

2
3.80
1.10

4
5.50
1.70

6
7.30
2.35

8
8.40
2.60

10
9.30
2.80

12
10.30
3.00

14
11.30
3.15

16
15.80
4.65

20
18.30
5.25

Slot

Ph recess

Pz recess

Hexagonal Hexalobular Hexalobular


socket socket with pin
socket

dk

90

Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
dk
Actual
K

Antiheft
recess

f
TS5 : Countersunk raised with slot, recess or socket

ST2.2

ST2.9

ST3.5

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

ST9.5

2
3.80
1.10
0.50

4
5.50
1.70
0.70

6
7.30
2.35
0.80

8
8.40
2.60
1.00

10
9.30
2.80
1.20

12
10.30
3.00
1.30

14
11.30
3.15
1.40

16
15.80
4.65
2.00

20
18.30
5.25
2.30

dk

Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
dk
Actual
K
f

Hexagonal
socket

Hexalobular Hexalobular
socket with pin
socket

Ph recess

Pz recess

Ph combined Pz combined
recess
recess

k
TS6 : Cheese with slot, recess or socket
Nominal thread
diameter
Designation
dk
K

ST2.2

ST2.9

ST3.5

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

ST9.5

2
4.00
1.60

4
5.60
2.40

6
7.00
2.60

8
8.00
3.10

10
9.50
3.70

12
11.00
4.00

14
12.00
4.60

16
16.00
6.00

20
20.00
7.50

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

51

SCREWS

TO

FORM

TABLE TS

THE

THREAD

HEAD SHAPE

TS7 : Hexagonal with slot

TS8 : Hexagonal flanged


countersunk 1

TS9 : Hexagonal flanged


countersunk 2

TS10 : Hexagonal countersunk

TS11 : Hexagonal flanged with slot

TS12 : Hexalobular flanged

Hexagonal Hexalobular Hexalobular


socket
socket with pin
socket

Ph recess

Hexagonal Hexalobular Hexalobular


socket socket with pin
socket

Pz recess

Ph recess

TS13 : Pan with socket or recess

TS14 : Pan with socket or recess and collar

Hexagonal Hexalobular
socket
socket

Hexagonal Hexalobular Hexalobular


socket
socket
socket with pin

Ph recess

Pz recess

Pz recess

Hexalobular 12 points
socket with pin

TS15 : Pan with socket or recess and collar


and double shaft diameter

TS16 : Cylindrical with socket

TS17 : Pan antiheft

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

52

SCREWS

TO

TABLE R

FORM

THE

THREAD

ASSEMBLED WASHERS

R1 : Plain

R2 : Plain large or extra large

R3 : Thick plain

R4 : Plain with projections

R5 : Curved spring

R6 : Spring crinkled

R7 : Serrated lock

R8 : Conical spring

R9 : Curved spring plus plain

R10 : Spring crinkled plus plain

R11 : Serrated lock plus plain

R12 : Conical spring plus plain

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

56

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

SCREWS

FOR SAFETY BELTS

These screws are designed to secure the safety belt


devices in the automotive industry, and can be made in
different shapes (hexagon, flanged or cylindrical head,
with or without slot, with or without hub, etc) In the
large majority of cases, the screws are produced with

AGRATI

7/16-20 UNF thread, class 8.8, yellow galvanized, with


a layer of ESLOK self-locking material.
Further examples are shown in the drawings on the
following page.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

57

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

SCREWS

FOR SAFETY BELTS

Hexagonal threaded up to the head

Hexagonal with chamfered pilot point

Hexagonal partially threaded

Hexagonal with large oversize shaft

Hexagonal with flange


and ogival point

Hexagonal with flat flange and oversize shaft

Hexagonal with flange, oversize shaft


and chanferef pilot point

Round with bearing face and socket

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

58

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

WHEEL
These screws are designed for securing wheel hubs to
wheel rims (they are often declared as safety products):
they normally have a flanged hexagon head, with a
tapered or spherical under-head bearing surface.
Lighter versions also exist, with hole/slot on the head,
and in two pieces (screw + washer). In most cases, they
are requested in class 8.8. and 10.9, with electrolytic

AGRATI

SCREWS

coating (plus hydrogen embrittlement relief if necessary),


or with chemical coatings based either on metals or on
organic alloying elements (e.g. Dacromet) to improve
corrosion resistance and prevent hydrogen induced
embrittlement.
The most common shapes are shown in the drawings on
the next page.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

59

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

WHEEL

SCREWS

Flanged conical with spherical embedding

Lighter flanged half-spherical

Flanged conical with cylindrical embedding

"Lighter" flanged half-spherical with radial slots

Lighter flanged conical

Flanged half-spherical with conical embedding

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

60

SCREWS
RAY

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

KNURLED AND HUB PIN SCREWS

Truck wheel-rim parts are joined by ray-screws, while


rims are secured to the hubs with knurled studs or pins.
In most cases, they are requested in classes 8.8. or 10.9,
with electrolytic coating (plus baking if necessary), or
with chemical coatings based either on metals or on
organic alloying elements (e.g. Dacromet) to improve

AGRATI

corrosion resistance and prevent hydrogen induced


embrittlement. Electrolytic finishing is not allowed for
class 12.9.
The most common shapes are shown in the drawings on
the next page.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

61

SCREWS
RAY

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

KNURLED AND HUB PIN SCREWS

Knurled stud fully threaded

Knurled stud partially threaded

Knurled stud with oversize shaft fully threaded

Knurled stud with oversize shaft partially threaded

Ray-screw

Hub pin

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

62

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

ENGINE
This category embraces different products with one thing
in common: securing engine parts/components : head
screws, con-rod screws, pulley/flywheel fastenings,
clutch/motor couplings, manifold securing etc. In some
cases, to satisfy automatic assembly requirements,
screws with appropriate tips can be produced (ogival,
tapered, cylindrical, cylindrical-tapered, etc)

AGRATI

SCREWS

Phosphated finish is preferred for screws used inside the


engine, whereas electrolytic or organic protection is
preferred for screws on the outside.
The most common property classes are 8.8 and 10.9
(12.9 in some cases too)

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

63

SCREWS

FOR

SCREWS

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

FOR AXLES AND SUSPENSIONS

These types of products have the following functions:


securing and adjustment of wheel chassis and breakunit connecting elements. Hexagon head screws with
eccentric washer, various shapes of screws with attached
washer, flanged screws, and threads with prevailing-

AGRATI

torque patches. Chemical coatings based on metal or


organic alloys (e.g. Dacromet) are, in the main, preferred
for their corrosion resisting qualities. Property classes
range from 8.8 to 10.9 plus others

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

64

SCREWS

FOR

SCREWS

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

WITH WELDING PROJECTIONS

Screws and pins are used in the automotive industry


mainly while they and other different componentry
modules are being assembled to the body, but are also
used in other industrial sectors.
As it is simple to use and produce, this type of product is
now widely used, so that many system producers have
made projection welding lines with several levels of
automation, through to complete robotisation, and all

AGRATI

automotive houses have created one or more tables or


reference specifications.
The pins are mainly used as a locating references, while
the screws can be produced with projections (above and
below the head) which melt during welding thus
ensuring a joint, or with an under-head collar (also
melting when welded) to ensure a hermetic seal.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

65

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

WASHER
If the application requires, screws can be equipped with
one (or two) captive washers: we are illustrating some
samples of the Agrati Groups production range, from M3
up to M20, in various shapes and classes, with diverse
protective coatings. The shape of the washer can be of
standard size or can be customised according to a

AGRATI

SCREWS

drawing (including larger diameters or thickness values).


In some cases, to satisfy automatic assembly
requirements, screws with appropriate tips can be
produced (ogival, tapered, cylindrical, cylindricaltapered, etc)

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

66

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
BALLS

These products are used in steering articulations, and are


normally supplied semi-finished and black in two
versions hollow or solid ball. Clients arrange the

AGRATI

PINS

subsequent mechanical machining. Shank diameters


range from 10 to 24 mm. Further examples are shown in
the drawings on the following page.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

67

SCREWS

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
BALLS

PINS

Solid ball
Shaft with a reduction

Solid ball with center mark


Shaft with a reduction

Solid ball
Shaft with reduction and across flats

Hollow ball
Shaft with a reduction

Hollow ball with shaft

Solid ball and


threaded shaft

Solid ball and threaded


cylindrical conical shaft

Hollow ball with threaded


cylindrical conical shaft

Hollow ball with threaded cylindrical


conical shaft and socket

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

68

SCREWS
SELF

FOR

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

LOCKING SCREWS AND NUTS

OaV
O
aV block - This is a type of self-locking screw with
rounded ribs along its bearing surface, with the
following characteristics: no notches on the surface of
the tightening parts, little bedding, excellent tightening
behaviour.
These screws are ideal for use on steel sheet as they
cause no damage, on work-hardened mild materials, on
aluminium, and for uses where chips are ruled out.
Moreover, the screws self-securing action is efficient
also on hard materials.

AGRATI

Their tightening torques are very similar to those for


bolts/screws in the same property class. These torque
values remain almost constant after numerous tightening
and loosening operations.
The screw can be produced in classes 10.9, 10.9-H
(carburized hardened), and 12.9, and the nut in classes
10,10-H (carburized hardened) and 12.
Other types of indentation can be produced on request.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

69

SCREWS

FOR

SCREWS

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

FOR MISCELLANEOUS USES

This photo shows the vast variety of products that can be


made to satisfy the needs of the automotive sector:
booster (servo-brake) securing screws, brake pedal travel

AGRATI

adjustment, seat fastening, steering-lock securing, etc.


High, medium and low property classes and various
coatings.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

70

SCREWS

FOR

PINS

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

FOR MISCELLANEOUS USES

This photo shows the vast variety of products that can be


made to satisfy the needs of the automotive sector: pins
for securing seats and allowing them to slide, pins for
securing disk brake pads, U-shaped curved rods for

AGRATI

closing the boot lock, handbrake cable terminals, etc


High, medium and low property classes and various
coatings.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

74

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PRODUCTS

FOR FORNITURE

The furniture industry normally uses screws and pins for


hinges. It is possible to have lock screws (self-threading
for fixing hinge type) or adjustment screws (equipped
with devices for prevention of unscrewing)
In the picture are visible different knurled and unknurled
pins, used both in hinges as in basements for fast

AGRATI

blocking and for riveting, pins with groove for piroetting


wheels and screws for regulation of basements (after
drowing of the head in rubber or plastic)
Requested in classes 4.8 and 5.8, in some cases with
surface hardening (carbonitriding).

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

75

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PRODUCTS

FOR HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICAL GOODS

The household electrical goods industry uses an enormous


amount of small self-tapping screws and a smaller amount
of special screws that are the HEART of these products,
especially for the technologically more complex
appliances such as washing-machines (e.g. securing
cement balancing-weights).
Heads vary according to the type of seat where they are
used: hexagonal (with or without flange), round oval (with
under-head square), and conical; threads vary according

AGRATI

to the material into which they are fitted: the threads are
generally for plastic, wood, or are metric; one or two preassembled washers (flat and tapered) can be supplied
instead of a flange.
Inserts for adjustable feet can also be seen (with hexagon
heads either very low, round, perforated or with small
rungs; for embedding in rubber or plastic) as well as pins
for refrigerator hinges (studs with a small thread on one
side only for adjusting the refrigerator door).

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

76

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PRODUCTS

FOR DOOR\WINDOW FRAMES

Hexagonal socket head cap screws with flat or


countersunk underhead are used for fixing aluminium
casing connecting plates can be produced in classes 8.8
or 10.9 with electrolytic or organic coating; hinge pins

AGRATI

are produced in stainless steel.


Some examples of other types of screws used in this
sector are shown in the picture.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

77

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PRODUCT

FOR THE ELECTRICAL SECTOR

These medium and small screws with different head


forms (cylindrical, hexagonal, slotted, cross recess,
combined drive and with or without captive washer)
used in switch and remote control switch.
They normally are provided in low resistance with
electrolytic coating.

AGRATI

Other thin head products in various forms (hexagonal,


octagonal square) are produced in aluminium and they
are used, subject to head covering with plastic cap, in
electrical capacitors.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

78

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PRODUCTS

FOR THE BUILDING INDUSTRY

Over standard and structual screws, used in the assembly


of metallic structure, are produced special T-head screws
with relative nut, used for clamping scaffold joints.
Here are shown also cylindrical head cap pins with and

AGRATI

without tongs hold employed in floating paving sector


for the support and regulation.
They normally are requested in low and medium
resistance, plain or with electrolytic coating.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

79

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PRODUCTS

FOR VARIOUS INDUSTRIES

Screws and pins are used in all industrial spheres. The


photograph shows: screws for securing lavatory seats
(their hexagon head eccentric with respect to the axis),
hexagon inserts, and with a round head for producing
anti-vibration elements, round-head bolts with under-

AGRATI

head square for guard-rails, pins for producing inserts for


drills and cutters and for the hobby industry in general.
Shapes, coating and classes vary according to
specifications.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

80

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
PINS

AND RIVETS

Products used in different sector of mechanical with


forms, dimensions and uses very different to satisfy
different requests.

AGRATI

Requested in low property classes plain or with


electrolytic coating.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

81

PRODUCTS FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTS SECTORS
ROLLERS

AND BUSHES

Rolling devices (rollers for chains or drawers), antiresonance masses or threaded bushes can be produced
in different diameters and shapes, and in a range of

AGRATI

finishes: plain or heat treated (carburized).


The photograph shows a few examples.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

84

SPECIAL NUTS
FLANGE

NUTS WITH REDUCED HEXAGON

PRODUCT
Flange nuts with a reduced hexagon are made using
the same cold forging technology as for standard
flanged nuts (DIN 6923, DIN 6927) and is available in
both the non-locking and all metal self-locking
versions.
They differ from the standard in two areas, namely:

DESCRIPTION

1) Reduced hexagon.
2) Flange angle.
The smaller hexagon reduces the overall dimensions of
the nut and as a result, its weight; the flange, with an
angle of 40 instead of 15 means that, compared to
standard nuts, the mechanical properties do not
change.

TECHNICAL/ECONOMIC
Flanged nuts with a reduced hexagon are used mainly
in the aerospace and racing car industries, where the
main objective of designers is to reduce weight and the
overall dimensions of components, whilst maintaining
their mechanical and safety properties.
By extending these principles to large-scale
production, it is possible to benefit from the technical
advantages of these products at a cost that can be
compared with those of standard flange nuts. From an
overall dimension point of view, with reduced
hexagon flange nuts it is possible to make a saving of
30% compared to a DIN 6923 nut, whereas the saving
on weight is about 50%.

AGRATI

ADVANTAGES

This is obtained without affecting the products


mechanical properties, in fact, thanks to the different
flange angles, an extremely sturdy nut structure is
obtained. Combined with a thread height equal to
once the nominal diameter enables the mechanical
properties to remain unchanged.
Flanged nuts with a reduced hexagon are also
produced in the all metal self-locking version: the
standards regarding the locking values remain as per
DIN 6927 (DIN 267 Part 15).

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

85

SPECIAL NUTS
FLANGE

NUTS WITH REDUCED HEXAGON

40

0130
mw
c

dc

dw

da

s
Class marking:
8, 10 or other

e
m
dc
dw
da
mw
min. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. min.

c
r
Agrati Group code
min. max. Class

7.78

8.79

5.7

11.8

9.8

6.75

3.1

1.0

0.30

1.25

10

9.78 11.05

7.6

14.2 12.2

8.75

4.5

1.1

0.36

M10

1.5

13

12.73 14.38 10

9.6

17.9 15.8 10.80 10

5.5

1.2

0.48

M12

1.75

16

15.73 17.77 12

11.6

21.8 19.6 13.00 12

6.7

1.5

0.60

M14

18

17.73 20.03 14

13.3

26.0 23.8 15.10 14

7.8

1.8

0.72

Thread
d

Pitch

M6

M8

max.

8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10

DW1B00600038
DW1D00600038
DW1B00800038
DW1D00800038
DW1B01000038
DW1D01000038
DW1B01200038
DW1D01200038
DW1B01400038
DW1D01400038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements

Steel
International Std.

ISO 8992

Mechanical
properties

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
10
ISO 898-2

Tolerances

International Std.

ISO 4759-1

Thread

Finish

Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A


Transparent clear

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow
ISO 4042

Code 36 = Clear zinc plating

Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating

If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed


for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

85

SPECIAL NUTS
FLANGE

NUTS WITH REDUCED HEXAGON

40

0130
mw
c

dc

dw

da

s
Class marking:
8, 10 or other

e
m
dc
dw
da
mw
min. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. min.

c
r
Agrati Group code
min. max. Class

7.78

8.79

5.7

11.8

9.8

6.75

3.1

1.0

0.30

1.25

10

9.78 11.05

7.6

14.2 12.2

8.75

4.5

1.1

0.36

M10

1.5

13

12.73 14.38 10

9.6

17.9 15.8 10.80 10

5.5

1.2

0.48

M12

1.75

16

15.73 17.77 12

11.6

21.8 19.6 13.00 12

6.7

1.5

0.60

M14

18

17.73 20.03 14

13.3

26.0 23.8 15.10 14

7.8

1.8

0.72

Thread
d

Pitch

M6

M8

max.

8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10

DW1B00600038
DW1D00600038
DW1B00800038
DW1D00800038
DW1B01000038
DW1D01000038
DW1B01200038
DW1D01200038
DW1B01400038
DW1D01400038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements

Steel
International Std.

ISO 8992

Mechanical
properties

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
10
ISO 898-2

Tolerances

International Std.

ISO 4759-1

Thread

Finish

Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A


Transparent clear

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow
ISO 4042

Code 36 = Clear zinc plating

Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating

If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed


for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

86

SPECIAL NUTS
METAL

LOCKING NUT

OPERATION
It is a completely metallic locking nut which works by
radial deformation of the threads. This deformation
gradually reduces the upper thread diameter, and makes
the nut self-locking. The nut is lubricated by a special
product adapted to the self-locking nuts: the capacity of
this lubricant to withstand high pressures allows it to avoid
local microseizure phenomenon.

PRINCIPLE

The locking effect happens radially due to the controlled


reduction of the pitch thread diameter (Fig. 1). In the
screwing phase the nut tends to return elastically to its
original shape, thus generating a force F. This force, through
friction created on the threads, causes the locking action.

Area effected by
the deformation

Average diameter
after deformation
Nominal average
diameter

Fig.1

Fig.2

TECHNICAL

CHARACTERISTICS

- They are self-locking and therefore carry out their


function of preventing unscrewing even in the
absence of a tightening torque.
- They allow a considerable number of screwing and
unscrewing.
- They provide an increased load capacity for the same
height: since there is no insert present, the space
which an insert would normally occupy is completely
threaded.
- They allow a better distribution of the self-locking
effect: as shown in Fig. 1, the longitudinal area
affected by the deformation is relatively large (50% of
the total height). This means that the nut begins to lock
at approximately half the full height allowing a free
screwing for, at least, the first two threads. It is
therefore true to state that the this nut supplies
increased safety with respect to the nuts with an insert,
where the self-locking action is active only on the last
threads.
- They guarantee a fine control of the prevailing torque:

DIAGRAM 1 shows the variation of the prevailing


torque as a function of the axial deformation (pitch
reduction). It is easy to see that a small variation in the
deformation corresponds to a high variation in the
prevailing torque. On the practical side, this causes a
marked variation in the prevailing torque which
creates problems in site on the assembly (screwer
calibration).
In DIAGRAM 2 the variation of the prevailing torque
as a function of the radial deformation (reduction of
the average diameter) is shown. Given that the alpha
angle shows smaller values than in the previous case,
we obtain, for an equivalent DS, a reduced variation
in the prevailing torque DM with evident advantages.
Besides for that, the deformation of the pitch diameter
happens in rigorously controlled conditions, thanks to
the accurate equipment, and thanks also to the fact
that the deformation is carried out on the hexagon
walls that have narrow dimensional tolerances.

Prevailing
torque

Prevailing
torque

M
M

Diagram 1

Thread
deformation

Diagram 2

AGRATI

GROUP

Thread
deformation

ED. 2001-A

87

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE FLANGE NUTS


REDUCED HEXAGON ALL METAL

Prevailing torque element

40

mw

0130

Thread
d
M6
M8
M10
M12
M14

dc

dw

10

da

Pitch
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2

max.
8
10
13
16
18

min.
7.78
9.78
12.73
15.73
17.73

e
m
dc
min. max. min. max
8.79 6
5.7 11.8
11.05 8
7.6 14.2
14.38 10
9.6 17.9
17.77 12 11.6 21.8
20.03 14 13.3 26.0

dw
min.
9.8
12.2
15.8
19.6
23.8

da
mw
c
r
max. min. min. min. max.
6.75 6
3.1 1.0 0.30
8.75 8
4.5 1.1 0.36
10.80 10
5.5 1.2 0.48
13.00 12
6.7 1.5 0.60
15.10 14
7.8 1.8 0.72

Agrati Group code


MW1D00600038
MW1D00800038
MW1D01000038
MW1D01200038
MW1D01400038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material

Steel

General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
10
ISO 898-2

Standards

DIN 267-15

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std.
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Transparent clear
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating

If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed


for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

88

SPECIAL NUTS
ROMOB
PRODUCT
The safety nut with built-in washer consists of a nut with
a special tang, clipped to a washer which may be of
various shapes and sizes. The washer is clipped in such
a way that it may not come loose, but, at the same, it is
not obstructed from rotating freely with respect to the
nut. When specifically required, it is also possible to
prevent the washer from rotating on the nut. Due to the
manner in which it was conceived, the Romob nut may
be easily adapted to any customer requirement; in fact,
it is possible to provide the assembly of different types of
nuts with washers of the most diverse shape and sizes. In
the standard version the Romob is assembled using the
normal type of nut UNI 5588 with a wide based conical

AGRATI

DESCRIPTION

washer (CL), or narrow based (CS), or a knurled conical


washer (CZ), or a plain smooth washer (PL); it is,
however always possible to use self-locking metallic
nuts, nuts with a nylon insert and dome nuts: this implies
a great flexibility and modulability for the system, since
the possible combinations between the type of nut and
the type of washer, increase exponentially for each size.
Thus it is possible to have a wide range of e solutions,
from which any designer may find a suitable Romob for
his particular assembly. The characteristics of the finished
product are obviously determined by the nut-washer
combination which is chosen.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

89

SPECIAL NUTS
ROMOB
WASHER
Wide conical washer (CL)
The washer conformation, in particular its thickness and
its residual deflection ( elastic return), makes it preferable
in assemblies where a high torque is used, because in
order to flatten the washer, a significant force is needed.
The wide conical washer has a large external diameter of
about three times the thread diameter: it is therefore
suitable for applications where the bore diameter is
much bigger than the nominal thread diameter (for
example, oval bores). In addition to this, a large support
surface guarantees a greater and more uniform
distribution of the load.
Narrow conical washer (CS)
The external diameter, the geometric shape and the
thickness, are calculated so that the flattening of the
washer during tightening, is carried out gradually, and
above all without needing to apply excessively high
loads. The above factors make this an ideal washer for
applications where the use of 8.8 or higher class of screw
is not foreseen, and/or where the use of high torque is
not foreseen for tightening.

AGRATI

TYPES

Knurled conical washer (CZ)


The function of this washer is like that of the CS, with the
addition of one qualifying technical aspect. This is
represented by the knurled circular crown on the part of
the washer which makes contact with the nut. This
knurling, in addition to the elastic characteristics of a
smooth washer, is expected to further improve the
phenomenon of not unscrewing accidentally in the
presence of vibrations. The washer hardness
characteristics are higher than those of the nut: the axial
force which is applied by the tightening torque, makes
the peaks of the knurling dig into the base of the nut. This
causes a much greater torque to be needed for the
removal than is needed for the tightening.
Plain smooth washer (PL)
The PL washer is a flat washer constructed using nontempered material. It is therefore adaptable to all the
situations where the use of a support washer combined
with a nut is foreseen.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

90

SPECIAL NUTS
ROMOB
VERSATILITY

AND MODULATION ABILITY

Each kind of nut may be coupled with each of the types


of available washers: for each nut/washer combination a
standard size is catalogued; on request, it is possible to

modify, for the same nut size, the diameter or even the
shape of the washer: therefore it is possible to have the
most suitable Romob for each assembly.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

91

SPECIAL NUTS
ROMOB
OPERATION
The safety nut with conical washer is freely rotating until
it reaches the tightening surface. Due to the applied
torque, the washer suffers from a type of elastic
deformation. Since the material it is made of has a high
yielding point, it exerts a pressure on the nut which is
sufficient to prevent accidental unscrewing due to
vibration or loss of load during the tightening.
Fig. 1 shows the behaviour of the Romob nut and its
operation principle.
F - This is the force that is created to the nut and hence
to the washer due to the tightening torque applied.
f* - This is the original deflection of the elastic washer,
before being assembled.
fr - This is the residual deflection of the washer after
being subjected to a load.
Fe - It is the force generated by the elastic return of the
washer.

BEFORE
TIGHTENING

PRINCIPLE

Before being tightened, when the force F is equal to zero,


all the clearances due to the tolerances between the
screw and the nut are present, and could cause
accidental unscrewing.
After being tightened, due to the effect of the force F, the
washer tends to get flattened. The initial deflection f* is
reduced to fr. The difference between original and
residual deflection, creates a force Fe, due to the elastic
return of the washer. This force, which acts on the
support surface and on the base of the nut, guarantees a
constant contact between the threads of the screw and
the nut, thus suppressing the relating clearances. It is
important to note, that possible settlings of the thread
coupling, if less than f* - fr, are not capable of
eliminating the force Fe.

AFTER
TIGHTENING

F=0

clearances
determinated by
the tollerances
between the screw
and the nut

F=LOAD
clearance between
screw and nut
is suppressed
fr

f*
original
deflection
Fe

residual
deflection

load generated by
the elastic return
of the washer

Fig.1

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

92

SPECIAL NUTS
ROMOB
TECHNICAL

ADVANTAGES

This results in a constant friction factor and


consequently a constant torque/tension ratio (Fig. 3).
- The reverse assemblies, notoriously difficult because
of the difficulty of keeping the loose washer in place,
are much simpler (Fig. 4).
- The use of the Romob is particularly suitable for
automatic assemblies. The automatic production lines
can use one single feeder for both the nut and the
washer; due to its shape, it is also easy to position in
systems with automatic supply.

- The nut is self-locking.


- The washer is always present, because it is
incorporated in the nut, and cannot therefore be
forgotten by the operator.
- The Romob washer does not rotate when the nut is
tightened, and therefore will not damage the surfaces
of light materials like aluminium, plastic, rubber or
varnished parts. (Fig. 2)
- The relative rotation is only present between the nut
and the washer. This implies that this rotation only
happens between two perfectly equal planar surfaces.

rotation
axis

rotation applied
to the nut

SECTION
NUT
(in rotation)

SCREW
the washer
blocks when
in contact

ROMOB
NUT

contact
area

delicate surface
(alluminium/brass)
WASHER (blocked)

Fig.2

Fig.3

REVERSED ASSEMBLES
PART

WASHER
NORMAL
NUT

ROMOB

Fig.4

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

93

SPECIAL NUTS
ROMOB
ECONOMICAL
- It allows the supply of one single piece instead of two
(nut and washer), with the associated saving of
management costs for all the company sections
involved (Purchasing, Quality Control, Logistics,
Accounts).
- It avoid the assembly of two pieces with consequent
considerable assembly cost reduction.

AGRATI

ADVANTAGES

- There is no need to verify the presence and integrity of


the washer on the finished assembly.
- It allows a rationalisation also in the spare parts
organisation.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

94

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS
WITH SMALL ROTATING CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CS

h
c1

dc

m
c

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut

Washer

Steel

C60 - C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

International Std.

ISO 4759-1

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.

Surface discontinuities

EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269.

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

95

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS
WITH SMALL ROTATING CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CS

Thread
d

Pitch

M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1.5

max.

s
min.

e
min.

h
max.

dc
max.

max.

m
min.

7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

6.78
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

7.66
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

4.70
5.80
7.00
9.00
11.50

10
12
14
18
22

3.20
4.00
5.00
6.50
8.00

2.90
3.70
4.70
6.14
7.64

c1

Agrati Group code

1.30
1.60
1.70
2.20
3.00

0.80
0.90
1.00
1.40
1.60

RK1B00400038
RK1B00500038
RK1B00600038
RK1B00800038
RK1B01000038

VERSIONS
c1

Class - Finish

Agrati Group
code

3.70
4.70

1.40
1.70

1.10
1.00

RS1BA0605338
RS1BB0607038

5.00

4.70

1.50

0.70

Class 04 ISO 898-2


Lub. Torquen Tension
Class 04 ISO 898-2
Lub. Torquen Tension

18

6.50

6.14

2.50

1.80

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 10.00

28

6.50

6.14

3.20

2.00

Washer finishing
Dacromet 320A

RS1BC0810038

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38

9.30

18

6.80

6.44

2.50

1.80

Class 10 ISO 898-2

RS1DA0810038

M10

1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 11.50

22

8.00

7.64

3.00

1.60

Class 8 DIN 267-4

RK2B01000038

M10

1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 11.00

22

8.00

7.64

3.00

1.60

Class 8 DIN 267-4


Finish. Dacromet 320A

RS2BA1010046

M10

1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 11.50

22

8.00

7.64

3.00

1.60

Class 10 ISO 898-6

RS2DA1011038

M12

1.25 18.00 17.73 20.03 11.50

23

8.50

8.14

3.20

Class 05 ISO 898-6


2.50 Nut zinc plated Fe/Zn 8c1A RS2DA1211536
Washer z. plated Fe/MZn 8c1A

Thread
d

Pitch

M6
M6

1
1

e
h
dc
m
min. max. max. max. min.

max.

min.

10.00
10.00

9.78 11.05
9.78 11.05

5.40
6.90

18
15

4.00
5.00

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38

6.60

16

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38

9.20

M8

AGRATI

GROUP

RS1BA0806338
RS1AA0809238

ED. 2001-A

96

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE HEX.
INSERT - SMALL ROTATING

NUTS - NON METALLIC


CONICAL WASHER

ROMOB CS-N
h

dc

c1

m
c

Thread
d
M6
M8
M10

Pitch
1
1.25
1.5

s
max. min.
10.00
9.78
13.00 12.73
16.00 15.73

e
min.
11.05
14.38
17.77

h
max.
8.50
11.00
14.00

dc
max.
14
18
22

m
max. min.
6.50
6.14
8.50
8.14
10.50 10.07

c1

Agrati Group code

1.70
2.20
3.00

1.00
1.40
1.60

RN1B00600038
RN1B00800038
RN1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d

Pitch

s
max. min.

e
h
dc
min. max. max.

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 10.00

19

M8
M8
M10

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 11.40


1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 11.40
1.25 16.00 15.73 17.77 14.00

28
28
22

m
max. min.

c1

Agrati Group
code

Class - Finish

7.64 1.80 0.80 Nut zinc plated Fe/Zn 8c1A


Black oxide washer
8.00 7.64 3.20 1.50
Black oxide washer
8.00 7.64 3.20 2.00
Black oxide washer
10.50 10.07 3.00 1.60
Class 8 DIN 267-4
8.00

RS1BA0810036
RS1BA0811538
RS1BB0811538
RN2B01000038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

C60 - C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

Washer

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

98

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS
WITH LARGE ROTATING CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CL
h
c1

dc

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1.5

7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

dc
max.

max.

6.78
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

7.66
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

4.90
6.00
7.50
9.70
12.00

12
15
18
23
28

3.20
4.00
5.00
6.50
8.00

min.

c1

Agrati Group code

2.90
3.70
4.70
6.14
7.64

1.70
2.00
2.50
3.20
4.00

1.00
1.20
1.50
2.00
2.50

RM1B00400038
RM1B00500038
RM1B00600038
RM1B00800038
RM1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d

Pitch

M6

M10

s
max.

e
h
dc
m
min. min. max. max. max. min.

10.00 9.78 11.05 7.50

21

5.00

1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 12.00

28

8.00

c1

Agrati Group
code

Class - Finish

4.70 2.50 1.50 Nut zinc plated Fe/Zn 8c1A RM1BB0607536


Washer z.plated Fe/MZn 8c1A
7.64 4.00 2.50
Class 8 DIN267-4
RM2B01000038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements

International Std.

Thread

Tolerance
International Std.

Mechanical
properties

Class
Hardness
International Std.

Tolerances

Finish

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

Nut

Washer

Steel

C60 C67 DIN 17222

ISO 8992

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
HV 420 490
ISO 898-2
ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

99

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE HEX.
INSERT - LARGE ROTATING

NUTS - NON METALLIC


CONICAL WASHER

ROMOB CL-N
h

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M6
M8
M10

1
1.25
1.5

10.00
13.00
16.00

dc

c1

min.

e
min.

h
max.

dc
max.

max.

9.78
12.73
15.73

11.05
14.38
17.77

9.40
12.00
15.00

18
23
28

6.50
8.50
10.50

min.

c1

Agrati Group code

6.14
8.14
10.07

2.50
3.20
4.00

1.50
2.00
2.50

RV1B00600038
RV1B00800038
RV1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M8
M10

s
e
h
dc
m
c1
c
max. min. min. max. max. max. min.
1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 11.50 23
8.00 7.64 3.20 2.00
1.25 16.00 15.73 17.77 15.00 28 10.50 10.07 4.00 2.50

Pitch

Agrati Group
code
RS1BC0811077
RV2B01000038

Class - Finish
Finish Deltacoll
Class 8 DIN267-4

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

Washer
C60 - C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

100

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE

ALL METAL HEXAGON NUTS


WITH LARGE ROTATING CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CL-M
h

Prevailing torque element

c1

dc

Thread
d
M5
M6
M8
M10

Pitch
0.8
1
1.25
1.5

max.
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

min.
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

e
min.
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

h
max.
6.20
7.80
10.00
12.20

dc
max.
15
18
23
28

max.
4.00
5.00
6.50
8.00

min.
3.70
4.70
6.14
7.65

c1

Agrati Group code

2.00
2.50
3.20
4.00

1.20
1.50
2.00
2.50

RU1B00500038
RU1B00600038
RU1B00800038
RU1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M10

s
e
h
dc
max. min. min. max. max.
1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 12.20 28

Pitch

max.
8.00

c1
min.
7.65 4.00

Class - Finish

2.50

Class 8 DIN267-4

Agrati Group
code
RU2B01000038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut

Washer

Steel

C60 - C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Thread

Tolerance
International Std.

Mechanical
properties

Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Material
General
requirements

Clamping forces and


prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
Standards
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

101

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE HEXAGON DOMED


CAP NUTS WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
AND ROTATING CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CL-C
h2
mw

c1
c

dc

1)

r
V min
s

W max
1) Zone where the end of the screw
should be positioned

Thread
d
M6
M8

e
mw
h2
dc
Pitch max. s min. min.
min. max. max.
1
10.00 9.78 11.05 3.30 15.80 18
1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 4.40 18.50 23

c1

1.50
2.00

2.50
3.20

3.00
4.50

V
min.
10
12

W
max.
12
14

Agrati Group code


RR1B00600038
RR1B00800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Domed cap - Insert

Material

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 black

Washer
C60 - C67 DIN 17222

General
requirements

International Std.

ISO 8992

Thread

Tolerance
International Std.

Mechanical
properties

Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Clamping forces and


prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
Surface discontinuities
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

102

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS
WITH INDENTED ROTATING CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CZ
h
c1

dc

8
m
c

Thread
d
M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

Pitch
0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1.5

max.
7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

min.
6.78
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

e
min.
7.66
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

h
max.
4.80
5.80
7.00
9.00
11.00

dc
max.
10
12
14
18
22

m
max. min.
3.20
2.90
4.00
3.70
5.00
4.70
6.50
6.14
8.00
7.64

c1

Agrati Group code

1.30
1.60
1.70
2.20
2.50

0.80
1.00
1.00
1.40
1.60

RW1B00400038
RW1B00500038
RW1B00600038
RW1B00800038
RW1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M4

Pitch
0.7
0.8

8.00

7.78 8.79

c1
1.30

Class - Finish

Agrati Group code

0.80

5.20

12

3.50

3.20

1.70

1.00

1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 11.00

22

8.00

7.64

2.50

1.60

M5 SX
M10

s
e
h
dc
m
max. min. min. max. max. max. min.
7.00 6.78 7.66 4.80 11 3.20 2.90

RS1BA0404541
Left-handed thread
Class 04 ISO 898-2
Class 8 DIN 267-4

RS1BA0505838
RW2B01000038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

International Std.

Nut
Steel

Washer
C60 - C67 DIN 17222

ISO 8992

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
HV 420 490
ISO 898-2
ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
Surface discontinuities
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269
Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

103

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE

HEXAGON NUTS WITH


NON METALLIC INSERT AND WITH ROTATING INDENTED
CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CZ-N

dc

c1

m
c

Thread
d
M6
M8
M10

Pitch
1
1.25
1.5

max.
10.00
13.00
16.00

min.
9.78
12.73
15.73

e
min.
11.05
14.38
17.77

h
max.
8.50
11.00
13.50

dc
max.
14
18
22

max.
6.50
8.50
10.50

min.
6.14
8.14
10.07

c1

Agrati Group code

1.70
2.20
2.50

1.00
1.40
1.60

RZ1B00600038
RZ1B00800038
RZ1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M10

s
e
h
dc
m
c1
max. min. min. max. max. max. min.
1.25 16.00 15.73 17.77 13.50 22 10.50 10.07 2.50

Pitch

Class - Finish

Agrati Group code

1.60

Class 8 DIN267-4

RZ2B01000038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Washer
C60 - C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

104

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE

ALL METAL HEXAGON NUTS


WITH ROTATING INDENTED CONICAL WASHER
ROMOB CZ-M
h
Prevailing torque element

c1

dc

m
c

Thread
d
M5
M6
M8
M10

Pitch
0.8
1
1.25
1.5

max.
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

min.
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

e
min.
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

h
max.
5.80
7.00
9.00
11.00

dc
max.
12
14
18
22

max.
4.00
5.00
6.50
8.00

min.
3.70
4.70
6.14
7.64

c1

Agrati Group code

1.60
1.70
2.20
2.50

0.90
1.00
1.40
1.60

RY1B00500038
RY1B00600038
RY1B00800038
RY1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M8
M10

s
e
h
dc
max. min. min. max. max.
1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 10.00 28
1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 11.00 22

Pitch

m
max. min.
6.50 6.14
8.00 7.64

c1

Class - Finish

3.50
2.50

2.00
1.60

Plain washer
Class 8 DIN267-4

Agrati Group
code
RY1BA0810038
RY2B01000038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut

Washer

Steel

C60 - C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Thread

Tolerance
International Std.

Mechanical
properties

Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Material
General
requirements

Clamping forces and


prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Standards

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std
Agrati Group code

Acceptability

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

106

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS WITH ROTATING FLAT WASHER


ROMOB PL

h
c

dc

m
s

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

International Std.

Nut

Washer

Steel

St 2 K60 DIN 1624

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2
ISO 4759-1
ISO 4759-3
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

107

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS WITH ROTATING FLAT WASHER


ROMOB PL

Thread
d
M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

Pitch
0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1.5

max.
7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

min.
6.78
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

e
min.
7.66
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

h
max.
4.40
5.40
6.80
8.50
10.50

dc
max.
10
11
14
18
22

max.
3.20
4.00
5.00
6.50
8.00

min.
2.90
3.70
4.70
6.14
7.64

Agrati Group code

0.90
1.00
1.40
1.50
2.00

RG1B00400038
RG1B00500038
RG1B00600038
RG1B00800038
RG1B01000038

VERSIONS
s
e
h
dc
max. min. min. max. max.
8.00 7.78 8.79 5.00 11
8.00 7.78 8.79 5.00 13
8.00 7.78 8.79 5.50 13

Thread
d
M5
M5
M5

Pitch

M5

0.8

8.00

M6

M6
M6
M6

0.8
0.8
0.8

7.78

max.
4.00
4.00
4.00

min.
3.70
3.70
3.70

1.00
1.00
1.50

8.79

5.50

13

4.00

3.70

1.50

10.00

9.78 11.05

7.00

24

4.90

4.60

1.60

10.00

9.78 11.05

6.40

17

5.00

4.70

1.40

1
1

10.00
10.00

9.78 11.05
9.78 11.05

6.50
6.50

20
14

5.00
5.00

4.70
4.70

1.50
1.50

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38

8.40

17

6.80

6.44

1.60

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38

8.40

16

6.80

6.44

1.60

M8

1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38

7.20

18

5.50

5.20

1.50

M10

1.25 17.00 16.73 18.90 10.50

22

8.00

7.64

2.20

M10

1.5

25

8.50

8.14

3.00

16.00 15.73 17.77 11.50

AGRATI

Class - Finish

Agrati Group
code
RS1BB0505038
RS1BC0505041
RS1BA0504038

Lub.Torquen Tension
Class 10 ISO 898-2
RS1DA0504038
Lub.Torquen Tension
Finish black zinc-iron
RG1BA0607085
Lub.Torquen Tension
Washer mat. C60 Fe/MZn 8c2C
RS1BA0606438
Lub.Torquen Tension
Lub.Torquen Tension
RS1BA0606738
Lub.Torquen Tension
RS1BB0606538
Finish Fe/Zn 8c1A
RS1BA0808432
Lub.Torquen Tension
RS1BB0808438
Class 05 ISO 898-2
RS1DA0807267
Finish Dacromet 320B
Lub.Torquen Tension Green
Class 8 DIN267-4
RG2B01000038
Class 10 ISO 898-2
RS1DA1011667
Finish Dacromet 320B
Lub.Torquen Tension Green

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

108

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE

HEXAGON NUTS WITH NON


METALLIC INSERT AND WITH ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PL-N
h

dc

Thread
d
M6
M8
M10

Pitch

max.
10.00
13.00
16.00

1
1.25
1.5

min.
9.78
12.73
15.73

e
min.
11.05
14.38
17.77

h
max.
8.40
10.50
13.00

dc
max.
14
18
22

max.
6.50
8.50
10.50

min.
6.14
8.14
10.07

Agrati Group code

1.40
1.50
2.00

RJ1B00600038
RJ1B00800038
RJ1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M5
M6
M6
M6
M10

s
e
h
dc
m
max. min. min. max. max. max. min.
0.8
8.00 7.78 8.79 5.50 13
4.50 4.20
1
10.00 9.78 11.05 10.00 24
6.50 6.14
1
10.00 9.78 11.05 8.20 20
6.50 6.14
1
10.00 9.78 11.05 8.20 17
6.50 6.14
1.25 16.00 15.73 17.77 13.00 22 10.50 10.07

Pitch

Class - Finish

Agrati Group code

1.00
2.20
1.50
1.50
2.00

Finish Fe/Zn 8c1A

RS1BD0505036
RS1BA0610038
RS1BA0608238
RS1BB0608238
RJ2B01000038

Lub. Torquen Tension


Class 8 DIN 267-4

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material

Washer
St 2 K60 DIN 1624

General
requirements

International Std.

ISO 8992

Thread

Tolerance
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2

Mechanical
properties

Class
International Std.

8
ISO 898-2

DIN 267-15

Clamping forces and


prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

ISO 4759-1
ISO 4759-3
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

109

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE ALL METAL HEXAGON


NUTS WITH ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PL-M
h

Prevailing torque element

dc

Thread
d
M5
M6
M8
M10

Pitch

max.
8.00
10.00
13.00
17.00

0.8
1
1.25
1.5

min.
7.78
9.78
12.73
16.73

e
min.
8.79
11.05
14.38
18.90

h
max.
5.40
6.80
8.50
10.50

dc
max.
11
14
18
22

max.
4.00
5.00
6.50
8.00

min.
3.70
4.70
6.14
7.64

Agrati Group code

1.00
1.40
1.50
2.00

RQ1B00500038
RQ1B00600038
RQ1B00800038
RQ1B01000038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M6
M8
M10
M10

Pitch
1
1.25
1.5
1.25

s
max.
10.00
13.00
16.00
16.00

min.
9.78
12.73
15.73
15.73

e
min.
11.05
14.38
17.77
17.77

h
dc
max. max.
6.70 20
10.00 24
11.00 25
11.00 25

m
max.
5.00
7.50
8.00
8.00

min.
4.70
7.14
7.64
7.64

c
1.60
2.50
3.00
3.00

Class - Finish

Agrati Group code


RQ1BA0606738
RS1BB0810383
RQ1BA1011038
RQ2DA1011038

Finish Dorrltech
Class 10 ISO 898-6

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Nut

Washer

Steel

St 2 K 60 DIN 1624

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

DIN 267-15

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities

ISO 4759-1
ISO 4759-3
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

110

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE

HEXAGON DOMED
CAP NUTS WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
AND ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PL-C
h2
mw

dc

1)

V min
s

W max

1) Zone where the end of the screw


should be positioned

Thread
d
M6
M8

Pitch
1
1.25

s
e
max. min. min.
10.00 9.78 11.05
13.00 12.73 14.38

mw
min.
3.30
4.40

h2
max.
14.50
16.80

dc
max.
14
18

1.40
1.50

3.00
4.50

V
min.
9.00
10.50

W
max.
11.00
12.50

Agrati Group code


RH1B00600038
RH1B00800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS

Nut body
Domed cap - insert

Material

Washer

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 black

St 2 K60 DIN 1624

General
requirements

International Std.

ISO 8992

Thread

Tolerance
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2

Mechanical
properties

Class
International Std.

8
ISO 898-2

DIN 267-15

Clamping forces and


prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

Nut

ISO 4759-1
ISO 4759-3
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

111

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE

AND PAINT CLEARING TYPE ALL


METAL HEXAGON NUTS WITH ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PL-M

Paint clearing

Prevailing torque element


c

dc

m
e

Thread
d
M6
M8
M10

Pitch max. s
1 10.00
1 10.00
1 10.00

e
h
min. min. max.
9.78 11.05 7.00
9.78 11.05 7.00
9.78 11.05 7.00

dc
m
max. max. min.
17
5.00 4.70
14
5.00 4.70
14
5.00 4.70

Class - Finish

1.50
1.50
1.50

1.50
1.50
1.50

Class 6 ISO 898-2

Agrati Group
code
RS1BA0606538
RS1BC0606538
RS1BD0606538

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

Nut

Washer

Steel

St 2 K60 DIN 1624

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

DIN 267-15

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std.
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
ISO 4759-3
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

112

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE ALL METAL HEXAGON


NUTS WITH ROTATING SPECIAL FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PL-SM

c1

Prevailing torque element

dc

m
c

Thread
d

Pitch max. s min.

M6
M6
M8

10.00

e
h
dc
m
min. max. max. max. min.

Agrati Group
code

c1

Class - Finish
Finish Nut Fe/Zn 12c2C
Washer Fe/MZn 12c2C
Finish Nut Fe/Zn 8c1A
Lub.Torquen Tension

9.78 11.05 7.70

20

5.00

4.70

2.50

1.50

1
10.00 9.78 11.05 7.70
1.25 13.00 12.73 14.38 9.70

28
32

5.00
6.50

4.70
6.14

2.50
3.20

1.50
2.00

RF1BC0607541
RF1BB0607536
RF1BA0810038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut

Washer

Steel

C60 C67 DIN 17222

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

HV 420 490
-

DIN 267-15

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Standards

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Plain
Yellow
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

113

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE

HEXAGON FLANGE NUTS WITH


NON METALLIC INSERT AND ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PC-N

dc

d1

mw

c
s
h

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M10

1.25

17.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

dc
max.

mw
min.

d1

Agrati Group code

16.73

18.90

14.50

24

6.00

1.00

11.00

RS2DA1014538

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS

General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques

Finish

Washer

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
10
ISO 898-6

HV 250 - 295
-

DIN 267-15

Nut body
Insert

Material

Tolerances

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

Steel

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

114

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE

AND PAINT CLEARING TYPE


HEXAGON FLANGE NUTS WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
AND ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB PC-N

Paint clearing

mw

dc

d1

N. 3 paint
clearing slots

c
s
h

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M8

1.25

13.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

dc
max.

mw
min.

d1

Agrati Group code

12.73

14.38

10.50

18

4.70

0.50

12.00

RS1BA0810538

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces and
prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Nut
Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

St 2 K60 DIN 1624

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2

DIN 267-15

Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std.
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

Washer

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

115

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

NUTS WITH ROTATING CONICAL


WASHER WITH PROJECTIONS
ROMOB CD
h
c1

dc

c
s

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M5
M6

0.8
1

8.00
10.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

dc
max.

max.

7.78
9.78

8.79
11.05

7.00
8.00

18
20

4.00
5.00

min.

c1

Agrati Group code

3.70
4.70

2.90
3.00

1.50
1.50

RD1B00500038
RD1B00600038

VERSIONS
Thread
d
M6
M6
M6 SX
M6 SX

Pitch
1
1
1
1

s
max.
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00

min.
9.78
9.78
9.78
9.78

e
min.
11.05
11.05
11.05
11.05

h
dc
m
max. max. max. min.
8.00 18 5.00 4.70
8.00 18 5.00 4.70
8.00 18 5.00 4.70
8.00 16 5.00 4.70

c1

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

1.50
1.50
1.50
1.20

Agrati Group
code
RS1BA0607938
Non rotating washer
RS1BF0607938
Left-handed thread fixed washer RS1BB0607938
Left-handed thread fixed washer RS1BE0607938
Notes

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

International Std.
Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
International Std.
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities

Nut

Washer

Steel

C60 - C67 DIN 17222

ISO 8992

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
HV 420 490
ISO 898-2
ISO 4759-1
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Mechanical zinc plating Fe/MZn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
ISO 4042
UNI 3740-6
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493
-

Acceptability

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

116

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

FLANGE NUTS
WITH ROTATING FLAT WASHER
ROMOB FL-PL

h
c

df

dc

mw
s

Thread
d
M6
M8
M10
M12
M14

Pitch
1
1.25
1.25
1.5
1.5

max.
10.00
13.00
17.00
18.00
21.00

min.
9.78
12.73
16.73
17.73
20.67

e
min.
11.05
14.38
18.90
20.03
23.35

h
max.
7.50
10.00
12.00
14.50
16.50

dc
max.
14.50
20.00
24.00
27.00
28.00

df
max.
12.20
16.50
21.80
22.00
25.00

max.
4.00
4.50
5.50
6.70
7.14

min.
3.70
4.20
5.20
6.34
6.78

Agrati Group
code
RX1B00600038
RX1B00800038
RX2B01000038
RX9B01200038
RX2B01400038

c
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
3.0

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

International Std.
Tolerance
International Std.
Class
International Std.
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities

Washer

Steel

St 2 K 60 DIN 1624

ISO 8992

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
8
ISO 898-2 ISO 898-6
ISO 4759-1
ISO 4759-3
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Yellow
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
-

Acceptability

Nut

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

118

SPECIAL NUTS
SERPRESS
PRODUCT

DESCRIPTION

The Serpress nut is created by progressive deformation of


a metallic strip: the particular geometrical shape that this
production technology can create, gives the nut elastic
properties which are unique in the field of self-locking
fixtures. The body of the nut, by nature flanged, consists of
an internal threaded cylinder C folded inside a hexagon J,

which terminates with a circular base E; the cylinder C has


a slightly inferior height with respect to the hexagon J. The
Serpress nut is available in the standard version (ST) and
also in a large base version (BL) and in a serrated base
(BM) version(Fig. 1).

BEFORE
TIGHTENING
A

AFTER
TIGHTENING

F2
A

FF
1

J
C

Fig.1

OPERATION
The Serpress nut, (Fig. 1) being a self-locking nut, is freely
screwed until it makes contact with the support surface;
before being tightened, the base E of the hexagon J is in
contact with the support surface. The annular part A
(whose role is similar to that of an elastic conical washer

AGRATI

PRINCIPLE

but which is squashed with the same load applied to the


screw) maintains its conical shape.
The threaded cylinder C is much still shorter than the
nut body.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

119

SPECIAL NUTS
SERPRESS
TECHNICAL

ADVANTAGES

- When a traditional assembly undergoes vibrations,


they are transmitted directly along F1 to the lower sides
of the screw threads, since the upper sides are not in
contact with the nut threads. This causes a well known
tendency to unscrew in traditional assemblies; on the
contrary, the elastic Serpress nut receives the same
forces F through its base and transmits them to the
screw through the body and the annular part according
to different path from the normal nut. This allows it to
have- the annular part acting as an absorber- the upper
and lower threads of the screw-nut in contact with
each other and hence obtaining an anti-screwing
effect. (Fig.2)
NORMAL
NUT

- It is well known that when materials with delicate


surfaces are used (aluminium, pot metal, brass, etc.),
the normal nut, having a small contact surface,
develops a high specific pressure. This pressure is
active in particular on the bore borders and causes a
slippage of the material from the border towards the
screw threads. The Serpress nut however, having a
contact surface which is larger than that of the normal
nut and further from the bore border, considerably
reduces this slippage phenomenon. (Fig.4)

NORMAL
NUT

SERPRESS
NUT

SERPRESS
NUT

F2
C

F1

Fig.2
- Theoretical considerations, widely supported by
experimental evidence, confirm that, in a threaded
coupling, a normal nut has a non-homogeneous
distribution of the stress on the threads (above all due
to the fact that it works under compression, instead of
under traction); in fact, most of the load (75%) is
beared by the first and second thread, increasing the
risk of fatigue breakdown of the screw, leading to a
dangerous cutting effect. The Serpress nut, which
works in the ideal traction conditions, gives an
improved distribution of the forces on the threads,
which reduces the risk of fatigue breakdown of the
screw and suppresses the cutting effect. (Fig.3)
NORMAL
NUT

cut
effect

SERPRESS
NUT

Fig.4
- The Serpress nut with the serrated base in particular,
gives the standard Serpress nut anti-loosening
properties due to the presence of three serrated
sections, suitably oriented and dimensioned in order to
facilitate their mounting and inhibit their unscrewing.
The presence of these serrated sections makes the nut
particularly suitable for applications where the support
surface should be scraped in order to guarantee the
electrical contact. In the case of non-ferrous material,
the particular conformation of the mordant section,
allows tightening by rotation of the screw: in this case
the serrated section prevents the nut from rotating
during the tightening thus facilitating the operation.
- Thanks to its shape, the Serpress nut is easily oriented in
automatic supply systems and is therefore easily used in
automatic assembly systems
- The Serpress nut, since it is elastic, increases the screw
length virtually, thus allowing it to have an elastic
extension equal to what it would have if the screw was
far longer: in fact, if two identical assemblies are
confronted, the first one with normal nuts, and the
second one with Serpress nuts, it can be confirmed that
the second assembly shows an residual elasticity
which is notably higher, and which guarantees the
perfect locking of the pieces together.

approx. 75%
of the load

Fig.3

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

120

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

FLANGE NUTS

SERPRESS
1)

dc

1) without marking

NORMAL FLANGE TYPE


Thread
d
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8

Pitch
0.5
0.7
0.8
1
1
1.25

s
max.
5.50
7.00
8.00
10.00
11.00
13.00

min.
5.32
6.85
7.85
9.78
10.73
12.73

e
min.
6.01
7.74
8.87
11.05
12.12
14.38

max.
3.50
3.80
4.60
5.40
6.40
7.10

min.
6.85
7.85
9.78
12.73

e
min.
7.74
8.87
11.05
14.38

max.
3.80
4.60
5.40
7.10

min.
3.10
3.40
4.20
5.00
6.00
6.70

c
min.
0.40
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.90

max.
7.60
9.10
10.60
12.60
14.10
16.10

dc

min.
3.40
4.20
5.00
6.70

c
min.
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.90

max.
11.10
12.20
14.70
18.70

min.
7.40
8.90
10.40
12.40
13.90
15.90

Agrati Group code

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
1.00
1.00

P01B00300038
P01B00400038
P01B00500038
P01B00600038
P01B00700038
P01B00800038

Agrati Group code

0.50
0.50
0.50
1.00

P11B00400038
P11B00500038
P11B00600038
P11B00800038

LARGE FLANGE TYPE


Thread
d
M4
M5
M6
M8

Pitch
0.7
0.8
1
1.25

s
max.
7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00

dc
min.
10.90
12.00
14.50
18.50

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

Steel
International Std.
Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

ISO 8992
6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
5S
UNI 3740-4
ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow

ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

121

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE
ALL METAL HEXAGON FLANGE NUTS
SERPRESS AF
1)

1) without marking

dc

Prevailing torque element

NORMAL FLANGE TYPE


Thread
d
M4
M5
M6
M8

Pitch
0.7
0.8
1
1.25

s
max.
7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00

min.
6.85
7.85
9.78
12.73

e
min.
7.74
8.87
11.05
14.38

max.
3.80
4.60
5.40
7.10

min.
6.85
7.85
9.78
12.73

e
min.
7.74
8.87
11.05
14.38

max.
3.80
4.60
5.40
7.10

min.
3.40
4.20
5.00
6.70

c
min.
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.90

max.
9.10
10.60
12.60
16.10

dc

min.
3.40
4.20
5.00
6.70

c
min.
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.90

max.
11.10
12.20
14.70
18.70

min.
8.90
10.40
12.40
15.90

Agrati Group code

0.50
0.50
0.50
1.00

P21B00400038
P21B00500038
P21B00600038
P21B00800038

Agrati Group code

0.50
0.50
0.50
1.00

P11B00400038
P11B00500038
P11B00600038
P11B00800038

LARGE FLANGE TYPE


Thread
d
M4
M5
M6
M8

Pitch
0.7
0.8
1
1.25

s
max.
7.00
8.00
10.00
13.00

dc
min.
10.90
12.00
14.50
18.50

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards
Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
Post treatment
International Std.
Agrati Group code

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
5S
UNI 3740-4

1screwing and 1unscrewing UNI 7323-5


ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C
Transparent clear
Yellow
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493

Acceptability

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

122

SPECIAL NUTS
HEXAGON

SERRATED FLANGE

SERPRESS NUTS

g
f

sec. A-A
1)

dc

1) without marking

Thread
d
M4
M5
M6
M8

Pitch
0.7
0.8
1
1.25

s
e
max. min. min.
7.00 6.85 7.74
8.00 7.85 8.87
10.00 9.78 11.05
13.00 12.73 14.38

max.
4.05
4.85
5.70
7.40

min.
3.65
4.45
5.30
7.00

c
dc
min. max. min.
0.40 11.10 10.90
0.50 12.30 12.00
0.60 14.70 14.50
0.90 18.70 18.50

0.50
0.50
0.50
1.00

0.40
0.50
0.60
0.65

0.25
0.25
0.30
0.35

Agrati Group
code
P41B00400038
P41B00500038
P41B00600038
P41B00800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread

Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards
Surface
Heat treatment

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
5S
UNI 3740-4

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Case hardening 0.1mm


ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear

ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
Surface discontinuities
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

124

SPECIAL NUTS
ELASTIC

STOP NUTS

OPERATION
The Elastic Stop nuts contain, in a proper place, a suitably
sized nylon ring unthreaded. The polyamide used in
fabricating the ring for the Elastic Stop is the only one
capable of responding to the particular requirements
foreseen for this application. In fact, it has a considerable
elastic return even after a large deformation, which is why
the Elastic Stop nut may be used several times. Also it
resists against numerous chemical products widely used in
the industry. Motor oils do not attack the nylon and the
nylon does not contaminate the oils. The nylon resists
quite well against most organic acids with the following
exceptions: formic acid, cresylic acid, phenol. The nylon
does not resist against mineral acids or some strong bases,
and hence cannot withstand long immersion in nickelplating acid baths or in chromic acid solutions or
sulphuric acid used for the anodic treatment of aluminium
or for chromium plating.

PRINCIPLE

The Elastic Stop nut maintains its locking power with


temperatures from -40 to +100 C. It may also resist peaks
of +140C (e.g. when passing through varnishing)
because the nylon melting point is at 250C. Above
100C it is advisable to use nuts with all metal locking
systems. When operating in an oil bath the temperatures
must be suitably reduced.
The Elastic Stop nut has typical self-locking behaviour:
when the screw is engaged in the elastic ring, this ring
resists against the further advancement thus creating an
opposing tension that reduces the clearance between the
metallic threads and creates a considerable friction on
them. At the same time the threads created in the nylon by
compressing the material, generate another friction effect,
which, in addition to the friction existing already between
the metallic threads, prevents the nut from unscrewing
even when high vibrations are present. (Fig.1)

NYLON

FRICTION

CLEARANCE

Fig.1

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

125

SPECIAL NUTS
ELASTIC
TECHNICAL

STOP NUTS

CHARACTERISTICS

- They are self-locking and therefore carry out their


function of preventing unscrewing even in the
absence of a tightening torque.
- They allow a considerable number of screwing and
unscrewing.
- As is well known, when materials with soft surfaces
are used (aluminium, pot metal, brass,), the normal
nut, having a small contact surface, develops a high
specific pressure. This pressure is active in particular

AGRATI

on the bore borders and causes a slippage of the


material from the border towards the screw threads.
The flanged Elastic Stop nut on the contrary, having a
contact surface which is larger than that of the normal
nut and more distant from the bore border, reduces
considerable this slippage phenomenon.
- The Elastic Stop dome nut is particularly suited for
threaded joints where safety is needed or where the
joints must be protected from atmospheric conditions.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

126

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE THICK HEXAGON NUTS


WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

Version 8G
(with bearing face)

Version 6S
(with conical chamfer)

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M27
M30
M33
M36
M39
M42
M45
M48

3
3.5
3.5
4
4
4.5
4.5
5

41.00
46.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

m
min.

40.38
45.38
49.26
54.26
59.26
64.26
69.26
74.26

45.63
51.28
55.80
61.31
66.96
72.61
78.26
83.91

30.80
33.20
36.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
46.00
48.00

21.60
24.00
26.40
28.80
31.20
33.00
36.00
38.00

Agrati Group code


Class 6S
Class 8G
D01B02700038
D01B03000038
D01B03300038
D01B03600038
D01B03900038
D01B04200038
D01B04500038
D01B04800038

D01D02700038
D01D03000038
D01D03300038
D01D03600038
D01D03900038
D01D04200038
D01D04500038
D01D04800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces
and prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
6S 8G
UNI 3740-4

Standards

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

UNI 7323-5
ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear

ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493
Surface discontinuities

Acceptability

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

127

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING TORQUE TYPE THICK

HEXAGON NUTS WITH


METRIC FINE PITCH THREAD AND NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

Version 8G
(with bearing face)

Thread
d
M27
M30
M33
M36
M39
M42
M45
M48

Pitch

Version 6S
(with conical chamfer)

max.
41.00
46.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

min.
40.38
45.38
49.26
54.26
59.26
64.26
69.26
74.26

e
min.
45.63
51.28
55.80
61.31
66.96
72.61
78.26
83.91

h
max.
30.80
33.20
36.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
46.00
48.00

m
min.
21.60
24.00
26.40
28.80
31.20
33.00
36.00
38.00

Agrati Group code


Class 6S
Class 8G
D02B02700038
D02D02700038
D02B03000038
D02D03000038
D02B03300038
D02D03300038
D02B03600038
D02D03600038
D02B03900038
D02D03900038
D02B04200038
D02D04200038
D02B04500038
D02D04500038
D02B04800038
D02D04800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS

General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces
and prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

Nut body
Insert

Material

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
6S 8G
UNI 3740-4

Standards

UNI 7323-5

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow

ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier
EN 493.
Surface discontinuities

Acceptability

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

128

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE THIN HEXAGON NUTS


WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

Version 8G
(with bearing face)

Version 6S
(with conical chamfer)

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M27
M30
M33
M36
M39
M42
M45
M48

3
3.5
3.5
4
4
4.5
4.5
5

41.00
46.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

m
min.

40.38
45.38
49.26
54.26
59.26
64.26
69.26
74.26

45.63
51.28
55.80
61.31
66.96
72.61
78.26
83.91

22.50
24.50
26.00
30.00
32.00
32.00
33.00
35.00

13.50
16.00
16.50
18.00
19.50
21.00
22.50
24.00

Agrati Group code


Class 6S
Class 8G
D11B02700038
D11B03000038
D11B03300038
D11B03600038
D11B03900038
D11B04200038
D11B04500038
D11B04800038

D11D02700038
D11D03000038
D11D03300038
D11D03600038
D11D03900038
D11D04200038
D11D04500038
D11D04800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

Nut body
Insert
International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
6S 8G
UNI 3740-4

Clamping forces
Standards
and prevailing torques
International Std.
Tolerances

Finish

Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

UNI 7323-5
ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear

ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493
Surface discontinuities

Acceptability

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

129

SPECIAL NUTS
PREVAILING

TORQUE TYPE THIN HEXAGON NUTS


WITH METRIC FINE PITCH THREAD
AND NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

Version 8G
(with bearing face)

Version 6S
(with conical chamfer)

Thread
d

Pitch

max.

M27
M30
M33
M36
M39
M42
M45
M48

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

41.00
46.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00

min.

e
min.

h
max.

m
min.

40.38
45.38
49.26
54.26
59.26
64.26
69.26
74.26

45.63
51.28
55.80
61.31
66.96
72.61
78.26
83.91

22.50
24.50
26.00
30.00
32.00
32.00
33.00
35.00

13.50
16.00
16.50
18.00
19.50
21.00
22.50
24.00

Agrati Group code


Class 6S
Class 8G
D12B02700038
D12B03000038
D12B03300038
D12B03600038
D12B03900038
D12B04200038
D12B04500038
D12B04800038

D12D02700038
D12D03000038
D12D03300038
D12D03600038
D12D03900038
D12D04200038
D12D04500038
D12D04800038

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Nut body
Insert

Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Clamping forces
and prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Standards

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
6S 8G
UNI 3740-4

Standards

UNI 7323-5

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear

A3C - Fe/Zn 8c2C


Yellow

ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493
Surface discontinuities
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

130

SPECIAL NUTS
SELF-LOCKING

RINGS

PRODUCT
The Elastic Stop rings, similar in shape to the KM (DIN
981), contain in a special space, a suitably sized nylon
ring without threads. They are available in GUK version,
which differ from the KM versions mainly because of the
increased height needed for holding the nylon, or in GUP
version (re-inforced) or in GUA version (special, produced
on request).
The polyamide used when fabricating the washer for the
Elastic Stop ring is the only one capable of responding to
the particular requirements foreseen for this application. In
fact, it has a considerable elastic return even after a large
deformation, which is why the Elastic Stop ring may be
used several times. Also it resists against numerous
chemical products widely used in the industry. Motor oils
do not attack the nylon and the nylon does not

AGRATI

ELASTIC STOP

DESCRIPTION

contaminate the oils. The nylon resists quite well against


most organic acids with the following exceptions: formic
acid, cresylic acid, phenic acid. The nylon does not resist
against mineral acids or some strong bases, and hence
cannot withstand long immersion in nickel-plating acid
baths or in chromic acid solutions or sulphuric acid used
for the anode treatment of aluminium or for chromium
plating.
The Elastic Stop ring maintains its locking power with
temperatures from -40 to +100 C. It may also resist peaks
of +140C (e.g. when passing through varnishing) because
the nylon melting point is at 250C. Above 100C it is
advisable to use rings with all metal locking systems.
When operating in an oil bath the temperatures must be
suitably reduced.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

131

SPECIAL NUTS
SELF-LOCKING

RINGS

OPERATION
The Elastic Stop ring has a typical self-locking behaviour:
when the shaft is engaged in the elastic ring, this ring resists
against the further advancement thus creating an opposing
tension that reduces the clearance between the metallic
threads and creates a considerable friction on them.

ELASTIC STOP

PRINCIPLE

At the same time the threads created in the nylon by


compressing the material, generate another friction effect,
which, in addition to the friction existing already between
the metallic threads, prevents the ring from unscrewing
even when high vibrations are present.

NYLON
FRICTION

CLEARANCE

TECHNICAL

ADVANTAGES

- They are self-locking and therefore carry out their


function of preventing unscrewing even in the absence
of a tightening torque.
- They allow a considerable number of screwing and
unscrewing.
ELASTIC STOP
RING

- They allow a more precise adjustment of the tightening


torque than when KM rings and washers are used and a
quicker adjustment with respect to the KM double ring.

DOUBLE KM
RING

ECONOMICAL
- They allow, with respect to the use of the KM with a
washer, the elimination of the shaft milling operation
and the consequent snagging of the milled threads.
- They avoids the cost of the washer and the second ring.
- They avoid assembly of washer or second ring with
consequent considerable assembly cost reduction.
- They allows the supply of one single piece instead of

AGRATI

KM RING
WITH WASHER

ADVANTAGES

two (ring and washer), with the associated saving of


management costs for all the company sections
involved (Purchasing, Quality Control, Logistics,
Accounts).
- They eliminate the need to verify the presence and
integrity of the washer on the finished assembly.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

132

SPECIAL NUTS
GUK

SELF - LOCKING RINGS


WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

d3

d2

z A

Without marking

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties

International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
Standards

4H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
14H
HV 140 min.
DIN 267-24
TABLE A (see pag.179)
ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493

Prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

Ring body
Insert

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

Acceptability

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

133

SPECIAL NUTS
GUK

SELF - LOCKING RINGS


WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

Thread
d

Pitch

h
max.

m
min.

d2
h 11

d3
h 13

s
js 13

b
H 13

n slots

Agrati Group
code

M10
M12
M15
M17
M20
M25
M30
M35
M40
M45
M50
M55
M60
M65
M70
M75
M80
M85
M90
M95
M100

0.75
1
1
1
1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

7.60
7.60
8.60
8.60
9.60
10.50
10.70
11.30
12.30
12.30
12.90
13.40
13.40
14.50
14.50
15.50
16.50
17.50
17.70
18.70
19.70

4.40
4.50
5.90
5.20
6.00
6.00
6.60
6.60
7.50
7.50
8.10
7.60
7.60
8.70
8.70
9.70
10.70
11.70
11.90
12.90
13.90

18
21
24
28
32
38
44
50
56
62
68
75
80
85
92
98
105
110
120
125
130

15
18
21
24
27
33
38
44
50
55
61
68
73
77
84
89
96
100
110
115
120

15
18
21
24
27
33
38
44
50
55
61
68
73
77
84
89
96
100
110
115
120

3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
10
10
10
10
10

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8

0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

G0BB01000036
G0CB01200036
G0CB01500036
G0CB01700036
G0CB02000036
G0EB02500036
G0EB03000036
G0EB03500036
G0EB04000036
G0EB04500036
G0EB05000036
G0GB05500036
G0GB06000036
G0GB06500036
G0GB07000036
G0GB07500036
G0GB08000036
G0GB08500036
G0GB09000036
G0GB09500036
G0GB10000036

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

134

SPECIAL NUTS
GUP

SELF - LOCKING RINGS


WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

d3

d2

z A

Without marking

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
Polyamid 6.6 yellow

Ring body
Insert
International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
Standards

4H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
14H
HV 140 min.
DIN 267-24
TABLE A (see pag.179)
ISO 4759-1
A3A - Fe/Zn 8c1A
Transparent clear
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493

International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

135

SPECIAL NUTS
GUP

SELF - LOCKING RINGS


WITH NON METALLIC INSERT
ELASTIC STOP

Thread
d

Pitch

h
max.

m
min.

d2
h 11

d3
h 13

s
js 13

b
H 13

n slots

Agrati Group
code

M20
M25
M30
M35
M40
M45
M50
M55
M60
M65
M70
M75
M80
M85
M90
M95
M100

1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

13.20
14.20
14.20
15.20
16.70
16.70
18.70
18.70
18.70
19.70
19.70
20.70
20.70
21.70
21.70
22.20
24.20

9.60
10.00
10.00
10.60
11.90
11.90
13.90
12.90
12.90
13.90
13.90
14.90
14.90
15.90
15.90
17.10
18.40

32
38
44
50
56
62
68
75
80
85
92
98
105
110
120
125
130

27
33
38
44
50
55
61
68
73
77
84
89
96
100
110
115
120

27
33
38
44
50
55
61
68
73
77
84
89
96
100
110
115
120

4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
10
10
10
10
10

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8

0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

G1CB02000036
G1EB02500036
G1EB03000036
G1EB03500036
G1EB04000036
G1EB04500036
G1EB05000036
G1GB05500036
G1GB06000036
G1GB06500036
G1GB07000036
G1GB07500036
G1GB08000036
G1GB08500036
G1GB09000036
G1GB09500036
G1GB10000036

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

138

SPECIAL NUTS
ALL

METAL SELF-LOCKING RINGS

PRODUCT
All metal self-locking rings are similar in shape and
size to common rings with polyamide inserts but have
self-locking characteristics due to the particular structure
of the thread. The elimination of the polyamide insert

AGRATI

DESCRIPTION

ensures that these rings can be used in all the


applications where nylon 6.6 cannot guarantee selflocking performances.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

139

SPECIAL NUTS
ALL

METAL SELF-LOCKING RINGS

OPERATION
The prevailing torque is obtained by a controlled
variation of the threading pitch: during screwing, the
upper part of the thread is deformed elastically by the

TECHNICAL

PRINCIPLE

screw; this deformation produces a force which, using the


friction which is created on the threads, generates the
self-locking effect.

ADVANTAGES

- They guarantee prevailing torques which are higher


than those for rings with polyamide inserts and ring
with metallic insert.
- They maintain their self-locking properties up to 245
C, even in the presence of agents which are normally
aggressive for polyamides.
- They have a limited decay of the prevailing torques
following repeated screwing/unscrewing cycles.
- They maintain the perpendicularity between the thread
and the bearing surface, even after assembly, unlike all
rings with a non-threaded self-locking element
(metallic or polyamide inserts).
- They allow modulation of the prevailing torque: by
varying some construction parameters, it is possible to

ECONOMICAL
- Compared to DIN 981 rings with washers, they allow
the elimination of the shaft milling operation and the
consequent snagging of the milled thread.
- They avoid the cost of the washer or counter-ring.
- No assembly of washers and counter rings, with
considerable assembly cost reductions.

AGRATI

obtain special pieces with self-locking characteristics


which are ideal for the specific application.
- They allow a more precise adjustment of the tightening
torque than when DIN 981 rings with washers are
used, and a quicker adjustment with respect to the DIN
981 double ring.
- Compared to self-locking rings with metallic inserts,
they have the following advantages:
a) They do not generate any problems related to the
phasing of the insert in relation to the thread.
b) They eliminate the risk of damage to the metallic
insert at the time of first screwing.
c) They do not alter the thread on the shaft due to
contact with the self-locking element.

ADVANTAGES

- They allow the supply of one single piece instead of two


(ring and washer), with management cost savings for all
the company departments involved (purchasing, quality
control, logistics, accounting).
- They eliminate the need to check the presence and
integrity of the washer on the finished assembly.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

140

SPECIAL NUTS
GM

ALL METAL SELF-LOCKING RINGS


h

d3

d2

z A

Without marking
Thread
d

Pitch

h
max.

m
min.

d2
h 11

d3
js 13

s
js 13

b
H 13

n slots

Agrati Group
code

M 20
M 25
M 30
M 35
M 40
M 45
M 50
M 55
M 60
M 65
M 70
M 75
M 80
M 85
M 90
M 95
M 100

1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

11.30
12.30
13.00
13.00
14.00
14.00
14.00
15.70
15.70
16.70
16.70
17.70
18.70
19.70
20.70
21.70
22.70

6.20
6.60
6.90
6.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
8.20
8.20
9.20
9.20
10.20
11.20
12.20
13.20
14.20
15.20

32
38
45
52
58
65
70
75
80
85
92
98
105
110
120
125
130

26
32
38
44
50
56
61
67
72
79
85
90
95
102
108
113
119

28
34
41
48
53
60
65
69
74
79
85
91
98
103
112
117
120

4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
10
10
10
10
10

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8

0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

G5CB02000056
G5EB02500056
G5EB03000056
G5EB03500056
G5EB04000056
G5EB04500056
G5EB05000056
G5GB05500056
G5GB06000056
G5GB06500056
G5GB07000056
G5GB07500056
G5GB08000056
G5GB08500056
G5GB09000056
G5GB09500056
G5GB10000056

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Prevailing torques
Tolerances

Finish

Steel
International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.

4H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
14H
HV 140 min.
DIN 267-24
TABLE A (see pag.179)
ISO 4759-1
Mn phosphate
Fe/FAGMn 7
Lubricated with Torquen Tension
UNI 3740-6
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
EN 493

Class
Hardness
Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Post treatment
Standards

Surface discontinuities
Acceptability

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

141

SPECIAL NUTS
CAGE
The cage nuts are suitable for light fastenings in general
on panels, plating or frames. The metallic cover
structure with its fixing fins, allows the nut contained
inside to stay in its own position, even when the panel
or frame on which it is mounted is removed, e.g. for
inspection or various maintenance. All this without
worrying about having to recover the disassembled nuts
as would happen for normal assemblies.
Another advantage is that both the nut and the metal
cover are square shaped, which helps to prevent the
rotation of the nut during the tightening phase. This

AGRATI

NUTS

allows both the operator and the user to dismount and


remount the panel without having to hold the nut with
a spanner, and to carry out the operation using only the
tightening tool. Inside the metallic cover, the nut has the
possibility of moving in two directions. Hence it is
possible to compensate for those small errors between
tracks normally present in structural products. The cage
nut is identified by its nominal thread, the type of bore
on the panel (square or rectangular) and the thickness of
the laminate to which it should be mounted.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

142

SPECIAL NUTS
SQUARE CAGE NUTS
(SPRING STEEL GAGE)
C

Seat
r=0.5

r=0.5

>Q

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Nut
Steel
International Std.

ISO 8992

Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
Standards
International Std.

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
5S

Designation code

Finish

HRC 38 - 43
UNI-3740-4
ISO 4759-1
A3A Fe/Zn 8c1A

A3C Fe/Zn 8c2C

A3A Fe/Zn 8c1A


Baked

A3C Fe/Zn 8c2C


Baked

Trasparent clear
Yellow
Trasparent clear
Yellow
ISO 4042
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493
Passivation
Standards
Agrati Group code

Acceptability

Cage
C67

For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

143

SPECIAL NUTS
SQUARE CAGE NUTS
(SPRING STEEL GAGE)

Screw
diam.

M3

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10
M3
M4
M5

L
mating sheet
thickness
0.3 0.9
1.0 1.6
1.7 2.3
2.4 3.1
0.3 0.9
1.0 1.6
1.7 2.3
2.4 3.1
0.3 1.1
1.2 1.6
1.7 2.5
2.6 3.5
3.6 4.5
0.5 1.1
1.2 1.6
1.7 2.5
2.6 3.5
3.6 4.5
0.7 1.6
1.8 2.6
0.3 1.1
1.2 1.6
1.7 2.5
2.6 3.5
3.6 4.5
0.7 1.6
1.8 2.6
1.0 1.7
1.8 3.2
3.3 4.7
1.0 1.7
1.8 3.2
3.3 4.7
0.7 1.6
0.7 1.6
0.7 1.6

Nominal dimension
Designation
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q

503 - 08
5.2
503 - 15
5.9
503 - 20
6.6
503 - 30
7.4
504 - 08
5.2
504 - 15
5.9
504 - 20
6.6
504 - 30
7.4
514 - 08
7.6
514 - 15
8.0
514 - 20
9.0
514 - 30 10.0
514 - 40 11.0
505 - 08
7.6
505 - 15
8.0
505 - 20
9.0
505 - 30 10.0
505 - 40 11.0
515 - 15
8.7
515 - 20
9.7
506 - 08
7.6
506 - 15
8.0
506 - 20
9.0
506 - 30 10.0
506 - 40 11.0
516 - 15
8.7
516 - 20
9.7
508 - 15 10.4
508 - 30 12.0
508 - 45 13.5
510 - 15 10.4
510 - 30 12.0
510 - 40 13.5
523 - 15
524 - 15
7.2
525 - 15

hole dimension
Q
R

3.6

9.3

8.8

4.8

9.7

0.30

5.3

5.0

3.6

9.3

8.8

4.8

9.7

0.30

5.3

5.0

6.0

12.0

11.4

7.2

12.2

0.45

8.3

8.1

6.0

12.0

11.4

7.2

12.2

0.45

8.3

8.1

6.4

13.5

11.8

8.2

13.5

0.45

9.5

9.3

6.0

12.0

11.4

7.2

12.2

0.45

8.3

8.1

6.4

13.5

11.8

8.2

13.5

0.45

9.5

9.3

7.8

16.4

15.5

10.6

16.6

0.50

12.3

12.1

7.8

16.4

15.5

10.6

16.6

0.50

12.3

12.1

10.5

10

6.5

10.3

0.45

6.7

6.5

AGRATI

GROUP

Agrati Group
code
F40Q50300838
F40Q50301538
F40Q50302038
F40Q50303038
F40Q50400838
F40Q50401538
F40Q50402038
F40Q50403038
F40Q51400838
F40Q51401538
F40Q51402038
F40Q51403038
F40Q51404038
F40Q50500838
F40Q50501538
F40Q50502038
F40Q50503038
F40Q50504038
F40Q51501538
F40Q51502038
F40Q50600838
F40Q50601538
F40Q50602038
F40Q50603038
F40Q50604038
F40Q51601538
F40Q51602038
F40Q50801538
F40Q50803038
F40Q50804538
F40Q51001538
F40Q51003038
F40Q51004038
F40Q52301538
F40Q52401538
F40Q52501538

ED. 2001-A

144

SPECIAL NUTS
SQUARE CAGE NUTS
(STAINLESS STEEL CAGE)
C

Seat
r=0.5

r=0.5

>Q

SPECIFICATIONS AND REFERENCE STANDARDS


Material
General
requirements
Thread
Mechanical
properties
Tolerances

Finish

Acceptability

Nut
Steel

Cage
AISI 304

ISO 8992

6H
ISO 261, ISO 965-2
5S

International Std.
Tolerance
International Std.
Class
Hardness
Standards
International Std.
Designation code
Passivation
International Std.
Agrati Group code

HRC 34-39
UNI-3740-4
ISO 4759-1
A3A Fe/Zn 8c1A A3C Fe/Zn 8c2C
Plain
Trasparent clear
Yellow
ISO 4042
Code 36 = Clear zinc plating
Code 38 = Yellow zinc plating
If different electroplating requirements are desired or if requirements are needed
for other finishes, they should be agreed between customer and supplier.
Surface discontinuities
EN 493.
For acceptance procedure see ISO 3269

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

145

SPECIAL NUTS
SQUARE CAGE NUTS
(STAINLESS STEEL CAGE)

Screw
diam.

M3

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10

M12

L
mating sheet
thickness
0.3 0.9
1.0 1.6
1.7 2.3
2.4 3.1
0.3 0.9
1.0 1.6
1.7 2.3
2.4 3.1
0.3 1.1
1.2 1.6
1.7 2.5
2.6 3.5
3.6 4.5
0.5 1.1
1.2 1.6
1.7 2.5
2.6 3.5
3.6 4.5
0.7 1.6
1.8 2.6
0.3 1.1
1.2 1.6
1.7 2.5
2.6 3.5
3.6 4.5
0.7 1.6
1.8 2.6
1.0 1.7
1.8 3.2
3.3 4.7
1.0 1.7
1.8 3.2
3.3 4.7
1.0 1.7
1.8 3.2
3.3 4.7
4.8 6.2
1.0 1.7
2.4 2.8
1.8 3.2
3.3 4.7
4.8 6.2

Nominal dimension
Designation
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q

403 - 08
403 - 15
403 - 20
403 - 30
404 - 08
404 - 15
404 - 20
404 - 30
414 - 08
414 - 15
414 - 20
414 - 30
414 - 40
405 - 08
405 - 15
405 - 20
405 - 30
405 - 40
415 - 15
415 - 20
406 - 08
406 - 15
406 - 20
406 - 30
406 - 40
416 - 15
416 - 20
408 - 15
408 - 30
408 - 45
410 - 15
410 - 30
410 - 40
490 - 15
490 - 30
490 - 40
490 - 60
412 - 15
412 - 25
412 - 30
412 - 40
412 - 60

H
5.2
5.9
6.6
7.4
5.2
5.9
6.6
7.4
7.6
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
7.6
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
8.7
9.7
7.6
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
8.7
9.7
10.4
12.0
13.5
10.4
12.0
13.5
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
13.5
14.8
15.0
16.5
18.0

hole dimension
Q
R

3.6

9.3

8.8

4.8

9.7

0.30

5.3

5.0

3.6

9.3

8.8

4.8

9.7

0.30

5.3

5.0

6.0

12.0

11.4

7.2

12.2

0.45

8.3

8.1

6.0

12.0

11.4

7.2

12.2

0.45

8.3

8.1

6.4

13.5

11.8

8.2

13.5

0.45

9.5

9.3

6.0

12.0

11.4

7.2

12.2

0.45

8.3

8.1

6.4

13.5

11.8

8.2

13.5

0.45

9.5

9.3

7.8

16.4

15.5

10.6

16.6

0.50

12.3

12.1

7.8

16.4

15.5

10.6

16.6

0.50

12.3

12.1

10.4

20.0

19.4

12.6

20.5

0.60

14.0

13.7

10.4

20.0

19.4

12.6

20.5

0.60

14.0

13.7

AGRATI

GROUP

Agrati Group
code
F40Q40300838
F40Q40301538
F40Q40302038
F40Q40303038
F40Q40400838
F40Q40401538
F40Q40402038
F40Q40403038
F40Q41400838
F40Q41401538
F40Q41402038
F40Q41403038
F40Q41404038
F40Q40500838
F40Q40501538
F40Q40502038
F40Q40503038
F40Q40504038
F40Q41501538
F40Q41502038
F40Q40600838
F40Q40601538
F40Q40602038
F40Q40603038
F40Q40604038
F40Q41601538
F40Q41602038
F40Q40801538
F40Q40803038
F40Q40804538
F40Q41001538
F40Q41003038
F40Q41004038
F40Q49001538
F40Q49003038
F40Q49004038
F40Q49006038
F40Q41201538
F40Q41202538
F40Q41203038
F40Q41204038
F40Q41206038

ED. 2001-A

146

SPECIAL NUTS
SPECIAL

APPLICATIONS

The Agrati Group is able to offer highly qualified, reliable


services, products and assistance. These results have
always been obtained by a widespread, comprehensive
organisation, embracing research and design, market
analysis and purchase of cutting-edge production
machinery, on-site final-tests under effective use
conditions plus a sales network able to satisfy even the
most demanding clients.

AGRATI

This set of resources allows the solution of any problem


connected to the application, where quality and selflocking fastenings are required, which could not be
obtained using the traditional technologies. It also helps to
stay up to date with the ever more specific and complex
demands of the market.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

147

SPECIAL NUTS
SPECIAL

APPLICATIONS
FORGED PARTS AND HEAT MOULDED PARTS

The forged or heat moulded parts are worked on


numerically controlled machines. These machines have
automatic loading and unloading systems specially
designed to offer the maximum flexibility and productivity.
If the piece needs turnings on both sides, the operation is
carried out using machines with two mandrels and four
axes, with automatic transfer of the piece from one
mandrel to the other. This method allows the piece to be
finished without further manipulation. The thread of the
parts is obtained using multipassing operations with a
special tool. This allows statistical control of the thread
diameter, thus guaranteeing completely that they conform
to the specifications. Apart from that, the surface facing
and the threading operation are always carried out at the
same time, thus guaranteeing perfect perpendicularity
between the support surface and the thread.

AGRATI

The forged pieces are formed from deforming a billet of


material which is preheated to the plastic state. The forging
is done using a vertical pivot press, with manual transport
from one press to another. There are two main reasons for
using the forging system: the shape and the material.
Particular shapes may be obtained by forging which
otherwise would require the removal of burrs (like slots,
indents and flanged pieces). The materials used are the
steels C30, C40 and C45, which do not contain lead or
sulphur, thus guaranteeing better homogeneity in the
material.
Also, due to the forging operation, the material fibres settle
in such a way as to give the maximum resistance. At a
quantitative level, the non-machined parts tolerances are
+/- 0.5 mm with respect to the nominal dimension with
roughness of Ra 3.2 max

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

148

SPECIAL NUTS
SPECIAL

APPLICATIONS
FORGED PARTS AND HEAT MOULDED PARTS

The heat moulding differs from the forging in that the part
is created from preheated bars which, via automatic
transportation, pass through multi-station machines. This
type of operation is very competitive for the production of
large series, having a very high hourly frequency and
obtaining a superior product quality. Therefore the
tolerances are very narrow, in the order of +/- 0.15 mm on

AGRATI

nominal dimensions. It follows naturally that the heat


moulded piece does not generally require any further
machining except the threading operation
The production of these parts, like the forged parts, is
determined by the shape and the material used (steel C43,
30CD4, brass) for the choice of solution.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

149

SPECIAL NUTS
SPECIAL

APPLICATIONS
PARTS TURNED FROM BAR

The Urama production of small metal turned parts


according to customer design, is the result of the analysis
of possible working cycles aimed at reducing production
costs. Starting from drawn bars of various templates (round,
hexagonal, square or with special profiles) with a 68 mm
dia max. Urama will carry out any kind of operation

AGRATI

(turning, drilling and broaching) on various materials like


copper, brass, aluminium, stainless steel, construction
steel, automatic or not, including heat treatment if needed.
Special turned-threaded components with the exclusive
Urama Eslok patch may also be supplied.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

154

LOCKING

OR

ESLOK

SEALING APPLICATIONS
LOCKING SYSTEM

2 or 3 free threads

1.5d

PREVAILING TORQUE

DIN 267 - 28

Thread
d

Pitch

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8
M8
M 10
M 10
M 12
M 12
M 12
M 14
M 14
M 16
M 16

0.5
0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1
1.5
1.25
1.75
1.5
1.25
1.75
1.5
2
1.5

Minimum torque
at removal Nm

Max torque
1 assembly Nm

1 removal

3 removal

0.43
0.90
1.60
3
6
6
10.5
10.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
24
24
32
32

0.10
0.12
0.18
0.35
0.85
0.85
1.5
1.5
2.3
2.3
2.3
3.3
3.3
4
4

0.08
0.10
0.15
0.23
0.45
0.45
0.75
0.75
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.3
2.3
2.8
2.8

Self locking patch material: yellow polyamide.


Standard patch is applied in a range of 90 120 of the screw circumference.
Upon request different patch lengths and positions.
It is also possible to provide a 360 circular patch in green polyamide (with sealing feature).

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

152

LOCKING

OR

SEALING APPLICATIONS

ESLOK

LOCKING SYSTEM

PRODUCT
Eslok is an automatic locking system applicable to any
threaded component, in particular to screws or male
threads.
It uses the polyamide elastic deformation properties to
create an efficient and lasting locking which resists any
accidental unscrewing.
The polyamide acting as the Eslok patch, which is solidly
attached to the screw's threaded surface, maintains its
locking effect for temperatures between -40 C and
+100C (peak of +120 C), resists against oil, grease,
coolants, petrol and various chemical products used in
the industry. It is applied in such a way that the
maximum thickness is situated at the centre of the patch;
outside this area the thickness gradually decreases until
the end of the thread. This essential feature of the Eslok
patch simplifies its assembly and at the same time it
reduces the risks of removing the patch during the initial
screwing. The size of the Eslok patch is also a function of
the diameter and thread of the screw and even to the

AGRATI

DESCRIPTION

prevailing torque intensity that is required. Anyway the


female screw must be chamfered at the mouth (normal
diameter 0,5 -1 mm, according to the dimensions), and
it must be provided that there are no significant burrs and
that the thread is within the tolerances.
The Eslok locking system may be applied to a screw of
any shape or size, made from steel, brass, stainless steel
or other materials, with whatever type of surface coating.
The standard application of the Eslok patch is made at
around two threads from the end of the screw for a
length of approximately 4-5 threads. In any case, if
requested by the customer, the patch may be applied in
other positions and for different lengths than the
standard. It is typical in adjusting screws to have the
patch applied for a considerable length. It is also possible
to have a completely circular application for wet seal.
Finally, the Eslok system conforms to the American
aeronautical standards MIL-F-18240 and to the standards
for the Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI).

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

153

LOCKING

OR

SEALING APPLICATIONS

ESLOK

LOCKING SYSTEM

OPERATION

PRINCIPLE

makes contact with the female screw surfaces, thus also


eliminating on this side, any existing clearance in the
coupled threads.
This allows a notable increase in the contact surface
between the entwined threads, with a consequent
increase in the friction between them, thus eliminating
the risk of unscrewing.

When the screw with the Eslok patch is used in the


female screw, the polyamide, thanks to its elastic
behaviour, changes shape, adapting itself to the thread,
and eliminating completely the existing clearance
between the screw and the nut due to manufacturing
tolerances. Furthermore, the nylon's elastic return,
generates a force on the axis of the screw in such a way
that the area of the screw which is not treated with Eslok

CLEARANCE
FRICTON
NYLON

TECHNICAL

ADVANTAGES

- The Eslok screws in many applications may substitute


bolts, self-locking nuts, washers and other secondary
locking devices, thus reducing both the weight and
the cost of the assembly.
- In the case of dismantling, re-utilisation, frequent
adjustments, it is not necessary to substitute the
patching system. The Eslok patch, because it is part of
the single male threaded body, offers an initial safety
guarantee in the assembly location because it avoids
being forgotten, as could happen with other systems
used, requiring the addition of cotter pins, grower
washers, toothed washers etc. The Eslok patch
ensures considerable ease and speed for automatic
assembly because it eliminates the insertion of
locking washers, adhesives, iron wires, folded
washers or other locking systems.

ALTERNATIVE
ESLOK is not the only possible self-locking system for
Agrati Group products. Remaining within the polyamide
patches, an alternative is represented by TUFLOK.
Considering instead microcapsules patches, it is possible
to use products from the PRECOTE, DRILOK, DRISEAL
and SCOTCH GRIP families, all applicable upon request.

AGRATI

- When assembled parts yield, the normal screws, even


those having elastic washers, being no longer under
the initial tightening torque, will loosen up. This does
not happen with the Eslok screws. They maintain their
efficiency whether the screw is blocked or not on the
support surface.
- Resulting from the same operation principle, the
prevailing torque may be adapted to the required
application, by varying the thickness and the
extension of the patch.
- Since the Eslok patch is applied without removal of
metal on the screw thread, the screw resistance to
traction and torsion forces is not modified.
- The tightening up torque for Eslok screws is
practically the same as for tightening standard nonlocking screws

PRODUCTS

These have a different operating principle, based on the


polymerization of plastic resins, that produce a low
prevailing torque during the tightening, but show their
maximum prevailing torque effect after polymerization.
Besides, differing from polyamide, they are usable only
once.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

158

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 898-1
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL

PROPERTIES OF BOLTS AND SCREWS

With thread tolerance in accordance with ISO 965-1


and ISO 965-2.
Made of carbon steel or alloy steel.

The following prescriptions conform to the contents of


ISO 898/1, and apply to bolts and screws:
With coarse pitch thread M3 to M30, and fine pitch
thread from M8x1 to M30x2.
With triangular ISO thread in accordance with
ISO 68-1.
With diameter/pitch combinations in accordance with
ISO 261 and ISO 262

It does not specify requirements for such properties as:


Ability to withstand temperature above +300C, or below
50C.

STEELS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS


Chemical composition
(check analysis), %
Property
class

4.8
6.8

Carbon steel

8.8

10.9
12.9

Material and treatment

3)
3) 5)

Carbon steels with additives


(e.g. B, Mn or Cr) quenched and tempered
Carbon steels with additives
(e.g. B, Mn or Cr) quenched and tempered
Alloy steel quenched and tempered
4)
Alloy steel quenched and tempered
4)

1) Boron content can reach 0.005% provided that


non-effective boron is controlled by addition of
titanium and/or aluminium.
2) In case of plain carbon boron steel with a carbon
content below 0.25% (ladle analysis), the minimum
manganese content shall be 0.6% for property class
8.8 and 0.7% for property class 10.9.
3) For the materials of these property classes, it is
intended that there should be a sufficient
hardenability to ensure a structure consisting of
approximately 90% martensite in the core of
the threaded sections for the fasteners in the
as-hardened condition before tempering.

AGRATI

B 1)

Tempering
temperature

min.

max.

max.

max.

max.

min. C

0.55
0.55

0.05
0.05

0.06
0.06

0.003
0.003

0.15 2) 0.40

0.035 0.035 0.003

0.20 2) 0.55

0.035 0.035 0.003

0.20
0.28

0.55
0.50

0.035 0.035 0.003


0.035 0.035 0.003

425
425
380

4) This alloy steel shall contain at least one of the


following elements in the minimum quantity given:
chromium 0.30%, nickel 0.30%, molybdenum
0.20%, vanadium 0.10%. Where elements are
specified in combinations of two, three or four and
have alloy contents less than those given above, the
limit value to be applied for class determination is
70% of the sum of the individual limit values shown
above for the two, three or four elements concerned.
5) A metallographically detectable white phosphorous
enriched layer is not permitted for property class 12.9.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

159
EN ISO 898-1
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Property class

Mechanical properties

4.8

6.8

min.
min.
max.
max.

420
130
220
-

600
190
250
-

800
250
320

min.

340

480

min.
N/mm2
N/m min.

310
-

440
-

640
580

660
940
600
830
See ISO 898/7

% min.

12

12

% min.

52

52

48

44

1/2 H1

1/2 H1

2/3 H1

3/4 H1

Thread Diameter
Minimum tensile strength
Rm N/mm2
Vickers hardness HV
F98N
Surface hardness HV 0.3
Lower yield stress
ReL N/mm2
Stress at 0.2% non proportional
elongation
Rp0.2 N/mm2
Stress under proof load Sp
Breaking torque MB
Elongation after fracture,
A
Reduction of area after fracture,
Z
Minimum height of non-decarburized
thread zone,
E
Maximum depth of complete
decarburization,
G
Hardness after retempering
Surface integrity

mm.

8.8
d 16mm d > 16mm
1)
1)
830
255
335

10.9

12.9

1040
320
380

1220
385
435

2)
-

1100
970

0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
Reduction of hardness 20HV maximum
In accordance with ISO 6157-1 or ISO 6157-3 as appropriate

1) For structural bolting the limit is 12 mm.


2) Surface hardness shall not be more than 30 Vickers
points above the measured core hardness on the
product when readings of both surface and core are

AGRATI

carried out at HV 0.3. For property class 10.9 any


increase in hardness at the surface which indicates
that the surface hardness exceeds 390 HV is not
acceptable.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

160

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 2702
(EXTRACT)

HEAT-TREATED
MECHANICAL

STEEL TAPPING SCREWS

PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE

The primary objective of this International Standard is to


ensure that tapping screws will form mating threads in
materials into which they are normally driven without
deforming their own thread and without breaking during
assembly or service.

Drive test
The sample screws (coated or uncoated, as received)
shall be driven into a test plate until a thread of full
diameter is completely through the test plate.
The test plate shall be made of low carbon steel with a
carbon content not exceeding 0,23%. The hardness of
the plate shall be 130 HV to 170 HV. The thickness of the
plate shall conform to the values given in the following
table.
The test hole shall be drilled, or punched and redrilled,
or reamed to the hole diameter specified in table for the
size of screw being tested.

Materials
The material used is casehardening quality steel.
Acceptance
For routine acceptance test, the drive test, torsional test
and core hardness test may be used.

STANDARD TEST PLATE THICKNESS AND HOLE DIAMETER FOR DRIVE TEST

Nominal thread
diameter

Designation
N

ST 2.2
ST 2.6
ST 2.9
ST 3.3
ST 3.5
ST 3.9
ST 4.2
ST 4.8
ST 5.5
ST 6.3
ST 8

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
12
14
16

AGRATI

Plate thickness
mm.
max.
min.

Hole diameter
mm.
max.
min.

1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
2.06
2.06
2.06
3.23
3.23
5.05
5.05

1.955
2.235
2.465
2.730
2.970
3.290
3.480
4.065
4.785
5.525
6.935

GROUP

1.17
1.17
1.17
1.17
1.85
1.85
1.85
3.10
3.10
4.67
4.67

1.905
2.185
2.415
2.680
2.920
3.240
3.430
4.015
4.735
5.475
6.885

ED. 2001-A

161
EN ISO 2702
(EXTRACT)

Torsional strength test


The shank of the sample screw (coated or uncoated, as
received) shall be clamped in a mating, split, threaded
die or other device so that the clamped portion of the
screw is not damaged and at least two full threads
project above the clamping device and at least two fullform threads exclusive of point are held within the
clamping device.
A threaded insert with a blind hole may be used in place

of the clamping device provided that the hole depth


is such as to ensure that breakage will occur beyond
the point.
By means of a suitable calibrated torque-measuring
device, torque shall be applied to the screw until failure
occurs.
The screw shall meet the minimum torsional strength
requirements given in the following table.

Nominal
thread
diameter

Designation
N

Minimum torsional
strength
Nm

ST 2.2
ST 2.6
ST 2.9
ST 3.3
ST 3.5
ST 3.9
ST 4.2
ST 4.8
ST 5.5
ST 6.3
ST 8

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
12
14
16

0.45
0.90
1.50
2.0
2.7
3.4
4.4
6.3
10.0
13.6
30.5

In cases where screws are plated subsequent to delivery


to the purchaser (or where plating of screws is otherwise
under the control of the purchaser), the producer is not
responsible for failure due to plating.
In such cases, the bolt manufacturer can only be held

AGRATI

responsible if it is proved that the failure is not due to any


post-treatment.
Screws from which the plating has been stripped off
cannot be considered as samples.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

162

COMMON STANDARDS
UNI 6946
(EXTRACT)

TAPPING

SCREWS

APPROXIMATE
The hole sizes in the present standard have been
determined experimentally; when using them in a serie

HOLE SIZES
production it is recommended to verify previously there
values by proper testing.

HOLE SIZES FOR SHEET METALS


Nominal
thread
diameter

Designation
N

ST 2.2

ST 2.9

ST 3.5

ST 3.9

ST 4.2

Dimensions in mm.
Metal
thickness

Hole size* for sheet metals in :


Steel, stainless and brass
Aluminium alloy

over

until to

Punched
holes

Drilled or
trimmed holes

Punched
holes

Drilled or
trimmed holes

0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40

0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
6.30
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
6.30
0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
9.50

2.20
2.20
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
-

1.60
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.90
1.95
2.20
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.40
2.45
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.65
2.70
2.70
2.80
2.85
2.95
3.10
3.25
2.95
2.95
2.95
2.95
3.10
3.25
3.50
3.60
3.20
3.20
3.20
3.25
3.50
3.60
3.80
3.80
3.90
-

2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
-

1.65
1.65
1.65
1.70
1.80
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.30
2.30
2.40
2.65
2.65
2.65
2.70
2.80
2.85
3.10
2.90
2.90
2.95
3.10
3.25
3.50
3.60
2.95
3.10
3.25
3.50
3.60
3.75
3.75
3.80
3.90

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

163
UNI 6946
(EXTRACT)

Nominal
thread
diameter

Designation
N

ST 4.8

10

ST 5.5

12

ST 6.3

14

Hole size* for sheet metals in :


Steel, stainless and brass
Aluminium alloy

Metal
thickness
over

until to

Punched
holes

Drilled or
trimmed holes

Punched
holes

0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
4.20
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
4.20
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
4.20
4.80
4.90

0.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
4.20
9.50
0.60
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
4.20
9.50
0.80
0.90
1.20
1.50
1.90
2.70
3.20
3.40
4.20
4.80
4.90
9.50

4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
5.3
5.3
5.3
-

3.70
3.70
3.75
3.90
3.90
4.00
4.10
4.30
4.30
4.40
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.30
4.50
4.70
4.70
5.00
5.00
5.10
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.10
5.20
5.30
5.80
5.80
6.00
6.00
6.00
-

4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
-

Drilled or
trimmed holes
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.75
3.75
3.80
3.80
3.90
4.10
4.10
4.25
4.40
4.60
4.70
4.70
4.80
5.00
5.10
5.10
5.20
5.30
5.30
5.40
4.40
5.60
5.80

* Recommended tolerance: H12

HOLE SIZES FOR:


ALUMINIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC, BRASS, BRONZE CASTING AND PLASTIC MATERIALS
Nominal
thread
diameter

Designation
N

ST 2.2
ST 2.9
ST 3.5
ST 3.9
ST 4.2
ST 4.8
ST 5.5
ST 6.3

2
4
6
7
8
10
12
14

Aluminium, magnesium,
zinc, brass, bronze casting
Hole
size
2.00
2.65
3.25
3.65
3.85
4.50
5.10
6.00

Depth of
blind hole min.
3.00
5.00
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
7.00
8.00

AGRATI

Phenolic materials
Hole
size
2.00
2.55
3.25
3.45
3.80
4.50
5.10
6.00

Depth of
blind hole min.
5.00
6.50
6.50
6.50
8.00
8.00
9.50
9.50

GROUP

Dimensions in mm.
Cellulosic, acrylic
and styrenic materials
Hole
size
2.00
2.40
3.10
3.25
3.70
4.40
4.90
5.60

Depth of
blind hole min.
5.00
6.50
6.50
6.50
8.00
8.00
9.50
9.50

ED. 2001-A

164

COMMON STANDARDS
ASME B 18.6.4
(EXTRACT)

TYPE AB THREAD TAPPING SCREWS


APPROXIMATE HOLE SIZES
HOLE SIZES FOR SHEET METALS
Nominal
thread
diameter

Designation
N

ST 2.9

ST 3.5

ST 3.9

ST 4.2

ST 4.8

10

ST 5.5

12

ST 6.3

1/4

Dimensions in mm.

Metal
thickness

Hole size for sheet metals in :


Steel, stainless monel and brass
Aluminium alloy
Punched
holes

Drilled or
trimmed holes

Punched
holes

Drilled or
trimmed holes

2.18
2.18
2.49
2.49
2.49
2.82
2.82
2.82
2.82
2.82
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.99
3.99
3.99
3.99
3.99
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
5.31
5.31
5.31
-

2.18
2.18
2.26
2.39
2.39
2.44
2.54
2.59
2.64
2.64
2.69
2.69
2.79
2.82
2.95
3.30
2.95
2.95
2.95
2.95
3.05
3.25
3.45
3.18
3.18
3.18
3.25
3.45
3.56
3.66
3.66
3.66
3.73
3.78
3.91
3.99
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.32
4.50
4.62
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.98
5.21
5.79
5.89

2.18
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.82
2.82
2.82
2.82
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.99
3.99
3.99
3.99
-

2.18
2.18
2.18
2.26
2.26
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.69
2.79
2.87
2.87
2.95
3.05
3.25
2.95
3.05
3.25
3.45
3.56
3.66
3.66
3.66
3.73
4.09
4.22
4.39
5.05
5.11

0.38
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91
0.38
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91
0.46
0.61
0.76
0.91
1.22
1.52
1.91

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

165

COMMON STANDARDS
UNI 7323-12
(EXTRACT)

TAPPING

SCREWS WITH TWO PROFILE THREAD AND


DOUBLE START FOR PLASTIC MATERIALS:
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE

Steel
Casehardening steels.
Torsional test
When the screw is exclusively subjected to torsion, the
minimum breaking torque of the following table shall be
reached before rupture occurs for the considered
nominal threaded diameter.

Nominal thread
diameter
mm

The screw (with or without coating) shall be clamped in


a cut device, having a blind hole, so that the clamped
part will not be damaged. At least two full threads shall
protrude over the device and at least two full threads,
excluding the end, shall be clamped.

Minimum breaking
torque
Nm
1.00
1.45
2.15
2.85
4.35
6.55
9.15
15.60

3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
7

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

166

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 7085
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL

AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS


OF THREAD ROLLING SCREWS

Steels
Casehardening steels.
Torsional test
The sample screw shall be securely clamped by suitable
means with at least two full threads projecting above the
clamping device, and at least two full threads exclusive of
point, held within the clamping device.
By means of a suitably calibrated measuring device,
torque shall be applied to the screw until failure of the
screw occurs. The torque required to cause failure shall be
equal to or exceed the minimum breaking torque
specified in the table.

Nominal
thread
diameter
d

Plate thickness
Thickness
mm.

2.5
M2.5
3
M3
3.5
M3.5
4
M4
5
M5
6
M6
8
M8
* For information only.

Hole diameter
mm.
max.
min.
2.275
2.775
3.180
3.680
4.530
5.430
7.336

2.250
2.750
3.150
3.650
4.500
5.400
7.300

Embrittlement
For these screws there is a risk of failure due to hydrogen
embrittlement, especially if they are electroplated.
Therefore process investigation shall be conducted
according to ISO 15330.

AGRATI

Ability to forming the mating thread


The screw shall, (without permanent deformation of its
own thread), form a mating thread in a test plate having
a hardness HV 140 180, thickness equal to the nominal
diameter, with a drive speed not over 30 rpm in a hole
whose diameter is given in the following table.
During this test the drive torque shall not exceed the
maximum values given in the table.

Maximum
drive torque
Nm
0.6
1.1
1.7
2.5
5.0
8.5
21.0

Minimum
breaking torque
Nm

Minimum tensile
breaking load*
N

1.2
2.1
3.4
4.9
10.0
17.0
42.0

3 150
4 680
6 300
8 170
13 200
18 700
34 000

In the case of electroplating, hydrogen embrittlement


relief treatment in accordance with ISO 4042 shall be
applied.
Non electrolytic applied coating are preferred.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

167

COMMON STANDARDS
UNI 8108
(EXTRACT)

THREAD

ROLLING SCREWS
APPROXIMATE HOLE SIZES

APPROXIMATE TRIMMED
Dimensions in mm.

OR DRILLED HOLE SIZES FOR SHEET METALS

Thread
diameter
d

M2.5
M3
M3.5
M4
M5
M6
M8

Materials
Steel, stainless steel and brass
Aluminium and its alloys
Metal thickness mm.
Metal thickness mm.
from 0.5 from 2 from 3.5 from 6.8 from 9 from 0.5 from 2 from 3.5 from 6.8
up to 2 up to 3.5 up to 6.8 up to 9 up to 13 up to 2 up to 3.5 up to 6.8 up to 9
Hole size
Hole size
H11
H11
2.25
2.30
2.35
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.70
2.75
2.80
2.70
2.70
2.75
3.10
3.20
3.20
3.25
3.30
3.10
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.60
3.70
3.75
3.75
3.80
3.60
3.70
3.70
4.50
4.60
4.70
4.70
4.50
4.50
4.60
5.40
5.50
5.60
5.70
5.40
5.40
5.50
7.30
7.40
7.50
7.60
7.30
7.30
7.40

AGRATI

GROUP

from 9
up to 13

3.25
3.75
4.70
5.60
7.50

ED. 2001-A

168

COMMON STANDARDS
DIN 7513 DIN 7516
(EXTRACT)

THREAD

CUTTING SCREWS:
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE

Steels
Casehardening screws.
Torsional test
The sample screw shall be securely clamped by suitable
means with at least two full threads projecting above the
clamping device, and at least two full threads exclusive
of point, held within the clamping device.
By means of a suitably calibrated measuring device,
torque shall be applied to the screw until failure of the
screw occurs. The torque required to cause failure shall
be equal to or exceed the minimum breaking torque
specified in the table.

Ability to forming the mating thread


The screw shall, without permanent deformation of its
own thread, form a mating thread in a test plate having a
hardness HB 110 130, thickness equal to the nominal
diameter, with a drive speed not over 30 rpm in a hole
whose diameter is given in the following table.
During this test the drive torque shall not exceed the
maximum values given in the table.

Test plate

Nominal
thread
diameter
d

Thickness
mm.

Hole size
Tolerance H9
mm.

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8

3
4
5
6
8

2.7
3.6
4.5
5.5
7.4

AGRATI

Maximum
drive torque

GROUP

Minimum
breaking torque

Nm

Nm

0.9
2.1
4.2
7.2
17

1.5
3.4
7.1
12
28

ED. 2001-A

169

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 10666
(EXTRACT)

DRILLING

SCREWS:
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE

screw occurs. The torque required to cause failure shall


be equal to or exceed the minimum breaking torque
specified in the table.

Steels
Casehardening steels or heat treatable steel.
Torsional test
The sample screw shall be securely clamped by suitable
means with at least two full threads projecting above the
clamping device, and at least two full threads exclusive
of point, held within the clamping device.
By means of a suitably calibrated measuring device,
torque shall be applied to the screw until failure of the

Ability to forming the mating thread


The screw shall, (without permanent deformation of its
own thread), form a mating thread in a test plate having
a hardness HV 110 165.
The plate thickness and the rotational speed are given in
the following table:

Drilling parameters

Nominal
thread
diameter

Designation
N

ST 2.9
ST 3.5
ST 4.2
ST 4.8
ST 5.5
ST 6.3

4
6
8
10
12
14

Plate thickness

0.7 +
1 +
1.5 +
2 +
2 +
2 +

mm
0.7
1
1.5
2
3
3

= 1.4
=2
=3
=4
=5
=5

Embrittlement
For these screws there is a risk of failure due to hydrogen
embrittlement, especially if they are electroplated.
Therefore process investigation shall be conducted
according to ISO 15330.

AGRATI

Axial
Force
N
150
150
250
250
350
350

Rotational speed of
screw under load
min.1
1 800 2 500
1 800 2 500
1 800 2 500
1 800 2 500
1 000 1 800
1 000 1 800

Test
duration
s
3
4
5
7
11
13

Minimum
torsional
strength
Nm
1.5
2.8
4.7
6.9
10.4
16.9

In the case of electroplating, hydrogen embrittlement relief


treatment in accordance with ISO 4042 shall be applied.
Non electrolytic applied coating are preferred.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

170

COMMON STANDARDS
UNI 3740-4
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL

PROPERTIES OF NUTS

This standard specifies the mechanical properties for nuts.


It applies to nuts:
with nominal thread diameters, d, from 3 mm. up to
and including 30 mm. for coarse thread and from 8
mm. up to 30 mm. for fine pitch thread
with triangular ISO thread according ISO 68-1
with diameter/pitch combinations according to ISO 261
(coarse thread and fine pitch thread)
with thread tolerances 6H according to ISO 965/1 and
ISO 965/2

with dimensional tolerances according to ISO 4759/1


with widths across flats as specified in ISO 272 or
greater
manufactured in steel
It does not specify requirements for such properties as:
ability to withstand temperature above +300C, or below
50C.

LIMITS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Property class

C
min.

max

Chemical composition
(check analysis), %
Mn
min.

P
max.

S
max.

5S*
6*
0.50
0.110
0.150
6S*
8*
0.58
0.25
0.060
0.150
8G
10
0.15
0.58
0.30
0.048
0.058
* Free cutting steel is allowed; in this case the following maximum lead, phosphorus and sulphur
contents are permissible:
Pb 0.35%
P 0.12%
S 0.34%
When agreed with the user, the use of free cutting steel is allowed; in this case the limit for the
lead is the following:
Pb 0.35%

HARDNESS VALUES
Property class

Vickers Hardness
HV
min.

max.

HRB

Rockwell Hardness
HRC

min.

5S
6
150
302
79
6S
8
188
302
89
8G
10
272
353
Nuts of this property class shall be hardened and tempered.

min.

max.

26

30
30
36

The property classes 5S, 6S end 8G have only hardness limits.


The property classes 6, 8 end 10 have hardness limits and proof loads.

PROOF LOAD VALUES

Property class

Stress under
proof load Sp
N/mm2

6
8
10

600
800
1000

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

171

COMMON STANDARDS
DIN 267-4
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL

PROPERTIES OF NUTS

with width across flats or external diameters not less


than 1,45 D and of other nuts where reference is made
to this standard. It does not specify requirements for
such properties as:

This standard specifies the mechanical properties of nuts


which have to withstand specified proof loads
with nominal thread diameters up to and including
39 mm
with ISO metric thread as defined in DIN 13 Part 13
with thread tolerances 6H in accordance with DIN 13
Part 15
with nominal heights not less than 0,8 D (including the
normal countersink on the thread)

Ability to withstand temperature above +300C, or below


50C.

LIMITS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Chemical composition
(check analysis), %
Property class

C
max.

Mn
min.

P
max.

S
max.

8
10

0.58
0.58

0.30
0.30

0.060
0.048

0.150
0.058

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Property class

8
10

Proof load
stress
Sp
N/mm2

Mechanical properties
Vickers
hardness
HV
max.

Rockwell
hardness
HRC
max.

800
1000

302
353

30
36

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2000-A

172

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 898-2
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FASTENERS


NUTS WITH SPECIFIED PROOF LOAD VALUES
COARSE THREAD
with specific mechanical requirements
with widths across flats as specified in ISO 272 or
equivalent
with nominal heights greater than or equal to 0,5D
made of carbon steel or low alloy steel

This International Standard specifies the mechanical


properties of nuts with specified proof load values when
tested at room temperature
Properties will vary at higher and lower temperature.
It applies to nuts:
with nominal thread diameters up to and including 39 mm
with triangular ISO thread in accordance with ISO 68-1
with diameter/pitch combinations according to ISO 261
(coarse thread)
with thread tolerances 6H according to ISO 965-1 and
ISO 965-2

It does not specify requirements for such properties as:


Ability to withstand temperature above +300C, or below
50C.

DESIGNATION SYSTEM FOR NUTS WITH NOMINAL HEIGHTS 0,8D


Mating bolts

Property
class of
nut

Property class

Nuts

Style 1

6.8

Diameter range
mm.
39

39

8.8

39

39

9
10
12

9.8
10.9
12.9

16
39
39

39
16

Style 2

Diameter range
mm.
> 16
39
16
39

DESIGNATION SYSTEM AND STRESSES UNDER PROOF LOAD FOR NUTS WITH NOMINAL HEIGHTS 0,5D BUT < 0,8D
Property
class of
nut

Nominal stress
under proof load
N/mm2

Actual stress
under proof load
N/mm2

04
05

400
500

380
500

LIMITS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Property
class
6
04 8 9
05
10
12

Chemical composition
(check analysis), %
C
max.

Mn
min.

P
max.

S
max.

0.50
0.58
0.58
0.58

0.25
0.30
0.45

0.060
0.060
0.048
0.048

0.150
0.150
0.058
0.058

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

173
EN ISO 898-2
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16

4
7
10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16

4
7
10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16

4
7
10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16

4
7
10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
>
16
1) NQT
2) QT

39

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2

380

Property class 04
Thin nuts
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.

188

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2

500

302

Property class 05
Thin nuts
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.

272

353

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
600
670
680
700
720

Property class 6
Style 1
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
150
302
150
302
150
302
150
302
170
302

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
800
855
870
880
920

Property class 8
Style 1
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
180
302
200
302
200
302
200
302
233
353

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
890

Property class 8
Style 2
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
180
302

state

NQT

1)

state

QT 2)

state
NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT

1)
1)
1)
1)
1)

state
NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT
QT

1)
1)
1)
1)
2)

state
NQT

1)

= Not quenched or tempered


= Quenched and tempered

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

174
EN ISO 898-2
(EXTRACT)

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16

4
7
10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16

4
7
10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10

4
7
10
16

Diameter
mm.
>
4
7
10
16
1) NQT
2) QT

4
7
10
16
39

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
900
915
940
950
920

Property class 9
Style 2
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
170
302
188
302
188
302
188
302
188
302

state
NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT

1)
1)
1)
1)
1)

Property class 10
Style 1
Stress under proof load
Sp
N/mm2
1 040
1 040
1 040
1 050
1 060

Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.

272

353

state

QT

2)

Property class 12
Style 1
Stress under proof load
Sp
N/mm2
1 140
1 140
1 140
1 170

Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
295

353

state

QT

2)

Property class 12
Style 2
Stress under proof load
Sp
N/mm2
1 150
1 150
1 160
1 190
1 200

Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.

272

353

state

QT

2)

= Not quenched or tempered


= Quenched and tempered

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

175

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 898-6
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FASTENERS


NUTS WITH SPECIFIED PROOF LOAD VALUES
FINE PITCH THREAD
with specific mechanical requirements
with widths across flats as specified in ISO 272 or
equivalent
with nominal heights greater than or equal to 0,5D
made of carbon steel or low alloy steel

This international standard specifies the mechanical


properties of nuts with specified proof load values when
tested at room temperature.
Properties will vary at higher and lower temperature.
It applies to nuts:
with nominal thread diameters, d, from 8 mm. up to
and including 39 mm (fine pitch thread)
with triangular ISO thread in accordance with ISO 68-1
with diameter/pitch combinations according to ISO 261
(fine pitch thread)
with thread tolerances 6H accordance with ISO 965-1
and ISO 965-2

It does not specify requirements for such properties as:


ability to withstand temperature above +300C, or below
50C.

DESIGNATION SYSTEM FOR NUTS WITH NOMINAL HEIGHTS 0,8D


Property
class of nut
8
10
12

Mating bolts

Style 1

Diameter range
mm.
d 39
d 39
d 16

Property class
8.8
10.9
12.9

Nuts

Style 2

Diameter range
mm.
d 39
d 16
d 16
d 39
d 16

DESIGNATION SYSTEM AND STRESS UNDER PROOF LOADS FOR NUTS WITH NOMINAL HEIGHTS 0,5D BUT < 0,8D
Property
class of nut

Nominal stress
under proof load
N/mm2

Actual stress under


proof load
N/mm2

04
05

400
500

380
500

LIMITS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Property
class of nut
04
05

8
10
12

Chemical composition
(check analysis), %
C
max.

Mn
min.

P
max.

S
max.

0.58
0.58
0.58

0.25
0.30
0.45

0.060
0.048
0.048

0.150
0.058
0.058

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

176
EN ISO 898-6
(EXTRACT)

Diameter
mm.
8
> 16

16
39

Diameter
mm.
8
> 16

16
39

Diameter
mm.
8
> 10
> 16
> 33

10
16
33
39

Diameter
mm.
8
> 16

1) NQT
2) QT

16
39

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
380

Property class 04
Thin nuts
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
188

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
500

302

Property class 05
Thin nuts
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
272

Property class
Style 1
Stress under proof load
Sp
N/mm2
955
955
1 030
1 090

353

250
250
295
295

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
890

353
353
353
353

1)

state
QT

2)

state
QT
QT
QT
QT

2)
2)
2)
2)

Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
195

NQT

Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.

Property class
Style 2

state

302

state
NQT

1)

= Not quenched or tempered


= Quenched and tempered

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

177
EN ISO 898-6
(EXTRACT)

Diameter
mm.
8
> 16

16
39

Diameter
mm.
8
> 10
> 16

10
16
39

Diameter
mm.
8
> 16

1) NQT
2) QT

16
39

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
1 100
1 110

Property class 10
Style 1
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
295

353

state
QT

2)

Property class 10
Style 2
Stress under proof load
Sp
N/mm2
1 055
1 055
1 080

Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
250
250
260

Stress under proof load


Sp
N/mm2
1 200

353
353
353

Property class 12
Style 2
Vickers hardness
HV
min.
max.
295

353

state
QT
QT
QT

2)
2)
2)

state
QT

2)

= Not quenched or tempered


= Quenched and tempered

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

178

COMMON STANDARDS
DIN 267-24
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL

PROPERTIES OF NUTS

(HARDNESS
This standard specifies the mechanical properties of nuts
and similar fasteners not under tensile stresses in the range
from 10 up to and including 200 mm. thread diameter
which are made of carbon steel or free cutting steel.

CLASS)

It does not apply to fasteners requiring special properties


such as:
specified tensile stresses
weldability
corrosion resistance
ability to withstand temperatures above + 250 C or
below 50 C

LIMITS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Chemical composition
(check analysis), %
Property class

14H

Pb

max.

max.

max.

max.

0.50

0.12

0.35

0.34

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Mechanical properties
Property class
min.
14H

Vickers
hardness
HV

140

AGRATI

max.

min.

215

133

GROUP

Brinell
hardness
HB

max.
204

ED. 2000-A

179

COMMON STANDARDS
TABLE A
PREVAILING TORQUES
FOR RINGS - ELASTIC STOP

Thread
M 20
M 25
M 30
M 35
M 40
M 45
M 50
M 55
M 60
M 65
M 70
M 75
M 80
M 85
M 90
M 95
M100

Prevailing Torque Nm
1 assembly max.
5 removal min.

Pitch
1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

14
22
34
54
70
94
116
140
162
185
208
232
255
278
300
324
346

AGRATI

GROUP

4
6
9
12
15
24
32
40
48
58
66
75
84
92
100
108
118

ED. 2001-A

180

COMMON STANDARDS
DIN 267-15
(EXTRACT)

CLAMPING FORCES AND PREVAILING


FOR KLOCK AND ELASTIC STOP
Lubricant
The nuts are delivered with an appropriate lubrication, in
order to meet the specified performance requirements.
The lubricant do not cause any irritation on the skin, nor
emits an unpleasant odour.
Nuts supplied with a lubricant are clean and dry to the
touch.
If the lubricant is subsequently removed by the customer,
the mechanical and performance properties of the nut
change.
Prevailing torque test
With reference to DIN 267-15 the prevailing torque test is
conducted as follows.
The prevailing torque test is conducted at room
temperature using a torque wrench and with the aid of a
device for measuring the clamping load on the bolt.
A test bolt, together with a test washer, is inserted in the
device for measuring the clamping load on the test bolt.
The nut to be tested is then assembled on the bolt so that
at least 2 full bolt threads protrude through the nut. Nut
tightening may be either manual using a torque wrench or
using a torque-sensing power device. The maximum
prevailing torque occurring while the nut is being
advanced through the next 360 of nut rotation is
measured. This torque shall not exceed the first fixing
prevailing torque value specified in the table enclosed.
Tightening is continued until the nut is seated against the
test washer. The length of the test bolt shall be such that
seating of the nut occurs when a length equivalent to four
to seven thread pitches of the bolt protrudes through the
top of the nut, measured from the end of the bolt. The nut
shall then be tightened until a tensile load equal to the
clamp load, as specified in the table, is developed in the
bolt. The test washer shall be prevented from turning.

AGRATI

TORQUES
NUTS

The nut is then slackened until the tensile load in the bolt
has been reduced to zero. The minimum prevailing torque
occurring while the nut is being slackened through the
next 360 of rotation is measured. This torque shall be not
less than the first fixing prevailing torque value as specified
in table.
The nut is then reassembled and removed four more times.
On each assembly, the nut shall be advanced sufficiently
to allow a length equivalent to four to seven tread pitches
to protrude through the nut, without applying a test clamp
load. On each removal, the prevailing torque element
shall be disengaged from the bolt thread.
During the fifth removal, the minimum prevailing torque
occurring while the nut is being slackened through the first
360 of rotation is measured. This torque shall be not less
than the prevailing torque value specified in table. In
addition, at no time during these four additional refixings
and removals shall the torque exceed the maximum first
fixing prevailing torque value.
To avoid overheating of the assembly, sufficient time shall
elapse between the torque application cycles. The speed
of installation and removal of the nut shall not exceed 30
min 1 and shall be continuous and uniform.
A property class in accordance with ISO 898-1 which
corresponds with that assigned to the nut shall be chosen
for the test bolt, e.g. nut: 8; bolt: 8.8. The surface finish of
the bolt shall also correspond with that of the nut,
normally electroplated in accordance with ISO 4042.
Where nuts with a protective coating other than zinc or
phosphate are to be tested, a bolt with a zinc-phosphate
and oiled finish shall be used. In referee tests the nut and
bolt shall have the same surface finish. A new test bolt
shall be used for testing each nut.

GROUP

ED. 2000-A

181
DIN 267-15
(EXTRACT)

Clamping
force
N
Thread

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8
M10
M12
M14
M16
M18
M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36
M39

Coarse
Pitch

0.5
0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
2
2.5
2.5
2.5
3
3
3.5
3.5
4
4

Property class
8

10

2190
3820
6170
8700
15900
25300
36700
50000
68200
86200
110000
136000
159000
206000
253000
312000
368000
440000

3130
5470
8850
12500
22800
36100
52500
71600
97500
119000
152000
189000
220000
286000
350000
432000
509000
608000

Clamping
force
N
Fine
Pitch

1
1.25
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
2
3
3

Prevailing Torque
Nm

Property class
8

10

17000
26600
42300
54400
72700
97500
122000
150000
172000
223000
280000
343000
389000
463000

24400
38100
62100
78000
104000
134000
169000
207000
239000
309000
386000
474000
538000
641000

AGRATI

Property class
8
First
First
Fifth
Assemb. Removal Removal
max.
min.
min.
0.43
0.12
0.08
0.90
0.18
0.12
1.60
0.29
0.20
3
0.45
0.30
6
0.85
0.60
10.50 1.50
1
15.50 2.30
1.60
24
3.30
2.30
32
4.5
3
42
6
4.20
54
7.50
5.30
68
9.50
6.50
80
11.50
8
94
13.5
10
108
16
12
122
18
14
136
21
16
150
23
18

GROUP

Property class
10
First
First
Fifth
Assemb. Removal Removal
max.
min.
min.
0.60
0.15
0.10
1.20
0.22
0.15
2.10
0.35
0.24
4
0.55
0.40
8
1.15
0.80
14
2
1.40
21
3.10
2.10
31
4.40
3
42
6
4.20
56
8
5.50
72
10.50
7
90
13
9
106
15
10.50
123
17
12
140
19
14
160
21.50 16.50
180
24
17.50
200
26.50 19.5

ED. 2000-A

182

COMMON STANDARDS
UNI 3740-6
(EXTRACT)

FASTENERS:

PROTECTIVE COATINGS

The standard specifies the general technical prescriptions


for the following protective coating on threaded
fasteners.
- Phosphate coatings
- Organic coatings
- Mechanical coatings

PHOSPHATE
Designation system
The designation system is defined by the following
symbols:
Fe: base metal followed by an oblique bar
FAR: zinc anti-corrosion phosphate
FAG: anti-seizure manganese phosphate
Zn: zinc (or zinc-iron)
Mn: manganese (or manganese-iron)
Possible number: nominal coating thickness expressed
in mm.
Designation example
- Fe/FAR Zn 6
It means zinc (or zinc-iron) anti-corrosion phosphate on
steel base; nominal coating thickness of 6 m.
Performances
Phosphate coatings are usually applied to improve the
anti-corrosion performances of the steel surface.

It can be applied on other threaded or non-threaded


fasteners, like washers and pins.

COATINGS

They are made of a tiny crystalline, strongly sticking to


the support, dent coat.
Sizes and morphological structure of crystallines define
surface roughness; friction coefficient in screwing is
generally influenced.
The phosphate coating alone is defined by low
protecting performances, because of its porous structure.
Unless different agreements between customer and
producer, it must be soaked with oil.
Thickness and mass of phosphate coating
The most reliable evaluation is the one referred to
phosphate coating specific mass, it is expressed in grams
of coat per square metre of ferrous surface.
That measure must be used in case of complaint. Coating
thickness measures with magnetic or electric methods,
give results that can be slightly significant.
They are suggested only to general check.

CORROSION RESISTANCE (OILED COATS)


Designation

Coating nature

Fe/FAR Zn 3
Fe/FAR Zn 6
Fe/FAG Mn 7

Zinc phosphate
Zinc-iron phosphate
Manganese-iron phosphate

Coating mass
g/m2 *
3 a 5
>
8
> 10

Exposition time
in salt spray
h
min.
6
24
16

* The nominal thickness is obtained dividing by 1,4 the mass of the coating

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

183
UNI 3740-6
(EXTRACT)

Performances of deembrittlement treatment


Phenomena of hydrogen embrittlement can especially
exist in acid pickling. During zinc phosphate (because of
the lower acidity of bathes), they generally dont get
remarkable intensity; on the contrary manganese
phosphate in this case verges to be more dangerous.
Whenever the material nominal minimum tensile strength

Rm is higher or equal to 1 200 N/mm2 (o similar) can be


asked the deembrittlement treatment, and that must be
specified on draw or in ordering. In this case the
deembrittlement treatment can be carry out by heating in
furnace, then followed by a cooling at room temperature,
as specified in prospect, or staying 120h at room
temperature.

DEEMBRITTLEMENT TREATMENT
Minimum tensile strength
Rm

Deembrittlement treatment
Permanence
Temperature
h
C
min.

>1 200 N/mm2

Temperatures higher than 110 C are not allowed, to


avoid phenomena of chalking of phosphate coat (only

AGRATI

110

zinc-calcium phosphate allows higher temperature,


until 150 C).

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

184
UNI 3740-6
(EXTRACT)

ORGANIC
Generality
This section defines the technical prescriptions about
chemical anti-corrosion coatings mainly made of zinc
and other anodic materials, in comparison with support
metal and made of polymeric organic binders and
chromates.
These coatings are known with different commercial
names (for example DACROMET).
These coatings are especially recommended for fasteners
with tensile strength Rm higher or equal to 1040 N/mm2,
because they dont produce hydrogen embrittlement.
Designation system
Designation system is defined by the following symbols:
Fe: base metal
AC: chemical anti-corrosion coating, made of chromates
metals and polymeric organic binders
ACL: lubricant chemical anti-corrosion coating, made of
metals, chromates and polymeric organic binders, with a
carbonic fluorine polymer.
5: nominal thickness of 5 mm (ordinary class) with a
minimum specific mass of 20 g/m2
8: nominal thickness of 8 mm (extraordinary class) with
a minimum specific mass of 32 g/m2.
Designation example
- Fe/AC 5
It means chemical anti-corrosion coating on steel, with a
nominal thickness equal to 5 m, in ordinary class.

COATINGS

Performances
The coating performances are defined by the following
properties: appearance, thickness, corrosion resistance,
adhesion (evaluated as adhesion to thermic stress).
Appearance
Coating must be silver grey coloured, half dull (in case of
no post-treatment), homogeneous and uniform on all the
surface.
Little dents and light possible exceed of material deposit
are allowed, on condition that check with the gage
remains possible.
Thickness
Referring to thickness, coating can be divided in two
classes:
Ordinary class: minimum thickness 5 mm (nominal 5 mm)
Extraordinary class: minimum thickness 8 mm (nominal 8 mm)
Coating must not compromise screwing, therefore its
important the choice of the threaded tolerance position,
referring to the recommended thickness, specified by the
drawing or on ordering.
Salt spray corrosion resistance
Referring to the process coating, significant surface is all
the sample surface, except concavities.

CORROSION RESISTANCE
Designation
Fe/AC 5
Fe/ACL 5
Fe/AC 8
Fe/ACL 8

Time without red corrosion products


on significant surface
h
min.
600
600
1000
1000

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

185
UNI 3740-6
(EXTRACT)

MECHANICAL
Generality
Mechanical coating means applying protective coating,
generally made of Zn, Sn, or Al individually or combined
put on the surface, and used as dust in checked
granulometry water suspension, in a mechanical long
random pressure action, pressed on details in defined
barrel, produced by mixing spheres of particular sizes
and chemical catalyst.
Mechanical coating is especially indicated as protecting
coating for high strength fasteners with a tensile strength
Rm higher or equal to 1040 N/mm2, since it doesnt
produce hydrogen embrittlement.
Designation system
Designation system is defined by the following symbols:
Fe: base metal followed by a oblique bar
M: mechanical deposition of metallic coating
Chemical symbols of coating element: example Zn o Sn
o Al. The sequence of two symbols of metals means the
coating is made of metallic layers in reference to the
application order specified in designation.
8, 10, 12, 15: nominal values of coating thickness,
expressed in mm, in case of only one layer; or the value
of the total layers thickness of the coating.

COATINGS

c: converting coating made of chromate materials


1 e 2: converting coating classes made of chromate
materials
A, B, C, D: kind of converting coating made of chromate
materials *.
Performances
Coating performances are defined by the following
properties: appearance, thickness, corrosion resistance,
adhesion.
Appearance
Mechanical coating, without chromate conversion, is
differently coloured in reference to the coating metal;
however its appearance is silvery, from dull to halfbright, homogeneous and uniform on all the surface.
After chromate conversion, it gets the typical appearance
of the same.
Thickness
Coating must not compromise screwing.
Salt spray corrosion resistance
Referring to the process coating, significant surface is all
the sample surface, except corners.

ZINC COATING

Designation
Fe/M Zn 8c1A
Fe/M Zn 12c1A
Fe/M Zn 20c1A
Fe/M Zn 8c2C
Fe/M Zn 12c2C
Fe/M Zn 20c2C

Typical
appearance

Time without white


corrosion products on
significant surface
h
min.

Transparent, light
with blue reflexes

Iridescent yellow

72

Time without red


corrosion products on
significant surface
h
min.
72
96
120
144
192
216

* Subject to agreement between customer and producer, conversion coatings made of chromate materials designed by
B, with a typical appearance transparent and iridescent and D, with a typical appearance olive green and brown and
bronze shades and its corrosion resistance can be applied.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

186

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 4042
(EXTRACT)

FASTENERS:

ELECTROPLATED COATINGS

The following prescription conforms to the contents of


ISO 4042, and concerns the electroplating of threaded

fasteners, but it may also be applied to other threaded


parts and non-threaded parts such as washers and pins.

PROTECTION PERFORMANCE OF ZINC


Designation codes
for coatings
A2A
A2B
A2C
A2D
A2R
A3A
A3B
A3C
A3D
A3R
A4A
A4B
A4C
A4D
A4R

Other possible
designation
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn
Fe/Zn

5c1A
5c1B
5c2C
5c2D
5Bk
8c1A
8c1B
8c2C
8c2D
8Bk
12c1A
12c1B
12c2C
12c2D
12Bk

Nominal coat.
thickness
m

12

Chromate
A
B
C
D
Bk
A
B
C
D
Bk
A
B
C
D
Bk

Salt spray resistance


White corrosion
Red rust
h
h
6
12
48
72
12
6
24
72
96
24
6
24
72
96
24

24
36
72
96
48
72
120
144
72
72
96
144
168
96

DESIGNATION OF CHROMATE TREATMENTS


Class
1
2

Designation
A
B
C
D
Bk

Type
Clear
Bleached
Iridescent
Opaque
Black

AGRATI

Typical appearance
Transparent, clear, sometimes with a bluish tinge
Transparent with slight iridescence
Yellow iridescent
Olive green shading to brown or bronze
Black with slight iridescence

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

187
UNI 3740-6
(EXTRACT)

DESIGNATION CODE
The following code system is given for electroplated coatings:

X Y Z
where

X : coating metal

Y : minimum coating thickness

Z : Finish and chromate treatment

COATING METAL / ALLOY


Symbol

Elements

Designation X

Zn
Cu
Ni
CuNi
ZnNi
ZnCo
ZnFe

Zinc
Copper
Nickel
Copper-Nickel
Zinc-Nickel
Zinc-Cobalt
Zinc-Iron

A
C
E
G
P
Q
R

One coating metals


m min.

Two coating metals


m min.

Designation Y

No coating thickness required


5
8
12

2+3
3+5
4+8

0
2
3
4

COATING THICKNESS / DESIGNATION

FINISH AND CHROMATE TREATMENT


Typical appearance

Designation Z

Transparent, clear
Transparent with slight iridescence ( bleached )
Yellow iridescent
Olive green brown
Black

A
B
C
D
R

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

188

COMMON STANDARDS
AGRATI GROUP
(EXTRACT)

SURFACE
Index salt
spray
resistance
hrs

plating description and


minimum thickness

Lubrication

Appearance

1000

Dacroblack 15 12

Incorporated

Black

salt spray resistance


Property class
Friction
vs. hydrogen (*)
hrs
Thermal
coefficent
shock

red
white
8.8 10.9 12.9
products products
hrs
hrs
Yes
800
1000 0.12 0.18 A
A
A

1000

Zinc pl. + Dorreltech B17 12 Incorporated

Silver grey

Yes

800

1000

0.08 0.14

1000

Deltatone / Dorreltech B17 14 Incorporated

Silver grey

Yes

700

1000

0.08 0.14

No
T.n.T. Blue

Silver grey
Silver grey

Yes

200

1000

0.15 0.25

or green

+ possible

Yes

200

1000

0.08 0.14

1000
1000

Dacromet 320 B 8
Dacromet 320 B 5
lubricated

or colour less

colour

1000

Dacromet 500 B 8

Incorporated

Silver grey

Yes

200

1000

0.12 0.18

1000

Dacromet plus L 8

Incorporated

Silver grey

Yes

200

1000

0.08 0.14

600

Dacromet 320 A 5

No

Silver grey

Yes

200

600

0.15 0.25

T.n.T. Blue

Silver grey
Yes

200

600

0.08 0.14

600

600
600
600
600
600

Dacromet 320 A 5
lubricated
Dacromet 320 A 5
lubricated
Dacromet 500 A 5

or green

+ possible

or colour less

colour

Luberstone

Silver grey

Yes

200

600

0.05 0.08

Incorporated

Silver grey

Yes

200

600

0.12 0.18

Yellow

Yes

200

600

0.12 0.18

Zinc plating + Finigard 105 12 Incorporated


Zinc plating + Zinthum 12

Incorporated

Zinc plating + Lanthane 300 12 Incorporated

Black

Yes

200

600

0.12 0.18

Clear blue

Yes

200

600

0.12 0.18

0.12 0.18

600

Zinc plating + Ludogen 12

Incorporated

Yellow

Yes

200

600

480

Zinc nichel 8

T.n.T.

Yellow

Yes

240

480

Silver grey

Yes

288

400

0.08 0.14

Dull black

Yes

288

400

0.08 0.14

Yes

120

360

0.08 0.14

400
400

Deltatone / Deltaseal GZ 12 Incorporated


Deltatone / Deltaseal GZ black
12

Incorporated

Clear blue

0.12 0.18
or others

360

Zinc pl. + Deltacoll GZ 25

Incorporated

312

Zinc iron 5

T.n.T.

Black

Yes

120

312

288

Deltatone 10

T.n.T.

Silver grey

Yes

---

288

0.08 0.14

288

Zinc plating 12

No

Olive green

--

96

288

0.15 0.30

288

Mechanical zinc plating 12

T.n.T.

Olive green

--

96

288

Yes

120

240

0.08 0.14

0.15 0.30

240

COATING BEHAVIOUR

Zinc plating + Deltacoll GZ 13 Incorporated

or black

Clear blue
or black

240

Zinc plating 15

No

Yellow

--

72

240

240

Zinc plating 15

T.n.T.

Yellow

--

72

240

AGRATI

GROUP

0.08 0.14
or others

0.08 0.14
or others

0.08 0.14
or others

ED. 2001-A

189
AGRATI GROUP
(EXTRACT)

salt spray resistance


Property class
vs. hydrogen (*)
Friction
hrs
Thermal
coefficent
shock

white
red
8.8 10.9 12.9
products products
hrs
hrs
-96
192
0.15 0.30 A
B
C

Index salt
spray
resistance
hrs

plating description and


minimum thickness

Lubrication

Appearance

192

Zinc plating 8

No

Olive green

192

Mechanical zinc plating 8

T.n.T.

Olive green

--

96

192

168

Zinc plating 12

No

Yellow

--

72

168

168

Zinc plating 12

T.n.T.

Yellow

--

72

168

168

Mechanical zinc plating 12

T.n.T.

Yellow

--

72

168

144

Zinc plating 8

No

Yellow

--

72

144

144

Zinc plating 8

T.n.T.

Yellow

--

72

144

144

Mechanical zinc plating 8

T.n.T.

Yellow

--

72

144

144

Zinc plating 15

No

Clear blue

--

144

144

Mechanical zinc plating 15

T.n.T.

Clear blue

--

144

96

Zinc plating 8

No

Black

--

24

96

96

Mechanical zinc plating 8

T.n.T.

Black

--

24

96

96

Zinc plating 12

No

Clear blue

--

96

96

Zinc plating 12

T.n.T.

Clear blue

--

96

96

Mechanical zinc plating 12

T.n.T.

Clear blue

--

96

72

Zinc plating 8

No

Clear blue

--

72

72

Zinc plating 8

T.n.T.

Clear blue

--

72

72

Mechanical zinc plating 8

T.n.T.

Clear blue

--

72

72

Phosphatizing ZN 8

Yes

Grey black

NA

---

72

24

Phosphatizing ZN 6

Yes

Grey black

NA

---

16

Phosphatizing MN

Yes

Grey black

NA

Microphosphatizing ZN/CA 3

Yes

Grey black

NA

( * ) A = Precaution not needed


A1 = Precaution only with cleaning operations
B = Baking is required
C = Application excluded
NA = Not applicable

0.08 0.14

0.10 0.16

A1

A1

24

0.10 0.16

A1

A1

---

16

0.08 0.14

A1

A1

---

0.08 0.14

A1

A1

or others
0.15 0.30
0.08 0.14
or others
0.08 0.14
or others
0.15 0.30
0.08 0.14
or others
0.08 0.14
or others
0.15 0.30
0.08 0.14
or others
0.15 0.30
0.08 0.14
or others
0.15 0.30
0.08 0.14
or others
0.08 0.14
or others
0.15 0.30
0.08 0.14
or others
0.08 0.14
or others

And moreover :
- Copper plating
- Nickel plating
- Brass plating
- Tin plating

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

190

COMMON STANDARDS
EN ISO 3269
(EXTRACT)

FASTENERS

ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION

This International Standard is applicable to bolts, screws,


studs, nuts, pins, washer, blind rivets and other related
fasteners not intended for high volume machine

TERMS

assembly, special-purpose applications or specially


engineered applications requiring greater in-process
control and lot traceability.

AND DEFINITIONS

Sample size:
N
Number of fasteners in a sample.
Acceptance number :
AC
Maximum number of nonconformities of the same
characteristic in any given sample which, when
exceeded, causes the lot to be rejected.

Acceptable quality level:


AQL
Quality level in a sampling plan corresponding to a high
probability of acceptance.
Note: In this International Standard, the probability is
greater than or equal to 95%.

DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREADED FASTENERS


Product group
Dimensional characteristics

Bolts, screws and


studs of grades
A and B

All thread-forming
screws, self-drilling
Self-tapping screws screws and chip-board
screws

Nuts of grades A
and B

AQL
Width across flats
Width across coners
Nut height
Width of slot
Depth of slot
Recess penetration
Socket, GO gauge
Socket, NO GO gauge
Configuration under head
GO thread gauge
NO GO thread gauge
Major diameter
Geometric tolerances
All others
Nonconforming fasteners

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.5
2.5

1
1
1
1
1
1.5
2.5

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
4

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.5
2.5

DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN WASHERS


Dimensional characteristics
Hole diameter
Outside diameter
All others

AGRATI

Product grade A
AQL
1
1.5
2.5

GROUP

ED. 2000-A

191
EN ISO 3269
(EXTRACT)

EXAMPLES OF SAMPLING PLANS


AQL
AC

0.65

1.0

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
12
14
18
22

8
50
125
200
315
400
-

5
32
80
125
200
250
315
400
-

1.5

2.5

4.0

13
32
50
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
-

8
20
32
50
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400

N
3
20
50
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
-

CHARACTERISTICS OF THREADED FASTENERS, EXCEPTING DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


Characteristics

AQL

Mechanical characteristics
Non-destructive tests 1)
and surface integrity
Destructive tests
Chemical composition
Metallurgical characteristics
Functional (performance) characteristics
Coating
Others

0.65
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

Reference standards
ISO 898
ISO 2320
ISO 2702
ISO 8839

ISO 3506
ISO 6157
ISO 7085
Etc.

ISO 4042

ISO 10683

1) If non-permitted surface discontinuities (for example, quench cracks) are found during surface
discontinuity inspection (non-destructive test), regardless of their size, the inspection lot shall be rejected.

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN WASHERS


Mechanical
characteristic 1)
Hardness

Carbon o alloy steel

Stainless steel

Non-ferrous metal

AQL
0.65

0.65

1) Specified in product standards. Other characteristics may be required according to the


application specification.

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2000-A

194

RESEARCH

AND

SIMULATION, TESTS
With over ten years of experience in the fastenings
sector, the Agrati Group offers highly qualified, reliable
services, products and assistance. These results have
always been obtained by a widespread, comprehensive
organisation, embracing research and design, market

DEVELOPMENT
AND PROTOTYPING

analysis and purchase of cutting-edge production


machinery, on-site final-tests under effective use
conditions plus a sales network able to satisfy even the
most demanding clients.

COLLABORATION
The Group companies each according to its
specialisation can become the clients partners in his
technical department in the initial stages of creating a
product. The companies suggest new solutions,
integrated with the mechanical assembly aspect.
The advantages of this approach are at once very clear.
Not only you do (the client) avoid wasting time, but you
have an expert at hand, with prompt answers to your
questions, able to foresee and solve possible problems,
creating and indicating the best solutions by drawing on

NUMERIC
The Research and Development department has the use
of powerful, hi-tech simulation software employing the
finite elements method. These tools have a twofold
impact:
survey into screw behaviour or in more general terms,
bolted joints to quantitatively verify the products
response to the mechanical stresses entailed in its
intended use. This type of analysis is being used more
and more often, in collaboration with clients technical
department, thus significantly contributing to the
development of the project.

STUDY

An analysis of the suspension articulation


of a truck trailer.

10

cuttingedge technologies, on the most accurate


production processes, and on the available range of
products.
The technicians participating with you in the project are
not only experts, but are backed by a company engaged
in massive research and development, with a qualified
Technical Department, plus highly sophisticated control
equipment. They will resolve your problems tied to the
new quality standards.

SIMULATION

simulating the permanent set technological process of


the material. In this way, the following are possible:
verifying the products feasibility (by analysing the
behaviour of the material while dies are being filled),
selecting the most suitable forging cycle, or studying
stresses in tools in order to optimise design.

OF BOLTED JOINTS

An analysis of the suspension articulation


of a truck trailer.

AGRATI

GROUP

Behaviour of the threaded shank of a


flat countersunk screw beyond its yield
point.

ED. 2001-A

195
SIMULATION,
TESTS AND PROTOTYPING

FORGING

Simulating the forging


process of a hexagon head
flanged screw.

TESTS
One of the companys most important aims is to offer
clients a continuously improving service. For this reason,
our outstanding strong-point is the willingness to run tests
and checks to analyse the behaviour of products.

The Agrati Laboratory is accredited by A2LA (American


Association For Laboratory Accreditation) in compliance
with Standard ISO/IEC Guide 25 and with the Fastener
Quality Act (USA Public Law 1201-592) for the following
tests:

TEST

TEST METHOD

Rockwell Hardness
Brinell
Vickers
Microhardness
Roughness (Taylor Hobson Talyrond 100)
Tensile strength test and test load

ASTM E18, IS0 6508, UNI 562


DIN50531, ISO 6506, UNI 560
ASTM E92, DIN 50133, ISO 6507/1, UNI 1955,
ASTM E384, ISO 6507/2
DIN 4768, UNI ISO 468, 4287, 4288
ASTM F606, F696M, DIN 50145, ISO 6892, SAE J429, J995,
UNI EN 10002,
ASTM: E165, E709, F788, ISO 6157/1/2/3, , MIL-STD 1949,
ASTM E1077, SAE J419
ASTM: A370, A540, DIN 505115, UNI EN 10045,
ASTM B117, DIN 50021, ISO 3769, UNI ISO 9227
ASTM: B487, B499, DIN: 50981, 50987, ISO: 2178,3497,
3882, UNI 4195
SAE J 423
DIN 946, SAE J 174
ASTM: E3, E112, E1268, E1077, SAE J422, UNI: 3244, 3245

Surface discontinuities
Decarburation
Resilience
Salt spray test
Coating thickness
Case hardening depth
Torque Tension (Erichsen AP 541)
Metallographic analysis (Preparation, Grain size,
Banding/Orienting of Microstructures, Inclusions)
Spectrographic Analysis of Steels
Dimensional test

ASTM E415
ISO 4759, DIN 13 Teil 13, ISO 695.2, UNI 5541

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

10

196
SIMULATION,
TESTS AND PROTOTYPING

PROTOTYPING
Modern industrial practice increasingly requires physical
construction of one or more product prototypes. Clearly,
numeric simulation and technological analysis are
central to the project of a component, enabling a more
accurate definition of the characteristics the product
needs to satisfy the project requirements.

The Group has qualified resources and means for


producing prototypes of any kind, both by using
definitive equipment and systems standard for
forging and by using alternative methods and
technologies (to obtain a few pieces quickly).
The following is an example of the evolution of a screw
with spherical washer in the beginning solid and then
hollow for securing a wheel.

21
16

18

35

28

33

Assembly: initial geometry

26.5-27
25 min.
15-16

14.75-15.0

0.5 min.

0.25

2.9-3

R13.9-14

14-14.2
15.5 max

10

0.05 NICHT KONVEX

3.3-3.5

13.5-13.65

AGRATI

Definition of lightened geometry

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

197
SIMULATION,
TESTS AND PROTOTYPING

Numeric simulation
of the behaviour of the part under load

Production of the prototype

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

10

198

RESEARCH

AND

DEVELOPMENT

THREAD

ROLLING SCREWS FOR USE WITH NON


FERROUS MATERIALS (ALUMINIUM ALLOYS)

Thread rolling screws are used for screwing in smooth


non pre-tapped holes.
The characteristics of thread rolling screws enable them,
while being screwed, to model their counter-thread by
means of the permanent set. The continuity in orientation
of the fibres of the material on the formed thread means
that a joint created in this way ensures the tightness of
the fastening and excellent stripping resistance. This is
also due to the rolling effect of the material in which it
engages, increasing the screws resistance by work
hardening.
The key advantage in using this type of screw in bolted
joints is the reduction of work stages of the metal matrix
in which the thread rolling screw is used. In particular,
the hole boring and tapping operations can be avoided.
The aim of the project was to:
- evaluate the capability of forming ISO 6H threads and of
enabling successive screwing of standard ISO 6H screws
in aluminium alloys suitable for die melting;
- verify the screws compliance with the mechanical
characteristics of standard ISO 898-1;

- determine tightening resistance of joints made with


thread rolling screws.
We studied the behaviour of thread rolling screws with 3or 5-lobe profiles, with different lobe heights (see figure).
Different screwing thickness values were defined for an
aluminium alloy suitable for die melting and the thread
rolling properties were analysed for each thickness value
as hole diameter varied.
The following tests were the main evaluation tools:
- screwing with thread forming;
- tensile strength of the thread rolling screw - aluminium
alloy plate joint;
- tightening of the thread rolling screw - aluminium
alloy plate joint;
In connection with executed tests, we are indicating
below some of the results obtained with M8 screws
(galvanised and sealed) with shanks of three- or fivelobed cross-section.

3-lobe profiles

10

5-lobe profiles

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

199
THREAD ROLLING SCREWS FOR USE WITH
NON FERROUS MATERIALS (ALUMINIUM ALLOYS)

Forming torque

MAXIMUM TORQUE (AVERAGE OF MEASURED VALUES) OF THREAD FORMATION IN ALUMINIUM ALLOY


30

25

Torque [Nm]

20

15

10

5
average thread diameter
nut M8 6H:
7.188 - 7.348 mm
0
7

7,1

7,2

7,3

7,4

7,5

7,6

7,7

Hole diameter [mm]


S=1D 3-lobed

S=1D 5-lobed

S=2D 3-lobed

The figure shows the average values of the maximum


forming torque of the thread in the aluminium plate, as hole

S=2D 5-lobed

S=3D 3-lobed

S=3D 5-lobed

diameter varies, for three-and five-lobed screws. The


analysis parameter is plate thickness (S).

Overlapping

OVERLAPPING VALUES
100
95
90

Overlapping %

85

Overlapping values with core


diameter of M8 nut at maximum
tolerance (6.912 mm)

80
75
70
65
60
average thread diameter
nut M8 6H:
7.188 - 7.348 mm

55
50
7

7,1

7,2

7,3

7,4

7,5

7,6

7,7

Hole diameter [mm]


S=1D 3-lobed

S=1D 5-lobed

S=2D 3-lobed

The overlapping factor R% was defined for evaluating


this characteristic. It indicates to what extent the formed
thread approaches its maximum theoretical dimension.

AGRATI

S=2D 5-lobed

S=3D 3-lobed

S=3D 5-lobed

The figure shows the overlapping values for three- and fivelobe screws screwed into an aluminium plate, at varying
hole diameters. The analysis parameters is plate thickness.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

10

200
THREAD

ROLLING SCREWS FOR USE WITH


NON FERROUS MATERIALS (ALUMINIUM ALLOYS)

Tensile stress test of screw-plate

GENERAL TREND OF UNIT LOAD CAUSING FAILURE OF THE CONNECTION BY TENSILE STRESS
PLATE M8 THREAD ROLLING SCREW (CLASS 10.9). THICKNESS OF ALUMINIUM PLATE: 2D
1200

1094,6

1092,6

1079,1

1088,08

1090,5
969,2

200

Screw failure

Stripped counter-thread

400

100% screw failure

600

Screw failure

100% screw failure

800

Stripped counter-thread

1000

3-LOBED

5-LOBED

Hole diam 7.3 mm

Hole diam 7.5 mm

The example shows the hole diameter value beyond which


tensile failure begins, due to stripping of the formed thread

in an aluminium alloy plate, with thickness 2D, and the


average of unit loads at which this occurs.

Complete tightening

M8 THREAD ROLLING SCREWS FINIGARD 105 COATING.


MAXIMUM THREAD FORMING TORQUE AND TIGHTENING IN ALUMINIUM - THICKNESS 2D

60

50

40

Indicative tightening torque: 38 Nm (Class 10.9)

30

Indicative tightening torque: 29 Nm (Class 8.8)

20

9720

9360

9000

8640

8280

7920

7560

7200

6840

6480

6120

5760

5400

5040

4680

4320

3960

3600

3240

2880

2520

2160

1800

1440

720

1080

360

10

Rotation angle
3-LOBE SCREW; HOLE DIAMETER 7.3 mm

The complete torque/angle tightening curve makes it


possible to evaluate the maximum thread formation torque

10

AGRATI

values in the aluminium plate and the torque values as the


joint is tightened.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

201
THREAD ROLLING SCREWS FOR USE WITH
NON FERROUS MATERIALS (ALUMINIUM ALLOYS)

Work hardening measured on the formed thread.

AVERAGE WORK HARDENING % MEASURED ON THE FORMED THREAD.


(AVERAGE HARDNESS OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY HV = 106 = 100%)
160

S = 1D

S = 2D

S = 3D

Average work hardening percentage (%)

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

hole diam = 7.2mm hole diam = 7.4mm hole diam = 7.3mm hole diam = 7.5mm hole diam = 7.4mm hole diam = 7.6mm
3-LOBED

5-LOBED

The figure indicates the work hardening effect in the


aluminium plate on the thread formed by rolling while the
thread rolling screw was being screwed. The average work
hardening percentage was obtained by calculating the

AGRATI

average microhardness values measured on the thread


bottom, at midway tooth height (at the surface and centre
of the tooth) and on the thread vertex.

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

10

202

RESEARCH

AND

DEVELOPMENT

CHARACTERISATION

OF FRICTION
COEFFICIENT IN BOLTED JOINTS

From July to September 1999, the A.Agrati fasteners


manufacturing company of Veduggio began a series of
experiments - jointly with Milan Polytechnic on the
characterisation of friction coefficient in bolted joints.
The research entailed torque-tension tests (according to
DIN 946 standard) of the surface coating and lubrication
of class 8.8 M8 flanged screws with varying under-head
geometry (flat, concave and convex).
The range of values of the following were studied:
- total coefficient ges,
- under-head coefficient k,
- on-thread coefficient G
for 19 different types of coating/lubrication.
Test preparation involved three fundamental stages,
conducted uniformly to satisfy the DIN 946 specifications:
- selection, production and control of screws,
- selection, production and control of nuts,
- selection and control of washers.
An Erichsen Torque-tension machine was the instrument
used for the tests, and the entire series of tests was carried
out with it (50 per screw type, the total amounting to 3000).

After the values had been gathered, the Gaussian nature of


the distributions was checked and confirmed before to go
on with the statistical analysis of the measurements.
The results were exhibited and analysed in graphs (only
some are shown here), subdivided into sections as follows:
1. Analysis according to coating
_ histograms referring to the average values of the three
friction coefficients taken into consideration (underhead, on-thread and overall friction coefficient) for
diverse under-head configurations.
_ diagrams indicating the dispersion trend around the
average value of the three friction coefficients, the
analysis being separated into the three types of underheads studied;
_ graphs indicating the maximum and minimum torquetension curves in the three configurations.
The values measured for the Deltatone coating are shown
as an example.

DELTATONE

0,500
0,450
0,400
0,350
0,300
0,250
0,200
0,150
0,100
0,050
0,000

ges

concave u-hd

0,191

0,172

0,226

flat u-hd

0,192

0,174

0,221

convex u-hd

0,179

0,146

0,226

DISPERSION OF TOTAL FRICTION COEFFICIENT


0,500

UNDER-HEAD: CONCAVE

20

0,450
0,400
15

0,350
0,300

ges

Fv 10
(kN)

0,250
0,200
0,150

0,100
0,050
0,000

10

concave
x+3s
x-3s
Avg

flat

convex

0
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

MA (Nm)

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

203
CHARACTERISATION

OF FRICTION
COEFFICIENT IN BOLTED JOINTS

2. Overall analysis of data


Were prepared tables showing, in incrementing order,
the different friction coefficients for each type of coating
and under-head geometry, expressed as average.

The values of the ges coefficients for flat under-heads are


shown in the following figure.

FRICTION COEFFICIENT TREND


0,400
0,350
0,300
0,250

ges

0,200
0,150
0,100
0,050

PH

SP

CO
AT
I

BR
AT
E
H

IC

RO

PH

SP

D
AC
R

+L
U
BR
D
.
AT
AL
E
TA
CO
-S
AT
EA
IN
L
D
G
EL
w
TYE
ith
TO
LL
M
N
O
E+
n
W
LU
ZI
BR
N
C
.3
PL
0%
.+
30
%
LU
D
AC
BR
.
RO
M
PH
E
T
O
50
FI
SP
N
0
H
IG
AT
A
E
R
CO
D
10
AT
5
IN
G
w
ith
Zn
BU
RN
IS
H
IN
G
D
EL
TA
-T
O
D
AC
N
E
RO
BL
U
M
IS
ET
H
32
ZI
N
0
YE
C
LL
PL
O
AT
W
IN
ZI
G
N
C
PL
AT
IN
G

0%
.3

.3
Zn

/N

i+

LU

LU
/F
e+

Zn

ET

32

0+

LU

BR

BR

.3

0%

0%

0,000

3. Analysis of the effects of lubricants


Were compared data of coatings used with or without
lubricant (possibly with internal lubrication), in the three

under-head configurations analysed. An example is


shown below.

DELTA-TONE
0,500
0,450
0,400

ges
0,350
0,300
0,250

concave u-hd

flat u-hd

convex u-hd

not lubr.

0,191

0,192

0,179

5%

0,176

0,176

0,164

30%

0,127

0,137

0,117

full lubr.

0,109

0,105

0,103

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

10

204
CHARACTERISATION

OF FRICTION
COEFFICIENT IN BOLTED JOINTS

4. Analysis of G values: the friction coefficient values in


the thread G are relatively constant as under-head
geometry varies, whereas differences in values can be
measured in the different configurations for
galvanising (here there was a tendency for surfaces
to seize).
5. Analysis of k and ges values: there are significant
differences in friction coefficients in the three
geometries. In particular, coefficient values are always
lower in convex geometry and are at their highest in
screws with a concave under-head, whereas screws
with flat under-head have intermediate values.
The total friction coefficient ges has values between those
of the other two friction coefficients. This is because this
coefficient is an approximation of k and G.

Considering the values measured and shown in the


preceding graphs, it can be concluded that:
1. The friction coefficient values (total, under-head, and
on-thread) are lower in chemical organic, chemical
phosphatic (the former are the best) and in electrolytic
Zinc-Iron and Zinc-Nickel coatings. This behaviour can
be explained by the fact that the surface of these
coatings absorbs lubricants better.
The lowest coefficient is obtained with CHEMICAL
COATING + CONCENTRATED LUBRICANT.
2. As we had supposed previously, friction coefficients
drop considerably as surface lubrication increases.
3. The trend of the off-average deviations once again
shows that the worst coatings are non-lubricated
electrolytic coatings.

CONCLUSIONS
The measured friction coefficient values are essential
parameters for sizing bolted joints.
The bolts and the forces required to tighten them must be
proportionally measured so that the assembly thus
obtained is able to perform its functions and resist
operating stresses.

The acquired data make it possible:


to calculate the tightening moment MA at imposed load
to calculate the load force Fv at imposed tightening
torque
to assess the most suitable coating for the assembly
(by building a Torque-tension graph containing the
trends based on the total friction coefficients obtained
from the tests).

16
14
12
10

Fv[KN]

8
6
4
2
0
0

10

15

20

MA[Nm]
DACROMET 320+LUBR.30%
DELTA-SEAL
ZINC / IRON
DACROMET 320+LUBR.5%
ZINC / NICKEL.
PHOSPHATE COATING with Mn
DELTA-TONE+LUBR.30%

10

MICROPHOSPHATE COATING
DACROMET 500
PHOSPHATE COATING with Zn
YELLOW ZINC PL.+LUB.30%
DELTA-TONE+LUBR.5%
BURNISHING

AGRATI

GROUP

FINIGARD 105
DELTA-TONE
DACROMET 320
BLUISH ZINC PLATING
YELLOW ZINC PL.+LUBR.5%
YELLOW ZINC PLATING

ED. 2001-A

205
CHARACTERISATION

OF FRICTION
COEFFICIENT IN BOLTED JOINTS

As we also know the under-head and on-thread


coefficient values, we can show the load variation range
depending on the k and G coefficients, by means of the
following three-dimensional graph.
The analysis we carried out was based on a German
standard - DIN 946 (of 1991) supplying laboratory test

prescriptions, and returning values to be used as a clientproducer interface.


Therefore, the tests that were run can be a source of data
useful for drafting an international standard (this is now
in progress).

TREND OF FV ACCORDING TO FRICTION COEFFICIENTS


SPECIFIED MA TORQUE (20Nm)
28

26

24

22

20

18

Fv

16

14

12
10
8
6
0,05

4
2

0,2

AGRATI

0,55

0,5
0,45

0,35

0,25

0,15

0,05

0,35

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

10

206

RESEARCH

AND

DEVELOPMENT

FATIGUE

BEHAVIOUR
OF HIGH RESISTANCE BOLTS

Agrati has promoted collaboration with the Milan


Polytechnic for an in-depth study of mechanical and
metallurgical subjects. One of the subjects concerns
fatigue behaviour of high resistance bolts.
To be precise, the main objective is establishing the
influence of a finite set of parameters, considered
fundamental in connection with behaviour under fatigue
of threaded elements.
The incidence of the following variables on fatigue
resistance will be studied:
Geometrical
pitch (large or small);
thread bottom radius (standard and at maximum of
permissible tolerance);
Technological
rolling before and after heat treatment;
Mechanical - metallurgical
resistance class of steel;
chemical analysis of the material.
It was decided to run bending fatigue tests on M10

threaded elements, using the rapid 2TM831 test


machines by Italsigma S.r.l of Forl, located at the
Department of Mechanics of the Milan Polytechnic.
In addition to considering the variables we have
specified, the study was run to consider also other
equally important parameters. If the latter parameters
were not taken into consideration, they may have a
significant effect on the fatigue resistance of the finished
product, and thus lead to very unreliable results.
These variables, studied by preventive laboratory
controls, are as follows:

10

AGRATI

de-carburation or re-carburation of steel;


surface defects on the original rod;
thread defects;
level of work-hardening induced by thread rolling;
materials fibres trend.
The optimal geometry for the specimens was determined by
running preliminary checks on possible implementable
solutions. The results at this stage of experimentation led to
the definition of a specimen consisting of an entirely
threaded bar and two bushes glued at their ends to enable
the piece to be gripped by the machine and prevent
unscrewing.
In the context of all the suggested variables, attention was
focused on the use of 30 MnB 4 boron steel (relating to
resistance class 10.9) and on assessment of the most
important parameter: the effect of rolling performed
before and after heat treatment in the work cycle. In fact,
the following three specimen classes were studied:
Screws10x1.25
rolled after heat treatment;
Screws 10x1.5
rolled after heat treatment;
Screws 10x1.5
rolled before heat treatment;
The following checks were run on the threaded bars:
Geometrical check: the external, medium and core
diameters were measured, verifying compliance with
the tolerances specified in DIN 13-20:1999.
The relevant dimensions complied with the values
indicated by the standard.
Measurement of thread profile: the thread profile of
the three screw classes was measured with a contact
profilometer, and the main dimensions obtained were
compared with the values indicated by the companys
internal standards. In this case too, the check result
complied with the relevant specifications.
Mechanical tests: further tensile strength and hardness
tests were run to show any variations in mechanical
characteristics following rolling. The values obtained
show that, as concerns tensile strength behaviour, rolling
and rolling position in the production cycle had no
significant incidence.

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Analysis of surface defects;


a visual check confirmed the absence of hardening
cracks, scoring, damage and lapping as specified
under standard UNI EN 26157/3.
Metallographic analysis:
- Control of decarburation level according to
the microhardness method indicated in standard
ISO 898-1:1999: the result complied with the relevant
specifications.
- Control of work-hardening level induced by rolling,
by radially executing 20 microhardness tests at
distances of 0.05 mm from each other, starting from
the thread bottom.
The results show that the screw classes rolled after
heat treatment, have a more accentuated workhardened surface compared to the other.

A further recorded data-item is the variation in


hardness of approximately 10% between surface and
core. Finally, it was noted that the work-hardening
effect occurs within an 0.2 mm thick surface layer,
beyond which hardness does not change significantly.
- Structural survey of the crystalline grain and of fibre
trend, using an optical microscope. This study made it
possible to appreciate the structural differences
between different screw classes according to the
different production process.
Here are some illustrations:

M10x1.5 rolled after heat treatment

M10x1.5 rolled before heat treatment

The illustrations show the stress relieving effect on the


structure when heat treatment follows rolling, because
marked fibre orientation due to plastic deformation is
absent.
The bending fatigue tests were run at the laboratory of the
Department of Mechanics at Milan Polytechnic in order
to determine the limit of fatigue, i.e. the load value
corresponding to a theoretically indefinite duration.
However, this limit was set at 3106 cycles for the tests,
due to the results obtained with the prototypes of the
preliminary experiments.

The results were evaluated by applying the Staircase


statistical method specified under standard ISO 300 93.

AGRATI

The results led to the definition of the following fatigue


limits for the three classes under consideration:
A. Screws M10x1,25 rolled after heat treatment:
Faf = 500 [MPa]
B. Screws M10x1,5 rolled after heat treatment:
Faf = 506 [MPa]
C. Screws M10x1,5 rolled before heat treatment:
Faf = 164 [MPa]

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208
FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR
OF HIGH RESISTANCE BOLTS

COMMENTS
There is a small difference between large and small
pitch screws of categories A and B; this minimum
deviation in favour of the 1.5 mm pitch is due to the fact
that the large pitch screw is affected to a greater extent by
permanent set, since its thread size is greater than that of
the fine pitch screw and, consequently, this state of
greater plasticisation (very slight) causes a slight increase
in fatigue limit.
This difference is approximately 1% and, therefore, it can
be concluded that, although thread pitch causes this
slight difference, this parameter is not statistically
significant in terms of bending fatigue behaviour.

FAILURE
M10x1,5 rolled after heat treatment
The figure clearly shows the external circular crown of
the work-hardened surface layer. There are no particular
faults or abnormal notch effects, and it can therefore be
concluded that failure began inside the cross-section or,
as Italian jargon would put it, under-the-skin.

As we expected, the most influential variable is rolling


position with respect to heat treatment in the work cycle.
There is a variation in fatigue limit of approximately
300% among categories B and C this can be justified
as follows:
1. In case B, the permanent set occurs in pre-hardened
material which is thus more highly stressed.
2. In case C, the thermal treatment has a stress relieving
effect on fibres previously deformed by rolling.

METHOD

M10x1.5 rolled before heat treatment


Enormous structural and behavioural differences can be
noted, compared to the previous case, as proof of the
importance of the rolling parameter vs. the hardening
parameter. The outer layer of the permanently set material
is no longer visible and, therefore, these specimens are
more vulnerable to external notches. This justifies the fact
that all observed cracks originated on the surface and not
underneath.

CONCLUSIONS
Pieces rolled after heat treatment manifest centralised
crack triggering, which provides extra protection against
slight surface defects and negligible decarburation.
Pieces rolled before heat treatment are particularly
sensitive to external notching; a minimum fault can
trigger fatigue failure. Consequently, lowering the fatigue
limit for this product class is justified.

10

AGRATI

The result of this study would seem to encourage


producers to set rolling at the cycle end, i.e. after
hardening. However, this practice poses some
technological problems tool (flat or cylindrical) life
would be drastically shortened. This means that
hundreds of thousands of pieces/unit would be reduced
to tens of thousands. The actual advisability of this
solution, in economic terms too, should be assessed case
by case.

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FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR
OF HIGH RESISTANCE BOLTS

Breaking surface of the M10x1.5


rolled after heat treatment

Breaking surface of the M10x1.5


rolled before heat treatment

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A

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210

RESEARCH

AND

DEVELOPMENT

RESEARCH

ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS


FOR HIGH RESISTANCE GRADES

The research was carried out in connection with the


revision of standard ISO 898-1 "Mechanical properties of
fasteners, in order to supply to the delegates of working
group ISO/TC2/SC1/WG9 data on the mechanical
characteristics at ambient temperature of the most used

boron and alloyed steels hardened by tempering at


different temperature levels.
The aim of these considerations was the re-definition of
resistance class 12.9, as concerns both chemical analysis
and tempering temperature.

METHODS
The following research methods were used:
three boron steels and two alloyed steels were
examined, corresponding to those specified under

standard EN 10263. The analyses of these five steels


are shown in the following table:

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRODUCT, % IN WEIGHT


C

30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

37 Cr 4

37 Cr Mo 4

0.29

0.29

0.32

0.35

0.36

Si

0.08

0.11

0.13

0.19

0.08

Mn

0.84

0.88

0.98

0.79

0.75

0.014

0.009

0.01

0.008

0.009

0.006

0.006

0.015

0.009

0.008

Cr

0.16

0.18

0.40

0.96

1.02

Mo

0.04

0.09

0.12

0.02

0.22

Cu

0.12

0.14

0.13

0.12

0.08

0.003

0.002

0.002

0.0003

0.0002

Hexagon head screws were produced with the above


steels. The screws were partially threaded according to
ISO 4014 M16x120 so that resilience tests could be run
with this diameter. The screws were hardened, their
percentage of martensite (over 90%) was controlled, and
they were then tempered.
The working group requested the following tempering
temperatures: 380 C, 410 C and 425 C. These
temperatures are the values prescribed by EN ISO 898-1
and two of the new suggested temperature values. For

10

AGRATI

every type of steel, we added a fourth temperature to


these three, suitable for obtaining the class 12.9
resistance characteristics.
The following measurements were taken on the specimen
of each type of steel and at each temperature level.
- unit ultimate tensile strength Rm [MPa];
- unit load of deviation from proportionality Rp0,2 [MPa];
- elongation after breaking A %;
- Reduction area after fracture Z%;
- resilience KU [J].

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RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS
FOR HIGH RESISTANCE GRADES

TENSILE STRENGTH
1580

1540

1500

1460

1420

1340

Rm

[MPa]

1380

1300

1260

1220

1180

1140

1100
360

370

380

390

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

C
30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

Ultimate tensile strength


The diagram illustrates that the tempering temperatures
suitable for resistance class 12.9 (Rm min=1220 MPa) range
from approximately 410C for boron steel with fewer
alloying elements to about 480C for more alloyed steel.

AGRATI

37 Cr 4

37 Cr Mo 4

Consequently, if we prescribed a minimum tempering


temperature of 380C to 410C, all five steels would be
used, whereas, on a minimum of 425C, only the two
alloyed steels and one boron steel would be used.

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212
RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS
FOR HIGH RESISTANCE GRADES

UNIT LOAD CAUSING DEVIATION FROM PROPORTIONALITY / TENSILE STRENGTH


1,00

0,99

0,98

0,97

Rp0,2/ Rm

0,96

0,95

0,94

0,93

0,92

0,91

0,90
360

370

380

390

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

C
30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

Unit load of deviation from proportionality


With this characteristic, comparing it to ultimate
tensile strength, there is a greater elasticity limit in

10

AGRATI

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

37 Cr 4

37 Cr Mo 4

boron steels than in alloyed steels.

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RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS
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ELONGATION AFTER FAILURE


15

14

A%

13

12

11

10

9
360

370

380

390

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

C
30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

Elongation after breaking


Whereas, temperature being equal, the elongation values
appear better for boron steels than for alloyed steels, these

AGRATI

37 Cr 4

37 Cr Mo 4

temperature resemble each other at the temperatures


used to temper each steel to satisfy class 12.9.

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214
RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS
FOR HIGH RESISTANCE GRADES

REDUCTION AREA AFTER FRACTURE

66

65

64

63

62

61

60

59

Z%

58

57

56

55

54

53

52

51

50

49

48
360

370

380

390

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

C
30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

Reduction area after fracture


As concerns this characteristic, there is a clear
difference between boron steels (with more

10

AGRATI

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

37 Cr 4

37 Cr Mo 4

flexible behaviour) and alloyed steels.

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RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS
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RESILIENCE

66

65

64

62

61

60

KU [J]

58

57

56

55

53

52

51

50

49
360

370

380

390

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

C
30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

Resilience
Resilience of boron steels at ambient temperature is
much greater than that of alloyed steels. Although this
aspect is not part of our research, it is well known that

AGRATI

37 Cr 4

the same behaviour


temperatures.

GROUP

37 Cr Mo 4

is

obtained

at

sub-zero

ED. 2001-A

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RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF BOLT STEELS
FOR HIGH RESISTANCE GRADES

CONCLUSION
In connection with the temperatures suggested for
analysis, and as regards the characteristics being
examined, the excellent performance of boron steels
compared to alloyed steels is confirmed. Readier
evaluation can be obtained from the following table. The

table shows the characteristics of each type of steel at the


same unit ultimate tensile strength (approximately 1300
Mpa, the average value for class 12.9), obtained from the
previous diagrams.

BEHAVIOUR OF STEELS: AT SAME TENSILE STRENGTH (1300 MPa)

10

Type of steel

30 Mn B 4

30 Mo B 1

31 Cr Mo B 2-1

37 Cr 4

37 Cr Mo 4

Tempering
temperature
[C]

380

380

410

450

480

Rm [MPa]

1330

1342

1336

1303

1280

Rp0,2 [MPa]

1279

1285

1277

1214

1218

Rp0,2/Rm

0.96

0.96

0.96

0.93

0.95

A%

13

12

13

12

13

Z%

62

60

58

55

57

KU [J]

48

50

41

30

33

AGRATI

GROUP

ED. 2001-A