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_________________________________________1.

Radicali

1 Radicali
1.1 Operazioni con i radicali
1.2 Razionalizzazione
1.3 Radicali doppi
1.4 Potenze con esponente frazionario
1.5 Numeri complessi

1. Radicali_________________________________________

1.1 Operazioni con i radicali.


1.1.1 Le condizioni di esistenza.

Esempi:
Calcolare le condizioni affinch possano esistere i seguenti radicali:

1.

2.

3.

ab

non in quanto il radicando negativo

solo se a 0

solo se ab 0 cio se a e b sono numeri concordi

4.

x 1 solo se x 1 0 x 1 .

5.

x 2 4 solo se x 2 4 0

6.

4a 2

7.

16a 2 ( a 1 )

8.

( a + 1)( a 1)

a in quanto a 2 sempre o positivo o nullo

se a + 1 0 a 1

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Calcolare le condizioni affinch possano esistere i seguenti radicali:

1.

x 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2.

2x 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3.

2x 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4.

x3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

5.

x2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6.

x + 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

7.

8.

x
y

x 2 ( 3 x 1) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

y
__________________________________________
x2

9.

3 x2
_______________________________________
4 ( 4 x 1)

10.

81a 4 b 2 ( a b ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2

1. Radicali_________________________________________

1.1.2 Semplificazione dei radicali.


Esempi:
Semplificare i seguenti radicali:

1.

27 = 6 3 3 = 3

2.

a3 = 3 a

3.

( a 1)

4.

( x 1)

5.

4a 2 12ab + 9b 2 = 6 ( 2a 3b ) =

7.

8.

( a 1)

x 1

( 9a

6.

6ab + b 2

( 3a b )

= 3a b

8a 3 b6 = 6 2 3 a 3 b6 = 2ab 2

1
1
2
+ 2+
=
2
x
y
xy

2a 3b

a ,b

a ,b

se a 0

x 2 + y 2 + 2 xy
=
x2 y2

( x + y)
2

x y

x+ y
xy

x , y {0}

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Semplificare i seguenti radicali:

1.

15

R. 3 4

1024 =

__________________________________________________

2.

12

R. 4 3 y

27 y 3 =

__________________________________________________

3.

12

R. 3 3 a b 2 c

81a 4 b8 c 4 =

__________________________________________________

4.

R. x 6

x 2 12 x + 36 =

__________________________________________________

5.

R. 3 x 2 2 x 1

x 4 4 x5 + 4 x6 =

__________________________________________________

6.

( x + y) ( x y)
3

R. x 2 y 2

__________________________________________________

7.

( x y)

R.

a2

x y

__________________________________________________

8.

12

a 6 ( a 1)

( a + 1)

a 2 ( a 1)

R. 4
2
( a + 1 )

________________________________________ __________

9.

12

2
R. 4 x ( a + b )

x3 (a + b) =
6

__________________________________________________

1. Radicali_________________________________________

Esercizi da svolgere (livello superiore):


Semplificare i seguenti radicali:

1.

x+1
R.
2 y + 1

x2 + 2x + 1
=
4 y2 + 4 y + 1

__________________________________________________

2.

2x 1
R. 3

x 1

8 x 3 12 x 2 + 6 x 1
=
x3 3 x2 + 3 x 1

__________________________________________________

3.

27 a 3 + 81a 2 + 81a + 27

(a

2a + 1

3 ( a + 1)

R. 3
4
( a 1 )

__________________________________________________

4.

(a
(b

2
2

)
1)

a2 1
R. 3 2
b +1

+ 1 4a 2
2

+ 4b 2

__________________________________________________

_________________________________________1. Radicali

5.

a b
R.

2a 4 b a 3 b 2
1
=
a5

__________________________________________________

6.

(a

+ b4

) (a
2

b4

R. 2a 2 b 2

__________________________________________________

7.

R. a x + 1

a 2 x + 2a x + 1 =

__________________________________________________

8.

(a

) (a b)
(a b )

b4
2

a 2 + b2 2 a b 3

R.

a+b

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

9.

1. Radicali_________________________________________

1.1.3 Operazioni con i radicali.


Esempi:
Effettuare le operazioni indicate tra radicali:

5 3 60 = 900 = 30

1.

2.

2a + 3
4a 9 6

2a 3
2

( 2a 3 )

2a + 3

2a + 3

( 2a 3 )( 2a + 3 )
2a 3

( 2a 3 ) ( 2a + 3 )

( 2a 3 )

2a + 3

2a + 3 ( 2a 3 )
6
6
=
2a 3 ( 2a + 3 ) 3
6

( 2a + 3 ) ( 2a 3 )
= 6 ( 2a 3 ) ( 2a + 3 )
( 2a 3 ) ( 2a + 3 )3
6

3.

=6

x y
1
x
: + + 2
=
x+ y
y
x
xy

x2

( x + y)

( x + y)
:
x6 y6

= = 6 ( 2a 3 )

=6

x
:
x+ y

x2

x2 y2

x6 y6

( x + y) ( x + y)
2

( x + y)

=6

x8 y6

( x + y)

x4 y3
3

( x + y)

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Eseguire le operazioni tra radicali:

1.

R. 27 a 3

3a 2 9a 3 27a =

__________________________________________________

2.

R. 6 x 5

x 3 x : x =

__________________________________________________

3.

R. 3 a 4 b 3
4

2
9 2 2
a
ab =
3
4

__________________________________________________

R. 3 5 8

4. 5 3 125 6 125 12 625 6 25 =

__________________________________________________

5. ( a b ) ( a b ) 3 ( a b )
3

10
R. 3 ( a b )

__________________________________________________

1. Radicali_________________________________________

6. 3 ( a + b ) 2 ( a + b )
4

a + b 12 3
6

=
12
4

3 a+b 9
(
)
R. 4

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

7.

a+1 2
(
)
R. 6

a + 1 3 a 1 6 a2 1
=

a 1 a +1
a

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________
b3 a + b 6 a + b

:
=
a+b
ab
a b

8. 3 a

R. 3 a 2 + ab + b 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

10

_________________________________________1. Radicali
9. ( 3 3 )

R. 6 2 3

__________________________________________________

10. ( 2 5 5 2 )

R. 10 7 2 10

__________________________________________________

11.

2 x 2+ x

) (
2

R. 9 x 2

4 x2 + 1 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

12.

3 3 3

6 6 6

2 2 2

R. 12 3 42 6 6 2 + 62

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

11

1. Radicali_________________________________________

Esercizi da svolgere (livello superiore):


Calcolare il valore delle seguenti espressioni con radicali:

1.

x + 1
R.

x 1

x2 + 1 2x
x3 + 3x2 + 3 x + 1 3 x
1

+
=
2
3
2
x + 2x + 1 x 3x + 3x 1 x 1 1 x

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2.

(a

: 3 ( a + 1) 4

a+1

(a

+a+1

12

(a
(a

+a+1

7
R. 4 ( a 1 )

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

12

_________________________________________1. Radicali
3

3.

1 3 2 1 3
1
a9

=
a a : a a a + a + 1 12
5

( a 1)

3
R. 4 ( a + 1 )

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

4. ( 2 2 + 3 3 1)

R. 2 18 2 2 3 3 + 6 6

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

5. ( 1 3 )

R. 4 7 4 3

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

13

1. Radicali_________________________________________

6. ( x x y )

x+ y+

x y

)=
2

R.[ 2 y ]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

7.

2 x + 3 8 x 3 12 x 2 + 27 x 27 3
2
4x 9

: ( 2 x 3) =
2x 3
2x + 3
2

R.[ 2 x 3 ]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

14

_________________________________________1. Radicali
x y

( x y) =
8. + 2 : 3 x 2 y 2 : 3 3 3
2
x y ( x + y)
y x

R.[1]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

9. ( a + 2 ) + ( a + b ) ( a + b + 2 ) ( 2 a )
2

R. 4

a b 1

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

15

1. Radicali_________________________________________

10. ( 1 + 2 2 3 3 ) ( 1 2 ) =
2

R. 29 + 9 2 6 3 12 6

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

11.

(2

) (
2

3 1

3+ 2 +1

)(

) (

3 + 2 1 +

2 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

_________________________________

16

R. 11 + 14 2 4 3 2 6

_________________________________________1. Radicali

1.2 Razionalizzazione.
Esempi:
1.

2
2 2
2 2
=
=
= 2
2
2
2 2

2.

2
2 a+b
=
a+b
a+b
3

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

a3

3
a a

3 a
a2

2
2
2 3 2
2 3 2 2 3 2 3
=
=
=
=
= 2
3
3
3
2
4 3 22 3 22 3 2
2
2
4

a 2 b2

2 4 a 2 b2

a 2 b2

12 3 + 2
12
=
= 12
32
3 2
a a2 1
a + a 1
2

a
(
=

3+ 2

)(

a2 1 a a2 1
a a +1
2

17

) = 2a

2a a 2 1 1

1. Radicali_________________________________________

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Rendere razionali i denominatori delle seguenti frazioni:

1.

3
2 2

3 2
R.

__________________________________________________

7a

2.

7
R.

343a 2

__________________________________________________

x+1

3.

x2 1

x2 1
R.

x 1

__________________________________________________

x + 2x
=
x

4.

R. 1 + 2

__________________________________________________

5.

ab
4

a b

R. 4 a 2 b

__________________________________________________

6.

2
=
3 2

R. 2

2+ 3

__________________________________________________

18

_________________________________________1. Radicali

7.

2 3 7
R.

7 +2 3
=
19 + 4 21

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

8.

a + a 2 b2
R.
b

a +b + a b
=
a +b a b

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

9.

3 2 2 3 30
R.

2
=
3+ 5 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

19

1. Radicali_________________________________________

10.

2 3 +1
=
3 +1+ 6

R. 1 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

11.

3+ 2
3 2

3 7 + 14
R.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

12.

a + 2 2 2a
R.

a2

a 2
=
a+ 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

20

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Esercizi da svolgere (livello superiore):


Rendere razionali i denominatori delle seguenti frazioni:

1.

1
1

1a
1+a =
a
a

1a
1+a

a
R.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2.

x 3 14 x 5
x 7 x6

R.[ 1]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

21

1. Radicali_________________________________________
4 x2 y ( x y)

3.
3

16 x y

( x y)

R. 3 4 x 2 y ( x y )

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

4.

xy + 3 xy 2
3

x y

R. 6 x + 6 y

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

5.

ab
a 2b3 + a 5b

b a a2
R. 2
3
b a

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

22

_________________________________________1. Radicali

6.

9 + 15
R.

48 + 27 125
=
12 + 108 6 5

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

7.

2 2+3
=
6 + 3+ 2 +2

R. 6 + 3 2 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

23

1. Radicali_________________________________________

8.

11 + 4 6
R.

50

75 48 + 2
=
48 + 12 8

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

9.

45 + 9

)(

5 3

( 5 2 5 )(

)(

5 2

2 5

)=

R. 5 + 10
5

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

24

_________________________________________1. Radicali

1.3 Radicali doppi.


Si definisce radicale doppio o radicale quadratico una
espressione del tipo:

a+ b

oppure

a b

Ad esempio sono radicali doppi i seguenti:

2 3 ;

4+2 3 ;

a3 b .

Per trasformare un radicale doppio nella somma o differenza


di due radicali semplici, necessario che il termine a 2 b sia
un quadrato perfetto: solo in tale ipotesi il radicale doppio
si pu trasformare nella somma o differenza di due
radicali semplici, utilizzando la formula seguente:

a + a2 b
a a2 b
a b =

2
2

Esempi:

1.

3+ 8 =

3+ 98
3 98
4
2
+
=
+
= 2 +1
2
2
2
2

2. 8 2 15 = 8 60 = =

8 + 64 60
8 64 60

= 5 3
2
2

25

1. Radicali_________________________________________

3. 4a 2 + b + 4a b = 4a 2 + b + 16a 2 b =
=

4a 2 + b +

+b

16a 2 b

( 4a

4a 2 + b +

( 4a
2

4a 2 + b

( 4a

+b

16a 2 b

2
4a 2 + b

( 4a

4a 2 + b + 4a 2 b
4a 2 + b 4a 2 + b
+
= 4a 2 + b = 2a + b
2
2

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Calcolare i seguenti radicali doppi trasformandoli, ove possibile, in
somme o differenze di radicali semplici:

1.

14 + 2
R.

4+ 7 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2.

22 2
R.

6 11 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

26

_________________________________________1. Radicali
3.

R. 26

7 + 13 + 7 13 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

4.

R. 5 1

3 2 2 + 7 2 10 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

5.

R. x 1 + 1

x +2 x 1 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

27

1. Radicali_________________________________________

Esercizi da svolgere (livello superiore):


Calcolare i seguenti radicali doppi trasformandoli, ove possibile, in
somme o differenze di radicali semplici:

1.

R. x + y

x2 + y2 + 2 x2 y2 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2.

2 4 15 + 11 2 30 + 13 2 42 =

R. 7 3

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

28

_________________________________________1. Radicali
3.

R.[ 4 ]

3 5 64 2 3+ 5 6+4 2 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________
2

4.

x2 + x4 y2 + x2 x4 y2 =

R. 2 x 2 + y

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

29

1. Radicali_________________________________________

5.

( a + 1) + ( a + 1)

1 +

( a + 1) ( a + 1)

1 =

a+2
a
+
R.

2
2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

6.

R. x y 1 1

x y 2 x y 1 =

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

30

_________________________________________1. Radicali

1.4 Potenze con esponente frazionario.

Esempi:
Trasformare le seguenti potenze con esponente frazionario, in radicali:

1.

3
2

2 = 23 = 2 2

2
5

2.

a = 5 a2

3.

( a 1) 2 = a 1

4.

2
3

1
3

2
3

32

1
2

1
a

3
3
a a
a
a =

=
1
a
a
a
2
a
1
2

5.

1
3
9

1
2


a
1 1
1
1
1 1
3
1
1

1
= a 3 2 = a 4 a 6 = a 4 a 6 = a 4 6 = a 12 = 12 a .
a
3
2

31

1. Radicali_________________________________________

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Calcolare il valore delle seguenti potenze :

2
3

1. 8 2 2

1
2

R.[1]

__________________________________________________
2

2.

2
2
25 3 5 =

3 52
R.

125

__________________________________________________
1

3.

4 2
1


2
2
125 5 =

R.[ 5]

__________________________________________________

4.

12 21
2 3

1
2

3 3 3
: 6 2 2 2 : 12 2 =

R. 2 2

__________________________________________________

32

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Esercizi da svolgere (livello superiore):


Calcolare il valore delle seguenti potenze :

1.

a
a

1
2

2
3

:a

3
2

3
2

a
: 1 =

a2

1
R. 2
a

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2.

1
2

1
2

2 4 8
16

1
2

2 0 ,5 4 1 ,5 8 3 ,5
8

R. 2 16 2

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

33

1. Radicali_________________________________________

3.

1
10

1
100

1
100

2 2
32
=
0 ,001
0 ,01
16
2
8 0 ,0001

R. 10000 21457

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________
1,2

4.

a
a 2 ,3

21 2
3 ,1
a a =

R. a 5 12 a 11

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

34

_________________________________________1. Radicali

1.5 Numeri complessi.


Esempi:
Calcolare il valore delle seguenti espressioni con numeri complessi:

1. ( 2 i ) ( 1 + 2i ) + ( 2i 1)( 2i + 1) =
2

= 4 1 4i 1 + 4 4i 4i 1 = 5 12i .

2. ( 2i + 3 ) ( 3i 2 ) = 6i 2 4i + 9i 6 = 6 + 5i 6 = 5i 12

3.

2 i ( 2 i )( 3 i ) 6 2i 3i 1 5 5i 1 i
=
=
=
=
3 + i ( 3 + i )( 3 i )
9+1
10
2

4.

3 + i 2 + i 1 ( 3 + i )( 2 + i ) ( 2 + i ) i i
6 + 3i + 2i 1 2i 1
+
=
+

+i =
2i
3i
i
4+1
3
1
5
3

18 + 9i + 6i 3 10i + 5 + 15i 20i + 20 4i + 4


=
=
.
15
15
3

35

1. Radicali_________________________________________

Esercizi da svolgere (livello base):


Calcolare il valore delle seguenti espressioni con numeri complessi:

1.

R.[ 20i ]

25 4 + 100 2 1 + 3 9 =

__________________________________________________

R.[ 22 7 i ]

2. ( 3 + 2i )( 4 5i ) =

__________________________________________________

R.[ 116 29i ]

3. ( 2i + 5 )( i 4 )( 2i 5 ) =

__________________________________________________

4.

i+1
=
3i 1

1 2i
R.

__________________________________________________

R.[ 5 12i ]

5. ( 3 2i ) =
2

__________________________________________________

36

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Esercizi da svolgere (livello superiore):


Calcolare il valore delle seguenti espressioni con numeri complessi:

1. ( 2i 1) ( 2i + 1) ( 1 i )
2

R.[ 50 50i ]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2. ( 3i 2 ) ( 3i + 2 )
3

R.[ 2197 ]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

3.

2i 3 2+i
+
2+i 3 2i

( 3 )
3
+
3 4 ( 3 )
4

51
R.
7

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

37

1. Radicali_________________________________________
3i
i + 2 ( 1 + 3i ) =
4. ( 1 + i )( 1 i ) + 3 ( 3 + 2i )
2+i

R.[0 ]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

5. ( 2 i )( 2 + i ) + ( 2 i )2 + ( 2 + i )2 ( 1 + i )3 =

R.[ 22 + 22i ]

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

38

_________________________________________1. Radicali

Scheda di autovalutazione
Calcola il valore delle seguenti espressioni (tempo 90 minuti):

1.

x+ y
x y
1
4 2
8 2
=
2
x y
x + 2 xy + y
x + y 2 2 xy

2. (

a + b + ab

3. (

3 +1

4.
5.

)(
2

3 2

a 1+ b

1
R .

x y

b 1+ 2 a

) + ( 3 3 ) (1 3 )
2

R. 2 ab
R. 34 20 3

R. 2 + 1

7 + 4 3 14 4 6 + 4 2 3

11 + 2 10
R.

2 +2 5
2 2 5
1

6.

1 2

1 2

1 b 2
a
ab a

a
R. 8
b

R.[ 8 24i ]

7. ( 2 3i )2 + ( 2i 1 )2 ( 2i + 2 )2

PUNTEGGIO
esercizi n. 1-2 5..........................punti 1
esercizi n.3-4-6-7......................punti 2

punti
11-10
9-7
6-5
<5

voto
9-8
7-6
5
4-3

39

valutazione
buono
sufficiente
mediocre
insufficiente