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PPPoE ("Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet"):

- PPPoE è un derivato del protocollo PPP impiegato in connessioni ADSL

- PPPoE è un protocollo di tunneling che incapsula trame PPP in frame Ethernet

Il server PPPoE è il BRAS remoto (router aggregator ADSL)

Il PPPoE client può essere:

a) Il dialup software installato nell’host: in questo caso ogni host utilizza un suo individuale

b) Il router dell’host (no dialup software): in questo caso tutti gli host condividono lo stesso

Instaurazione della connessione:

La sessione PPOE inizializzata dal client (Modem o Router ADSL) si capitalizza attraverso 2 fasi

a) PPPoE Discovery:

E’ la fase di rilevamento del mac-address router ISP aggregator avviata dal PPPoE client.
Richiede lo scambio di 4 pacchetti:
- PADI (PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation):

il PPPoE client invia un pacchetto PADI broadcast (MAC: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) per segnalare il tipo di servizio


- PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer):

I PPPoE server che possono erogare il servizio richiesto dal client risponderanno con un pacchetto

PADO unicast contenente il loro mac address

- PADR (PPPoE Active Discovery Request):

il PPPoE client invia un pacchetto PADR unicast al router aggregator selezionato per richiedergli l’ID

- PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Session confirmation):

Il PPPoE server selezionato risponde al client con un pacchetto PADS contenente l’ID della sessione

PPoE che si sta instaurando

- PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Termination):

È il pacchetto inviato dal client o dal server PPPoE per terminare una connessione PPPoE

a) PPPoE Session :

E’ la fase in cui via LCP vengono negoziati MRU, il tipo di autenticazione (PAP o CHAP);

se l’autenticazione va a buon fine si entra in fase NCP e successivamente avviene lo scambio

dei pacchetti dati.

Il client IP address pubblico viene rilasciato via IPCP dal router aggregator (BRAS)
Struttura della trama PPPoE:

Per la tramma PPPoE valgono le seguenti considerazioni:

L’incapsulamento della trama PPP in Ethernet introduce 8 bytes di overhead:

Poiché PPoE introduce un PPPoE header = 6 bytes e PPP ID = 2 bytes

a) MTU della trama PPPoE = (MTU Ethernet – PPPoE header – PPP Header) = 1500 – 6 – 2 = 1492 bytes

b) MSS = (MTU PPPoE – header TCP – header IP) = 1492 – 20 – 20 = 1452 bytes

Nell’Ethernet header il campo Ethernet Type è settato al valore 0x8863 in fase di PPPoE Discovery stage.
Nell’Ethernet header il campo Ethernet Type è settato al valore 0x8864 in fase di PPPoE Session stage.

Tasks di configurazione PPPoE su CPE:

1) Configurazione interfaccia LAN Ethernet:

interface Ethernet0/0
description ***Internal Private Network***
ip address
ip tcp mss-adjust 1452

2) Configurazione interfaccia PPPoE (ADSL interface):

in due modalità:

2a) con interfaccia ethernet:

interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
pppoe enable
pppoe-client dial-pool-number 1

2b) con interfaccia ATM:

interface ATM0/0
no ip address
dsl operating-mode auto
pvc 8/35
pppoe-client dial-pool-number 1

3) Configurazione DSL Dialer Interface:

interface Dialer0
ip address negotiated
ip mtu 1492
encapsulation ppp
dialer pool 1

4) Configurazione autenticazione CHAP PPP:

interface Dialer0
ppp authentication chap username
ppp chap password password

5) Configurazione PAT:

interface Ethernet0/0
ip nat inside
interface Dialer0
ip nat outside
ip nat inside source list 100 interface dialer0 overload
access-list 100 permit ip any

6) Configurazione DHCP:

ip dhcp excluded-address

ip dhcp pool PCLAN
import all

7) Configurazione Default static route:

ip route interface dialer0

Troubleshooting sessione PPPoE:

PPPoE-CPE# show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
ATM0 unassigned YES manual up up
ATM0.1 unassigned YES unset up up
Ethernet0 YES manual up up

If the statuses of ATM0 and ATM0.1 are up and the protocol is up, begin to troubleshoot at Layer 2.

If the ATM interfaces are down, or if they continue to come up and then go down (they do not stay
up and up), begin to troubleshoot at Layer 1.


7200-17# show interface atm 4/0

ATM4/0 is up, line protocol is up
Internet address is
MTU 4470 bytes, sub MTU 4470, BW 149760 Kbit, DLY 80 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
NSAP address: 47.009181000000009021449C01.777777777777.77
Encapsulation ATM, loopback not set
Keepalive not supported
Encapsulation(s): AAL5
4096 maximum active VCs, 7 current VCCs
VC idle disconnect time: 300 seconds
Signalling vc = 5, vpi = 0, vci = 5
UNI Version = 4.0, Link Side = user
0 carrier transitions
Last input 00:00:05, output 00:00:05, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/675/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: Per VC Queueing
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
44060 packets input, 618911 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
65411 packets output, 1554954 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out


show atm interface atm 0/0/0

Interface ATM0/0/0:
AAL enabled: AAL5,, Maximum VCs: 8, Current VCCs: 1

VCIs per VPI: 1024,

Max. Datagram Size: 1658
PLIM Type: ADSL - 887Kbps Upstream, DMT, TX clocking: LINE
198286203 input, 1677750 output, 281727 IN fast, 149110058 OUT fast
Avail bw = 887
Config. is ACTIVE

show atm pvc interface ATM 0/1/0

VCD / Peak Av/Min Burst
Interface Name VPI VCI Type Encaps SC Kbps Kbps Cells St
0/1/0 2 0 101 PVC SNAP UBR 1261 UP

ATM# show controllers atm 1/2

Part of IMA group 1

Link 2 IMA Info:
group index is 2
Tx link id is 2, TX link state is unusableFault
Rx link id is 99, Rx link state is unusableFailed
Rx link failure status is lodsFailure,
1 TX failures, 3 rx failures
Link 2 Framer Info:
framing is ESF, line code is B8ZS, fdl is ANSI
cable-length is short 0-133ft,
clock src is line, payload-scrambling is disabled, no loopback
line status is 0x1; or no alarm.
port is active, link is available
0 idle rx, 0 correctable hec rx, 6 uncorrectable hec rx
275527047 cells rx, 0 cells TX, 790977 rx fifo overrun.
Link (2):DS-1 MIB DATA:
Data in current interval (831 seconds elapsed):
0 Line Code Violations, 0 Path Code Violations
0 Slip Secs, 0 Fr Loss Secs, 0 Line Err Secs, 0 Degraded Mins
0 Errored Secs, 0 Bursty Err Secs, 0 Severely Err Secs, 0 Unavail Secs
Total Data (last 84 15 minute intervals):
130660 Line Code Violations, 38 Path Code Violations,
0 Slip Secs, 309 Fr Loss Secs, 11 Line Err Secs, 0 Degraded Mins,
1 Errored Secs, 1 Bursty Err Secs, 0 Severely Err Secs, 339 Unavail Secs
SAR counter totals across all links and groups:
0 cells output, 0 cells stripped
0 cells input, 0 cells discarded, 0 AAL5 frames discarded
0 pci bus err, 0 dma FIFO full err, 0 rsm parity err
0 rsm syn err, 0 rsm/seg q full err, 0 rsm overflow err
0 hs q full err, 0 no free buff q err, 0 seg underflow err
0 host seg stat q full err

Router# terminal monitor

Router# debug atm event
ATM events debugging is on

If the modem state stays at "0x8" and says "Could not establish connection," it means that the Cisco
SOHO77 has not heard from the central office (CO) . It does not see an incoming signal.

1d01h: DSL: 1: Modem state = 0x8
1d01h: DSL: 2: Modem state = 0x8
1d01h: DSL: 3: Modem state = 0x8
1d01h: DSL: 4: Modem state = 0x8
1d01h: DSL: 5: Modem state = 0x8
1d01h: DSL: Could not establish connection
<... snipped ...>

If the modem state changes from "0x8" to "SHOWTIME," it means that the Cisco SOHO77 has
successfully trained with the DSLAM.

00:24:18: DSL: 2: Modem state = 0x8
00:24:21: DSL: 3: Modem state = 0x8
00:24:23: DSL: 4: Modem state = 0x8
00:24:26: DSL: 5: Modem state = 0x8
00:24:28: DSL: 6: Modem state = 0x10
00:24:31: DSL: 7: Modem state = 0x10
00:24:33: DSL: 8: Modem state = 0x10
00:24:36: DSL: 9: Modem state = 0x10
00:24:37: DSL: Received response: 0x24
00:24:37: DSL: Showtime!
<... snipped ...>

Router# show dsl interface atm 0

Alcatel 20190 chipset information
Modem Status: Showtime (DMTDSL_SHOWTIME)

SHOWTIME indicates the line is in sync - it's showtime baby!

DSL Mode: ITU G.992.5 (ADSL2+) Annex A

ITU STD NUM: 0x03 0x2
Chip Vendor ID: 'STMI' 'BDCM'
Chip Vendor Specific: 0x0000 0x6193
Chip Vendor Country: 0x0F 0xB5
Modem Vendor ID: 'CSCO' ' '
Modem Vendor Specific: 0x0000 0x0000
Modem Vendor Country: 0xB5 0x00
Serial Number Near:
Serial Number Far:
Modem VerChip ID: C196 (3)
DFE BOM: DFE3.0 Annex A (1)
Capacity Used: 82% 99%
Noise Margin: 12.5 dB 5.5 dB
Output Power: 11.5 dBm 12.0 dBm
Attenuation: 5.5 dB 0.0 dB
FEC ES Errors: 0 0
ES Errors: 1 287
SES Errors: 1 0
LOSES Errors: 1 0
UES Errors: 0 276233
Defect Status: None None
Last Fail Code: None
Watchdog Counter: 0x56
Watchdog Resets: 0
Selftest Result: 0x00
Subfunction: 0x00
Interrupts: 4147 (0 spurious)
PHY Access Err: 0
Activations: 3
LED Status: ON
LED On Time: 100
LED Off Time: 100
Init FW: init_AMR-4.0.015_no_bist.bin
Operation FW: AMR-4.0.015.bin
FW Source: embedded
FW Version: 4.0.15
DS Channel1 DS Channel0 US Channel1 US Channel0
Speed (kbps): 0 19999 0 1192
Cells: 0 0 0 1680867
Reed-Solomon EC: 0 0 0 0
CRC Errors: 0 0 0 326
Header Errors: 0 0 0 131
Total BER: 0E-0 65535E-0
Leakage Average BER: 0E-0 65535E-255
Interleave Delay: 0 36 0 11
Bitswap: enabled enabled
Bitswap success: 0 0
Bitswap failure: 0 0
LOM Monitoring : Disabled
DMT Bits Per Bin
000: 0 0 0 0 F F F F F F F F F F F F
010: 0 0 3 0 F F F F F F F F F F F F
020: F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

For Noise Margin: (the higher this value, the better)

8-13 Average
14-22 Very Good
23-28 Excellent

For Attenuation: (the lower this value, the better)

20-30 Excellent
30-40 Very Good
40-60 Average

Ping atm interface command

Verifies PVC integrity to the Verifies end-to-end

immediate neighboring ATM device PVC
end-to-end OAM echoes segment OAM echoes end-to-end
OAM echoes
\ | /
ping atm interface atm 0/0/0 0 38 {<cr> | seg-loopback | end-loopback}
\ \
\ vci value <1-1023> Virtual Channel Identifier
vpi value <0-31> Virtual Path Identifier

PVC - permanent virtual circuit

ATM - asynchronous transfer mode

PPPoE-CPE# show vpdn

%No active L2TP tunnels
%No active L2F tunnels

PPPoE Tunnel and Session Information Total tunnels 1 sessions 1

PPPoE Tunnel Information

Session count: 1

PPPoE Session Information

1 0050.7359.35b7 0001.96a4.84ac Vi1 UP AT0 1 1


PPPoE-CPE# show pppoe session

%No active L2TP tunnels
%No active L2F tunnels
PPPoE Session Information Total tunnels 1 sessions 1
Session count: 1
PPPoE Session Information
SID RemMAC LocMAC Intf Vast OIntf VP/VC
1 0050.7359.35b7 0001.96a4.84ac Vi1 UP ATM0 8/35

- SID è l’ID della sessione PPPoE

- RemMAC è il mac address remote del router aggregator

- LocMAC è il mac address locale della CPE

- Vast indica se la sessione PPPoE si è negoziata ed autenticata


PPPoE-CPE# show pppoe session all

Total PPPoE sessions 1

session id: 14432

local MAC address: 000f.24af.2479, remote MAC address: 001d.b570.0c3a

virtual access interface: Vi2, outgoing interface: Eth0/1

4670143 packets sent, 6188171 received

1583486727 bytes sent, 1886806545 received

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