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REGOLAZIONE DELL ESPRESSIONE GENICA

REGOLAZIONE DELL ESPRESSIONE GENICA


altri meccanismi:
rimodellamento della cromatina
modificazioni post-traduzionali degli istoni
metilazione del DNA
..
REGOLAZIONE DELL ESPRESSIONE GENICA
Sviluppo embrionale
Differenziamento cellulare
Esperimento di GURDON: trapianto di nucleo da cellula
somatica (pelle) nella cellula uovo non fecondata (1968)
Figure 8-2b Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Nelle piante, almeno nella carota, una qualsiasi cellula capace di rigenerare una
pianta.
Pecora Dolly
1996-2003
--telomeri??
--pecora Dolly:
caratteristiche della
donatrice di nucleo della
cellula mammaria e
qualche caratteristica
della madre surrogata
Figure 8-2c Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Altri mammiferi .
Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner
mass cells within a blastocyst. The stem cells can
become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta.
Only the morula's cells are totipotent, able to become
all tissues and a placenta.
Meccanismi di regolazione dellespressione
genica
fase di morfogenesi
fase di differenziamento
cellule totipotenti
cellule embrionali pluripotenti
cellule adulte pluripotenti
iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cells)
REGOLAZIONE DELL ESPRESSIONE GENICA
Sviluppo embrionale
Differenziamento cellulare
Sviluppo embrionale di Drosophila M.
Figure 8-13 Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Figure 8-14 Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Figure 8-23a Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Figure 8-23 Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Figure 8-23b Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)
Homeodomain fold
The homeodomain fold is a protein
structural domain that binds DNA or RNA and is
thus commonly found in transcription
factors.
[2][3]
The fold consists of a 60-amino acid .
Homeodomain folds are found exclusively in
eukaryotes.
Many homeodomains induce cellular
differentiation by initiating the cascades of
coregulated genes required to produce individual
tissues and organs, while homeodomain proteins
like Nanog are involved in maintaining
pluripotency.
the Antennapedia homeodomain protein
from Drosophila melanogaster bound to a
fragment of DNA.
[1]
The recognition helix
and unstructured N-terminus are bound in
the major and minor grooves respecti
the homeobox is a stretch of DNA about 180 nucleotides long that
encodes a homeodomain.
Homeobox genes code for homeodomain proteins in both vertebrates
and invertebrates.
The existence of homeoboxes was first discovered in Drosophila,
where the radical alterations that resulted from mutations in homeobox
genes were termed homeotic mutations.
The most famous such mutation is Antennapedia, in which legs grow
from the head of a fly instead of the expected antennae.
Homeobox genes are critical in the establishment of body axes during
embryogenesis.
The consensus 60-polypeptide chain is [1](
RRRKRTA-YTRYQLLE-LEKEFLF-NRYLTRRRRIELAHSL-
NLTERHIKIWFQN-RRMK-WKKEN
The motif is highly conserved over hundreds of millions of years of
evolutionary history, with typically 80% match in the corresponding
nucleotide sequence to the consensus sequence across species,
genera and phyla.
Gene 5 Antennapedia
Gene 6 Bithorax