Sei sulla pagina 1di 5

TABLE rz(b). s PER CENT POTNTS OF THE F.

DISTRIBUTION
F: \

vr

lXt, wherc X1 end X:


I vr'

arc independent rrndom

variables distributed as ,1r with v, and v, degrccs of freedom

repectivcly, then the probabilities that F > F(P) and that


F < ,F'(P) arc both equal to P/roo. Linear interpolation in
v, znd, v, will generally be suftciently accuratc crcept when
cither u, > r2 or vt ) 4c., when harmonic interpolation
should be uscd.

(This shapc tpplics only when r,


et thc origin,)

9t=
Yr

=r

r
t6r'4

.2
3
I

7'709

6'608

r8'5r

ro'r3

s's8z

7 S'S9r
8 S'gr8
9 5'rr7
IO

II
t2
r3

t1
r5
r6
17

r8
r9
20

2r
zit
23
24

4'965

4'844
4'7+7
+'667
+'6oo
+'s+3

+'49+
4'+5r
4.'4r+

4'38r
4'351

+'325
4'30r
1'279
4'2,fu

25

+" 1'

zG

+'.45
+'2Io

27
2A

.t.r96

29

4'r83

3o
32

+'t7r

34
36
38
4o
60
',2()
ao

+'r+9
4'r30
4't t3
4'o98
4'o85
4'OOr

3'920

3'84r

z3o'2
r9'3o
9'ot3
6'256

5',r92
4'SJ4
4.t2o
3'838
3.633

5'o5o
+387
3'972
3'687
3'482

3-4?8
3'357
3.259
3.t79
3.tt2

3'326
3'2o+ .
3'to6
3'o2S
a'gSB

3'217
3'095
2'996
2'915

2'9ot
z'8ro

2'790
2'74r
z'699

2'773
2'74o

2.66r

3't27

3'056
3'oo7
2.965
z'gz8
z'895

z'6z8

3'+93 S'o98
3',46? 3'd72
3'443 3'049
3.42:. 3'oz8
3.403 3'oo9
3.385 z'g9r
3'369 . 2'975
3'354 z'96o
3'340 2'947
3.328 z'93+

z'866
z'84o
2.817
2'796
2'776
- z.7sg
2-t43
z'7z9
z'Zt4
2.7ot

2'7tr
z'685

2'599
2'573

2'66t

2'S+9

z'64o

z'528

z'6zr

2.5o8

z-'cr,3
2.587
2'572
.'558
2'S4S

z.+74
2'+59
2'145

199'5

215'7
9'277

5'786

. 5'409

5'143
4'737
4.+S9
4'256

r9'r6
6'59r

+'757
4',347

4.o66

3'863

4'ro3
3'982
3'88S
3'8o6
3'739

3'Zo8
3'S8Z

3.682
3'634
3.592t
3'555'
3'522

3'287

3.316
3'295
3'276
3'2sg
3r2q1
3.2X2
3.tso
3'072
2'996

3'490

3'4r r
3'344
3'239
3.127
3'r oo

2'922

2'9ol

2'69o
a'668

z'883

2.65o

z'866
z'852

2'631
2.6r9

2'839
2'?58
z'68o

2.6o6
2'525

z'6ns

2'372

2'4+7

3.

When u,

Z8

4s6
zz4'6
19'25
g'rt7
6.388

I9'oo
9'552
6'gca

2'852

23+'o
19'33

8'94I
6'163
4'950

+'284
s'866
3'58r
3'37+

z'848

46'8
19'35

8'887
6'og+
4'876
4'207
3'?87
3.5oo
3'293

238'9
L9'37
8.8+s

6'o4r
+'8r8
+.r47
3'?26
3'438
3'230

24r'9
r9'4o
8'286 ,
5'964
4'735
4'o6o
3'q7
3'347
3'137
2'9?8
z'85+
2'753'
z'671
z'6oz

3'135
3'ot2
2'913
z'892.
2.764

3'072

2-lo7
2'657
z'614
z'sTl
2'54+

2.64t

2'477

2'544
2'494
z'45oj
2'+t2
2,378

z'sr+
z'+88
2'46+
2.142

2'447
z.4zo

2'32,

2'948

2,849
2'767
2.699

2.Sgr
2's48

2'5ro

2'397
2.375

2.1((
2.337

2'+32

z'+os
z'388
2'373
2.359
2346

2's34 z'pt
2.st2 2'399
z'1g+ z'38o
2'177 2364
2'463 2'349
z'1*g 2'i36
z'368 .2'254
2.290 2't7S
2.2t1 2'o99

2.33+
2'313
2.294
2277
z'z6z
2.249
z'167
2.o87
2'o ro

5r

3 the mode is

24

z.t:L't

2'49o.

<

23zt
2'3oS

2'29t
2'278
2.266
2,'24+

2'225
a'2a9

2'rg+
z.r8o
2'a97

z'o16
r'938

2348
:
2.297'
2'275
z'z1s'
z'236
2'2zo
2'204
2.t9O
2'177
z.r6s
2'142
2't23
z'ro6
2'A9r
2'O?7
r'993
r'9ro
r'83r

243.9

rg.4r
8.1+S

S.9r"
4'6?8
4.ooo

3'szs
3'284
3'073

2'gr3
2.788
2.687

2.6o4
2.53+
2'475
2.425

z'38r
2.342
2.3o8
z.z7&

2'250

z.zz6
2.2a4
2.183

z't65
2.t48
2't32

Z.r:8
2'ro4
2.c,92

z'o7o
2.o5o

2'o33
2,Ot7
2'oo3
r'9 ! 7

r.83+

t,7sz

2+9.r
19.45
8'6rS
s.1j+
4'527
3'84r
3.4ro
3'rr5
2'9oo

.25+.3

rg.5o
8.526
5.628

4'365
3.669

3,230
2.929
2'707

2'737 2.538
lfug
2'4c,4
z.sos 2.296
2'+2o z.zo6
2.3+g 2,r3t
z'288 z'o66
2'215 2.OrO
2:rgo t'gfo
2'r 50
!'9r7
2.tt4 r.878
z'o8z r'843
2,o54 t.Brz
z.oz8 r'?83
2.oo5 t'7s7
r'984 ,'733
t'964 r'7tt
r.946 r'69r
r-g3o t'672,
r'654
:'9 r S
r'638
r.go r
r'882
r'86+
r'843
t'824
r.8o8
r'793
t'?@
r'6o8
r'sr7

r'6zz
r'594
r'569
r'547

t'Sz'l
r'5os

l'38s

r'zs/

r'oo(

,i.

TABLE 8. PERCENTAGE POINTS OF THE X,.DTSTRIBUTIoN


This table giver percentlge points X](P) dcfined
equation

Prl'

FRl,

by

c-t, dt.

Jrr,r,",,_,
If X is a variablc distributcd es ;t with p degrecs of freedom,
P/roo is the probabiliry thar X > X|(P).
For v > t*, ,lz* is approximately normaily distributed
with mcan J;A and unit variancey

P50
=r
z
3
4
5

6
z
I

9
ro
Ir
12
13
14
r5

r6
17

r8

r9
20

,24

40
0.4549

r.386
z'366
3'357

+'35r
s's+8

6't+6

z:u
8'343

9.342

ro.34

tt-34
12.34

t3'34
r4'34
!5'34
r6'34
r7'34
r8'3+

r9'34

2t

20'34

ztt
23

22'3+

2t'3+
23'3+

25
26

24'34
2S'3+

.28

z6'3+
27'3+

29

283+

'3('

29'3+
32
34
36
s8
40
5o

?o
80
90

too

3l'34
33'34
3S'34

37'34
39'3+
,+9'33

59'33

6g'lr

79'33

8s'l

99'3 3

30

o,7o83 t.o74

r'83:
2.946
' 4.o4S

z'4o8
3-665

4.878

S't3z 6.o64
r 7.23r
7'283 8.s8r
8.351 9.524
9.414 ro.66
ro'+7 r r.78
rI'53 t2.go
12.58 r4.or
13'64 tS.t2
t4'69 16.zz
15.73 t7.32
16.78 t8.+2
t7.82 t9.Sr
18'87 zo.6o
t9'9 r
zt.6g
6.er

20'95 22.77
21.99 4.86
23.03 24.9+
24'o7 z6.oz
27.to
"5.rr
z6'14 28.t7
z7.tB zg.25
z8.zr 3c.32
29.25 3r.39
3o.a8 32.16
3l'32 33'53
33'38 35.66
35'14 3?'80
37'50 39'92
39'56 4.2'os
qt.6z u.t6
5r'89 S1'?2
62.r3 65.zl
72'36 75.69
8z'57 86.re
9z'i6
ro2'9

96.52

ro6'9

20
r'642
3'2tg
4'642
5'989

(The abore chapc epplies for


at thc origin.)

r;

3 only. When

v<

2-5
r
5
o.5
o.r
z'7o6
6'6SS 7'879 : o'83
3'84r 5.o24
4'605
5'991 7378 9'zro ro.6o r3.82
6'z5t
rr.34 12,84 t6.27
2.8 r 5
9.348
13'28 14.86 a8.4j
7'77s
9.488 rr.r4
t5'o9 16.2S zo'Sz
7.28s y46 rr.o? rz'83
12.59 r4.+5
8'Ss8 ro'64
16'8r 18.55 22.46
t4'o7 16.or
18'48 zo.z8 24.32
9'803 tz'oz
r5'5r t7.53 2o'o9 2t.95 z6.tz
rr'o3 r3'36
16.9z tg.oz
t2'24 14'68
2t.67 23.59 27.88
r 8'3 r
2o.48
13'44 15'99
23.2t 25.19
29'59
19'68 2r.gz
r+'63 17'28
4'7z- z6-16
3 r'e6
2r'o3 23.3+ z6.zz 28.3o
r5'8r r8'5S
32'gr
zz'36 24.74
16'98 r9'8r
27.69 zg,8z
34'53
r8':5 'zt'a6 zS'68 z6.tz 29.14 3r.32 36'tz
2s.oo 27.49 30'58 32.80 37.70
r9'3r 22'3r
26.3o e8.8S
20'47 23'5+
32'oo 34.27 39.25
zr.61 24'77 27'59 3o.r9
33'41 35'72 40..79
z8'87 3t.53 3+'8r 37,16 42'3r
22-76 25'99
23'90 27'20
3o'r4 32.85 36.19
..38.58 43.82
z8'4r
zs'o+
3r.4r 3+.r7
37'57 4o.oo 45.3r
z6'17 z9'62 32.67 35'48
38'93 4r.4o +6.8o
27.30 3o'8r
33'92 36.78
4a'29 42.80 *8-27
28'43 32'or
31'rj 38.o8 4r'64 44.t8 q9-73
29.55 .33'20
36.+2 39.36 42'98 45.56 r'r I

3 the mode

ro

3o'68 3f X8
lt'?g 35'56
3z'gr 36'7+
3{o3 37'92
35'14 39'09

37'6s
{.o'6s
- +r.92
38'89
40'ILf3'19
1r'34 ++'.f6
12.56 15.72

36'25 1o'26
38.17 42'58
40.68 11'90
42'88 +7'tt
4s'o8 49'st

4317
16'19
48.6'o
5r'oo
s3.38

17'27 5t'8t
58'16 63'17
6897 71'+o
7g'7r 85'Sl
go..it 96'sg
ror't to7'6
ttt'7 r r8'5

55?6 59'34
67.50 7r.+2
29.08 83.3o
90.53 95.02
tor'9 ro6.6
r13'r r18.r
rz+'3 rz9'6
+t

+6's8

49.{8
St.9?
s1.1+
59.90

{4'3r 46'93 3z-62


45'64 +8.29 S4.os
46'96 +9.6+ sS.48
+828 So.99 S6-8C
,+9.S9 52.34 S8.3o
jo'89 $.67 Sg.7o
53',(9 S6'Ss 6z'4s
S6.o6 58.96 61.zs
58.62 6r.58 6'Z.gg
6r'16 64.18 7o-?o
6r{c 66.22 73.10
Z6.15 7s.+9 86-66
88.:8 9r-9S 99'6r
loo.4 to4.2 r r2.3
t r2'3
r16.3 t24"8
tz4'r 128.3 t37.2
r3S'8 r4o,2 t49'4

o'05

,2'r2
r

5.2o
17'73
20.oo

22.I1
24.tA

z6'oz
2?'87
29'67

3r'42

33't4
3+'82

s6'+8

38't r

39'72

4r'3 t

42'88
44'43
45'97

47'50

49'ot

50'5 r
52'Oo

s3'48
54'95

s6'4r
s7'86
59'30
6o'7s

6z'16
6S'oo

6z'8o
70'59
73'35
76'09
8g's6

toz'7

rr5'6
r28.3

r4o'8
r53'2

ir

3."
'''t' li

TABLE 9. THE
Y=
t = O'o

'r
'2
'3
'4

,+

o'5ooo
'537+

o'5ooo

'5744

'57s 3

'6 ro4

'6+5"

'5 379

'6rr9
'6+72

o'S o.6783 o.68o9


.7096 .7127
'6
'7
'7382 '7424
.8
.7652 -77oo
'9
',7905 '7953
r'o o'8r3o o.8r8+
'r
'8SlS .8ggl
.858 r
'z
'85 18
.8683 .82+8
'3
.8829 .8898
'4
!'S
'6
'7
'8
'9

o'8960
.goj6
'9128
'9269
'9349

o'9o3o
.9148

'925r

.934r

'942i

'-DISTRIBUTION

628
o'5ooo o'5ooo o'5ooo
'5382 'S38{ '5386
'sz6o 'Sj6+ '5768
'6129 '6136 '6r4t
'6+8S '6+SS '65o2

'6522

'539r

.s7?B

.6rs7
.6sz+

o.83o6
'8S26

o.83r5 o'8322

.9055

'89ro .89rg
.9o66 .9o?5

.9084

o'gt6t
.928o
.9383
'9473
.g5sr

o.gt?Z
.gzg7
.94oo
'9490
-9s6?

a.gtgr

o.92o3 a.g2r2

'9322
'9426
'9515
.9S9r

o.g27t

.9414
.9503
.9S8o

o.g6t7
'9674
'9723
'976s
.98or

0.9633
.9690
.9739
'9779
-9813

o.9646

0.9657

'8623

'87g:
'89+s

o'9o79
'9196
'93oo
'9390
'9469

o'9II4
'gz7z
'9335
'9+26
'9504

o'8,267

'8+8r
'8678
'8,8S

'9oo5

o'9t4o
'9259

'9362
'94s2
.'9530

o'98oo
.9819
'9835
.9850
's86+

o.985o

'969+ 'g7z|
's734 's7q

'983 r

'9863

3.S o.g8Z6 o.99r4


'6
'9886 'ssu,z
'7
'9896 '9930
'8
'9904 '9937
'9
'99t2 '9943
4'o o.99r9 0.9948
'9926 .9953
'r
.2
.gg3z .9998
'3
'9937 '996r
.i
.994:2 .9965

r9

o,5ooo

-8514
-87r:
.8886
.go4r

'98ro

'ggo4

'65

'539r
"5777
'6rss

o.8296

.gBzz
'9844

.9866
.988o
.9893

.6516

o'5ooo

o.8283
.85or
'8696
'887o
'9025

r
'86s+
'8826
'8gzs
'846

3'o
.r
'2
.3
'4

.8

'5774
.615r

o'5ooo
'5390
'5776
.6r53

o'8247

'8+rl

'9

-6

o.5ooo
.5389

o'8zzo

o'97Q7
'9797

z'5

]h,:

o.6869 o'6873

o.g?28
'9759
.9786

'4

o'seoo
.5388
'5773
'6148
.6512

o'g7g1

'9823
's847
's867
'9885

'9748
'978+

o'98r5
'98+z

's86s
'98.8+

'99or

o'988o
'9894
'9s67
'9918
'9928

o'99oo
'9913
'9925
'993+
'9943

o'99r5

o'9936

o'99so
'99s6
'9962
'9966
'997r

o'99fo

'99{3
'9950
'9955

9960

'9927
'9937
'99+6

'99s3
'gb6s
'997a
'997+

'99i7

a.gg7+

+3

.93

ro

.g7az

.g71o
.9790

.98"4

o.6g75

.1zro

'?8o+ .7Bro
.8o78

-7523

.zErs
.SoSi

'8sss '8s++o.g3z9
.8ist
'8zt+ '87+z .ais"

'9712
'975e
'9799
'983?

o.986o o.9867

a'9925
'9936
'9946
'9954
.996I

0'9933 o.g94o
'9944 '9949
'9953 .9958
'99to '9965
-9966 -gg7o

0'9945
'9954
.9962
'9968
'9s74

o.9966
.992r
'9975
'9979
.9982

o.99?r o.997S
-9976 :99?9
'9979 .9982
'9983 '9985
.998s .9988

0.9978 o'998o

.s88+
.9903
.9:9zo
'9933

'gggz
'9985
'998?
'9989

.8gzZ

'9332 .9340
.9435 -9441
"9525 '9533
'960r .9609
o'9666 0.967+
-g7zt -9728
.9768 -s77+.
.9807 '9813
.9840 .98+6

o.983r 0.9843 o.9852


's8s6 'e868 .s8?7
.9878 .s888' .s8s7
.9896 .9906 .ggr+
'9912 .992r .9928

o'998o
0'9984
'9977 '9983
'998?
.9980 '9985
'9988
.9982 '9987
'9990
'9975
'999r
'9977
'9984 '9989
.f'S 0'9946 o.gg68 o.gg?9 o'9986 o'999o 0'9993
.6
.99So .99?r .9g&z '9988 '999I '9994
'9953 'ss73 '9e83 '9989 '9992 '9994
'7
'8
'gss7 '9976 '9985 '9990 '999J '9995
.9
.9960 .9978 '9986 '999r '9994 '9996
5'o 0'9963 o.9g7g o'9988 o'ggg2 o'999S 0'9996

o'9964
'9968
'9972

.B7zs
'88ss

.Z2oz '72o6
'7514 .7519

.8o7r

.i:"

14 t'l

t2

o'6855 o.686 r o.6865


.7rg7
'? r 83
'7 t9\
'7492 .l1or .ZSo8
'?778 .7788 '77s7
.8o42 .8oS4 '8o61

o.9666
'97e
'973a
'9756
'9779

,2

'tg.

o'6818 o'68+l
'2t63 '7ti+
'2462 '748t
'7766
'72 So
'8oro '8roz8

o'9S38 o'9572 tr'9597


'9598 '963r :96s5
.96+9 .968r ' 'wos

.I

'\.

o'6826
'7148
'74+s
'7zzq
'?986

o'9+t9 o.949o
'9482 '9S5r
'gs3? '9605
'9S8S .965 r
'9628 .9692

a.'o

grotr
o'5ooo
.5382
'577a
'6145
'65o8

FUNCTION

.9890
.9909
.9925
'9938

0.9823
.989s

.9914
.gg2g

'9s42

a'9949 0.9952
'9958 '996r
"996s .9s68
'997r '9s74
's976 '9s78

"g984
'9s87
'998e
'999r

o'9982
'9986
'9988
'9990
'9992

0.998? o.999o 0'9991 (}.9992 0'9993


'9e89 '9e9r
'9994 '9995
"9993
'999r .9993
'9995 '9996
'9994
'9992 '999+
'sgs6 '9996
'9995
'9993 '9995
'9996
'9e96 '9997
0'999+ o'999S 0.9996 0.9992 0'9998
'9995 .9996 .999?, .9998 .9998
'9996 'ggg7 .ggs7 -9998 '9998
'9996 '9992 '9998 .9998 '9999
'ggs7 .9998 .9998 .9999 .9999
o'ggg7 0.9998 0.9998 0.9999

0.9999

.:d
tr.jlxi

is
,ili,

'

.i*i.

i#l

- .df

-\"

'
i&".d

TABLE 9. THE
r5

L7

o'5ooo
'5392
'5780
'6r6o
.6528

o'5ooo
'5392
'S78r

o'688r
'Zzts
'7530
.?823
'8ogs

o'6883

'909r

o'8339
.8562
.8762
'89+o
.9o97

r'S o'gzz9
'6
'9348
'7
'945 r
'8 -. '9540
:9616
'9
o'968o
'9735

t = O'o

'r
'z
'3
'4

o'S
'6
I

'8
.9
r'o
'r
.2
'3
'4

2'O
'I

O'5oOo

's392
's779
'6159

'6526
o'6878

"lzt3
tJ.t

'?8 19

.8o88

0'8334

'8ssz
.82s6

'8qt+

'978t
J

'98r9

'4

's8st

2'5

o'9872
'9900

.6

.8

'9

1,

r6

'99r8
'9933
'9945

3'o
'r
-2
'3
'4

o'99t5

3'5
'6
"7
'8
'9

0'9984
'9987
'9989

1'o
't
'2
'3
'1

0'9994
'9995
'9996
'9997
'9997

.t'5

o'9998

'9963
'9970
'9976
'998<'

'999r
'9993

'616t
'65zg

'.DISTRIBUTION

r8

o'5ooo

'5393
'5zgr

'6162
'653r

FUNCTION

r9

4o

o.5ooo o'5ooo

o'5ooo
's393
's782

'5393
'5782
'6t6+
'6sll

'6163

'6532

'5394
's784
'6t66
'6'lt

o.5ooo
'5395
'5286

O'5Ooo O,soco

'6t69

;6s++ '6s+t

'654o

o'688+ o'6886
'722a '7222
.7fi6 l$8
'j829 '7812
'8roo '8ro3

o'6881 o'6892
'722+ '7t29
'75+o '7547
.?83+ .78+z
.8ro6 '8r r5

o'6896

0'8343
'8562
'8262
'8c+s
"9ro3

o'83+z

0.8354 o'8364

0'83?3
'86oo
'88o2
'8982

0'9235
'9354
'9458
'9546
'96zz

o'924o
'9360
'9+63
'9552
'9622

o-9245

o'9686
'97+o
'9786
'9824

o'969r

o'9696 .

'cgss

'72t8
'7533
'7826
'8o97

'97+S

'979c
'9823
'9859

o'9882 o'9885
'9903 ',9907
'99z,r '992+
's936 "9938
'9948 '99so
o'9958 0'9960
'ee66 '9967
'9972 '997+
'9977 '9979
-9982 9983
0'9985 o'9986
'9988 9989
'9990 '999r
'9992 9993
'9994 '999+
0'9995 0',9995
9996 '9996
'999? '9997
'sgs7 '9998
'9998 '9998
0.9998 0'9998

'852r

'8772
'89so
'9ta7

'936s
'9468
'gss7
'501"

'975a
'g79+
'9832
'9863

o'9888
'99ro
'9927
'994r
'9952

o'835r
'8Szs

'8116
'895+

'9rt2

o'925o

'9t70
'9+73

'956r
'S616

o'97oo
'9753

's7s8
'9835
'g866

'7553
'?8So
'8124

.8S8S
'879r
.892o
'9128

0'9254
.gJ7+
'9477
.9s65
.9640

o'9267
.9387
'9490
'9528
'g6sz

o'928o

o'97o+ 0'9?15

0'9?21

'gr4t

.98fu 's827
0.9894 o'99o2

o'989r

.ggt+
. '993I
'9945
.9956

'99t2
'9929
'9943
'9954

o'sg6z 0'9963
'9969 '997r
'sg75 '9976
.9980 '998r
'9984 '998s
ll.9982 o'9988
'9990 '9990
'9992 '9992
'9993 '999+
'9995 '9995
0'9996 0'9996
'9997 '9997
'ssg7 '9998
.eee8 '9998
.9998 '9998
0'9999

'7235

.8S28
.8ZZg
.8SS8
'9r 16

'97s7 '9768
.98or '9812
.C8s8 .9848

0'9999

++

6o

'94oo
'9503
'9590

'g66s

'9779

'g8zz
'98s2
's886
o'99o9

'ggzl '992&.
'9937 '9944
'9950 '9956
'996r '9965
0'9965 0'9969 c.9973
'9972 '9976 '99?9
'9978 '998r '9984
.9982 .9985 '9988
'9986 '9988 '9990
0.9989 o'999r 0'9993
999r '9993 i994
'9993 '9994 '9996
'9994 '9996 '9997
9996 '5997 '9997
0.9997 o'9998
o'9996
'9998 '9999
'999?
'9998 '9999
'9998
'9999 '9999
9998
'9999 '9999
'9999
0'9999 0-9999

'5396 s3e7
'S?88 s7B9
'617r '6rZ+

o'69or o'6gos
.72+r '?2+6
7 567
17 56o
:28S8 7866
'8132 '8r4r
o'8383 0'8393
'862 r
'86 ro
.8814 '8826
:8gg5 .9oo7
'9154 '9!6?

o.Sooo
-5398
.5793

-6t7g
'6ss+
o.69r

.7257
'Zsso
.788r
.8rS9

o.84r3

.86+:

.88+s

.go32
'g\92

0:9293
.9413
'95 16
,9603
's677

o'93o6 0.9332
'9426 '9452
"9528 '9SS4
'9616 '964r
'S68s '9713

0:9?38
ig7go
:9832
;9866
:9894
o:99r7
'9935
'9949
'996r
'9970

o'9?5o
.98oo
'9842
.98?5
'ggoz

o.gg?7
'gg8z
9987
j999o
'9992

o'998o

0'9994
9996
'sss7
p998
'9998

0'9999
3999
'9999
'9999

o'9772
.982r
'9861

'9893
'9919

a'99r4 0'9938
'994r '9953
'9955 '996s
'9966 '997+
"9974 '998t
'o'gg87

.9985 '9990
'9989 '9993
.g9gz '9995
'9994 '9997
0'9996 0'9998
"ggg? '9998
'9998 '9999
'9998 '9999
'9999
0'9999
'9999

TABLE IO. PERCENTAGE POINTS OF THE T-DISTRIBUTION


This table gives perccntage points t,(P) defined

by the

cquation

P
r f(|r+|)
,"": fr -Rir)

f'

dt

Jr,ter(r

+rY',)r*'

I-ct Xr and X1 be independent random variables having a


normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance and a
Xt-distribution with v degrees'of freedom rcspectively; then
t = XJ.{W, has Srudent's t-d.isribution with v degrees of
frcedom, and the probabiliry that r > ,,(P) is P/roo. The
lower pcrcentage points are given by symrnetry as -rr(P),
and the probability that ltl > .tr(P) is zP/rco.

40

Y:t
2
3
,+

30

2s

0'3249 o'7265 r'o6oo


.2887 .6qL o.8165
'2767 '58{4 o'7&4s
.z7o7 .5686 o.74oj

g
6
7
8
g

o.z67z

ro
rr
\2
r3
t4
15
16
t7
18
19

o'z6oz
-"596

'26+8

'2632
'z619

'z6ro

.?59c
.2586

.2582
o.2s79
.2576
'2573

.257r
.2569

o'S594 o'7267
'5534 '7t76
'549r 'Zrrr
'5459 '7a64
.S43S 'Zozj

o's4rs
'5399
.s386
'5375
'5366
o'S35?
'5350
'5344
'St38
'5333

20

rs

r3764
r.o6o7
0'9?85
o.94ro

t'963
'386
'zso
.tgo

o'9r9s
'9057
'8S60

'8889
'88g+

o'6998 0'829r
'6s24 '8ZSS
'6sSS '8726
'6s18 '87o2
'69z+ '868r

o'6gtz o'8664
'69or '86+Z
'6892 '86r:
"6884 '862o
'6826 '86ro

22
23
24

o.zs67
'2566
'2564
'2563
'z562

o's32b o'687o
tS3",S '6864
'S32,r '6858

o'5312 o'6844 o'8562


'5309 .684o '8SgZ
'5306 '6812 '855r

20

2l

2S

o'256r

z6

'25to

27

'2559
'2558
'2557

28
29
3o

32
3,r.
36

r8

40
5o

o.2556
'2555
'2553

'2552

.2((t

o'2550

I20

'2547
'25+S
'2539

co

o'251 3

6,o

o'86oo

'859r
'8S8r
'8sZs

.s3r7 '68sr
'S3r4 '68+8 '8S6s
's3q+ '68r+

'8S+6

'S3o2 '683o '85+z


o'S3oo o'6828 o'8538
'S:.g7 '6822 '853o
.s2g4 1'6818 '8523
.s29r l'6814 '8sr7
'S288 '68ro '8512
o'5286 o'68o7 o'85o7
'sz:9 '679+ '8+8s
'5272 '6:86 '8+lz
'S2S8 '6265 '8++6
0'5244 o'6745 o'8416

Thc limiting distribution of I as y tends to infiniry is the


normal disrribution with zero mean and unit variance. When
r is large interpolation in r should be harmonic.

ro

-{\
s (4
)
\/
6'3r+ h'lt/

o's

o.r

o.os

3'9?8
3r'82 6Z'66 3i8.3 636.6
r'886 z'gzo 4'303 6'S6S 9'925 a".33 3r.6o

r'538 2'35J 3'i82 4's4r 5'8+r to'"i :.2..gz


t'533 2't32 2'?76 3'747 q.6o4 7.t?3 8.6ro
r'156 t'476 2'or5 z,SZr 3'365 4'a3z 5'893 6'869
'447
'r34 '4+o r'941
3.7o7 5.ao8 S.9S9
.365 3'143
.rr9 '4rS r'895
z-sql
3'499 4'?85 5.408
'306 z'896 3'355 4.50r 5.o4i
':o8 '397 r'86o
.roo '383 I'833
'z6z z'8zr 3'z1o +.zqi +.781
r:993 r'37z r'8rz z'zz8 2.76+ 3'169 4'144 4'587
.o88 1$
'796 '2or .IrB 3.106 4.025
'437
.o83 .356
'782 't7g .68r 1'O((
?'OlO
'3 18
.a79.. '35o 'Z?t '16o .65o
'22r
J'Bj2
.1176 .345 'i6t .r4S .62+ 3'orz
2'977 3'?87
'140
r.o74 r'34r r'?53 zryr z'6oz z'9+7 3'733 +'o73
-o7t '33? 'j+6 'fzo '583
'gzr '686 4'or5
-069 .333 .74o *. .rro,. -s6z
'8s8 '6+6 3'965
.o67 '33o '?34 'ror
'ss2
'8:8 '6ro 3.922
'86r .S7g r'88r
'o66 '328 '729 'o93 '539
r'o6,4 t'32s r.?zi
-72t.
'063 '323
.o61 32t
'7r7
.o6o .3r9 - '7r+
.oS9 '3ta
'7tr
r.o58
.oS8
.o57
.056
.o5s
r.o55
'o54
.o52
.aS2
.o5r

z'o86
.o8o
'o74
'o6t
'c,64

z.5z9

.sr8
.So8

.soo

.492

r'316 t'7a8 z'c6,o 2.489


.3rS -Io6 '056 .4?g
.3r4 '7o3 "oS2 .+73
.3t3 ?or .o48 .167
'jrr
.'6Ss 'o+S '462
,,697 2'a+2 2.157
r'3ro
'694 'o37 '44s
'309
.69r ' .o32tr .44.t
'3o7
.688 ,.oe8ll .134
36
'686 'az4 '{29
'3o4

r'3o3
rojo
.o47 '2gg
.o+5 'z196
'289
'o1r
t'z8z

l.o36
45

r'684
'626
'6?t
'6S8

2'ozt
2'oo9.
a'ooo
r'98o

r'6+5 r'96o

2'423
',1o3

.39o

'Js8
2.326

2'845
.83r
'8r9
'8o?
'797

:'s52

3'85o

'sos

'792

'Sz7

'8rg

'48S

'768

'467

"I45

2.787 3'450 3'725


'7:19 '435 '707
.71tx .4zr '69o
',+oB '62+
lfu
-756 .396 .6Ss
2'?So
.738
'?28
'7tg
'7tz

3'385
.36s
348
'333
'3r9

g'6+6

2'7o4
'6z8
'660
'6t7
2'576

3'307
'z6r
'z3z
'16o

3'551
'496
'46o
'X73

3'o9o

3'29t

'6zz

'6or
's82

'566