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1

1

Tutti i valori di probabilità e significato α sono in percentuale

2

Standard normale Z

4

Student t

18

χ 2

26

F

di Fisher Snedecor

31

G

di Grubbs

42

G

di Grubbs (variazione della varianza)

47

Hotelling T 2

50

Q

di Dixon

55

C

di Cochran

57

η

differenze quadratiche

63

W di Wilkinson

65

U

di Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon

66

Lilliefors

68

r

(coefficiente di correlazione)

70

3

Distribuzione standard normale

z

Distribuzione standard normale z Tabella dei valori critici 2α z c 100.00000 0.00000 95.00000 0.06271

Tabella dei valori critici

z

c

100.00000

0.00000

95.00000

0.06271

4

90.00000

0.12566

85.00000

0.18911

80.00000

0.25335

75.00000

0.31864

70.00000

0.38532

65.00000

0.45376

60.00000

0.52441

55.00000

0.59776

50.00000

0.67449

45.00000

0.75541

40.00000

0.84162

35.00000

0.93459

30.00000

1.03643

25.00000

1.15035

20.00000

1.28155

19.00000

1.31059

18.00000

1.34075

17.00000

1.37220

16.00000

1.40507

15.00000

1.43954

14.00000

1.47579

13.00000

1.51411

12.00000

1.55477

11.00000

1.59820

10.00000

1.64486

9.50000

1.66959

9.00000

1.69540

8.50000

1.72239

8.00000

1.75068

7.50000

1.78047

7.00000

1.81191

6.50000

1.84525

6.00000

1.88079

5.50000

1.91888

5.00000

1.95997

4.80000

1.97736

4.60000

1.99540

4.50000

2.00465

4.40000

2.01409

4.20000

2.03352

4.00000

2.05375

3.80000

2.07485

3.60000

2.09693

3.50000

2.10836

3.40000

2.12006

3.20000

2.14442

3.00000

2.17008

2.80000

2.19729

2.60000

2.22620

2.50000

2.24140

2.40000

2.25713

2.20000

2.29037

2.00000

2.32635

1.90000

2.34553

1.80000

2.36562

1.70000

2.38671

1.60000

2.40891

1.50000

2.43238

1.40000

2.45727

1.30000

2.48377

1.20000

2.51214

1.10000

2.54270

1.00000

2.57583

0.90000

2.61205

0.80000

2.65208

0.70000

2.69685

0.60000

2.74778

0.50000

2.80703

0.40000

2.87817

0.30000

2.96774

0.20000

3.09023

0.15000

3.17469

0.10000

3.29054

0.08000

3.35279

0.06000

3.43162

0.04000

3.54009

0.02000

3.71903

0.01000

3.89062

0.00500

4.05567

0.00200

4.26499

0.00100

4.41738

0.00050

4.56522

0.00020

4.75439

0.00010

4.89369

0.00005

5.03069

0.00002

5.20892

0.00001

5.34821

Tabella dei significati

z

significato sinistro

significato destro

significato bilaterale

100-α

α

0.000

50.0000000

50.0000000

100.0000000

0.010

50.3989356

49.6010644

99.2021287

0.020

50.7978314

49.2021686

98.4043373

0.030

51.1966473

48.8033527

97.6067053

6

0.040

51.5953437

48.4046563

96.8093127

0.050

51.9938806

48.0061194

96.0122389

0.060

52.3922182

47.6077818

95.2155635

0.070

52.7903170

47.2096830

94.4193660

0.080

53.1881372

46.8118628

93.6237256

0.090

53.5856392

46.4143608

92.8287215

0.100

53.9827837

46.0172163

92.0344326

0.110

54.3795312

45.6204688

91.2409376

0.120

54.7758426

45.2241574

90.4483149

0.130

55.1716786

44.8283214

89.6566427

0.140

55.5670004

44.4329996

88.8659991

0.150

55.9617692

44.0382308

88.0764616

0.160

56.3559462

43.6440538

87.2881075

0.170

56.7494931

43.2505069

86.5010138

0.180

57.1423715

42.8576285

85.7152569

0.190

57.5345434

42.4654566

84.9309132

0.200

57.9259709

42.0740291

84.1480582

0.210

58.3166163

41.6833837

83.3667674

0.220

58.7064422

41.2935578

82.5871156

0.230

59.0954114

40.9045886

81.8091771

0.240

59.4834871

40.5165129

81.0330258

0.250

59.8706325

40.1293675

80.2587350

0.260

60.2568112

39.7431888

79.4863775

0.270

60.6419872

39.3580128

78.7160255

0.280

61.0261247

38.9738753

77.9477507

0.290

61.4091880

38.5908120

77.1816239

0.300

61.7911421

38.2088579

76.4177157

0.310

62.1719521

37.8280479

75.6560958

0.320

62.5515834

37.4484166

74.8968332

0.330

62.9300018

37.0699982

74.1399964

0.340

63.3071735

36.6928265

73.3856530

0.350

63.6830650

36.3169350

72.6338700

0.360

64.0576432

35.9423568

71.8847136

0.370

64.4308754

35.5691246

71.1382493

0.380

64.8027291

35.1972709

70.3945417

0.390

65.1731725

34.8268275

69.6536549

0.400

65.5421740

34.4578260

68.9156519

0.410

65.9097025

34.0902975

68.1805950

0.420

66.2757272

33.7242728

67.4485456

0.430

66.6402178

33.3597822

66.7195644

0.440

67.0031445

32.9968555

65.9937110

0.450

67.3644778

32.6355222

65.2710443

0.460

67.7241888

32.2758112

64.5516223

0.470

68.0822490

31.9177510

63.8355020

0.480

68.4386302

31.5613698

63.1227396

0.490

68.7933049

31.2066951

62.4133902

0.500

69.1462460

30.8537540

61.7075080

0.510

69.4974268

30.5025732

61.0051465

7

0.520

69.8468211

30.1531789

60.3063578

0.530

70.1944033

29.8055967

59.6111934

0.540

70.5401482

29.4598518

58.9197035

0.550

70.8840312

29.1159688

58.2319377

0.560

71.2260280

28.7739720

57.5479441

0.570

71.5661149

28.4338851

56.8677701

0.580

71.9042689

28.0957311

56.1914621

0.590

72.2404674

27.7595326

55.5190653

0.600

72.5746881

27.4253119

54.8506239

0.610

72.9069095

27.0930905

54.1861811

0.620

73.2371105

26.7628895

53.5257790

0.630

73.5652706

26.4347294

52.8694588

0.640

73.8913699

26.1086301

52.2172603

0.650

74.2153887

25.7846113

51.5692225

0.660

74.5373084

25.4626916

50.9253833

0.670

74.8571103

25.1428897

50.2857794

0.680

75.1747768

24.8252232

49.6504465

0.690

75.4902904

24.5097096

49.0194191

0.700

75.8036346

24.1963654

48.3927308

0.710

76.1147930

23.8852070

47.7704140

0.720

76.4237500

23.5762500

47.1525000

0.730

76.7304906

23.2695094

46.5390189

0.740

77.0350001

22.9649999

45.9299998

0.750

77.3372646

22.6627354

45.3254709

0.760

77.6372705

22.3627295

44.7254589

0.770

77.9350052

22.0649948

44.1299897

0.780

78.2304560

21.7695440

43.5390879

0.790

78.5236114

21.4763886

42.9527773

0.800

78.8144599

21.1855401

42.3710801

0.810

79.1029910

20.8970090

41.7940180

0.820

79.3891944

20.6108056

41.2216112

0.830

79.6730606

20.3269394

40.6538788

0.840

79.9545805

20.0454195

40.0908391

0.850

80.2337455

19.7662545

39.5325091

0.860

80.5105476

19.4894524

38.9789047

0.870

80.7849796

19.2150204

38.4300409

0.880

81.0570343

18.9429657

37.8859314

0.890

81.3267055

18.6732945

37.3465891

0.900

81.5939872

18.4060128

36.8120255

0.910

81.8588743

18.1411257

36.2822515

0.920

82.1213618

17.8786382

35.7572764

0.930

82.3814455

17.6185545

35.2371089

0.940

82.6391217

17.3608783

34.7217566

0.950

82.8943871

17.1056129

34.2112258

0.960

83.1472390

16.8527610

33.7055220

0.970

83.3976751

16.6023249

33.2046497

0.980

83.6456938

16.3543062

32.7086124

0.990

83.8912938

16.1087062

32.2174124

8

1.000

84.1344744

15.8655256

31.7310513

1.010

84.3752352

15.6247648

31.2495295

1.020

84.6135767

15.3864233

30.7728466

1.030

84.8494995

15.1505005

30.3010011

1.040

85.0830047

14.9169953

29.8339906

1.050

85.3140941

14.6859059

29.3718118

1.060

85.5427698

14.4572302

28.9144605

1.070

85.7690343

14.2309657

28.4619314

1.080

85.9928907

14.0071093

28.0142186

1.090

86.2143425

13.7856575

27.5713150

1.100

86.4333936

13.5666064

27.1332128

1.110

86.6500484

13.3499516

26.6999032

1.120

86.8643116

13.1356884

26.2713768

1.130

87.0761885

12.9238115

25.8476230

1.140

87.2856847

12.7143153

25.4286307

1.150

87.4928062

12.5071938

25.0143877

1.160

87.6975594

12.3024406

24.6048812

1.170

87.8999513

12.1000487

24.2000974

1.180

88.0999890

11.9000110

23.8000221

1.190

88.2976801

11.7023199

23.4046398

1.200

88.4930327

11.5069673

23.0139346

1.210

88.6860551

11.3139449

22.6278899

1.220

88.8767560

11.1232440

22.2464881

1.230

89.0651445

10.9348555

21.8697111

1.240

89.2512300

10.7487700

21.4975400

1.250

89.4350223

10.5649777

21.1299553

1.260

89.6165316

10.3834684

20.7669368

1.270

89.7957682

10.2042318

20.4084636

1.280

89.9727429

10.0272571

20.0545142

1.290

90.1474668

9.8525332

19.7050664

1.300

90.3199512

9.6800488

19.3600976

1.310

90.4902079

9.5097921

19.0195842

1.320

90.6582488

9.3417512

18.6835024

1.330

90.8240861

9.1759139

18.3518277

1.340

90.9877324

9.0122676

18.0245351

1.350

91.1492005

8.8507995

17.7015989

1.360

91.3085035

8.6914965

17.3829930

1.370

91.4656546

8.5343454

17.0686908

1.380

91.6206674

8.3793326

16.7586651

1.390

91.7735558

8.2264442

16.4528884

1.400

91.9243338

8.0756662

16.1513325

1.410

92.0730155

7.9269845

15.8539689

1.420

92.2196156

7.7803844

15.5607688

1.430

92.3641487

7.6358513

15.2717026

1.440

92.5066297

7.4933703

14.9867406

1.450

92.6470737

7.3529263

14.7058526

1.460

92.7854960

7.2145040

14.4290081

1.470

92.9219120

7.0780880

14.1561761

9

1.480

93.0563373

6.9436627

13.8873254

1.490

93.1887878

6.8112122

13.6224243

1.500

93.3192795

6.6807205

13.3614409

1.510

93.4478285

6.5521715

13.1043431

1.520

93.5744509

6.4255491

12.8510982

1.530

93.6991632

6.3008368

12.6016736

1.540

93.8219820

6.1780180

12.3560360

1.550

93.9429239

6.0570761

12.1141523

1.560

94.0620056

5.9379944

11.8759888

1.570

94.1792441

5.8207559

11.6415118

1.580

94.2946563

5.7053437

11.4106873

1.590

94.4082594

5.5917406

11.1834812

1.600

94.5200705

5.4799295

10.9598590

1.610

94.6301068

5.3698932

10.7397863

1.620

94.7383858

5.2616142

10.5232284

1.630

94.8449248

5.1550752

10.3101504

1.640

94.9497413

5.0502587

10.1005174

1.650

95.0528528

4.9471472

9.8942944

1.660

95.1542770

4.8457230

9.6914460

1.670

95.2540315

4.7459685

9.4919370

1.680

95.3521339

4.6478661

9.2957323

1.690

95.4486019

4.5513981

9.1027961

1.700

95.5434534

4.4565466

8.9130932

1.710

95.6367060

4.3632940

8.7265880

1.720

95.7283776

4.2716224

8.5432449

1.730

95.8184859

4.1815141

8.3630282

1.740

95.9070487

4.0929513

8.1859025

1.750

95.9940840

4.0059160

8.0118321

1.760

96.0796093

3.9203907

7.8407814

1.770

96.1636426

3.8363574

7.6727148

1.780

96.2462016

3.7537984

7.5075968

1.790

96.3273041

3.6726959

7.3453919

1.800

96.4069677

3.5930323

7.1860646

1.810

96.4852103

3.5147897

7.0295795

1.820

96.5620494

3.4379506

6.8759013

1.830

96.6375027

3.3624973

6.7249947

1.840

96.7115878

3.2884122

6.5768244

1.850

96.7843222

3.2156778

6.4313557

1.860

96.8557233

3.1442767

6.2885533

1.870

96.9258087

3.0741913

6.1483825

1.880

96.9945957

3.0054043

6.0108085

1.890

97.0621016

2.9378984

5.8757967

1.900

97.1283437

2.8716563

5.7433127

1.910

97.1933390

2.8066610

5.6133221

1.920

97.2571047

2.7428953

5.4857907

1.930

97.3196577

2.6803423

5.3606845

1.940

97.3810151

2.6189849

5.2379697

1.950

97.4411937

2.5588063

5.1176127

10

1.960

97.5002101

2.4997899

4.9995798

1.970

97.5580811

2.4419189

4.8838378

1.980

97.6148232

2.3851768

4.7703537

1.990

97.6704528

2.3295472

4.6590944

2.000

97.7249864

2.2750136

4.5500272

2.010

97.7784402

2.2215598

4.4431196

2.020

97.8308303

2.1691697

4.3383395

2.030

97.8821727

2.1178273

4.2356547

2.040

97.9324833

2.0675167

4.1350333

2.050

97.9817781

2.0182219

4.0364438

2.060

98.0300726

1.9699274

3.9398548

2.070

98.0773824

1.9226176

3.8452352

2.080

98.1237230

1.8762770

3.7525540

2.090

98.1691096

1.8308904

3.6617807

2.100

98.2135576

1.7864424

3.5728849

2.110

98.2570818

1.7429182

3.4858364

2.120

98.2996973

1.7003027

3.4006053

2.130

98.3414189

1.6585811

3.3171622

2.140

98.3822612

1.6177388

3.2354775

2.150

98.4222388

1.5777612

3.1555223

2.160

98.4613661

1.5386339

3.0772678

2.170

98.4996573

1.5003427

3.0006853

2.180

98.5371266

1.4628734

2.9257469

2.190

98.5737878

1.4262122

2.8524244

2.200

98.6096549

1.3903451

2.7806903

2.210

98.6447415

1.3552585

2.7105170

2.220

98.6790612

1.3209388

2.6418775

2.230

98.7126275

1.2873725

2.5747451

2.240

98.7454535

1.2545465

2.5090931

2.250

98.7775523

1.2224477

2.4448953

2.260

98.8089371

1.1910629

2.3821259

2.270

98.8396204

1.1603796

2.3207591

2.280

98.8696152

1.1303848

2.2607697

2.290

98.8989337

1.1010663

2.2021325

2.300

98.9275886

1.0724114

2.1448229

2.310

98.9555919

1.0444081

2.0888163

2.320

98.9829558

1.0170442

2.0340885

2.330

99.0096921

0.9903079

1.9806159

2.340

99.0358126

0.9641874

1.9283747

2.350

99.0613291

0.9386709

1.8773419

2.360

99.0862529

0.9137471

1.8274943

2.370

99.1105953

0.8894047

1.7788093

2.380

99.1343677

0.8656323

1.7312646

2.390

99.1575810

0.8424190

1.6848381

2.400

99.1802460

0.8197540

1.6395080

2.410

99.2023736

0.7976264

1.5952529

2.420

99.2239742

0.7760258

1.5520515

2.430

99.2450584

0.7549416

1.5098831

11

2.440

99.2656365

0.7343635

1.4687270

2.450

99.2857185

0.7142815

1.4285630

2.460

99.3053145

0.6946855

1.3893710

2.470

99.3244343

0.6755657

1.3511314

2.480

99.3430877

0.6569123

1.3138246

2.490

99.3612841

0.6387159

1.2774317

2.500

99.3790331

0.6209669

1.2419338

2.510

99.3963438

0.6036562

1.2073124

2.520

99.4132254

0.5867746

1.1735491

2.530

99.4296870

0.5703130

1.1406261

2.540

99.4457373

0.5542627

1.1085255

2.550

99.4613850

0.5386150

1.0772300

2.560

99.4766388

0.5233612

1.0467225

2.570

99.4915070

0.5084930

1.0169860

2.580

99.5059980

0.4940020

0.9880040

2.590

99.5201199

0.4798801

0.9597602

2.600

99.5338808

0.4661192

0.9322385

2.610

99.5472884

0.4527116

0.9054231

2.620

99.5603507

0.4396493

0.8792986

2.630

99.5730753

0.4269247

0.8538495

2.640

99.5854695

0.4145305

0.8290610

2.650

99.5975408

0.4024592

0.8049185

2.660

99.6092963

0.3907037

0.7814073

2.670

99.6207434

0.3792566

0.7585133

2.680

99.6318888

0.3681112

0.7362224

2.690

99.6427395

0.3572605

0.7145210

2.700

99.6533022

0.3466978

0.6933956

2.710

99.6635835

0.3364165

0.6728329

2.720

99.6735900

0.3264100

0.6528200

2.730

99.6833279

0.3166721

0.6333441

2.740

99.6928036

0.3071964

0.6143927

2.750

99.7020232

0.2979768

0.5959536

2.760

99.7109927

0.2890073

0.5780145

2.770

99.7197181

0.2802819

0.5605639

2.780

99.7282051

0.2717949

0.5435898

2.790

99.7364594

0.2635406

0.5270812

2.800

99.7444866

0.2555134

0.5110269

2.810

99.7522921

0.2477079

0.4954158

2.820

99.7598813

0.2401187

0.4802373

2.830

99.7672596

0.2327404

0.4654809

2.840

99.7744319

0.2255681

0.4511362

2.850

99.7814034

0.2185966

0.4371931

2.860

99.7881791

0.2118209

0.4236419

2.870

99.7947637

0.2052363

0.4104727

2.880

99.8011620

0.1988380

0.3976761

2.890

99.8073786

0.1926214

0.3852427

2.900

99.8134182

0.1865818

0.3731636

2.910

99.8192851

0.1807149

0.3614297

12

2.920

99.8249839

0.1750161

0.3500322

2.930

99.8305186

0.1694814

0.3389628

2.940

99.8358935

0.1641065

0.3282130

2.950

99.8411126

0.1588874

0.3177747

2.960

99.8461801

0.1538199

0.3076399

2.970

99.8510997

0.1489003

0.2978006

2.980

99.8558754

0.1441246

0.2882492

2.990

99.8605109

0.1394891

0.2789783

3.000

99.8650098

0.1349902

0.2699805

3.010

99.8693757

0.1306243

0.2612486

3.020

99.8736122

0.1263878

0.2527756

3.030

99.8777227

0.1222773

0.2445547

3.040

99.8817105

0.1182895

0.2365791

3.050

99.8855788

0.1144212

0.2288423

3.060

99.8893311

0.1106689

0.2213378

3.070

99.8929702

0.1070298

0.2140596

3.080

99.8964993

0.1035007

0.2070014

3.090

99.8999213

0.1000787

0.2001573

3.100

99.9032393

0.0967607

0.1935215

3.110

99.9064559

0.0935441

0.1870882

3.120

99.9095741

0.0904259

0.1808519

3.130

99.9125964

0.0874036

0.1748072

3.140

99.9155256

0.0844744

0.1689487

3.150

99.9183643

0.0816357

0.1632714

3.160

99.9211150

0.0788850

0.1577701

3.170

99.9237801

0.0762199

0.1524399

3.180

99.9263620

0.0736380

0.1472760

3.190

99.9288631

0.0711369

0.1422738

3.200

99.9312858

0.0687142

0.1374284

3.210

99.9336321

0.0663679

0.1327358

3.220

99.9359043

0.0640957

0.1281914

3.230

99.9381045

0.0618955

0.1237910

3.240

99.9402347

0.0597653

0.1195305

3.250

99.9422971

0.0577029

0.1154059

3.260

99.9442935

0.0557065

0.1114131

3.270

99.9462258

0.0537742

0.1075484

3.280

99.9480960

0.0519040

0.1038080

3.290

99.9499059

0.0500941

0.1001883

3.300

99.9516571

0.0483429

0.0966858

3.310

99.9533515

0.0466485

0.0932969

3.320

99.9549908

0.0450092

0.0900184

3.330

99.9565765

0.0434235

0.0868470

3.340

99.9581104

0.0418896

0.0837792

3.350

99.9595938

0.0404062

0.0808124

3.360

99.9610284

0.0389716

0.0779433

3.370

99.9624155

0.0375845

0.0751690

3.380

99.9637567

0.0362433

0.0724867

3.390

99.9650533

0.0349467

0.0698935

13

3.400

99.9663066

0.0336934

0.0673867

3.410

99.9675181

0.0324819

0.0649638

3.420

99.9686890

0.0313110

0.0626220

3.430

99.9698205

0.0301795

0.0603591

3.440

99.9709138

0.0290862

0.0581724

3.450

99.9719702

0.0280298

0.0560596

3.460

99.9729907

0.0270093

0.0540185

3.470

99.9739766

0.0260234

0.0520469

3.480

99.9749289

0.0250711

0.0501422

3.490

99.9758486

0.0241514

0.0483029

3.500

99.9767367

0.0232633

0.0465267

3.510

99.9775942

0.0224058

0.0448115

3.520

99.9784222

0.0215778

0.0431555

3.530

99.9792216

0.0207784

0.0415568

3.540

99.9799932

0.0200068

0.0400136

3.550

99.9807380

0.0192620

0.0385240

3.560

99.9814568

0.0185432

0.0370864

3.570

99.9821505

0.0178495

0.0356991

3.580

99.9828198

0.0171802

0.0343604

3.590

99.9834656

0.0165344

0.0330688

3.600

99.9840886

0.0159114

0.0318228

3.610

99.9846897

0.0153103

0.0306205

3.620

99.9852694

0.0147306

0.0294611

3.630

99.9858285

0.0141715

0.0283430

3.640

99.9863677

0.0136323

0.0272647

3.650

99.9868876

0.0131124

0.0262249

3.660

99.9873888

0.0126112

0.0252224

3.670

99.9878720

0.0121280

0.0242559

3.680

99.9883378

0.0116622

0.0233243

3.690

99.9887868

0.0112132

0.0224263

3.700

99.9892195

0.0107805

0.0215609

3.710

99.9896365

0.0103635

0.0207269

3.720

99.9900383

0.0099617

0.0199233

3.730

99.9904255

0.0095745

0.0191490

3.740

99.9907986

0.0092014

0.0184029

3.750

99.9911579

0.0088421

0.0176843

3.760

99.9915039

0.0084961

0.0169922

3.770

99.9918372

0.0081628

0.0163256

3.780

99.9921581

0.0078419

0.0156837

3.790

99.9924672

0.0075328

0.0150656

3.800

99.9927647

0.0072353

0.0144705

3.810

99.9930512

0.0069488

0.0138976

3.820

99.9933269

0.0066731

0.0133461

3.830

99.9935923

0.0064077

0.0128153

3.840

99.9938478

0.0061522

0.0123044

3.850

99.9940936

0.0059064

0.0118128

3.860

99.9943301

0.0056699

0.0113398

3.870

99.9945578

0.0054422

0.0108844

14

3.880

99.9947768

0.0052232

0.0104465

3.890

99.9949874

0.0050126

0.0100253

3.900

99.9951899