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Primera Asignación de Estadística Aplicada a la Ingeniería Química

CÓDIGO APELLIDO APELLIDO NOMBRES Problema


PATERNO MATERNO

14070121 Baca Ochoa Cristian Abel 1

12070137 Baldeon Morales Carlos 2

13070097 Cárdenas Medina Ricardo Jesús 3

03070196 Chavez Ynca Rosa Mercedes 4

14070127 Conislla Cullanco Lucy Nicol 5

14070029 Contreras Mariño Eric 6

13070167 Cruz Huanca Norman 7

11070172 Delgado Hinostroza Hector Felipe 8

14070035 Flores Ccayanchira Jose Antonio 9

14070132 Flores Fernandez Maria Fernanda 10

13070175 Garay Calderón Fiorella Joanne 11

13070176 Grández López Carlos Walber 12

14070166 Güere Lavado Jimy Brían 13

12070038 Huapaya Najera Jonathan 14

14070138 Jimenez Asencio Xímena Alejandra 15

10070035 Mori Mori Edwin Ramón 16

13070185 Ortega Arica Diego Alonso 17

14070046 Peralta Gutiérrez Nayda Rocio 18

02070119 Peyty Lopez Jorge Gustavo 19

14070150 Pineda Jimenez Gianella Lucia 20

15070126 Ramos Benito Vanessa Lisseth 21

07070033 Romero Roca Rosa Jannet 22


14070154 Salvatierra Huamani Adonis 23

13070195 Tejeda Villanueva Elias Giuseppe 24

15070146 Vargas Sosa Ruth Zintya 25

12070054 Vicente Meza Rosa Lizet 26

10070026 Villanueva Huapaya Hugo Alfredo 27

12070202 Ypanaque Rios Bianca Evita 28

Problema
Problemas
Asignado
Identify each quantitative variable as discrete or continuous.
Amount of time it takes to assemble an equipment one.
Yield in kilograms of wheat from a 1-hectare plot in a wheat field
Number of defective light bulbs in a package containing four bulbs
1
A person’s body temperature
Thickness of the gelatin coating of a vitamin E capsule
Concentration of a contaminant (micrograms per cubic centimeter) in a water
sample
A manufacturer of jeans has plants in California, Arizona, and Texas. A group
of 25 pairs of jeans is randomly selected from the computerized database, and
the state in which each is produced is recorded:
CA AZ AZ TX CA
CA CA TX TX TX
AZ AZ CA AZ TX
CA AZ TX TX TX
CA AZ AZ CA CA
What is the experimental unit?
2
What is the variable being measured? Is it qualitative or quantitative?
Construct a pie chart to describe the data.
Construct a bar chart to describe the data.
What proportion of the jeans are made in Texas?
What state produced the most jeans in the group?
If you want to find out whether the three plants produced equal numbers of
jeans, or whether one produced more jeans than the others, how can you use
the charts from parts c and d to help you? What conclusions can you draw
from these data?
Results of the 1997 RACI titration competition. The values are independent
students’ results for the concentration of a solution of acetic acid (units: M).
The correct answer was 0.1147 M 3
0.1150, 0.1152, 0.1143, 0.1144, 0.1153, 0.1138, 0.1139, 0.1150, 0.0920, 0.1556,
0.1141, 0.1219, 0.1222, 0.1143, 0.9083, 0.1134, 0.0936, 0.1155, 0.1145, 0.1177,
0.1146, 0.1158, 0.1142, 0.1148, 0.1144
Comment about the accuracy and precision of these results
Many nutritional experts have expressed concern about the high levels of
sodium in prepared foods. The following data on sodium content (in
milligrams) per frozen meal appeared in the article “Comparison of ‘Light’
Frozen Meals” (Boston Globe, April 24, 1991):
720 530 800 690 880 1050 340 810 760
300 400 680 780 390 950 520 500 630
480 940 450 990 910 420 850 390 600
Two histograms for these data are shown:
Do the two histograms give different impressions about the distribution of
values?
Use each histogram to determine approximately the proportion of
observations that are less than 800, and compare to the actual proportion.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are harmful atmospheric pollutants produced largely


by vehicle engines. Their concentration is monitored in large cities. This
experiment attempts to tell whether concentrations measured at face level are
higher than those measured with a monitor at a height of 5m (where it is safe
from vandalism). One-hour average concentrations were measured every hour
for a day at a particular location, with the results shown in units of parts per
5
billion by volume (i.e., mole ratio).
What graphic or graphics will be more suitable to compare this data?
Hour NOx, ppb at NOx, ppb at
1,5m 5m
1 11 10
2 15 13
3 16 13
4 13 11
5 19 15
6 16 14
7 15 13
8 20 15
9 18 17
10 19 21
11 26 24
12 22 19
13 26 22
14 27 24
15 24 25
16 26 22
17 28 24
18 23 25
19 23 19
20 22 20
21 21 19
22 18 12
23 14 14
24 19 18
Construct a stem and leaf plot for these 50 measurements:

Describe the shape of the data distribution. Do you see any outliers?
Use the stem and leaf plot to find the smallest observation.
Find the eighth and ninth largest observations

The calcium (Ca) content of a powdered mineral substance was analyzed 10


times with the following percent compositions recorded:

Draw a dotplot to describe the data. (HINT: The scale of the horizontal axis
should range from .0260 to .0290.) 7
Draw a stem and leaf plot for the data. Use the numbers in the hundredths and
thousandths places as the stem.
Are any of the measurements inconsistent with the other measurements,
indicating that the technician may have made an error in the analysis?

The red blood cell count of a healthy person was measured on each of 15 days.
8
The number recorded is measured in 106 cells per microliter (L).
Use an appropriate graph to describe the data.
Describe the shape and location of the red blood cell counts.
If the person’s red blood cell count is measured today as 5.7106 L, would
you consider this unusual? What conclusions might you draw?
The following measurements were recorded for the drying time, in hours, of
a certain brand of latex paint.
3,4 2,5 4,8 2,9 3,6
2,8 3,3 5,6 3,7 2,8
4,4 4,0 5,2 3,0 4,8
Assume that the measurements are a simple random sample.
(a) What is the sample size for the above sample? 9
(b) Calculate the sample mean for these data.
(c) Calculate the sample median.
(d) Plot the data by way of a dot plot.
(e) Compute the 20% trimmed mean for the above data set.
(f) Is the sample mean for these data more or less descriptive as a center of
location than the trimmed mean?

According to the journal Chemical Engineering, an important property of a


fiber is its water absorbency. A random sample of 20 pieces of cotton fiber
was taken and the absorbency on each piece was measured. The following are
the absorbency values:
18,71 21,41 20,72 21,81 19,29 22,43 20,17
23,71 19,44 20,50 18,92 20,33 23,00 22,85
19,25 21,77 22,11 19,77 18,04 21,12 10
(a) Calculate the sample mean and median for the above sample values.
(b) Compute the 10% trimmed mean.
(c) Do a dot plot of the absorbency data.
(d) Using only the values of the mean, median, and trimmed mean, do you
have evidence of outliers in the data?

A certain polymer is used for evacuation systems for aircraft. It is important


that the polymer be resistant to the aging process. Twenty specimens of the 11
polymer were used in an experiment. Ten were assigned randomly to be
exposed to an accelerated batch aging process that involved exposure to high
temperaturas for 10 days. Measurements of tensile strength of the specimens
were made, and the following data were recorded on tensile strength in psi:
No aging: 227 222 218 217 225
218 216 229 228 221
Aging: 219 214 215 211 209
218 203 204 201 205
(a) Do a dot plot of the data.
(b) From your plot, does it appear as if the aging process has had an effect on
the tensile strength of this polymer? Explain.
(c) Calculate the sample mean tensile strength of the two samples.
(d) Calculate the median for both. Discuss the similarity or lack of similarity
between the mean and median of each group.

The tensile strength of silicone rubber is thought to be a function of curing


temperature. A study was carried out in which samples of 12 specimens of the
rubber were prepared using curing temperatures of 20 C and 45 C. The data
below show the tensile strength values in megapascals.
20 C: 2,07 2,14 2,22 2,03 2,21 2,03
2,05 2,18 2,09 2,14 2,11 2,02
45 C: 2,52 2,15 2,49 2,03 2,37 2,05
1,99 2,42 2,08 2,42 2,29 2,01 12
(a) Show a dot plot of the data with both low and high temperature tensile
strength values.
(b) Compute sample mean tensile strength for both samples.
(c) Does it appear as if curing temperature has an influence on tensile strength,
based on the plot? Comment further.
(d) Does anything else appear to be influenced by an increase in curing
temperature? Explain

The following data represent the length of life in years, measured to the
nearest tenth, of 30 similar fuel pumps:
2,0 3,0 0,3 3,3 1,3 0,4
0,2 6,0 5,5 6,5 0,2 2,3 13
1,5 4,0 5,9 1,8 4,7 0,7
4,5 0,3 1,5 0,5 2,5 5,0
1,0 6,0 5,6 6,0 1,2 0,2
(a) Construct a stem-and-leaf plot for the life in years of the fuel pumps, using
the digit to the left of the decimal point as the stem for each observation.
(b) Set up a relative frequency distribution.
(c) Compute the sample mean, sample range, and simple standard deviation.

The following data represent the length of life, in seconds, of 50 fruit flies
subject to a new spray in a controlled laboratory experiment:
17 20 10 9 23 13 12 19 18 24
12 14 6 9 13 6 7 10 13 7
16 18 8 13 3 32 9 7 10 11
13 7 18 7 10 4 27 19 16 8 14
7 10 5 14 15 10 9 6 7 15
(a) Construct a -stem-and-leaf plot for the life span of the fruit flies.
(b) Set up a relative frequency distribution.
(c) Construct a relative frequency histogram.
(d) Find the median.

The following data are the measures of the diameters of 36 rivet heads in
1/100 of an inch.
6,72 6,77 6,82 6,70 6,78 6,70 6,62 6,75
6,66 6,66 6,64 6,76 6,73 6,80 6,72 6,76
6,76 6,68 6,66 6,62 6,72 6,76 6,70 6,78
6,76 6,67 6,70 6,72 6,74 6,81 6,79 6,78 15
6,66 6,76 6,76 6,72
(a) Compute the sample mean and sample standard deviation.
(b) Construct a relative frequency histogram of the data.
(c) Comment on whether or not there is any clear indication that the sample
came from a population that has a bell-shaped distribution.

The hydrocarbon emissions at idling speed in parts per million (ppm) for
automobiles of 1980 and 1990 model years are given for 20 randomly selected
cars.
1980 models: 16
141 359 247 940 882 494 306 210 105 880
200 223 188 940 241 190 300 435 241 380
1990 models:
140 160 20 20 223 60 20 95 360 70
220 400 217 58 235 380 200 175 85 65
(a) Construct a dot plot as in Figure 1.1.
(b) Compute the sample means for the two years and superimpose the two
means on the plots.
(c) Comment on what the dot plot indicates regarding whether or not the
population emissions changed from 1980 to 1990. Use the concept of
variability in your comments.
Errors in an experimental transmission channel are found when the
transmission is checked by a certifier that detects missing pulses. The
number of errors found in an eight-bit byte is a random variable with the
following distribution:

17

Determine each of the following probabilities:


(a) P(X ≤ 4) (b) P(X > 7) (c) P(X ≤ 5)
(d) P(X > 4) (e) P(X ≤ 2)
The thickness of wood paneling (in inches) that a customer orders is a
random variable with the following cumulative distribution function:

18

Determine the following probabilities:


(a) P(X ≤ 1/18) (b) P(X ≤ 1/ 4) (c) P(X ≤ 5 /16)
(d) P(X > 1/ 4) (e) P(X ≤ 1/ 2)
For each scenario, state whether or not the binomial distribution is a
reasonable model for the random variable and why. State any assumptions
you make.
a) A production process produces thousands of temperature transducers.
b) Let X denote the number of nonconforming transducers in a sample of size
30 selected at random from the process.
c) From a batch of 50 temperature transducers, a sample of size 30 is selected
without replacement. Let X denote the number of nonconforming 19
transducers in the sample.
d) Defects occur randomly over the surface of a semiconductor chip.
However, only 80% of defects can be found by testing. A sample of 40
chips with one defect each is tested. Let X denote the number of chips in
which the test fi nds a defect.
e) A fi lling operation attempts to fi ll detergent packages to the advertised
weight. Let X denote the number of detergent packages that are underfilled.
The random variable X has a binomial distribution with n = 10 and p = 0,01.
Determine the following probabilities.
(a) P(X = 5) (b) P(X ≤ 2) 20
(c) P(X ≥ 9) (d) P(3 ≤ X < 5)

An electronic product contains 40 integrated circuits. The probability that any


integrated circuit is defective is 0,01, and the integrated circuits are
21
independent. The product operates only if there are no defective integrated
circuits. What is the probability that the product operates?

The data from 200 endothermic reactions involving sodium bicarbonate are
summarized as follows:
Final Temperature Conditions Number of Reactions
266 K 48
271 K 60
274 K 92
A total of 20 independent reactions are to be conducted.
22
(a) What is the probability that exactly 12 reactions result in a final
temperature less than 272 K?
(b) What is the probability that at least 19 reactions result in a final
temperature less than 272 K?
(c) What is the probability that at least 18 reactions result in a final
temperature less than 272 K?
(d) What is the expected number of reactions that result in a final temperature
of less than 272 K?

Final Temperature Conditions Number of Reactions


266 K 48
271 K 60
274 K 92
(a) What is the probability that the first reaction to result in a final temperature 23
less than 272 K is the tenth reaction?
(b) What is the mean number of reactions until the first final temperature is
less than 272 K?
(c) What is the probability that the first reaction to result in a final temperature
less than 272 K occurs within three or fewer reactions?

A batch contains 36 bacteria cells and 12 of the cells are not capable of cellular
replication. Suppose that you examine three bacteria cells selected at random 24
without replacement.
(a) What is the probability mass function of the number of cells in the sample
that can replicate?
(b) What are the mean and variance of the number of cells in the sample that
can replicate?
(c) What is the probability that at least one of the selected cells cannot
replicate?

Consider the semiconductor wafer data in Table 2-1.


Location in Sputtering Tool
Contamination Center Edge Total
Low 514 68 582
High 112 246 358
Total 626 314

Suppose that 10 wafers are selected randomly (without replacement) for an


electrical test. Determine the following:
25
(a) Probability that exactly 4 wafers have high contamination.
(b) Probability that at least 1 is from the center of the sputtering tool and has
high contamination.
(c) Probability that exactly 3 have high contamination or are from the edge of
the sputtering tool.
(d) Instead of 10 wafers, what is the minimum number of wafers that need to
be selected so that the probability that at least 1 wafer has high contamination
is greater than or equal to 0.9?
Suppose that X has a Poisson distribution with a mean of 0.4. Determine the
following probabilities:
26
(a) P(X = 0) (b) P(X ≤ 2)
(c) P(X = 4) (d) P(X = 8)
The number of surface flaws in plastic panels used in the interior of
automobiles has a Poisson distribution with a mean of 0.05 flaw per square
foot of plastic panel. Assume that an automobile interior contains 10 square
feet of plastic panel.
(a) What is the probability that there are no surface flaws in an auto’s interior? 27
(b) If 10 cars are sold to a rental company, what is the probability that none
of the 10 cars has any surface flaws?
(c) If 10 cars are sold to a rental company, what is the probability that at most
1 car has any surface flaws?

Inclusions are defects in poured metal caused by contaminants. The number


of (large) inclusions in cast iron follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 28
2.5 per cubic millimeter.
Determine the following:
(a) Probability of at least one inclusion in a cubic millimeter.
(b) Probability of at least five inclusions in 5.0 cubic millimeters.
(c) Volume of material to inspect such that the probability of at least one
inclusion is 0.99.
(d) Instead of a mean of 2.5 per cubic millimeters, the mean inclusions per
cubic millimeter such that the probability of at least one inclusion is 0.95.

Adicionalmente pueden resolver estos problemas y serán bonificados en el examen:


1. Disks of polycarbonate plastic from a supplier are analyzed for scratch and shock
resistance. The results from 100 disks are summarized as follows:
Shock Resistance
High Low
Scratch High 70 9
Resistance Low 16 5
a) If a disk is selected at random, what is the probability that its scratch resistance is
high and its shock resistance is high?
b) If a disk is selected at random, what is the probability that its scratch resistance is
high or its shock resistance is high?
c) Consider the event that a disk has high scratch resistance and the event that a disk has
high shock resistance. Are these two events mutually exclusive?
2. Strands of copper wire from a manufacturer are analyzed for strength and conductivity.
The results from 100 strands are as follows:
Strength
High Low
High conductivity 74 8
Low conductivity 15 3
a) If a strand is randomly selected, what is the probability that its conductivity is high
and its strength is high?
b) If a strand is randomly selected, what is the probability that its conductivity is low
or its strength is low?
c) Consider the event that a strand has low conductivity and the event that the strand
has low strength. Are these two events mutually exclusive?
3. Cooking oil is produced in two main varieties: monoand polyunsaturated. Two common
sources of cooking oil are corn and canola. The following table shows the number of
bottles of these oils at a supermarket:
Type of oil
Canola Corn
Mono 7 13
Type of Poly 93 77
Unsaturation
(a) If a bottle of oil is selected at random, what is the probability that it belongs to the
polyunsaturated category?
(b) What is the probability that the chosen bottle is monounsaturated canola oil?
4. Disks of polycarbonate plastic from a supplier are analyzed for scratch and shock
resistance. The results from 100 disks are summarized as follows:
Shock Resistance
High Low
Scratch High 70 9
Resistance Low 16 5
Let A denote the event that a disk has high shock resistance, and let B denote the event
that a disk has high scratch resistance. Determine the following probabilities:
(a) P(A) (b) P(B)
(c) P(A | B) (d) P(B | A)
5. A batch of 500 containers for frozen orange juice contains 5 that are defective. Two are
selected, at random, without replacement from the batch.
a) What is the probability that the second one selected is defective given that the first
one was defective?
b) What is the probability that both are defective?
c) What is the probability that both are acceptable? Three containers are selected, at
random, without replacement, from the batch.
d) What is the probability that the third one selected is defective given that the first and
second ones selected were defective?
e) What is the probability that the third one selected is defective given that the first one
selected was defective and the second one selected was okay?
f) What is the probability that all three are defective?
6. The edge roughness of slit paper products increases as knife blades wear. Only 1% of
products slit with new blades have rough edges, 3% of products slit with blades of
average sharpness exhibit roughness, and 5% of products slit with worn blades exhibit
roughness. If 25% of the blades in manufacturing are new, 60% are of average sharpness,
and 15% are worn, what is the proportion of products that exhibit edge roughness?
7. Samples of emissions from three suppliers are classified for conformance to air-quality
specifications. The results from 100 samples are summarized as follows:
Conforms
Yes No
1 22 8
Supplier 2 25 5
3 30 10
Let A denote the event that a sample is from supplier 1, and let
B denote the event that a sample conforms to specifications.
(a) Are events A and B independent?
(b) Determine P(B | A).
8. In an acid-base titration, a base or acid is gradually added to the other until they have
completely neutralized each other. Because acids and bases are usually colorless (as are
the water and salt produced in the neutralization reaction), pH is measured to monitor
the reaction. Suppose that the equivalence point is reached after approximately 100 mL
of an NaOH solution has been added (enough to react with all the acetic acid present)
but that replicates are equally likely to indicate from 95 to 104 mL, measured to the
nearest mL. Assume that two technicians each conduct titrations independently.
a) What is the probability that both technicians obtain equivalence at 100 mL?
b) What is the probability that both technicians obtain equivalence between 98 and 104
mL (inclusive)?
c) What is the probability that the average volume at equivalence from the technicians
is 100 mL?

9. The probabilities of poor print quality given no printer problem, misaligned paper, high
ink viscosity, or printer-head debris are 0, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively. The
probabilities of no printer problem, misaligned paper, high ink viscosity, or printer-head
debris are 0.8, 0.02, 0.08, and 0.1, respectively.
a) Determine the probability of high ink viscosity given por print quality.
b) Given poor print quality, what problem is most likely?

10. A researcher receives 100 containers of oxygen. Of those containers, 20 have oxygen
that is not ionized, and the rest are ionized. Two samples are randomly selected, without
replacement, from the lot.
a) What is the probability that the first one selected is not ionized?
b) What is the probability that the second one selected is not ionized given that the first
one was ionized?
c) What is the probability that both are ionized?
d) How does the answer in part (b) change if samples selected were replaced prior to the
next selection?