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SS AUTEN I SS FOR DRUM SET 0!).0 ESSENTIAL Tenino FOR DRUM SET: BOOK 1 a4 — Tana e | Dedicated to Edward J. Soph and Elder Mori Thanks to Carol and Steven for their patience and support; to Jim Coffin for keeping things in perspective. Credit Photographs by Steven Ross RO Published by MEREDITH MUSIC PUBLICATIONS aidivision of G¥. Music, Inc. 4899 Lerch Creek Ct, Gulesville, MD 20765 http. / eww meredith musie.com MEREDITH MUSIC PUBLICATIONS and its stylized double M logo are tradensarks of MEREDITH MUSIC PUBLICATIONS, « division of G:'W. Music, ine, ‘Cover design by Shawn Girsberger No pan of this book may be reprodvced or transmitted in any form ‘or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, of by any informational storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from tbe publisher. Copyright © 1986 MEREDITH MUSIC PUBLICATIONS Inerastional Copyright Secured + All Rights Reserved Second Edition January 2001 International Standard Book Number:)-6340-2940-1 Pristed and bound in U.S.A. Introduction Drumming is motion. How we sound-—loud or soft, slow or fast, smooth or erratic, in time or out of time—is determined ntirely by how we move our hands and feet: by how our brain coordinates the motions. ‘These motions are called strokes; combinations of strokes are called sticking patterns. They, and the basic mechanics of ye body which produce them, must be studied, learned, and assimilated into our drumming vocabulary. Strokes determine :mpo, dynamic level, accent patterns, and sound quality. Strokes are the raw material of drumming no matter what style # music we are playing. When learning a dance step, how to ride a bicycle, to wim, or any other new physical activity we must consciously jink about “how” to do it. Through repetition the acitvity becomes a permanent part of our motor or coordinative abilities. Ve no longer have to “think” about it while we do it. De you have to think about walking while you walk? ‘This same release from conscious attention to physical coordination is necessary to play music. Music-making requires oncentration. We are not free to concentrate, to listen to the music, to immerse ourselves in the performance if we are incertain of the basic mechanics of playing the instrument. We become certain of those mechanics through the repetition of basic movements and combinations of those movements vithin the musical framework of time, rhythm, and dynamics. This book will develop essential skills for coordination. This book is not an end in itself but, hopefully, a helpful adjunct to thase areas which solely develop our abilities as nusicians: playing and listening to music. For further information on this topic by the author, a video cassette is available tom Yamaha Musical Products: THE DRUM SET: A MUSICAL APPROACH. : Stick Grips ‘There is no one way of holding the dram sticks which will fulfill the improvisational demands of drum set performance. Initially, however, we must organize a fundamental technique based upon the normal tension/release of the muscles. Standing in front of a mirror, look at your relaxed shoulders, arms, and hands. Notice the space between the thumbs and first fingers as well as the curvature of the fingers. Notice how your hands are in alignment with your arms which hang naturally from the shoulders. For contrast, deliberately tense your shoulders, arms and hands. Make your body rigid and uncomfortable. Now, relax. Photos 1 and 2 show the positions of the hands and arms when using Matched (#1) or Traditional grip (#2). The aspects of relaxation as discussed have not changed. For comparison, photos 3 and 4 show rigidity and non-alignment. ‘Tense your hands and arms in the same manner. Let them relax. German Grip Notice in photo 1 that the hands/wrists are in alignment with the forearms. ‘The fingers are gently curved around the sticks, not clenched around them. The butt ends of the sticks protrude from the sides of the hands. They do not point up the wrists toward the forearms. Notice the space between the thumbs and first fingers. The stick is held between the thumb and the first finger, usually in the first joint. This is the fulcrum, or pivot point. Photo 5 shows the fulcrum. The fulcrum should allow un- restrained movement of the stick called rebound: the normal propensity of the stick to bounce after it has struck a drum, cymbal, or practice pad. This rebound, or up stroke, is equal in velocity to the down stroke. It is the opposite of the down stroke. The free bounce exercise will familiarize you with the rebound, or bounce of the stick. Hold the stick with only the fulerum as shown in photo 5, Keep the rest of your fingers off of the stick. Now, as shown in photo 6, raise the stick with your wrist, not with your Torearm. Let wie SUcR Urop wack v9 uc cui by letting your hand fall back to the position shown in photo 5. Move only the wrist, not your forearm. The wrist motion js similar to that of waving goodbye. Be sure to keep the other fingers relaxed, not stiff when holding the stick with only the fulcrum. You see that the rebound is small and produces few bounces because of the lack of velocity in the down stroke. Instead of just letting the stick fall to the drum, increase the velocity of the down stroke. The initial rebound becomes larger and faster if you let it, The number of subsequent diminishing bounces becomes greater, too, if you ler them. Don't tense your arm or hand. Don’t hold your breath. Let the stick bounce as high and for as long as it wishes. ‘What happens ‘if you close the space between the thumb and the first finger and squeeze the slick? Any rebound, or 6 . . must you pull the stick back up with your wrist? Open the space again. Relax your fingers, wrist, and arm.- Make the down stroke and when the stick has bounced back up to its starting position, stop it. This is called a Full Rebound Stroke Look back at photo | and put your fingers around the stick without altering your fulcrum. Now, as in photo 7, raise the stick with your wrist (as you did with the free bounce ex- ercise). When the stick has reached the perpendicular release your fingers so as to increase the stroke length past the per- pendicular and to teach the fingers to move with the stick, not against it. In what follows we are adding the fingers to the movement already initiated by the fulcrum and the wrist. The fingers “follow the butt" of the stick. As the stick travels downward, the butt moves in toward the palm, and the fingers 7 . . follow it in, never losing touch with the stick. When the stick strikes the head the fingers have become gently curved around the stick as seen im photo 1. When it rebounds the fingers are pushed back out as the stick ascends to the starting point of the initial down stroke. Now, try to do the same full rebounded stroke with closed fulcrum and clenched fingers. Keep trying. Gradually relax until the rebound has returned. Please, take your time and be patient. If you are accustomed to “controlling” the stick—pulling or snapping it up rather than letting the rebound return it—it will take awhile to get used to “letting the stick go.” Newcomers to the “open fulcrum” can expect the following to happen until the grip becomes comfortable: collapsed fulcrum (photo 8), and too open, or expanded fulcrum (photo 9). Too, the stick may slip through your hands. You might even drop it. Through thoughtful repetition the grip and its falcrum will eventually become secure. (You did not learn to walk in a day.) Any of the stickings in this or any other book may be used to practice this grip and the rebounded strokes. 6 French Grip The French grip is the German grip turned over so that the thumbs are on top, facing upward, rather than the backs of the hands. Photo 10 shows the French grip. Everything is still in alignment. However, the fulcrum of the French is a bit different from that of the German, Hold the stick as shown in photo [1 and pivot it back and forth, or up and down, on the thumb by moving the first finger: out to allow the stick to pivot past the perpendicular; back in to bring the stick back down. The thumb does not move. All motion is centered in the fulerum. Don't move the stick with your wrist or your arm, Be sure that the space between the thumb and first finger remains open, just as with the German grip. Can you still pivot the stick if you clench it tightly and close the space? No, because then the stick must be moved by the wrist (or arm) and the unrestrained movement necessary for the rebound to occur is lost. ; 3 or - oe — j As in photo 12 add the rest of your fingers and move the stick up and down as you did when pivoting it on the thumb. As with the German grip, the fingers “follow the butt” of the stick. Again, if you close the space in the fulcrum causing your hand to clench the stick, the flow of the motion stops and you must-move the stick awkwardly with the wrist or forearm. Practice the initial fulcrum movement holding the stick with only thumb and first finger (photo 11} over the ride cymbal. Drop the stick to the cymbal (see pointers for ride p oa cymbal set-up on page 12) and let the stick bounce as many times as it can, The movement should be in the pivot of the fulcrum. not the down stroke of the wrist or the forearm. Don't restrain or choke the stick by tightening your muscles. Increase the velocity of the down stroke and you increase the velocity of the up stroke; Stop the stick after the first large rebound and you have a full rebounded stroke with French grip. Add the rest of your fingers as in photo 12 and play additional down strokes with rebounded up strokes as you did when using only the pivot of the fulcrum. The fingers follow the stick just as they did with the German grip. Your wrist must be relaxed to allow the fingers to move. Photo 12 shows the stick poised for the down stroke. Photo 13 shows the stick upon striking the cymbal. Notice how the position of the fingers has changed from that of photo 12. 13 ‘The stick then retums, by rebounding, to the position of photo 12. Setting the metronome at += 40 to 50, play eight bars of quarter notes followed by cight bars of eighth notes: then. eighth note triplets; and, sixteenth notes. Remember to use rebounded strokes generated by the fulcnum and the fingers. 7 not the wrist or forearm. This technique has been compared to bouncing a ball, Be sure to practice any exercises with left and right hands. Be patient. Through thoughtful repetition the grip and its mechanics will become comfortable and secure. Beware of the same pitfalls as with the German grip when beginning: slipping sticks and collapsed or expanded fulcrum, Applications of German and French Grips ‘The author shies from dogmatically assigning to specific parts of the drum set a certain grip. Such fine distinctions and conclusions will be made by a player through much trial and error. However, in the applications of this book, | suggest that the ride cymbal(s) and their patterns be played with the French grip. The drums should be played and practiced with both grips. Traditional Grip al 1s kee ey If you are right-handed the lefi stick is held with the Traditional Grip; the right stick if you are left-handed. The same points of alignment and relaxation discussed in regard to the Matched grips apply to the Traditional. Photo 14 shows the fulcrum in up stroke position; photo 15, down stroke Play quarter notes (MM J: 40 to 50) holding the stick with only the fulcrum, allowing rebound. Your other fingers, which are not yet in contact with the stick, are relaxed, not stiff. You may also practice the free bounce exercise as you did with the Matched grip fulerums, Notice that the wrist pivots as though you are turning a door knob. This is very different from the “waving” motion of the German grip. Adding the fingers, we see that they move in the same manner as the Matched grip. The fingers are extended when the 3 poised for a down stroke {photo 16). As the wrist (actually the entire forearm) tums downward the fingers move in until, a che point of striking the drum, they have returned to the relaxed curvature of the hand at rest (phote 17) * The Complete Machine: Coordinating the Hands and Arms So far we have dealt with the stroke mechanics of the fulcrums and fingers of the hand. Once the fulcrums have become established so as to allow the rebound of the sticks and the control of that rebound by the fingers, we must coordinate that motion with the rest of the arm: the forearm and upper arm. The three main joints of our legs—ankle, knee, and hip— allow us to walk and ran in a smooth, fluid manner. The coordination of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints will provide flowing movement for playing the drums and the cymbals. We do not play with “just” our fingers, our wrists, or our arms, Do we walk with “just” our ankles, knecs, or hips? Our technique should be a combination of all three: the relaxed, non-rigid use of the complete arm. Onc part may appear to dominate the action because of tempo or dynamic considerations. For example, we would probably use more finger movement to play fast, soft notes, requiring smaller strokes, than we would arm motion, producing larger strokes. ‘The “full arm stroke” illustrates the coordination of the entire arm from shoulder to fingers. Initially, practice the motions while standing in front of a mirror before trying them seated at a drum. Practice the motion with and without sticks. Think of raising your arm from the shoulder, just as you raise your leg from the hip. Similar arm motions are apparent in the stroke of a swimmer, the flow of a violinist’s bow arm, the wind-up and throw of a baseball pitcher, and the fluid movements of a classical ballet dancer. Here are the steps illustrated by photos 18A—-H. IBA: starting, positon H: wrist tums downward and, si- multancously, the fingers follow the butt of the stic in towards the palm of the hand; the striking position is the same as the starting position shown in photo A. : Upper arm resumes natural hang the shoulder, lower arm con- inues descent from the elbow, na longer pressed against body as in F; 9 Photos 19.4-G illustrate the full arm stroke using the Traditional Grip. The striking position is the same as photo 19. Notice that when the stick is at its ultimate down stroke height (I8F, 19F) the elbow is moving back in toward the body. When the stick is at its lowest point upon siriking the drum (18A and 19A) the elbow/upper arm are in the normal position hanging naturally from the shoulder as when the stroke was begun. Notice the extension of the fingers when the stick is at its maximum stroke, Notice how the fingers have resumed their natural curvature once the down stroke has been compleitd. This should bring to mind the action of the fingers when used with the fulcrum. Steiking the Drum Approach #1: Execute the full arm stroke, follow through and strike the drum. Upon hitting the head clench the sick tightly so that there is no further movement: no rebound. Does this feel comfortable? Does the resultant rigidity seem an appropriate ending to the flowing motion of the full arm stroke? Approach #2; Execute the full arm stroke, This time, keeping the fulcrum open and non-rigid (don't tense your arm), low the stick to bounce, to rebound just as it did with the earlier exercises involving only the fulcrum and the fingers. nck to rebound once and. as it falls back to the head. “catch” it with the fingers before it strikes a second time. 10 Remember, the fingers do not lose touch with the stick. They mave outward as the stick bounces and inward as the stick retums to the head after the initial rebound. Again, it is the same action as is involved in the fulcrum/finger exercises which you practiced with the different grips. We have simply added the rest of the arm. This second approach produces non-rigid, flowing motion because the muscles are allowed to RELEASE. any tension through the controlled rebound of the stick. It is not necessary to stop the motion of the stick by tensing the arm and, thus, the fulcrum as we did in the first approach. Practice Suggestions Practice the hands separately before trying alternate stickings. Play at MM J: 40, Subdividing the quarter notes into eighth note triplets, play the first notes on beats 2 and 4, and use beats 1 and 3 for the preparatory full arm up strokes. “Catch” the down stroke following the initial rebound om the second note of the triplet before it strikes the head, COUNT “I-&-ah, 2-8-ah, 3-&-ah, 4-zh" out loud. Coordinate up strokes and down strokes and rebounds with your counting and the metronome. The exercise looks like this: sm “se ee aoe a ,o eA oh 7 oe om a 4k a Ce a ee) 2 a ‘You may allow the second note of the’ triplet to strike the drum: cI —I- * qe gd 7) rary = t R A war we, _ Play these exercises until you no longer must concentrate on the motion. Play them until the motions become as natural as second nature as walking. Accent Technique We have seen from the previous exercises that the elbows move in towards the body when the sticks are raised for a large down stroke. And the elbows move out to their relaxed position slightly away from the body once the down stroke has been completed and the stick comes to rest after the initial rebound. We see, too, and hear, that if we allow the second note of the triplet pattern to strike (rather than “catching” it with the fingers) an accent pattem is produced 4, 5, 3. . Thus, two arm/elbow positions: two stroke lengths: two notes ; two different volume levels. Here is another example. The accent pattern is $ 4244 . We shall play it without sticks. Snap your fingers on 2 & 4 and move your arm from the shoulder in quarter notes so that the efbow is “out” from your body on the snaps (2 & 4), “mn” against your body on beats 1 & 3. Do this for two to three minutes, Now, reverse the arm/elbow motion: “out” on beats 1 & 3, “in” on 2 & 4, Which of the two sets of motions felt more comfortable? Which set of motions centers its energy in the snap of the fingers on 2 & 4? Which set of arm motions seems to produce the finger snaps? Practice snapping on 2 & 4 following this diagram: a an sd _ “8 yf Keep your arm loose. To find out how that feels deliberately tighten your arm muscles and move your arm back and forth in the pattern as shown above. Gradually relax the muscles until the arm seems to be swinging “on its own.” The wnst should be relaxed, too, Let it move as it wishes in conjunction with he rest of the arm. Rold a stick (French grip) and practice the same motion in the air. Now, play the pattern on the ride cymbal. Keep your fulcrum open, Don’t restrict the vertical motion of the stick. Let it REBOUND! The changing position of your arm/elbow— out-in-out-in, 1-2-3-4+—will guarantee accents on beats 2 & 4, Reverse the arm motion and the accent pattern is reversed. We have reduced the full arm stroke to two positions: 18A and G, I9A and G. SSS il MOTION PRODUCES SOUNDS. SEQUENCES OF LARGER AND SMALLER MOTIONS PRODUCE ACCENT PATTERNS. ACCENTS ARE NOT PRODUCED BY “HITTING HARDER,” Also play the 2 and 4 accent pattem exercise on the snare with either hand. The same accent pattern results from the same motions whether played on the ride cymbal, snare drum, or toms; right hand or left, Matched or Traditional grip. This technique allows a smooth transition between larger and smaller strokes necessary for the flowing execution of accent patterns. At no time are the muscles forced to “control” the sticks through rigidity. We can experience this with the following exercises Hold a stick with only the fulcrum using either Traditional or German. (Refer to the sections on these fulcrums if you are not sure of them.) Keeping your elbow pressed against your side try playing this accent pattern: ;ininin™M® Now, try to play it with your elbow in its “out” position. I'm sure that neither position produced the desired pattern and you probably had difficulty maintaining an open, non-rigid fulcrum, Matched or Traditional. Now, combine the arm/elbow positions as shown here: Let the stick bounce. The changing arm/elbow positions will produce the desired pattem. Keep your arm loose, wrist and fingers relaxed. Play from the shoulder just as you did when you snapped your fingers on 2 and 4. You HOLD the stick with the fulerum but you MOVE it from the shoulder! . Now, add the rest of your fingers to refine, not diminish the rebound. Remember, the fingers move WITH the stick not AGAINST it, All of these techniques are derived fram the coordination of the WHOLE arm as illustrated in the full arm stroke. Coordinating Accent Patterns Here is an example of coordinating two different accent patterns. The example is very basic yet the principles it illustrates are applicable to the most complex of patterns. One hand plays a ride cymbal pattern of four quarter notes accented on beats 2 and 4. The other hand plays four quarter notes on the snare drum accented on | and 3. First attempts often result in one hand following the other's accent scheme, Concentrate on the ride pattern scheme and the snare pattern will follow; and vice-versa, This happens if you relate only to the “sound” of the patterns by themselves rather than thinking of them as two halves of a whole. Relate the patterns to the motions required to produce them. We cannot limit our thinking and playing to the division of “left” and “right” or to hands and feet. We must think, feel, and hear equality and consistency of movement. We are using the same motion technique (Both arms are built the same!) to play each pattern, Diagrammed: Cymbal: | d J d i Arm, blit a oot ih | Drum; 4 = J J J An in aut a ut Further, if we relate the patterns to a single linc, to a sticking pattern played between two parts of the set rather than on one part, we see that we are playing a simple sequence of “flat” flams: 4 wu *J rd Dog it sinyiegtymnet sik Ra wh oa wk CR 4 2d ad a ay i slaying cymbal with LA. we wt ce OR The technique of movement which we have discussed provides balances: tension/release; accented/unaceented; left/nght; vertical (stick)/horizontal (elbow and arm), You now have a neutral foundation upon which to develop individualistic techniques which will fulfill your improvisational demands. " The Drum Set Set-up ‘The drums and cymbals should be centralized around you to minimize reaching and maximize pivoting with the wrists between drums and cymbals, Avoid stretching, twisting, and contorting, Set the drums and cymbals up to you, not yourself up to them. Throne ‘This is the most important part of your set in terms of balance. It directly affects the techniques of the feet. You must find a height and distance which allows relaxation of the hips, legs, and ankles and, thus, your upper body as well. Snare Drum Whether playing matched or traditional grip, the snare should be positioned and angled in such a way that the normal alignment of the forearms and the hands is not affected. ‘Too, the shoulders must remain relaxed. Photo ? shows a compatible snare position for traditional grip. Photo 1 shows the same for matched. Mounted Toms These should be adjusted so as to be angled inward toward you, They should not be below or flush with the hoop of the snare but above it to facilitate pivots between them and the snare. Floor Tom The floor tom should be about the same height as the snare. Sometimes it is angled slightly inward toward the player, The ride cymbal should be positioned so that the stick strikes the cymbal approximately midway between the edge of the cymbal and the bottom of the cup. It is usually in this area that the most articulate stick sound is produced. (see photo 13) You should not have to extend your upper arm from its natural hanging position in order to reach the playing areas of the cymbal. Crash Cymbals Position these, within your normal reach (tilted slightly toward you), so that the stick strikes the cymbal on the bow or the shoulder, not the sharp edge. Experiment with your set-up. Find out what works best for you. Remember, your set-up should facilitate, not hinder movement. Foot Techniques Pedal Tension and Stroke Adjustment Here is a starting point from which you can experiment with the tension of your foot pedals. When either foot is placed on its respective pedal the tension of the springs should support the relaxed foowleg so that neither the cymbals of the hi- bat close nor the bass drum beater rests against the bead. The pedals should support the feet about halfway between the maximum strokes and the points of contact. 13 Bass Drum Techniques ‘To develop bass drum technique practice the same fundamental exercises used to develop hand technique: dynamic patterns, accent patterns, and tempo exercises. The exercises in this book may be used for this purpose. A common hindrance to the development of a consistent bass drum technique is the practice of leaving the beater pressed against the head. Play the exercises using the same rebound as applied to the hands. The same principles apply: smaller strokes produce softer sounds; larger strokes, louder sounds. The two fundamental bass techniques are the heel remains on the heel plate and the pedal is played with ankle motion, the heel is elevated and the pedal is played with the forward part of the foot, again motivated by the ankle, For greater volume the leg can be used in conjunction with the ankle. Hi-Hat Technique The following two fundamental techniques will provide a foundation for your own variations. The “rocking” technique is often used when playing a repetitive 2 and 4. As the forward part of the foot presses the pedal down on those beats, the heel rises off the pedal. The heel comes down on the heel plate on 1 and 3 when the forward part of the foot releases the pedal. “Toe” technique can also be used to play repetitive patterns. It is particularly useful at fast tempos and for playing non-repetitive and syncopated figures. The heel is elevated and the ball of the foot and the toes remain in contact with the forward part of the pedal. At first practice the motion on the floor, not the pedal. Raise your heel, keeping the forward part of the foot on the floor. Move your heel up and down in eighth notes, When the heel comes up on the “&’s” of | and 3 let the forward part of the foot bounce off of the floor and return on 2 and 4. Keep your leg relaxed so that the foot feels like it is bouncing off the floor rather than being lifted by the leg. It should recall the same free motion as when we snapped our fingers on 2 and 4. Transfer your foot to the pedal. Make sure that the forward part of the foot does not leave the foot board. If it does it means that your are cither using too much bounce or that there is not enough space between the two cymbals to accommodate the stroke, or that there is too little tension on the spring, Remember, the tighter the pedal tension the faster the rebound. Throne Height The height of the throne and its distance from the set can affect the execution of these techniques. If you sit too high or too close you are forced to play only up on your toes. If you sit too low or too far away it is difficult to use the toe techniques, Experiment with your throne height and distance and find a position where you can use toe, heel down, ot any other techniques without affecting your center of balance, Practicing Practice with a metronome. It will not make your time mechanical. It will develop your own awareness of steady and erratic time in yourself and others. The quickest way to learn something is to play it slowly at first. So slowly that you can think about each note before you play it. So slowly that you can concentrate on the mechanics of what you are playing, Singing, or in some way vocalizing a pattern or rhythm before playing it is a beneficial and necessary learning device. It is the only way to understand the sound of the rhythm. I is very difficult to play something if you have no idea of how it sounds. Just as it is difficult, if not impossible, to use a word if you are unfamiliar with its pronunciation or meaning. “Control” docs not come from rigidity of the muscles or the mind. Control comes from using the muscles in such a way as to balance contraction and expansion, tension and release. Avoid “against.” You never play anything “against” anything else. Playing “against” implies confrontation, which is conducive to neither mental nor physical relaxation, You don't play “against” the other musicians. You play with them, To develop a consistent and unified approach to the drum set we must realize that our appendages play “with,” not “against” one another. The answer is always “YES” to the question; “Can I do it this way, too?” LESSON 1: Quarter Notes Points to Remember: 1. Beginning tempo: MM 4 :40- 2, Play the exercises with two stroke lengths: a, fullest, rebounded strokes as allowed by the tempo b. short (1-144") rebounded. Applications: fmeacures played repetitively and sequaatialle) 1. On the snare with the following stickings: a, all left ¢. alternate, left fead b. all right d, altemate, right lead Accompany with 7 hi-hat and ; bass, The bass should be played with the same two stroke lengths as the hands to ensure a dynamic blend. The bass should always be softer and supportive of the hands. 2. Exercises on the bass drum. Accompany with 4 hi-hat. 3. Exercises on the snare with LH. Accompany with 9 hi-hat and the following tide cymbal rhythms played with the RH: > 2#f + 33 wd J d a @ iva aa 3 res (H J Fa J re (4) J rag Pad Also accompany with 4 bass. 4. On snare with RH. Accompany with LH ride patterns, f hi-hat, ¢ bass. 5. On bass drum, ‘Accompany with 3 hi-hat and ride pattems, LH and RH. 6. On the hi-hat using the foot pedal Accompany with 4 bass, LH and RH ride patterns. 7. Play with LH/RH unison on two drums, two cymbals, a drum and a cymbal. Accompany with 3 bi-hat, 4 bass. 8. Play with LF/RF unison. Accompany with LH and RH ride pattems- 9. Play with LH/RF unison. Accompany with RH nde patterns, 3 hi-hat or 4 bass. 10. Play with RH/LF unison, Accompany with LH ride patterns, q hichat or 4 bass. Points on Which to Concentrate in All Lessons: 1. Make sure that all strokes in all limbs are rebounded, Be consistent. 2, Concentrate in three general areas: a. SOUNDS: Are the notes even and consistent in time? Are-all parts of the set balanced dynamically? b. FEEL: Can you feel the stick/beater rebound? Do you feel relaxed? Do you feel tense’? Are your legs relaxed? Are you breathing normally or holding your breath? ¢. LOOK: Watch your hands and feet as they play. Watch them when they are not playing. 3, Memorize the exercises so that you can concentrate on yourself, on playing, and not on the notes on the paper. 4. Creating your own exercises based upon the materials 1 greatly encouraged. Improvise your own solos. 5. Practice with a metronome. 6. Refer to the text on primary techniques if you are unsure of something. i5 fea | qe SSS eps eS SS a SS] LESSON 2: Quarter Notes on Two Sound Sources Points to Remember: 1, Beginning tempo: MM 4:40 2. Two rebounded stroke lengths, Applications: measures plaged repetitively and sequentially) 1. Top line: RH Bottom: LH Accompany with 3 hi-hat and 4 bass. 2. Top line: LA Bottom: RE Accompany with RH ride patterns, either 7 hi-hat or { bass. a . Top line: RF Bottom: LF Accompany with LH and RH ride patterns. 4, Top line: RH Bottom: RF Accompany with LH ride patterns, either 3 hi-hat or 3 bass. 5. ‘Top line: LH Bottom: LF Accompany with RH ride patterns, either 9 hi-hat or q bass. 6. ‘Top line: RH Bottom: LF Accompany with LH ride patterns, either 3 hi-hat or 4 bass. 7. Top line: unison LH/RH Bottom: unison LF/RF 8. Top line: unison LH/RF Bottom: unisonn RE/LF 9. Top line: unison LH/LF Bonom; unison RH/RF 16 10. Top line: snare with LH Bottom: any other drum or cymbal on the left hand side of the set, played with the left hand. Accompany with RH ride patterns, 7 hi-hat, { bass. UL. ‘Top line: snare with RH Bottom: any other drum or cymbal on the right hand side of the set, played with the right hand. ‘Accompany with LH ride patterns, 3 hi-hat, 4 bass. 7S SS LESSON 3: Eighth Note Triplets Points to Remember: 1. Beginning tempo: MM J 40. 2. Two rebounded stroke lengths. Applications: fmezeures played repetitively and sequentiala) 1, On the snare with the following stickings: a. all LH f. RRL b. all RH gz. LRR c. alternate, LH lead h. RLL d. alternate, RH lead i. LRL LRL e. LLR j. RLR RLR Accompany with 3 hi-hat and 4 bass. 2, On the bass. Accompany with LH and RH ride patterns, 3 hi-hat 3. On snare with LH. Accompany with RH ride patterns, 3 hi-hat, q bass. 4. On the snare with RH. Accompany with LH ride patterns, J hi-hat, 4 bass. 5. On the hi-hat using the foot pedal. Accompany with RH and LH ride patterns, 1 bass. 6. Play with LH/RH unison on two drums, two cymbals, or a drum and a cymbal. Accompany with } hi-hat and { bass. 7. Play with LF/RF unison. Accompany with LH and RH nde patterns: 8. Play with LH/RE unison, Accompany with RH ride patterns, 3 hi-hat or 4 bass. 9. Play with RH/LF unison. Accompany with LH ride patterns, J hi-hat or 4 bass. Soe ee ee ——_] = == = Se ee LESSON 4: Eighth Note Triplets on Two Sound Sources Points to Remember: I. Beginning tempo: MM 2:40, 2. Two rebounded stroke lengths. Applications: — played repetitively and sequentially} 1. Top line: RH Bottom: LH Accompany with 7 hi-hat and } bass, 2. Top line: LH Bottom: RF Accompany with RH ride patterns, either 3 hi-hat or 7 bass, 3. Top line: RF Bottom: LF Accompany with LH and RH ride patierns. 4. Top line: RH Bottom: RF Accompany with LH ride patterns, either j hi-hat or { bass. . Top line: LH Bottom: LF Accompany with RH ride patterns, either 3 hi-hat or $ bass. ua ie 6. Top line: RH Bottom: LF Accompany with LH ride patterns, either 7 hi-hat or } bass. 7. Top line: unison LH/RH Bottom: unison LF/RF 8. Top line: unison LH/RF Bottom: unison LF/RH 9. Top line: unison LH/LF Bottom: unison RH/RE 10. Top line: snare with LH Bottom: any other drum or cymbal on the left hand side of the set, played with the LH, Accompany with RH ride patterns, 3 hi-hat, 4 bass. ll. ‘Top line: snare with RH Bottom: any other drum or cymbal onn the right band side of the set, played with the RE, Accompany with LH ride patterns, 7 hi-hat, ] bass. NOTE: The rest of the single line eighth note triplet exercises follow the same Applications.as Lesson 3. The only change is in the stickings used in Application 1: all LH, all RH, alternate with LH lead, alternate with RH lead, The rest of the double line exercises with 8th note triplets follow the Applications in Lesson 4. Lessons 29-31 deal with quarter note triplets, Single line exercises follow Lesson 3; double line exercises, Les- son 4. Upon completion of the quarter note triplet exercises, return to Lesson | and play all lessons with these accompanying ride patterns: — 3———— poses Pe yi J od go odog = SSS to = * = ae = » rod a fi 35 84 aR RK HI5 R35 rida a -i4 3 = rin cia hh OS rand ron each cin Lae ug a LH 37 r3a - 35 eae a meee Le an aT EE wh ada oda od — Lja Lge ug -3 -do ris = BaF ————¥ cod C Lg) Loa ed ug Lg ujo Lay .gjLga Lau ids use mas 21 ay ed edy oe i, -ij5 pa rsa I —— a 17 3a ae eae Se -i -3 —Ig 3s SS SS SS Se ake ob tenia are ret See ee eee E ree eee 345 mgs egy pes cri cin cin —37 — I> ar = =} — BS ee 5 i er fel eh fed a i fae 3 3 a 3 3 See 27 Soe Ags cI -i— —- 34 —iIi—_ crim eit ai | | 28 Accent Studies Play the measures repetitively and sequentially. For the quarter note patterns follow the applications in LESSON 1. For the eighth note triplet patterns follow the applications in LESSON 3. Quarter Notes qos SSS a ei ey Eighth Note Triplets = 3 a > => => > > = = => = = = = = = > = = => a rae le } a aT —3—3 —-I sae = > > > > -_—_—— = === 2 Dynamie Studies Fallow ihe applications in LESSON 1 for the quarter notes. Follow the applications in LESSON 3 for the eighth note triplets, Also, practice these additional dynamic patterns using quarters and triplets (partials of the eighth note triplet may also be used): . | —= | =| 4 bars 4 bars 2 | =p |! . (|| The patterns, of course, may be played within shorter or longer bar lengths. * Advanced Triplet Coordination The exercises in this section are written in an abbreviated form. The key for expanding the components into a bar of is simply as follows: rja rat epi sid fd -4 FAG IG IEA fi., Mmmm 30450 IT) yid4 ardeadaadard ydd-4 Os Fide ran e35 P3434 Fr — 3——, | wdy-4r dra des yi?y [dd o-4 ee th GR LINEAR KEYS: These exercises may also be related to linear rhythms and sticking pattems. This will minimize auditory confusion when you begin moving the individual parts between various parts of the set. lt also helps you to understand how the parts “go together", not “go against” each other. These keys are played between the hands, the feet, and hand and Sepa Be Bae — | go ork ae 3g ead —— So u_ j-——_—' 3 min oo co ea igs Lg ego to a ee ee 35 -35 3 uj wu j—— rege § ete efor gne i ein 3 eda oda cdo esi aa 3 AR S56 Bs B54 BIR FS Boe OES By keeping the appropriate linear key(s} in mind one is not confused by new sound source combinations. Some Practice Schemes: I. Start with the hands playing their patterns on the snare: a. vocalize one foot pattern then, when you are comfortable singing it while playing the hands, play the vocalized foot pattern; b. vocalize remaining foot pattern; play it. Tl. Start by playing the foot rhythms: a, vocalize one hand's rhythm; play it; b. vocalize the other hand's rhythm, play it. Til. Other starting pairs: LH/LF, RH/RF, LH/RF, RH/LF. You can also build the exercise from one appendage’s pattern, being sure to vocalize each subsequent pattern before playing it. A scheme for developing sound source alterations could involve— 1, one source (e.g. RH on snare); 2. single alternation between two sources (RH between snare and floor tom), or three sources (snare, floor tom, and mide cymbal); 3, double alternation between two and three sources; that is, the hand does not move to the other source(s) until it has played two (hence, “double”) notes. of its pattern on the first sound source. Hi-Hat Technique When playing » REEF x with the foot pedal rock your foot in eighth note triplets; Cefete Cel ef f = bea og Ceo Cro CS rm 3-7 When playing f ff felele a ee At slower tempos figures such as 5 sp may be played flatfooted. At faster tempos the ball-of-the-foot, or bouncing technique, is useful. EXPERIMENT, of Don’t assume old roles when playing these exercises. If you are “right-handed” don’t automatically play the LH on the snare, the RH on the ride cymbal or hi-hat. Try reversing that with which you are most familiar and comfortable. A standard ride pattern may be substituted for any rhythms played in either LH or RH. A beginning tempo of no faster than MM 4 -60 is recommended. o—_ ea | ee ~y T — r 77 Ip L — a2 ns a. —e 3. "a |