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UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

GRAMMAR
NOUNS

(SOSTANTIVI)

Per fare plurale: si aggiunge


- "s"
DOCTOR
PATIENT

=> DOCTORS
=> PATIENTS

=>
=>
=>
=>

WATCHES
GLASSES
BOXES
RASHES

LIFE
CITY
BACTERIUM
DATUM
SPECTRUM
CRITERION
PHENOMENON
FOCUS
NUCLEUS
FORMULA
ANALYSIS
GENUS
APPENDIX
INDEX

=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>

LIVES
CITIES
BACTERIA
DATA
SPECTRA
CRITERIA
PHENOMENA
FOCI
NUCLEI
FORMULAE
ANALYSES
GENERA
APPENDICES
INDICES

MAN
WOMAN
CHILD
FOOT
TOOTH
MOUSE
THIS
THAT

=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>

MEN
WOMEN
CHILDREN
FEET
TEETH
MICE
THESE
THOSE

"es" con i seguenti finali:


"TCH"
WATCH
"SS"
GLASS
"X
BOX
SH
RASH

ALTRE IRREGOLARIT
- F
- Y
- UM

=> VES
=> IES
=> A

- ON

=> A

- US

=> I

=>
=>
=>
=>

A
IS
US
EX/IX

AE
ES
ERA
ICES

ECCEZIONI

Pagina 1 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

AGGETTIVI
THE PATIENT COMPLAINS OF PRICKLING EYES, ACHING LIMBS,
SWOLLEN NECK GLANDS, AND MILD DEPRESSION.
1)
2)

Gli aggettivi rimangono invariati. (an old man: an old woman)


Precedono i sostantivi. (a rare disease: a therapeutic dose: normal
values: rapid heart rate: persistent morning cough: red blood cells)

I sostantivi:
PATIENT, EYES, LIMBS, GLANDS, DEPRESSION
Gli aggettivi sono: PRICKLING, ACHING, SWOLLEN, NECK, MILD.
Gli aggettivi derivano da varie fonti: - II participio presente.
PRICKLING / ACHING (INFINITO: TO PRICKLE / TO ACHE)
Altri esempi: burning pain; surrounding tissue.
Il participio passato.
SWOLLEN (INFINITO: TO SWELL)
Altri esempi: handicapped children; increased appetite; reduced weight;
advanced disease; controlled experiment; infected area.
Sostantivi usati da aggettivi
NECK (IL COLLO) (Si pu tradurre - del collo)
Altri esempi: venous blood - blood cells;
infections; weak heart - heart rate; lower
collapsed lung
lung damage;
stomach
artificial kidney - kidney disease; mental
administration.

soft tissue - tissue


chest - chest pain;
ulcer
ulcer pain;
hospital - hospital

Molti aggettivi finiscono in "AL".


Clinical trials; duodenal ulcers; neurological problems; gynaecological
patients; bronchial infection; myocardial activity; intestinal obstruction:
rectal examination.

AGGETTIVI DIMOSTRATIVI
THIS = questo/a

THAT = quello/a

THESE = questi/e

THOSE = quelli/e

Pagina 2 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

ARTICLES
1)

INDEFINITE ARTICLE:
a) si usa A

A / AN,

davanti ai sostantivi che iniziano con una consonante: a


doctor. Davanti una vocale pronunciato "y" o "w": a
ureter; a utensil.

b) si usa AN davanti ai sostantivi che iniziano con una vocale: an


antigen, davanti ad una "h" non pronunciato: an hour.
2)

DEFINITE ARTICLE;

THE

Si usa:

a) per specificare: A 52 year old man was admitted. The man's history
was given by the patient's wife,
b) per indicare cose di cui ne esiste un solo esemplare: The National
Health Service came into operation on July 5th 1948.
c) per paesi al plurale o composti da altri stati: The U S A, the U K
d) per indicare una classe di persone o cose: the sick; the elderly; the
limbs.
Non si usa:
a) quando si parla in senso generate: Life is precious; Health is
important. Surgical instruments are made of steel
b) con i nomi delle malattie: He is in bed with influenza / measles /
chickenpox.
c) con le parole che indicano liquidi: urine; saliva; mucus.
d) con !e parti del corpo: She broke her leg.
3)

PARTITIVE ARTICLE: SOME / ANY / NO


Some - affermativo; Any - interrogativo e negative; No - negative

The patient has some trouble with his eyes. The patient has not any trouble
etc. Has the patient any trouble with his eyes? The patient has no trouble etc

Pagina 3 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

PRONOMI

(PERSONALI)

Me

My

Mine

Myself

You

You

Your

Yours

Yourself

He

Him

His

His

Himself

She

Her

Her

Hers

Herself

It

It

Its

Its

Itself

We

Us

Our

Ours

Ourselves

You

You

Your

Yours

Yourselves

They

Them

Their

Theirs

Themselves

PRONOMI RELATIVI
Sogg.
Ogg.
-

=
=

Who (persone)
Whom

Which
Which

(Cose)

Possessivo = Whose

The doctor who visits on Monday is Dr. Brown


The patient whom Dr. Brown visited yesterday has been released.
The lungs are subject to many diseases which are treatable by surgery.
That's the woman whose husband underwent surgery.

N.B. "whom" e poco usato, normalmente "che" riferito all'oggetto non si


esprime in inglese,
Dopo un verbo "che" viene tradotto da "that".
-

The Authors concluded that the method was reliable.

"il che" = which

"ci che" = what

"tutto quello che" = all that

PRONOMI INTERROGATIVI
WHAT (che cosa); WHERE (dove); WHO (chi); WHEN (quando); WHICH
(quale); WHY (perch - risposta=because); HOW (come); HOW MUCH (quanto);
HOW MANY (quanti).

Pagina 4 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

COMPARATIVO E SUPERLATIVO
Gli aggettivi di una sola sillaba e quelli di due sillabe che terminano con -y, -er, le, -o, -ow formano il comparativo aggiungendo il suffisso -ER e -EST per il
superlativo.
Quando 1'aggettivo di una sola sillaba e termina con una consonante singola
preceduta da una vocale singola, lultima consonante raddoppia prima di
aggiungere er o -est.
Tutti gli altri aggettivi usano "MORE" per il comparativo e "MOST" per il
superlativo.
Il secondo termine di paragone e introdotto sempre da "THAN" per il comparativo
e da "IN" / "OF" per il superlativo.
HIGH

HIGHER

HIGHEST

LOW

LOWER

LOWEST

EARLY

EARLIER

EARLIEST

SIMPLE

SIMPLER

SIMPLEST

COMMON

MORE COMMON

MOST COMMON

INTERESTING

MORE INTERESTING

MOST INTERESTING

FREQUENT

MORE FREQUENT

MOST FREQUENT

TOXIC

MORE TOXIC

MOST TOXIC

GOOD

BETTER

BEST

BAD

WORSE

WORST

LITTLE

LESS

LEAST

IRREGOLARI

Esempi.
Babies are healthier than they were 100 years ago.
Asiatics are more susceptible to thalessemia than Europeans.
Diabetes is more frequent in developed countries than in developing nations.
The patient's temperature is higher today than it was yesterday.
The earliest symptoms of botulism are diplopia and dizziness.
The year 1969 showed the lowest infant mortality rates ever recorded in Wales.
The most important single factor observed in cases of depression is the risk of
suicide.
Preventive medicine is better than curative medicine.

Pagina 5 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

VERBS
SIMPLE PRESENT
He studies
--They study
---

Egli studia
Loro studiano

does he study?
do they study?

Per azioni abituali

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
He is studying
--is he studying?
They are studying
--are they studying?

Egli sta studiando


Loro stanno studiando
SIMPLE PAST
He studied
They studied

-----

Egli studi
Loro studiarono
PAST CONTINIOUS
He was studying
--They were studying ---

Egli studiava
Loro studiavano

---- he does not study.


--- they do not study.

-----

he is not studying.
they are not studying.

-----

they did not study


they did not study.

Per azioni in corso

did he study?
did they study?

Per azioni passate in un periodo ben definito

was he studying?
--were they studying? ---

he was not studying.


They were not studying.

Per una azione che continuava nel passato


spesso introdotta da "while (mentre)

Pagina 6 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE
PRESENT PERFECT
He has studied
--They have studied
---

Egli ha studiato
Loro hanno studiato
PAST PERFECT
He had studied
They had studied

-----

-----

Egli studier
Loro studieranno
CONDITIONAL
He would study
They would study

Egli studierebbe
Loro studierebbero.

has he studied
have they studied?

-----

he has not studied.


they have not studied.

Per una azione passata senza una data precisa

Egli aveva studiato


Loro avevano studiato.
FUTURE
He will study
They will study

Prof. E. Jenkins

had he studied
had they studied?

-----

he had not studied.


they had not studied.

Per indicare un azione che ha avuto luogo prima


del passato remoto (simple past)
will he study?
will they study?

-----

he will not study.


they will not study.

Per indicare un azione futura

-----

would he study?
would they study?

-----

He would not study.


they would not study.

Per esprimere un condizionale di qualunque


verbo tranne "dovere" e "potere"

Pagina 7 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

PAST CONDITIONAL
He would have studied
--

would he have studied?

They would have studied --

would they have studied? -

He would not have


studied.
They would not have
studied.

Egli avrebbe studiato


Esprime un azione passata che non e stata
Loro avrebbero studiato
svolta.

PASS IVE
SIMPLE PRESENT
Dr. Ray TREATS the patient.
The patient IS TREATED by Dr. Ray.

(II Dottor Ray cura il paziente)


(II paziente e curato dal Dottor Ray)

SIMPLE PAST
Dr. R. TREATED the patient
The patient WAS TREATED by Dr. R.

(Dr R cur il paziente)


(il paziente fu curato da ...)

PRESENT PERFECT
Dr. R. HAS TREATED the patient
The patient HAS BEEN TREATED by Dr. R.

(Dr. R ha curato il paziente)


(il paziente e stato curato da)

PAST PERFECT
Dr. R. HAD TREATED the patient
(Dr. R. aveva curato il paziente.)
The patient HAD BEEN TREATED by Dr. R. (il paziente era stato curato da)
FUTURE
Dr. R. WILL TREAT the patient.
The patient WILL BE TREATED by Dr. R.
CONDITIONAL
Dr. R. WOULD TREAT the patient.
The patient WOULD BE TREATED by Dr. R.

(Dr. R. curer il paziente)


(il paziente sar curato da)
(Dr. R. curerebbe il paziente)
(il paziente sarebbe curato da)

Pagina 8 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

SIMPLE PRESENT
TO HAVE

TO BE
HE
SHE
IT
THEY

Prof. E. Jenkins

IS

HE
SHE
IT

HAS

ARE

THEY

HAVE

Per la forma interrogativa si inverte il verbo con il soggetto; per il negative si


pone "NOT" dopo il verbo. N.B. Da ncordare le seguenti esspressiom:
THIS IS
(questo )
THESE ARE (questi sono)
THAT IS
(quello )
THOSE ARE (quelli sono)
THERE IS (c')
THERE ARE (ci sono)
Vcrbi principali.
II presente semplice si usa per esprimere azione che sono abituali o che il
soggetto compie spesso o regolarmente. Inoltre il tempo usato per descrizioni
perci compare spesso nei testi scientifici. Si forma con il verbo nella forma
dell'infinito senza "to" , con laggiunta di una "s" per la terza persona singolare.
Se un verbo termina per -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z, -o alla terza persona singolare si
aggiunge es".
La forma interrogativa si ottiene ponendo l'ausiliare "DO" prima del soggetto ,
mentre per la terza persona singolare si usa "DOES"; in questo caso il verbo
ritorna alla forma di base.
La forma negativa si ottiene mettendo " DO NOT" tra il. soggetto ed il verbo. Alla
terza persona singolare si usa "DOES NOT"; in questo caso il verbo torna alla
forma dellinfinito senza il to".
Esempi: This drug relieves pain and increases functional capacity.
Pulmonary embolism presents a major problem for diagnosis and
treatment.
The aeroplane represents the new vector of disease.
When does the cardiac patient need surgical treatment?
What does the liver do?
How much do outpatient clinics contribute to preventive medicine?
Mr. Burge does not operate on Wednesdays.
Some types of diabetes do not need insulin injections.

Pagina 9 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

SIMPLE PAST
Il simple past (corrisponde al passato prossimo in italiano) viene usato per
esprimere un azione compiuto in un tempo definite nel passato. In un testo
scientifico le sezioni "METODI E R1SULTATI" sono riportati in questo tempo perch
si riferiscono a un momento preciso del lavoro. 1 verbi regolari formano il passato
aggiungendo il suffisso "ED" allinfinito
Esempi:

TREAT
FINISH

==>
==>

TREATED
FINISHED

DEVELOP ==>
FINISH
==>

N.B.
1) Se linfinito termina con "e" si aggiunge soltanto "d".
OPERATED
EXAMINE ==>
Esempi:
OPERATE ==>

DEVELOPED
FINISHED
EXAMINED

2) Se !'infinito termina con "y" preceduta da una consonante la "y" diventa "i"
davanti al suffisso "ed".
Esempi:
STUDY
==>
STUDIED
WORRY
==>
WORRIED
VERBI IRREGOLARI
To be-was,were-been
To become-became-become
TO begin-began-begun
To bring- brought -brought
To bleed-bled-bled
To come-came-come
To do-did-done
To fall-fell-fallen
To feel-felt-felt
To find-found-found
To give-gave-given
To go-went-gone
To have-had-had
To know-knew-known
To lead-ted-led
To let-let-let
To make-made-made
To put-put-put
Jo say-said-said
To see-saw-seen
TO take-took-taken
To think-thought-thought

The patient's blood count was normal


Dr. Brown became a consultant in 1999
The operation began at 8 a.m.
The patient brought a specimen of his urine.
His nose bled for three hours
The patient came to the Dermatological Dept.
yesterday
The surgeon who did the operation was Mr. Jones
The number of head trauma victims fell last year
The patient felt better after the injection
Researchers found no correlation between the two
groups
The nurse gave the patient an injection
The man went to his G.P. for the prescription
On examination the patient had no signs or
symptoms
The old man knew his cancer was inoperable
Dr. Green led the research team
The child let the doctor examine him
The doctor made a thorough examination
The doctor put the patient on a strict diet
The Authors said the drug was effective in all
patients
Mr. Blake saw the accident from his office window
The patient took the medicine for two weeks
The Authors thought the risk was too high

Pagina 10 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

FORME INTERROGATIVE E NEGATIVE DEL SIMPLE PAST


Per formare l'interrogativo del simple past si pone "DID" davanti al soggetto e il
verbo principale torna alla forme di base.
Esempi:

The doctor examined the


patient
The patient had a stomach
ulcer

Did the doctor examine the


patient?
Did the patient have a stomach
==>
ulcer?
==>

N.B. 11 verbo "to be" fa eccezione perch continua. ad essere un verbo ausiliare
nel passato, perci si pu invertire con il soggetto.
Esempi:

The patient was a young man


blood tests were normal

==> Was the patient a young man?


==> Were all the blood tests normal?

Per formare la forma negativa si mette DID NOT fra il soggetto ed il verbo
principale, il quale torna alla forma di base
Esempi:

The patient responded well to


The patient did not respond
==>
treatment
well....
The patient underwent
The patient did not undergo
==>
surgery
surgery

N.B. II verbo "to be" sempre un eccezione e prende direttamente la negazione


"not" senza "did". Es. The patient was not young...The endometrial tissue
samples were normal .
PRESENT PERFECT
II present perfect inglese assomiglia al passato prossimo italiano nella sua forma
(presente del verbo avere + il participio passato) ma nelluso molto diverso. Si
usa per esprimere un azione passata che non viene definita con un riferimento
temporale. Di solito c' un legame con il presente perch i risultati o gli effetti
dell'azione durano nel tempo presente. II participio passato dei verbi regolari si
forma aggiungendo -ed- all'infinito, invece i verbi irregolari sono da imparare a
memoria. Diversamente dall'italiano non si usa mai il verbo essere come
ausiliare. (Il participio passato corrisponde alla terza forma del paradigma). In un
testo scientifico questo tempo viene usato nell'introduzione e nella conclusione
dell'articolo dove il discorso e pi generalizzato che nella parte dei risultati.
Esempi:
Dr Friar has done some excellent research on liver function.
The safety of this method has been adequately demonstrated.
Car accidents have caused more deaths recently than any disease.

Pagina 11 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins
THE FUTURE

Il futuro semplice viene usato nella. lingua scritta e per situazioni formali;
pu implicare lidea che unazione avverr indipendentemente dalla volont
della persona che parla; per fare previsioni o pronostici (per esempio, una
prognosi). Si esprime con 1'ausiliare "WILL" che va posto tra il soggetto ed il
verbo principale.
Esempi:

Prolonged use of the drug will reduce tolerance to its effects.


A Barium swallow exam will confirm diagnosis.
More than 90% of patients will survive surgery.

La forma negativa si ottiene ponendo NOT tra I'ausiliare ed il verbo.


Esempio:

The fracture will not heal in less than two months.

Per fare la forma interrogativa lausiliare si inverte con il soggetto.


Esempio:

When will the course finish?


CONDITIONAL

Il condizionale di tutti i verbi si. forma usando il verbo ausiliare "WOULD"


che va posto tra il soggetto e il verbo principale. Ogni persona del verbo
uguale.
Esempi:

Stroke patients would benefit from immediate hospitalization.


Many people's health would improve through correct diet.

La forma negativa si ottiene mettendo NOT tra lausiliare, WOULD, ed il


verbo.
Esempio:

It would not be bad policy to spend more money on preventive


medicine.

La forma interrogativa si ottiene ponendo il verbo ausiliare, WOULD, davanti


al soggetto .
Esempio:

Would more efficient preventive medicine reduce the costs of the


National Health Service?

Pagina 12 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

MODAL VERBS
Can
Potere.
Present. ==> he can (treat) egli pu curare; they can (treat) loro
possono curare
Simple past ==> he could (treat) egli pot curare; they could (treat)
loro poterono curare.
Conditional ==> he could (treat) potrebbe curare ; they could (treat)
potrebbero curare
Past conditional ==> he could have (treated) avrebbe potuto curare; they
could have (treated) avrebbero potuto curare.
N.B. Le parti mancanti di "can" vengono espresse con il verbo "to be
able" (essere in grado)
Es. Present perfect ==> he has been able to cure (ha potuto curare /
stato in grado di curare); Future ==> he will be able to cure (potr
curare / sar in grado di curare); cio il verbo "essere" viene coniugato nel
tempo desiderate.
II verbo "may" sostituisce "can" quando necessario esprimere "dubbio".
Esempio

This mechanism may play an important role in the ...


Questo meccanismo potrebbe avere un ruolo importante nel ...

Must
Dovere
Present ==> he must (treat) egli deve curare; they must (treat) loro
devono curare.
Conditional ==> he should (treat) egli dovrebbe curare; they should
(treat) loro dovrebbero curare.
N:B. Le parti mancanti vengono espresse con il verbo "avere".
Es. Simple past ==> he had (to treat) egli ha dovuto (dovette) curare
Future ==> he will have (to treat) egli dovr curare. cio il verbo
"avere" viene coniugato nel tempo desiderato.
It can be
Pu essere
It could be
Potrebbe essere
It could have been
Avrebbe potuto essere
It may be
Potrebbe essere
It may have been
Avrebbe potuto essere.
It must be
Deve essere.
It should be
Dovrebbe essere.
It must have been
Deve essere stato.
It should have been
Avrebbe dovuto essere.

Pagina 13 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE
NOUNS

Prof. E. Jenkins

ESSENTI AL VO CABULA RY

Disease - illness - disorder - ailment = Malattia.

Data - findings = Dati

Increase - rise - increment = Aumento

Result = Risultato

Decrease - reduction - fall - drop = Riduzione

Outcome = esito

Report - study - survey - work - paper = lavoro

Sign = Segno

Symptom = sintomo

Loss = Perdita

Clinical picture = Quadro clinico

Weakness = Debolezza

Risk = rischio

Pain = dolore

Health = salute (National health System)

Recurrence = Ricaduta

Remission = remissione, guarigione

Swelling = gonfiore

ADJECTIVES
Weak

= Debole

High

= Alto

Slight

= Leggero

Low

= Basso

Main

= Principale

Healthy

= Sano

Suitable

= Adeguato

Available

= Disponibile

Early

= Precoce

Advanced

= Avanzato

Developed

= Sviluppato

Common

= Comune

VERBS
To occur / take place = avvenire
To increase / raise = aumentare
To decrease / reduce / diminish / fall / drop = ridurre
To cut = tagliare
To appear / seem = sembrare
To assess / evaluate = valutare
To lead = condurre
To develop = sviiupparsi
To rise = aumentarsi
To involve = coinvolgere
To identify = individuare
To find = trovare

Pagina 14 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA
CORSO DI INGLESE

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia


Prof. E. Jenkins

Here are some extracts from an article in the British Medical Journal that illustrate
another procedure commonly followed by medical researchers. Work out the
procedure by identifying the extracts.
a)
Comparison of barium swallow and ultrasound in diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal
reflux in children
b)
Fifty one infants and older children with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux
entered a study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of a standard barium swallow
examination with that of ultrasound scanning. All children were examined by both
techniques.
In 40 cases there was unequivocal agreement between the examinations. Of the
remaining patients, four had definite reflux by ultrasonic criteria but showed no
evidence of reflux on barium swallow examination, four had positive findings on
ultrasound but showed only minimal reflux on barium swallow, and one showed
minimal reflux on ultrasound but had a negative barium meal result. In two
children the ultrasound study was inconclusive. Ultrasound has an Important role
in the diagnosis and follow up of patients under the age of 5 years with gastrooesophageal reflux.
c)
Both ultrasound and barium swallow examinations have an important part to play
in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux. Barium examinations are
useful in the diagnosis of complications of reflux and in detecting uncommon
conditions. We emphasize that most children do not require barium meal
examination for diagnosis or during the subsequent management of reflux.
d)
Results of barium swallow and ultrasound examinations
Barium swallow result
Ultrasonic appearance
Positive
Negative
Minimal
positive
Positive
15
4
4
Negative
24
Minimal positive
1
1
Inconclusive
2
Total
17
29
5

Inconclusive
23
24
2
2
51

Pagina 15 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

THE EPILEPSIES AND CONVULSIVE DISORDERS


The epilepsies are a group of disorders characterised by chronic, recurrent,
paroxysmal changes in neurological function caused by abnormalities in the
electrical activity of the brain. They are common neurological disorders,
estimated to affect between 0.5 an 2 percent of the population and can occur
at any age. Each episode of neurological dysfunction is called a seizure.
Seizures may be convulsive when they are accompanied by motor
manifestations or may be manifested by other changes in neurological function
(i.e. sensory, cognitive, emotional events). Epilepsy can be acquired as a result
of neurological injury or a structural brain lesion and can also occur as a part
of many systemic medical diseases. Epilepsy also occurs in an idiopathic form
in an individual with neither a history of neurological insult nor other apparent
neurological dysfunction. Isolated non recurrent seizures may occur in
otherwise healthy individuals for a variety of reasons and under these
circumstances the individual is not said to have epilepsy.
By Marc A Ditcher, in Principles of Internal Medicine.

Epileptics should not attempt a weight loss diet that requires drinking vast
amounts of water, warns a doctor from Stanford University School of Medicine.
Three of his patients with previously well-controlled epilepsy had seizures while
on these diets. At the time of the seizures the patients had been drinking two
to six quarts of water daily. Since excessive fluid intake is one of the oldest
recognized methods of inducing seizures in susceptible people, doctors should
never allow an epileptic to follow this diet plan.
In Time, November 24, 1985,

VOCABULARY
1. Paroxysmal = adj.

Concerning paroxysms (a sudden, periodic attack or


recurrence of symptoms of a disease).

2. Systemic medical disease =

an illness affecting the body as a whole (i.e.


involving multiple systems)
3. idiopathic form = a condition without a clear pathogenesis.
4. weight-loss diet = a slimming diet.

Pagina 16 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

DIETARY SOURCES OF CAFFEINE


Several reports that have appeared in the
Journal over the past decade have
discussed the relations between caffeine
consumption and either coronary heart
disease or indexes of cardiovascular risk
(e.g., levels of serum cholesterol). Caffeine
consumption is typically measured by
asking respondents how many cups of
coffee or tea they drink. Certainly, the
primary sources of dietary caffeine in most
Western countries appear to be coffee and
tea. However, there are a variety of other
foods, beverages, and over-the-counter
medications
that
contain
substantial
amounts of caffeine. Thus, it is unclear
whether coffee and tea consumption
provides an accurate index of total caffeine
intake.
Recently, we completed an investigation
that assessed a broad range of dietary
sources of caffeine in a sample of 173 male
and 228 female employees of the state of
New York who were 21 to 72 years of age
(mean age, 42.9). Only 11 people did not
report any caffeine consumption. Table 1

shows the amount and the percentage of


caffeine consumption over a 72-hour period
accounted for by various sources. Estimates
of caffeine content for each source were
derived from previous dietary analyses.
Coffee consumption accounted for 77 per
cent of totale caffeine intake. Although
caffeine from soft drinks contributed only
about 6 per cent to overall caffeine intake
in our middle-aged sample, preliminary
results indicated that soft drinks are the
primary source (about 50 per cent) of
dietary caffeine among young adults (18 to
24 years of age). Thus, when assessing
coronary risk and caffeine consumption in
middle-aged samples, asking people how
many cups of coffee they drink provides a
fairly accurate estimate of their total
caffeine intake. However, longitudinal
extrapolation of our findings, based on an
assessment of young adults, may suggest
that a broader range of dietary sources of
caffeine should be considered when one is
estimating overall caffeine intake.

Table 1. Caffeine Consumption during a 72-Hour Period among 173 Men and 228 Women.
CAFFEINE SOURCE

MEN
CAFFEINE
CONSUMPTION
mg

Coffee
Tea
Soft drinks
Chocolate beverages
Bar chocolate
Over-the-counter- drugs
Total caffeine intake

914.86
111.75
65.79
2.43
7.19
48.32

WOMEN
% WHO REPORTED
USE DURING STUDY CAFFEINE
PERIOD
CONSUMPTION
% of total
caffeine
intake

79,2
9.7
5.7
0.2
0.6
4.2

mg

79.29
34.7
28.9
10.4
23.7
21.4

970.07
125.58
75.82
4.32
5.73
92.17
1237.6

% WHO REPORTED
USE DURING
STUDY PERIOD

% of total
caffeine
intake

76.2
9.9
6.0
0.3
0.5
7.2

83.8
40.8
28.1
18.0
22.4
26.8

by Gerdi Weidner, in The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 313. November 28, 1985, p. 1421.

Pagina 17 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

LIVER LOBE TRANSPLANTED INTO CHILD


CHICAGO (AP) Surgeons have transplanted part of a liver from an adult into
a 3-year-old child, a spokesman at the University of Chicago Hospitals said
Wednesday night.
The procedure; which has been done before in Europe, was performed Jan. 19
by a team led by Dr. Christoph Broeisch, head of the university's liver
transplant program, said hospital spokesman Bill Silberg.
The child was reported in fair and stable condition late Wednesday, Silberg
said.
The liver recipient, a boy, had suffered almost complete liver failure and was
already in a coma when brought to the university's Wyler Children's Hospital
Jan. 17. The lobe, from the liver of a dead adult, was transplanted during an
eight-hour operation.
The hospital spokesman said the child suffered complete liver failure after an
attack of viral hepatitis, and no suitable donor organ from another child was
available at the time for a life-saving transplant.
Only one of the four lobes from the donor liver was used for the transplant.
(...) In an adult the left lateral lobe, the one used in the operation, is
approximately the same size as the full liver of a young child.
in The Stars and Stripes, February 23, 1986, p. 6.

Pagina 18 di 19

UNIVERSIT DI FERRARA

Facolt di Medicina e Chirurgia

CORSO DI INGLESE

Prof. E. Jenkins

Va c ci n e s
Prevention is better than cure.
HIS LIFE IS IN YOUR HANDS
Beautiful, isn't he? The sort of child any parents would be proud of.
Hard to imagine that until a few months ago this little boy was in mortal danger and nearly
lost his life.
Without proper vaccination he was at the mercy of every germ, virus bacterial disease
around.
Don't take the risk! Make sure your child is fully inoculated. Today!
GIVE YOUR CHILD A FAIR CHANCE - TO LIVE!
Every man, woman, and child at some time In life suffers illnesses caused by infection. The
severity of infection results from such factors as the inherent properties of the specific germ,
the number of germs, and the ability of the body to fight them.
The ability of the body to resist infection is termed immunity. It may be natural or acquired.
Natural immunity is the sum total of the defenses in all normal people which enable the body
to resist infection under ordinary conditions. These defenses include, among many others,
intact skin and mucous membranes which act to bar the entrance of germs; the tissue fluids
and blood which contain cells and other substances which engulf and destroy foreign objects;
and the ordinarily harmless population of bacteria and viruses found in the body which prevent
or interfere with the growth of harmful bacteria or viruses.
Acquired immunity is that defense against infection which an individual develops through
exposure to germs or their products. Each germ acts as a specific antigen. An antigen is a
substance foreign to the body which stimulates the body to form antibodies. Antibodies are
protective proteins which the body forms in response to an antigen. For instance, when
measles viruses enter the body they cause the body to form antibodies because the measles
virus is a foreign substance. These antibodies are for specific use against the measles virus,
and help the body fight and kill the virus. They do not help to fight other viruses such as the
poliomyelitis, however.
The body forms antibodies against each germ that invades it. Until the body has had at least
one encounter with the germ, no antibodies can be formed against it. Immunity may be
acquired naturally, that is, by actually developing the disease.
In the course of an illness, antibodies appear and the patient begins to recover. These
antibodies then persist in the blood stream and protect the individual from developing the
same illness again. Not many years ago this was the only way people could develop immunity.
Today, however, modern medicine has developed vaccines by which we can develop immunity
artificially. Vaccines are antigens which cause the body to build antibodies against a particular
disease without becoming ill.
The definition of a vaccine is: "A preparation which on injection will induce an active immunity
in the body. Vaccines are made up of dead or attenuated infectious agents, bacteria or viruses,
and each one is specific: the intracutaneous inoculation of tetanus vaccine protects the
individual against tetanus, and rabies vaccine protects against rabies, etc..
Some vaccines contain living germs, such as the smallpox, yellow fever, measles, and oral
polio vaccines. These living vaccines have been rendered harmless in the laboratory, so that
they do not cause the harmful effects of the disease. But they still provoke the formation of
antibodies.

Pagina 19 di 19