Fatigue

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Fatigue

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ING/ 139

THRESHOLD LEVEL AND MEAN VALUE INFLUENCE

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universit degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrra, Italy

Luglio 2005

via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara

tel. +39 532 973800, fax. +39 532 974870

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

INDEX

1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1

2. Preliminary defintions ................................................................................................................... 1

3. Formulae for damage computation................................................................................................3

3.1. Theoretical formulae for damage computation ................................................................... 3

3.1.1.

Narrow-band approximation............................................................................ 4

3.1.2.

TB method ....................................................................................................... 4

3.2. Damage formulae including a threshold level SL ................................................................ 5

3.2.1.

Narrow-band approximation............................................................................ 6

3.2.2.

TB method ....................................................................................................... 6

3.3. Effect of mc on damage ....................................................................................................... 7

3.3.1.

Narrow-band approximation............................................................................ 8

3.3.2.

TB method ....................................................................................................... 8

3.4. Effect of mc and mr on damage............................................................................................ 8

3.4.1.

TB method ....................................................................................................... 9

4. Probability of threshold crossing occurrence ................................................................................ 9

4.1. Poisson approximation ...................................................................................................... 10

4.2. Linear combination ........................................................................................................... 11

4.3. Overall probability of threshold crossing.......................................................................... 12

5. Conclusions ................................................................................................................................. 12

6. References ................................................................................................................................... 12

1. INTRODUCTION

The classical time-domain approach for estimating the fatigue damage in random loadings is based on counting methods and damage accumulation rules (e.g. rainflow count and linear damage accumulation rule).

On the opposite, the frequency-domain approach models the irregular loading as a random process, described in the frequency-domain by a power spectral density (PSD), and it characterises the statistical variability of rainflow counted cycles by means of a probability density function, since the fatigue damage under

the linear rule is easily calculated from the cycle distribution.

The existing frequency-domain methods compute the fatigue damage by referring to amplitude or amplitude-mean probability density functions defined over infinite domains, i.e. cycles having an infinitely large

value of its peak or valley are virtually possible. In addition, very often such methods estimate the fatigue

damage usually neglecting the influence of the mean stress of each rainflow counted cycle and then only focusing on the statistical variability of the amplitudes.

However, a more physically meaningful approach we should account for the existence of a threshold

level for the systems (actually representing a ultimate static strength or simply a limit state condition for the

system functionality), and also we should provide a more reliable damage prediction by including the influence of the mean stress of counted cycles, since it is well-known the more damaging effect of cycles with a

positive mean stress.

The present report proposes a theoretical framework developed to formulate suitable criteria for fatigue

damage assessment, which estimate the fatigue damage by including the existence of a system threshold

level, and that further include the effect on fatigue damage of mean stresses of counted cycles. This paper

presents two approaches are proposed with an increasing complexity: the first one evaluates the effect of the

global mean stress value of the random loading, mc (constant), while the second also includes the effect of

the random mean stress component mr of rainflow cycles, evaluated in respect to mc (see Figure 1)

2. PRELIMINARY DEFINTIONS

Let X (t ) be a stationary random process with mean value mc (see Figure 1) and power spectral density

(PSD) S ( ) , characterised by the set of spectral moments [6]:

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

+

i = i S ( ) d

(1)

1

0 2

1 =

2 =

2

0 4

(2)

If X (t ) is Gaussian, the mean upcrossing rate 0 and the rate of peak occurrence p are:

0 =

1

2

2

0

p =

1

2

4

2

(3)

Further, if process X (t ) is Gaussian with mean mc , its probability density of peaks is given as:

pp (u ) =

1 22

2 X

( u mc ) 2

2 X2

(1 22 )

(u m )

+ 2 2 c e

X

( u mc ) 2

2 X2

(u m )

c

2

2

X 1 2

(4)

pv ( v) = pp (2mc v) . The cumulative distribution function of peaks finally is:

um

c

Fp (u ) =

2

X 1 2

( u mc )

e 2 X2 2 (u mc )

2

2

X 1 2

(5)

Each fatigue cycle counted in a random loading can be described by its peak u and valley v (being always

u v ), or equivalently by its amplitude s and mean m :

s=

uv

2

m=

u+v

2

(6)

Counted cycles are clearly random events and should be characterised in a probabilistic sense. A simple way

to describe the statistical variability of counted cycles is to define a joint probability density function (PDF),

say h(u , v) , depending on peak u and valley v levels; note that h(u , v) is defined only for u v . The corresponding distribution function (CDF):

u

H (u, v) =

h ( x , y ) dx dy

(7)

then gives the probability to count a cycle with peak lower or equal to level u and valley lower or equal to

level v .

In the engineering field we are more familiar with other probability densities, as the amplitude-mean PDF

(obtained from h(u , v) through a simple variable change):

p ( s , m) = 2 h ( m + s , m s )

(8)

+

p( s) =

p( s, m) dm

(9)

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

In our analysis we are mainly interested in estimating the distribution of rainflow cycles; note that the rainflow count is a "complete counting method" and therefore its distribution must satisfy the following completeness condition [9]:

u

p p (u ) = hRF (u , v) dv

+

p ( v ) = h ( u , v ) du

RF

v

v

(10)

Another cumulative distribution often used in the fatigue analysis of random loadings is the count intensity

(u , v) , which gives the number of rainflow cycles with peak equal or higher than u and valley equal or

lower than v [8].

The count intensity related to the joint distribution hRF (u , v) is:

+ y = v

RF (u, v) = p

RF ( x,

y ) dx dy

(11)

x =u

3.1.

Each rainflow cycle counted in X (t ) is characterised, besides its amplitude s , also by a mean value m ,

equal to the sum of the global mean value component mc (constant) and the random mean stress component

If the fatigue behaviour is characterised by the S-N relation s k N = C , defined for m = 0 , the fatigue

damage rate under the linear rule (neglecting the mean value m of rainflow cycles) is:

a

DRF

= p

+ k

p RF ( s ) ds

(12)

where p RF ( s) is the probability density of amplitudes; the damage in Eq. (12) does not consider the statistical variability of the mean stress m of rainflow cycles and it also represents a completely theoretical formula, since it integrates the amplitude distribution p RF ( s) over an infinite domain.

Figure 1: Amplitude

s , global mean value mc and random mean stress component m r of a counted cycle.

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

In order to obtain a fatigue damage estimate, which includes also the statistical variability of mean stress

m of rainflow cycles, it is necessary to update Eq. (12) by using the amplitude-mean joint probability density p RF ( s, m) , as:

a, m

DRF

= p

+ + k

p RF ( s, m) dsdm

(13)

The formulae presented above show that the fatigue damage depends on the statistical distribution of

counted cycles through p RF ( s) or p RF ( s, m) distributions.

3.1.1. Narrow-band approximation

If X (t ) is Gaussian, distribution p RF ( s) is Rayleigh and the fatigue damage is [1]:

DNB =

0

C

20

1 +

2

(14)

(a ) = u a1 e u du

(15)

We know that in wide-band processes p RF ( s) is not Rayleigh and taht Eq. (14) gives a conservative damage

estimate, therefore we need other methods which give a more accurate estimation of p RF ( s) [1].

3.1.2. TB method

A linear combination is used to estimate the rainflow cycle distribution:

hRF (u , v) = b hLC (u , v) + (1 b) hRM (u , v)

(16)

where b is a suitable weight depending on the process PSD and approximated as [1]:

bapp =

( 1 2 ) [1.112 (1 + 1 2 ( 1 + 2 ) ) e 2.11

( 2 1 )2

+ ( 1 2 )

(17)

and where hLC (u , v) and hRM (u , v) are the joint distributions associated to the level-crossing counting:

p p (u ) p v (u ) (u + v 2mc ) + p v (u ) (u v)

hLC (u , v) =

p p (u ) (u v)

if u > mc

if u mc

(18)

hRM (u, v) =

e

2

u 2 +v2

40 22 (1 22 )

2 2 0 2

( u v)2

1 2 22

40 22 (1 22 ) 2 22

mc ( mc u v )

2 0 (1 22 )

uv

40 (1 22 )

(19)

A linear combination similar to Eq. (16) can be used also for estimating the joint amplitude-mean distribution p RF ( s, m) , using the distribution associated to the level-crossing counting:

pp ( s ) pv ( s) ( m mc ) + pv ( m) ( s)

pLC ( s, m) =

p p ( m) ( s )

if s + m > mc

if s + m mc

(20)

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

p RM ( s, m) =

1

2 0 (1 22 )

(m mc )2

s2

2

s

2 2 0

e

0 22

2 0 (1 22 )

(21)

The above formulae are derived from those presented in [1] by including the symmetry in respect to the

global mean value mc .

A linear combination is also used for the damage:

(22)

where DLC is the damage from the level-crossing counting (which is equal to DNB [1]) and DRM is the (approximated) damage from the range-mean counting, see [1].

3.2.

All the above formulae assume that amplitudes and mean values are defined over an infinite domain. However, a more realistic model should consider the existence for process X (t ) of a threshold level S L (being

S L the corresponding symmetric negative value), which could indicate an ultimate static strength or simply a limit state condition for the system.

This threshold level divides the domain of amplitudes (and mean values) into two distinct regions (see

for example Figure 2). Therefore, the damage can be expressed as:

(23)

in which DRF,exc is the damage of cycles, having a maximum and/or minimum greater than S L .

The formula for damage calculation which accounts for S L is obtained from Eq. (13):

S L mc

a

DRF,

thr = p

sk

p RF ( s ) ds + p

C

S

mc

( S L mc ) k

C

p RF ( s ) ds

(24)

Note that the maximum allowable amplitude (i.e. the limit of integration for amplitudes) is S L mc and

that all amplitudes greater than this limit its are transformed into S L mc .

s

SL

mc

-S L

SL

m

p RF ( s, m) .

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

If we refer instead to the joint amplitude-mean distribution p RF ( s, m) , we note that the domain defined

by m + s S L actually corresponds to rainflow cycles for which the process X (t ) crosses the threshold

level S L , see Figure 2.

Therefore, as done in the previous formula, we have to distinguish between rainflow cycles inside the nocrossing domain and rainflow cycles associated to a threshold crossing occurrence.

Consequently, the formula for damage computation depending on the amplitude-mean joint distribution

p RF ( s, m) and accounting for the threshold level S L is the sum of two contributions:

a, m

a,m

a, m

DRF,

thr = DRF,in + DRF,exc

(25)

a, m

in which DRF,

in is the damage corresponding to rainflow cycles for which m + s < S L (no threshold crossing):

a,m

DRF,

in =

p 0

C S

L

SL + m

SL SL m

s k p RF ( s, m)ds dm +

s

0

p RF ( s, m)ds dm

(26)

a, m

while DRF,

exc is the damage for rainflow cycles with m + s S L (threshold crossing), which are trans-

formed into cycles with the same mean value m and amplitude s = S L m :

a,m

DRF,

exc

p 0

=

C S

L

(S L + m)

SL

p RF ( s, m)ds dm +

SL +m

( S L m) k p RF ( s, m)ds dm

SL m

(27)

In both equations, the first integral term refers to cycles with m < 0 , while the second to cycles with m > 0 .

3.2.1. Narrow-band approximation

The damage of the narrow-band approximation including the threshold level S L specialises as:

D NB,thr

k

0

k (S L mc

=

2 0 1 + ,

C

2

20

)2

+ ( S L mc

(SL mc )2

e 2 0

(28)

x

(a, x) = u a1 e u du

(29)

3.2.2. TB method

a

a,m

This method can give two damage estimates: DTB,

thr , depending only on amplitudes, and DTB, thr , depending

Referring only to amplitudes, we apply Eq. (24), obtaining:

a

a

a

DTB,

thr = b DLC, thr + (1 b ) DRM, thr

(30)

where the damage contribution from the level-crossing is given explicitly as:

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

a

a

a

DLC,

thr = DLC, in + DLC, exc

(S L mc )2

k

+ (S L mc ) e 20

p 2

k

k (S L mc

=

2 0 1 + ,

C

2

2 0

)2

(31)

and it is obviously equal to DNB,thr given for the narrow-band approximation, see Eq. (28), since p 2 = 0 ,

while the damage contribution from the range-mean counting is given as:

a

a

a

DRM,

thr = DRM, in + DRM, exc

k

p

k (S L mc

2 22 0 1 + ,

=

C

2

2 22 0

)2 + (S

mc

(S L mc )2

2

e 2 2 0

(32)

a, m

a, m

a, m

DTB,

thr = b DLC, thr + (1 b) DRM, thr

a, m

a, m

a, m

a, m

= b DLC,

in + DLC, exc + (1 b ) DRM, in + DRM, exc

p 0 S L + m k

b

s p LC ( s, m) dsdm +

C S 0

L

SL SL m

s k p LC ( s, m) dsdm +

SL + m

0

+ (1 b)

dm s k p RM ( s, m) dsdm +

0

SL

SL SL m

(33)

s k p RM ( s, m) dsdm

a, m

The damage contribution, DLC,

thr , associated to the level-crossing counting is the same given in Eq. (31),

while the damage contribution associated to the range-mean counting is given by the following integrals:

thr

DRC,

in

p 2 22 0

=

C 2 0 (1 22 )

SL

(m mc )2

e 2 0 (1 2 )

SL

thr

DRC,

exc =

k (S m )2

dm

1 + , L

2

2

2 0 2

(34)

SL

k

(S L m ) e

2

C 2 0 (1 2 )

(m mc )2

2 0 (1 22 )

(SL m )2

2 0 22

dm

SL

3.3.

Effect of mc on damage

The dependence of damage on mc is obtained by inserting the Haigh correction in Eq. (24):

a

DRF,

mc

S m

p L c

=

C 0

S L mc

p RF ( s) ds +

1 I (mc ) mc S L

1 I (mc ) mc S L

[ 1 PRF ( S L ) ]

(35)

in which PRF ( s ) is the cumulative distribution function of amplitudes. The indicator function ( I ( x) = 1 if

x 0 , I( x) = 0 elsewhere) is used to specify that the mean value correction is applied only when mc > 0 .

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

The formula for the correction of mc , Eq. (35), even if approximated, is easily applicable to all existing

spectral methods (e.g. narrow-band approximation, TB method [1, 2], Dirlik method [3], Zhao-Baker

method [10]) which provide an estimate of the amplitude distribution pRF ( s ) .

The error given by the proposed formula in neglecting in the damage estimate the random mean stress

component mr depends on the relative importance of this component in respect to the global mean value

component mc . Such error should diminish when the frequency bandwidth of process X (t ) decreases,

since in narrow-band processes fatigue cycles are virtually symmetric respect to m c , and all have mr 0 .

3.3.1. Narrow-band approximation

Writing explicitly Eq. (35) using a Rayleigh distribution for pRF ( s) gives:

D NB,mc

k (S m

20

0

c

1 + , L

=

2

20

C 1 I ( mc ) m c S L

)2 +

e

1 I ( mc ) mc S L

S L mc

(S L mc )2

2 0

(36)

3.3.2. TB method

We refer to the damage of the TB method calculated in terms of amplitudes:

a

a

a

DTB,

mc = b DLC,mc + (1 b ) DRC, mc

(37)

a

a

in which DLC,

mc and DRM,mc are the damage of the level-crossing and range-mean countings, computed as a

a

a

function of amplitudes; in particular, DLC,

mc coincides with DNB,mc given in Eq. (36), while DRM,mc , com-

a

DRC,

mc

3.4.

p

=

C

2 22 0

k (S L mc

1 I ( m ) m S 1 + 2 , 2 2

c

c

L

2 0

)2 +

e

1 I ( m c ) mc S L

S L mc

(SL mc )2

2 220

(38)

The theoretical damage estimation could be further improved by inserting in formulae also the influence of

the random mean stress component m r . The formulae for damage computation, given in Eq. (25)-(27), expressed as a function of p RF ( s, m) , are modified by inserting the Haigh correction for cycles with m > 0 .

The formula of the rainflow damage depending on p RF ( s, m) then is:

a,m

a,m

a,m

DRF,

m = Din ,m + Dexc,m

(39)

m

D ina,,m

p 0

=

C S

L

SL +m

s pRF ( s, m)ds dm +

SL SL m

pRF ( s, m) ds dm

1 m SL

a,m

while Dexc

,m is the damage calculated for cycles with m + s S L :

(40)

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

p 0

=

C S

L

a,m

D exc

,m

(S L + m)

SL

pRF ( s, m) ds dm +

SL + m

S Lk pRF ( s, m) ds dm

SL m

(41)

The Haigh correction is applied to cycles with m > 0 . The previous formulae are applicable only to those

methods which provide an estimate of the joint distribution pRF ( s, m) [1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9].

As an example, in the following section we apply the formula to the TB method.

3.4.1. TB method

The rainflow damage can be written as:

a, m

a, m

a, m

DTB,

m = b DLC,m + (1 b) DRC, m

k

S L S L m

p 0 SL +m k

s

b

p LC ( s, m) dsdm +

=

s p LC ( s, m) dsdm + b

C S 0

1 m S L

0 0

L

SL + m

+ (1 b)

SL

dm

S L S L m

s k p RC ( s, m) dsdm + (1 b)

1 m SL

(42)

p RC ( s, m) dsdm

in which the first two terms are the damage of the level-crossing, which is equal to the damage DNB,mc given

in Eq. (36), while the other two are the damage associated to the range-counting and given as:

m

m

a,m

DRC

,m = DRC,in + DRC,exc

(43)

m

in which DRC,

in is the damage of the range-counting cycles associated to the condition m + s < S L :

k

m

DRC,in

p 2 22 0

=

C 2 0 (1 22 )

SL

(m mc )2

2 0 (1 22 )

k (S m )2

e

dm

1 + , L

2

(1 I (m) m S )k 2

2

0 2

(44)

SL

m

while DRC,

exc is the damage of the range-counting cycles associated to the condition m + s S L :

SL

m

DRC,

exc

S m

p

L

=

1 I ( m) m S

2

L

C 2 0 (1 2 )

(m mc )2

2 0 (1 22 )

e

e

(S L m )2

2 0 22

dm

(45)

SL

4. PROBABILITY OF THRESHOLD CROSSING OCCURRENCE

In the preceding sections, we computed a fatigue damage also for all rainflow cycles associated to a threshold occurrence, i.e. cycles in which the maximum and/or minimum exceeds the threshold S L . Another

possibility is to discard all such cycles from the fatigue damage computation and to compute the probability

P f that such cycles will produce an immediate fracture of the system.

Let P 1f be the probability of occurrence of a threshold crossing of the level S L for a single rainflow

cycle counted in X (t ) . This probability can be computed by integrating the hRF (u , v) distribution outside

the domain u S L and v S L .

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

The threshold levels S L and S L are assumed symmetric; if process X (t ) is assumed Gaussian, it is

symmetric and therefore its distribution hRFC (u , v) is also symmetric. Then the probability of threshold

crossing occurrence for a single rainflow cycle can be computed as:

P1f

= 2

+ v = S L

v =u

hRF (u , v) du dv

u = S L v =

hRF (u , v) du dv

(46)

u = S L v =

By means of the "completeness condition", see Eq. (10), and by symmetry, we can use the probability density of peaks, by writing the first integral in terms of the cumulative distribution function of peaks, Fp (u ) :

P1f = 2

+ v = S L

pp (u ) du

u =SL

hRF (u , v) du dv

(47)

u = S L v =

Note that the second integral gives the probability of threshold crossing for the joint event u S L and

v S L . This probability can be expressed in terms of the rainflow count intensity, see Eq. (11):

RF (S L , S L )

p

P1f = 2 1 Fp ( S L )

(48)

The expression given in Eq. (48) is exact and it gives the probability that a single rainflow cycle will produce a threshold crossing.

However, even if Eq. (48) has general validity, it can not be solved explicitly, since we do not know the

analytical expression of the rainflow count intensity RF (u , v) .

In the following sections two possible approximations are proposed; to simplify all proposed equations,

we will assume that m c = 0 .

4.1.

Poisson approximation

The approximation of the rainflow count intensity based on the Poisson convergence of the level upcrossing

spectrum is [4]:

Pois

RF

(u , v)

(u ) ( v)

(u ) + ( v)

(49)

where ( x ) is the upcrossing spectrum. This approximation is valid for u >> 0 and v << 0 .

We define the rainflow cumulative probability associated to the rainflow count intensity RF (u , v) as:

Pois

qRF

(u , v) =

Pois

RF

(u , v)

(u ) ( v )

p

p ( (u ) + ( v) )

(50)

In a Gaussian load, the upcrossing spectrum is given by the Rices formula [2]:

x2

( x) = 0 exp

2

2 X

(51)

Pois

(u , v )

qRF

2

u

v2

+

exp

exp

2

2 2

X

2 X

(52)

since 2 = 0 p .

Calculating the cumulative distribution for u = S L and v = S L gives:

10

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

Pois

qRF

(SL , SL )

2

2e

(53)

S L2

2 X2

Consequently, the explicit expression for the probability of fracture (for 1 rainflow cycle) is:

P1f

SL

= 2 1

X 1 2

4.2.

L

2 SL

e 2 X2

2

X 1 2

2 exp( S 2 2 2 )

L

X

(54)

Linear combination

In the TB method, we used a linear combination to estimate the distribution hRF (u , v) , see Eq. (16). Similarly, a linear combination can be used to estimate the cumulative distribution q RF (u , v) :

lin

q RF

(u , v) = b q LC (u , v) + (1 b) q RM (u , v)

(55)

where the cumulative distributions for the narrow-band approximation and the range-mean count are, respectively [2]:

v2

u 22

2

2

q LC (u , v) = 2 e X I ( u + v ) + e X I( (u + v) )

(56)

and:

v2

2

q RM (u , v) = 2 e 2 X

2

u v (1 2 2 )

2

2

2

1

+ e X v u (1 2 2 )

2

2

2 2 X (1 2 )

2 2 X (1 2 )

(57)

qLC ( S L , S L ) = 2 e

S L2

(58)

2 X2

and:

qRM ( S L , S L ) = 2 e

S L2

2 X2

2

2

1 S L (1 2 ) + S L (1 2 )

2

2

2 X (1 2 )

2 X (1 2 )

(59)

qRM ( S L , S L ) = 2 2 e

S L2

2 X2

1 S L (1 2 )

2 X (1 2 )

(60)

lin

qRF

(S L ,

SL ) = 2 e

S L2

2 X2

S (1 2 )

L

2

b + 2(1 b) 1

(

1

X

2

2

Consequently, the explicit expression for the probability of fracture (for 1 rainflow cycle) is:

11

(61)

Report n. 139 (luglio 2005)

S2

L2

2 SL

S

e 2 X

L

P 1f = 2 1

2

2

2

X 12

X 12

S2

S (1 2 )

L2

L

2

2 e 2 X b + 2(1 b) 1

2 X (1 2 )

4.3.

(62)

In the hypothesis that rainflow cycles are independent, the probability of survival after N cycles is simply

the product of probabilities:

Ps = 1 P1f

(63)

For example, the number of rainflow cycles for which there is a probability of survival of 50% then is:

Nf =

ln (Ps )

= 0.693 ln P1f 1

ln 1 P1f

(64)

5. CONCLUSIONS

This report provides an analytical framework for the frequency-domain damage assessment of a random

process X (t ) , which includes the effect of a threshold level and the effect of mean stress values on the fatigue damage computations. Approximate approaches for evaluating the effect of the mean value on the fatigue damage are presented. The rainflow cycles counted in a given random process X (t ) have a mean value

stress m = m c + m r , which is the sum of the global mean value m c (constant) of process X (t ) , and the random mean stress component m r evaluated in respect to m c . The first approach considers only the effect of

the global mean value m c and it is applicable to all such spectral methods existing in the literature which

provide an estimate only of the amplitude distribution of rainflow cycles (e.g. narrow-band approximation,

Dirlik method, Zhao-Baker method). The second approach evaluates the effect of both m c and m r mean

values, based on the joint distribution pRF ( s, m) and it has been explicitly applied to the TB method.

6. REFERENCES

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Benasciutti D., Tovo R. Spectral methods for lifetime prediction under wide-band stationary random

processes. Int. J. Fatigue, 2005, 27(8): 867-877.

Benasciutti D., Fatigue analysis of random loadings. PhD Thesis, Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara (Italy), March 2005.

Dirlik T. (1985) Application of computers in fatigue analysis. PhD Thesis, University of Warwick, UK.

Johannesson P., Thomas J. Extrapolation of rainflow matrices. Extremes, 2001, 4(3): 241-262.

Lindgren G., Broberg K.B. Cycle distributions for Gaussian processes exact and approximate results.

Extremes, 2005, 7(1): 69-89.

Lutes L.D., Sarkani S. Stochastic analysis of structural and mechanical vibrations, Prentice-Hall, 1997.

Nagode M., Klemenc J., Fajdiga M. Parametric modelling and scatter prediction of rainflow matrices.

Int. J. Fatigue, 2001, 23: 525-532.

Rychlik I. Note on cycle counts in irregular loads. Fatigue Fract. Engng. Mater. Struct., 1993, 16(4),

377-390.

Tovo R. Cycle distribution and fatigue damage under broad-band random loading. Int. J. Fatigue, 2002,

24(11): 1137-1147.

Zhao W., Baker M.J. On the probability density function of rainflow stress range for stationary Gaussian processes. Int. J. Fatigue, 1992, 14(2): 121-135.

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