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Introduzione alla combustione

Gaetano Continillo Universita del Sannio, Benevento, Italy

6 marzo 2006

Introduzione La combustione ed il suo controllo sono essenziali alla vita sulla Terra. er esem!io l"85% dell"ener#ia usata ne#li US$ !roviene dalla combustione %US &'( )**6 $nnual (ner#y +evie,$ltre .onti

Combustione

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Il trasporto / in massima !arte alimentato dalla combustione 0automobili, autocarri, aeromobili, natanti 1 eccetto le .errovie2

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3umerosi processi industriali si basano estesamente sulla combustione4 5 Le industrie del ferro, dell"acciaio, dell"alluminio ed altre industrie metallur#ic6e im!ie#ano fornaci

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5 Trattamenti termici sono realizzati in forni

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La combustione / alla base di molti altri dis!ositivi e !rocessi industriali 7uali ad esem!io i generatori di vapore, in #enerale le raffinerie, i forni di essiccazione, #li inceneritori di materie or#anic6e.

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La .abbricazione dei cementi si basa su un .orno rotativo in cui si !roduce il clinker2

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L"uso della combustione al termine del ciclo di vita 0end-oflifecycle2 di un manu.atto include l"incenerimento

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I !rocessi di combustione ric6iedono svilu!!o in termini4 5 Thermal efficiency 5 Pollution control 5 &evelo!ment o. combustion tec6nolo#ies .or renewable fuel sources 5 Thermal efficiency contributes to save energy 5 Pollution control is necessary .or #lobal and local environmental protection 5 enewable fuels are necessary in vie, o. fossil fuel shortage and to avoid greenhouse effect due to increase o. C'2 concentration in t6e atmos!6ere.

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$ de.inition o. Combustion Rapid oxidation generating heat, or both light and heat; also, slow oxidation accompanied by relatively little heat and no light. T6is de.inition em!6asizes t6e intrinsic im!ortance o. chemical reactions to combustion. It also em!6asizes ,6y combustion is so im!ortant4 combustion trans.orms energy stored in c6emical bonds to heat that can be utilized in a variety o. ,ays.

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Combustion modes and .lame ty!es

Combustion can occur in flame and non-flame mode. $ flame is a thin zone of intense chemical reaction.

T6e di..erence bet,een .lame and non8.lame mode can be e9!lained .or e9am!le ,it6 t6e knocking !6enomena in s!ar: i#nition internal combustion en#ines.

6 marzo 2006

$s t6e .lame moves across t6e combustion s!ace, tem!erature and !ressure rise in t6e unburned #as.

ro!a#atin# .lame

S!ar: location

Unburned .uel8air mi9ture

Burned .uel8air mi9ture

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Under certain conditions, ra!id o9idation reactions occur at many locations

$utoi#nitin# .uel8air mi9ture

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T6ere are premi!ed .lames and non-premi!ed "diffusion# .lames

In a premi!ed .lame .uel and o9idizer are mi9ed at t6e molecular level !rior to t6e occurence o. any si#ni.icant reaction. S!ar: i#nition en#ines are a #ood e9am!le. In a diffusion .lame, t6e reactants are initially se!arated, and reaction occurs only at t6e inter.ace bet,een t6e .uel and t6e o9idizer. $n e9am!le a. a di..usion .lame is a sim!le candle.

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$!idizer diffusing from outside %lame sheet

)apor fuel diffusing from inside

&i'uid fuel climbing for capillarity

(olid fuel

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Im!ortant to!ics in t6e study o. combustion are4

5 Thermochemistry 5 *hemical kinetics 5 +olecular transport of mass and heat 5 %luid mechanics

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Thermochemistry !rovides t6e lin: bet,een c6emical com!osition o. t6e system, tem!erature and !ressure. *hemical bonds brea: and .orm durin# c6emical reactions. C6emical potential energy is destroyed 0e!othermic reactions2 and accumulated 0endothermic reactions2, to t6e bene.it or e9!ense o. kinetic energy o. t6e molecules. T6e :inetic ener#y o. t6e molecules in t6e system is related to temperature. Under !ro!er circumstances, all systems reac6 e'uilibrium. (7uilibrium is ac6ieved via t6e available !at6 accordin# to physical constraints 0.or e9am!le contant volume, constant !ressure2. (7uilibrium is met ,6en a conveniently de.ined state .unction 0e.#. ,ibbs free energy2 reac6es its minimum. 6 marzo 2006

*hemical reactions !roceed to,ards e7uilibrium ,it6 a finite rate- T6is rate de!ends on com!osition and tem!erature accordin# to la,s studied and assessed in chemical kinetic studies. T6us, thermochemistry sets t6e tar#et and chemical kinetics dictates t6e rate.

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C6emically reactive #aseous 0or #aseous;condensed t,o1 !6ase2 systems e9ist ,6en molecules move and 6it eac6 ot6er. To 6ave a c6emical trans.ormation event involvin# one or more molecules, some ener#y barrier must be ,on 0activation ener#y2. Stron# e9ot6ermic reactions can deliver lar#e amounts o. :inetic ener#y, i. t6e reactant molecules are su!!lied some ener#y to overcome t6is barrier. Suc6 ener#y is o.ten !rovided by surroundin# molecules, ,6ic6 6it reactant molecules and increase t6eir mec6anical ener#y.

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(9am!le4 .irst1order #as1!6ase bi1molecular reactions. C6emical trans.ormation events in a #aseous system occur in lar#e amount i.4 5 Bot6 reactant molecules are !resent in lar#e number 0t6e more t6ere are, t6e more !robably t6ey 6it eac6 ot6er2

r = kc AcB
5 <inetic ener#y o. molecules 0tem!erature2 is 6i#6 0eac6 6it is more !robable to brea:;.orm c6emical bonds2

k = k ( T ) = k0 exp ( E A / RT )
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+eal systems are non-uniform in space. T6is !roduces gradients in s!ecies concentrations and tem!erature. =lames are !resent ,6en stron# #radients e9ist. Gradients are t6e drivin# .orces .or molecular transport of mass and heat>olecular trans!ort !6enomena #overn bot6 !remi9ed and di..usion .lames.

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>ost combustion !rocesses ta:e !lace in fluids in motion. T6us, ,6en com!osition and tem!erature #radients are !resent in a .lo, .ield, convection can be an im!ortant, i. not dominant, mec6anism o. trans!ort. >oreover, most combustion !rocesses are desi#ned to ta:e !lace in a turbulent flow . Turbulent .lo,s are t6e most com!le9 !6enomena in fluid mechanics.

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=inally, observe t6at all of the above phenomena are physically coupled to each other. Tem!erature increases due to e9ot6ermic c6emical reactions, t6us density must decrease accordin# to t6e constitutive e7uation 0.or e9am!le t6e ideal #as la,2. &ensity decrease im!lies e9!ansion in t6e .luid .lo,. T6is creates motion t6at in.luences t6e s!atial distribution o. s!ecies and tem!erature, and so on. >oreover, molecular trans!ort coe..icients, includin# viscosity, all de!end on tem!erature.

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Simulation o. many gas.phase combustion !rocesses is no,adays .easible by means o. com!uter codes solvin# initial and boundary value !roblems on /avier.(tokes e'uations ,ritten .or reactive systems. +ulti.phase combustion can also be described by cou!lin# #as1!6ase and condensed1!6ase e7uations, via boundary conditions ,6en a se!aration inter.ace is !resent, or via source terms .or dis!ersed condensed1!6ase. ?o,ever, most systems are @ust too com!le9 to be .ully described in t6eir detail. T6ere.ore one 6as to resort to some modelling.

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+odels T6ere are distributed.parameter models, in ,6ic6 state variabes are .unction o. !osition and time, and lumped. parameter models, in ,6ic6 variables may be only .unction o. time or o. a time8li:e variable. Lum!ed !arameter models, in contrast ,it6 distributed !arameter models, are built by ma:in# assum!tions on s!atial uni.ormity o. t6e state variables.

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Classic models .or ideal c6emical reactors, develo!ed in c6emical reaction en#ineerin#4 5 Batc6 +eactor 5 Continuous Stirred Tan: +eactor 0CST+2 5 lu#8=lo, 0tubular2 +eactor

6 marzo 2006