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3.

2 ADATTAMENTO / SEMPLIFICAZIONE
Indica la tecnica da adattare per semplificare il materiale e il percorso di apprendimento a particolari
esigenze di apprendimento. Con riferimento al materiale didattico e di studio degli alunni (ad es. il libro di
testo), sono spesso necessarie operazioni per rendere l'apprendimento significativo ed efficiente e per
soddisfare le diverse esigenze di apprendimento dei vari alunni. L'adattamento didattico può avvenire grazie
a strumenti di compensazione che consentono di: - evidenziare le informazioni salienti; può essere
necessario intervenire sul testo per rendere le parole chiave o le parti più significative di un testo più salienti
da un punto di vista percettivo. L'evidenziazione del testo può successivamente diventare una strategia di
studio da utilizzare indipendentemente. - schematizzare e ristrutturare; si riferisce alla rielaborazione dei
contenuti attraverso un linguaggio più semplice e all'uso di parole più comunemente usate. - ridurre la mole
di lavoro in termini di "carico cognitivo" e di informazione fornita, può essere necessario eliminare quelle
informazioni che non sono fondamentali per la comprensione del testo. - completare e integrare il tema

3.3 STORMING DI CERVELLI


È una tecnica di creatività di gruppo che è stata progettata per generare un gran numero di idee per la soluzione di
un problema. Il problem solving è un processo per scegliere e utilizzare lo strumento e i comportamenti efficaci e
benefici tra le diverse potenzialità per raggiungere il target. Contiene metodo scientifico, pensiero critico,
decisione, esame e pensiero riflessivo. Questo metodo è utilizzato nel processo di risoluzione di un problema per
generalizzare o per fare sintesi. Fornisce agli studenti di affrontare i problemi con coraggio e di affrontarli in un
approccio scientifico. Aiuta gli studenti ad adottare il punto di vista del beneficio da altre idee e di aiutarsi a
vicenda. By expressing ideas and listening to what others say, students adjust their previous knowledge or
understanding, accommodate new information and increase their levels of awareness. Brainstorming's main
purposes are to:
 focus students' attention on a particular topic
 generate a quantity of ideas
 teach acceptance and respect for individual differences
 encourage learners to take risks in sharing their ideas and opinions
 demonstrate to students that their knowledge and their language abilities are valued and accepted
 introduce the practice of idea collection prior to beginning tasks such as writing or solving problems
 provide an opportunity for students to share ideas and expand their existing knowledge by building on each
other's contributions. Pedgogical references: Osborn.

166 3.4 CONCEPTUALS MAPS


The conceptual map is the graphic representation of the network of relationships between multiple concepts,
starting from the original one. The maps are used to represent one's knowledge around a specific topic in a
graph according to a constructivist cognitive principle, whereby each is the author of his own cognitive path
within a context. Concept maps aim to contribute to the realization of meaningful learning, capable of
modifying the subject's cognitive structures and opposed to mechanical learning, based on mnemonic
acquisition. This learning methodology was theorized by Joseph Novak in the seventies. The theories of
prof. J. D. Novak are strongly connected to those of David Ausubel. According to Novak's original approach,
the essential characteristics of a concept map are the following: it consists of conceptual nodes, each of
which represents an elementary concept and is described with a label affixed to a geometric shape; the
conceptual nodes are connected through connectionist-type relationships: they are generally represented as
arrows oriented and equipped with a descriptive label (usually a predicate); the overall structure is reticular
(which therefore may not present a "precise starting point"). Topic maps: Concept maps are rather similar to
topic maps in that both allow to connect concepts or topics via graphs. Among the various schema and
techniques for visualizing ideas, processes, and organizations, concept mapping, as developed by Joseph
Novak is unique in its philosophical basis, which "makes concepts, and propositions composed of concepts,
the central elements in the structure of knowledge and construction of meaning." Mind maps: Both concept
maps and topic maps can be contrasted with mind mapping, which is often restricted to radial hierarchies and
tree structures. Another contrast between concept mapping and mind mapping is the speed and spontaneity
when a mind map is created. A mind map reflects what you think about a single topic, which can focus
group brainstorming. A concept map can be a map, a system view, of a real (abstract) system or set of
concepts. Concept maps are more free form, as multiple hubs and clusters can be created, unlike mind maps,
which typically emerge from a single center. Mind mapping pedagogical reference is Buzan.
167 3.5 COOPERATIVE LEARNING
İt is a successful teaching technique in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability,
use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is
responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping team mates learning, thus creating the
atmosphere of achivement. Students work through the assignment until all the members succesfuly
understand and complete it. Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit for all the
groupmembers. Cooperative learning is a teaching method where students of mixed levels of ability are
arranged into groups and rewarded according to the group's success, rather than the success of an individual
member. Cooperative learning structures have been in and out of favor in American education since the early
1900s, when they were introduced by the American education reformer John Dewey. Cooperative learning is
sometimes thought of simply as 'group work,' but groups of students working together might not be working
collaboratively. Cooperative learning researchers David and Roger Johnson have identified five elements
that define cooperative learning:  Face-to-Face Interaction Students are promoting each others' learning
through face-to-face activities where they discuss and explain assignment topics with each other.  Positive
Interdependence Students have the sense that they're 'in this together,' feeling that each member's individual
effort will not only help him, but the whole group. The grade of each student is dependent upon the effort of
other group members.  Individual Accountability Each student is accountable for their own contribution to
the group. Clearly described goals ensure that each student knows what she is responsible for and what the
group is responsible for.  Group Processing Students are given a means for analyzing their group for how
well the group has learned and whether or not collaborative skills are being used.  Collaborative Skills
Students learn not only the subject matter, but interpersonal skills and how to work in teams. Students are
taught skills of communication, leadership, and conflict management during the early stages of cooperative
learning sessions.
168 169 3.6 DEBRIEFING
The term "debriefing" refers to conversational sessions that revolve around the sharing and examining of
information after a specific event has taken place. Depending on the situation, debriefing can serve a variety
of purposes. It takes into consideration the experiences and facilitates reflection and feedback. Debriefing
may involve feedback to the students or among the students, but this is not the intent. The intent is to allow
the students to "thaw" and to judge their experience and progress toward change or transformation. The
intent is to help them come to terms with their experience. This process involves a cognizance of cycle that
students may have to be guided to completely debrief. Teachers should not be overly critical of relapses in
behaviour. Once the experience is completely integrated, the students will exit this cycle and get on with the
next. Debriefing is a daily exercise in most professions. It might be in psychology, healthcare, politics or
business. This is also accepted as an everyday necessity.
170 3.7 MIND MAP
It is one of the Innovative teaching techniques. It was developed by Tony Buzan in 1960. Mind Maps are
used as learning and teaching technique. Mind Map visually illustrates the relationship between concepts
and ideas. Often represented in circles or boxes, concepts are linked by words and phrases that explain the
connection between the ideas, helping the students, organize and structure their thoughts to further
understand information and discover new relationships. Recollect information for long time. Mind map help
for better learning and effective achievement.

171 3.8 DRAMATIZATION One of the Modern teaching techniques teaches students how to behave in a
situation by living it. Physical environment/costumes/accessories are important and they effect the
concentration of the students. Students use their own imagination thus improving their creativeness. It
provides direct involvement in learning on the part of all students, improves their language usage,
communicating/speaking and listening skills and allows for the exploration of solutions. The various types
of Dramatization are Informal drama, Role playing, Formal drama, Puppets, Pantomime and Finger game.

172 3.9 ROLE PLAY


Role-play is any speaking activity when you either put yourself into somebody else's shoes, or when you stay
in your own shoes but put yourself into an imaginary situation. Imaginary people - The joy of role-play is
that students can 'become' anyone they like for a short time The President, the Queen, a millionaire, a pop
star…Students can also take on the opinions of someone else. 'For and Against' debates can be used and the
class can be split into those who are expressing views in favour and those who are against the theme.
Imaginary situations - Functional language for a multitude of scenarios can be activated and practised
through role-play. 'At the restaurant', 'Checking in at the airport', 'Looking for lost property' are all possible
role-plays.
3.10 SLIP WRITING
173 It is a Brainstorming technique that guarantees the same importance to the ideas of every student. Each
student has a piece of paper on which to indicate ideas on a particular topic and subsequently these ideas are
collected and analyzed. The children collected can be easily used to organize a graph on the blackboard and
thus allow to unite the ideas collected by attributing them a relationship. pupils can place the sheets in the
most correct way, and everyone can intervene by changing the structure of the graph. This technique can be
used to solve problems, but also to organize previous knowledge related to a particular topic and determine
in which direction to concentrate future insights.

174 3.11 STORYBOARDING


Storyboarding is a technique that allows students to organize and remember ideas thanks to the narration and
graphical representation of history scenes. In class it can be useful to summarize a text or to evaluate the
understanding of a narration by asking the students to organize the scenes of a story. This technique can be
used individually or in a group. Pupils may be required to organize a storyboarding for images only or to
also combine the text with the graphic representation