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PHCOG J.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Muntingia calabura Fruits


Kathirvel Preethi,* Paramasivam Premasudha, Kittusamy Keerthana
Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046

ABSTRACT

Muntingia calabura ÒTHEÒSOLEÒSPECIESÒINÒTHEÒGENUSÒ-UNTINGIA ÒISÒAÒ¹OWERINGÒPLANT ÒTHATÒBELONGSÒTOÒ%LAEOCARPACEAEÒFAMILYÒ


4HISÒ ISÒ AÒ FASTÒ GROWINGÒ FRUITÒ TREEÒ )TÒ ISÒ AÒ PIONEERÒ SPECIESÒ THATÒ THRIVESÒ INÒ POORÒ SOIL Ò ABLEÒ TOÒ TOLERATEÒ ACIDICÒ ANDÒ ALKALINEÒ
CONDITIONSÒANDÒDROUGHTÒ4HEÒFRUITSÒAREÒCOMMONLYÒCALLEDÒ*AMAICANÒCHERRYÒANDÒAREÒREDÒINÒCOLOURÒ4HEÒ¹OWERSÒAREÒUSEDÒASÒ
ANÒANTISEPTICÒANDÒTOÒTREATÒABDOMINALÒCRAMPSÒANDÒSPASMSÒ)TÒISÒALSOÒTAKENÒTOÒRELIEVEÒHEADACHESÒANDÒCOLDSÒMuntingia
calaburaÒFRUITSÒPOSSESSÒANTIOXIDANTÒPROPERTYÒ(OWEVER ÒTHEIRÒANTI IN¹AMMATORYÒACTIVITYÒHASÒNOTÒBEENÒINVESTIGATEDÒSOÒFARÒ
4HEÒ AIMÒ OFÒ THISÒ STUDY Ò THEREFORE Ò WASÒ TOÒ EVALUATEÒ THEÒ ANTI IN¹AMMATORYÒ ACTIVITYÒ FROMÒ THEÒ FRUITSÒ OFÒ M. calabura. The
METHANOLICÒFRUITÒEXTRACTSÒ ÒÒANDÒÒMGKGÒIP ÒREDUCEDÒTHEÒ#ARRAGEENAN INDUCEDÒEDEMAÒOFÒTHEÒHINDÒPAWÒOFÒADULTÒ
MALEÒ 7ISTARÒ !LBINOÒ RATSÒ INÒ Ò HOURSÒ 4HEÒ ACTIVITYÒ WASÒ COMPAREDÒ WITHÒ THATÒ OFÒ THEÒ STANDARDÒ DRUGÒ INDOMETHACINÒ !CUTEÒ
TOXICITYÒWASÒINVESTIGATEDÒANDÒTHEÒRESULTSÒINDICATEDÒNOÒABNORMALITIESÒINÒTHEÒBEHAVIOURÒANDÒLETHALITYÒBYÒTHEÒEXTRACTÒUPÒTOÒ
ÒMGKGÒ4HESEÒRESULTSÒINDICATEÒTHEÒFRUITÒEXTRACTÒOFÒM. calaburaÒPOSSESSÒPOTENTÒANTI IN¹AMMATORYÒACTIVITYÒ4HEREFORE Ò
THESEÒPHARMACOLOGICALÒRESULTSÒCLEARLYÒSUPPORTÒTRADITIONALÒFOLKLORICÒAPPLICATIONÒOFÒM. calaburaÒFRUITSÒINÒTHEÒCONTROLÒANDORÒ
PAIN ÒIN¹AMMATORYÒILLNESSÒASÒWELLÒASÒANÒANTIOXIDANTÒAGENT
Key words: muntingia calaburaÒFRUITSÒELAEOCARPACEAE ÒANTI IN¹AMMATORY ÒANTIOXIDANTÒACTIVITY

INTRODUCTION mechanism or action is known.[3] Many herbal preparations


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Plants are potent biochemical factories and have been conditions.[4] There is a need for research and developmental
components of phytomedicine. Since time immemorial work in herbal medicine because apart from the social and
man is able to obtain from them a wondrous assortment HFRQRPLFEHQHÀWVLWKDVEHFRPHDSHUVLVWHQWDVSHFWRI 
RI LQGXVWULDOFKHPLFDOV3ODQWEDVHGQDWXUDOFRQVWLWXHQWV present day health care in developing countries.
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ÁRZHUVURRWVIUXLWVVHHGVHWFWKDWLVDQ\SDUWRI WKH Plant secondary metabolites have provided an important
plant may contain active components.[1] source of drugs since ancient times and now around half of
the practical drugs used are derived from natural sources.[5]
The protective effect of fruits and vegetables has generally
EHHQDWWULEXWHGWRWKHLUDQWLR[LGDQWFRQVWLWXHQWVLQFOXGLQJ 6RPHUHVHDUFKKDVVKRZQWKDWÁDYRQRLGFRPSRXQGVDUH
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inhibition of the others.[9]

*Address for correspondence: Water soluble extract from leaves of M. calabura produced
Dr. K. Preethi, Assistant Professor, SRWHQWDQWLQRFLFHSWLYHDQGDQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\DFWLYLWLHV7KH
Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore – 641 046, Tamilnadu.
preliminary phytochemical analysis performed in M. calabura
E-mail: gunpre@yahoo.com; premsmb@gmail.com OHDYHV VKRZHG WKH SUHVHQFH RI  ÁDYRQRLGV FKDOFRQHV
fun_kreethice@yahoo.co.in terpenoids and phenolic compounds. The constituents
UHVSRQVLEOHIRUWKHDQDOJHVLFDQGDQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\HIIHFWV
DOI: 10.5530/pj.2012.30.10
of M. calabura have not yet been elucidated.[10]

Pharmacognosy Journal | July-August 2012 | Vol 4 | Issue 30 51


Preethi, et al.: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Muntingia calabura Fruits

,WZDVVFLHQWLÀFDOO\SURYHGWKDWM. calabura leaves possess ZLWK ,QVWLWXWLRQDO $QLPDO (WKLF &RPPLWWHH ,$(& 
DQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\DQGDQWLS\UHWLFDFWLYLW\[11] Plant secondary JXLGHOLQHVDIWHUJHWWLQJWKHDSSURYDORI WKHFRPPLWWHHIRU
metabolites have provided an important source of drugs the purpose of control and supervision of experiments
from ancient times and now around half of the practical RQDQLPDOV &3&6($ LQ.DUSDJDP8QLYHUVLW\&RLPEDWRUH
drugs used are derived from natural sources.[5] &3&6($1RDEF&3&6($ 

Adult male Wister rats taken for the study were divided
MATERIALS AND METHODS into 6 groups; each group containing 6 animals and each
JURXSZDVWUHDWHGDVIROORZV
Plant materials
Muntingia calaburaSODQWEHORQJVWRWKHIDPLO\(ODHRFDUSDFHDH Groups Treatment
The fruits of M. calabura were collected from the surrounding Group 1 Control rats (normal saline only)
DUHDV RI  (URGH GLVWULFW 7DPLOQDGX ,QGLD DQG WKH SODQW Group 2 Inflammation by carageenan
ZDV LGHQWLÀHG DXWKHQWLFDWHG DQG GHSRVLWHG 9RXFKHU Group 3 Standard drug
QXPEHU%6,6&7HFK  DW 7DPLO 1DGX Group 4 100 mg/kg fruit extract + carageenan
Group 5 200 mg/kg fruit extract + carageenan
$JULFXOWXUDO8QLYHUVLW\&RLPEDWRUH7DPLOQDGX Group 6 300 mg/kg fruit extract + carageenan

Preparation of methanolic extract Preparation of test agents


The fruits of M. calabura were freshly collected and extracted The methanol extract of M. calabura fruit was dissolved in
ZLWKPHWKDQROWKHH[WUDFWZDVFRPSOHWHO\GULHGLQYDFXXP LVRWRQLFQRUPDOVDOLQH ZY WRPDNHDVWRFNVROXWLRQ
stored in refrigerator at 4ºC and protected from sunlight ZLWKDFRQFHQWUDWLRQRI PJPO7KUHHGLIIHUHQWGRVHV
for further use. DW    PJNJ ZHUH LQMHFWHG LQWR WKH DQLPDOV
Additional test agents used in this study included Carrageenan
Antioxidant activity and indomethacin. All chemicals and the extract were
DPPH radical scavenging assay administered orally. All drugs and the extract were freshly
7KH HIIHFW RI  IUXLW H[WUDFWV RQ '33+ GLSKHQ\O prepared before use and dissolved in isotonic normal saline
picracyl hydrazine) radical was determined.[12] Different ZY ZKLFKVHUYHGDVWKHYHKLFOHDQGYROXPHFRQWURO
FRQFHQWUDWLRQVRI WKHH[WUDFWV —JPO  IRUDOODJHQWV7KHRQO\H[FHSWLRQZDV&DUUDJHHQDQZKLFK
ZHUHSUHSDUHGDQGVXEMHFWHGWRDQWLR[LGDQWWHVWV7RPO was 0.5% CMC in distilled water served as the vehicle
RI HDFKRI WKHH[WUDFWVPORI P0PHWKDQROVROXWLRQ control.
RI '33+ZDVDGGHGYRUWH[HVIROORZHGE\LQFXEDWLRQDW
ƒ&IRUPLQ7KHFRQWUROZDVSUHSDUHGZLWKRXWDQ\ Anti-inflammatory activity
extract and absorbance of the sample was measured at 7KH DQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\ DFWLYLW\ RI  WKH IUXLW VDPSOH ZDV
QPXVLQJ899,66SHFWURSKRWRPHWHU (/,&2 XVLQJ LQYHVWLJDWHGLQ&DUUDJHHQDQLQGXFHGLQÁDPPDWRU\PRGHO
methanol to set 0. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical $FXWH LQÁDPPDWLRQ ZDV LQGXFHG LQ UDWV[13] The control
ZDVFDOFXODWHGE\WKHIROORZLQJHTXDWLRQ JURXSZDVDGPLQLVWHUHGZLWKWKHVDOLQHVROXWLRQRQO\ZKLOH
Abscontrol – Abssample WKHWKLUGJURXSZDVWUHDWHGZLWKLQGRPHWKDFLQ PJNJ
% inhibition = 100 × SR 7KHIRXUWKÀIWKDQGVL[WKJURXSVZHUHDGPLQLVWHUHG
Abscontrol ZLWKWKHIUXLWH[WUDFW DQGPJNJGD\SR 
Pharmacological tests respectively. One hour after the administration of fruit
General animal preparation H[WUDFWWKHVWDQGDUGLQGRPHWKDFLQDFXWHLQÁDPPDWLRQZDV
([SHULPHQWVZHUHSHUIRUPHGRQKHDOWK\PDOH:LVWDU$OELQR SURGXFHG $FXWH LQÁDPPDWRU\ HGHPD ZDV LQGXFHG E\
UDWV J SURFXUHGIURPWKHVPDOODQLPDOVEUHHGLQJ VXESODQWDULQMHFWLRQRI PO&DUUDJHHQDQLQWKHULJKW
VWDWLRQ 0DQQXWK\ .HUDOD ,QGLD 7KH\ ZHUH KRXVHG LQ hind paw of each rat in all the groups except the control
SRO\SURS\OHQHFDJHV ïïFP ZLWKQRWPRUH group. The thickness (mm) of the paw was measured
than six animals per cage and maintained at standard immediately and at 30 mins interval for four hrs after the
HQYLURQPHQWDOFRQGLWLRQV KUVGDUOLJKWF\FOHVWHPS &DUUDJHHQDQ LQMHFWLRQ E\ XVLQJ YHUQLHU FDOOLSHU[14] The
“ƒ&KXPLGLW\DLUYHQWLODWLRQ DQGZHUHIHG percentage of inhibition of edema was calculated for each
ZLWK VWDQGDUG SHOOHW GLHW 0V +LQGXVWDQ /HYHU /WG GRVHXVLQJWKHIROORZLQJIRUPXOD
0XPEDL,QGLD DQGIUHVKZDWHUad labium. The rats were
acclimatized to the environment for two weeks prior to
experimental use. Animals were fasted overnight before
% Inhibition = (²39
39 )
× 100
C
T

 39T = Paw volume in drug treated group of rats


WKHH[SHULPHQWDOVFKHGXOHEXWKDGIUHHDFFHVVWRZDWHUad
libitum. All animal procedures were performed in accordance  39C = Paw volume in control group of rats

52 Pharmacognosy Journal | July-August 2012 | Vol 4 | Issue 30


Preethi, et al.: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Muntingia calabura Fruits

Statistical analysis DISCUSSION


All the values were expressed as mean ± SD. The data were
DVVHVVHG XVLQJ RQH ZD\ DQDO\VLV RI  YDULDQFH $129$  7KHIUXLWH[WUDFWGHPRQVWUDWHG+GRQRUDFWLYLW\:LWKUHJDUG
IROORZHG E\ VWXGHQW·V W· WHVW 6WDWLVWLFDO VLJQLÀFDQFH ZDV to the estimated IC50 YDOXH WKH H[WUDFWV RI  M. calabura
accepted at p<0.05. GLVSOD\HG VLJQLÀFDQW '33+ UDGLFDO TXHQFKLQJ SURSHUW\
7KH'33+DVVD\FRQVWLWXWHVDTXLFNDQGORZFRVWPHWKRG
which has frequently been used for the evaluation of the
RESULTS
antioxidant property of various natural products.[1]
,QRXUVWXG\WKHIUXLWVRI M. calabura were evaluated for
Herbal products are consumed in traditional medical
LWV DQWLR[LGDQW DFWLYLW\ XVLQJ '33+ GLSKHQ\O
V\VWHPVDVIXQFWLRQDOUHFUHDWLRQDOIRRGVXSSOHPHQWVRU
picrylhydrazyl) assay. The IC50 value was obtained for the
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WHVWHGDVVD\ZKLFKVKRZHGWKDWWKHORZHUWKH,&50 YDOXH
has accumulated to suggest that complementary medicine
the higher was the antioxidant activity (Table 1).
for treatment of various diseases is another more popular
3HUFHQWDJHLQKLELWLRQRI HGHPDYROXPHRI PHWKDQRODQG choice.[15] Many plant extracts of botanical medicinal herbs
VWDQGDUGGUXJVZHUHFDOFXODWHGDIWHUHYHU\KRXUIRUÀYH have been shown to relieve disease’s symptoms comparable
KRXUV7KHUHZDVDVLJQLÀFDQWDQGGRVHGHSHQGHQWDQWL WRWKRVHREWDLQHGIURPDOORSDWKLFPHGLFLQHV)XUWKHUPRUH
LQÁDPPDWRU\ DFWLYLW\ RI  PHWKDQROLF H[WUDFW LQ WKH chemical therapeutics are often associated with severe
&DUUDJHHQDQLQGXFHGUDWSDZHGHPDPRGHO5HVXOWVRI WKH DGYHUVHHIIHFWV7KHUHIRUHVDIHUFRPSRXQGVRI QDWXUDO
effect of M. calaburaIUXLWH[WUDFWLQ&DUUDJHHQDQLQGXFHG SURGXFWVZLWKIHZHUVLGHHIIHFWVDUHQHHGHG,QWKLVVWXG\
HGHPDLQWHVWUDWVDUHVKRZQLQ)LJXUHDQG3ODWH(GHPD demonstrations have produced novel observations for the
was greatly suppressed irrespective of the dose level of ÀUVW WLPH WKDW WKH IUXLW H[WUDFWV RI  M. calabura possess
extract used and was comparable to the standard DQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\ HIIHFWV LQ &DUUDJHHQDQLQGXFHG KLQG
indomethacin treatment. SDZDFXWHLQÁDPPDWLRQ,QPRVWLQVWDQFHVKRZHYHUWKH

The methanol extract of M. calabura fruit at the dose levels


Table 1: The percentage inhibition on DPPH radical
RI    DQG  PJNJ FDXVHG D GRVH GHSHQGHQW
by M. calabura fruit extract
inhibition of localized swelling caused by Carrageenan at
KUV 7DEOH 7KHVLJQLÀFDQWDQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\HIIHFW Concn in μg/ml % inhibition

was dose dependent with 24.36% reduction observed for 100 55


200 65
 PJNJ DQG  VHHQ IRU  PJNJ GRVH DQG 300 78
 REVHUYHG IRU  PJNJ GRVH )XUWKHU WKH 400 85
SURWHFWLRQLQGXFHGE\PJNJZDVDOVRIRXQGWREHDV 500 94
SRWHQWDVLQGRPHWKDFLQ  LQUHGXFLQJSDZHGHPD ͘͝˜ƒŽ—‡͘͡Ɋ‰ȀŽ

Figure 1: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. calabura fruit extract on paw edema in Wistar Albino rats

Pharmacognosy Journal | July-August 2012 | Vol 4 | Issue 30 53


Preethi, et al.: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Muntingia calabura Fruits

Plate 1: The anti-inflamatory effect of M. calabura fruit extract on Carrageenan-induced Wistar Albino rats

Table 2: The effect of fruit extract on percentage inhibition of paw volume


Groups Initial paw Paw thickness Difference in Inhibition
thickness (mm) after 4 hr (mm) paw thickness (mm) percentage
Control 4.58 ± 0.28 4.58 ± 0.28 0 -
Induced 5.15 ± 0.33 4.33 ± 0.27 0.82 -
Standard 4.64 ± 0.37 4.48 ± 0.29 0.16 80.48
100 mg/kg 5.01 ± 0.41 4.41 ± 0.32 0.7 24.36
200 mg/kg 4.90 ± 0.25 4.36 ± 0.17 0.54 44.14
300 mg/kg 4.95 ± 0.34 4.56 ± 0.23 0.39 62.43

Values are meanΰ‘ˆ•‹š•ƒ’Ž‡•‹‡ƒ…Š‰”‘—’

HIIHFWVRI WKHH[WUDFWVZHUHVLJQLÀFDQWDQGGRVHGHSHQGHQW the treatment of headaches and incipient cold or as


7KH REVHUYHG DQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\ HIIHFWV RI  M. calabura WUDQTXLOOL]HUVDQWLVSDVPRGLFVDQGDQWLG\VSHSWLFV5HFHQWO\
fruit extracts could be due to the presence of biologically ethyl acetate soluble extracts from the leaves of M. calabura
active chemical constituents in the extracts. DQGLWVPDMRUFRQVWLWXHQWÁDYRQRLGVKDYHEHHQUHSRUWHG
to have chemopreventive effects.>@ In order to evaluate
M. calabura has been used widely in both tropical America DQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\HIIHFWVRI M. calabura fruit extract on
and Southeast Asia.>@,Q(DVW$VLDÁRZHUVDUHXVHGIRU WKHDFXWHLQÁDPPDWLRQSURFHVVWKHUDWSDZHGHPDPRGHO

54 Pharmacognosy Journal | July-August 2012 | Vol 4 | Issue 30


Preethi, et al.: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Muntingia calabura Fruits

ZDVXVHG,QWKLVH[SHULPHQWDOPRGHOWKH&DUUDJHHQDQ are required to identify the actual chemical components


LQGXFHGHGHPDDWKUVZDVVLJQLÀFDQWO\LQKLELWHGE\WKH that are present in the crude extracts of this plant which
IUXLWH[WUDFW7KHVLJQLÀFDQWDQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\HIIHFWZDV DUHUHVSRQVLEOHIRUDQWLLQÁDPPDWRU\DFWLYLW\
dose dependent. This data supports the hypothesis of the
effect of M. calabura IUXLWRQWKHLQÁDPPDWLRQPHGLDWRUV
LQLQÁDPPDWRU\SURFHVVHV,WLVHYLGHQWWKDW&DUUDJHHQDQ REFERENCES
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