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ALBANIA

a Destination for Investments


CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION ON ALBANIAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Tirana 27 - 30 May 2008
www.albanianresources.com

Organizers

SUPPORTERS
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumator Protection Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecomunications
Albania

CO Organizers

Sponsors
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IL GRUPPO DEUTSCHE BANK NEL MONDO Deutsche Bank, fondata nel 1870 a Berlino, oggi una banca internazionale che fornisce servizi e prodotti nanziari a oltre 13 milioni di clienti in 76 paesi del mondo e si avvale di oltre 78 mila dipendenti. Il quartier generale di Deutsche Bank a Francoforte. La Banca quotata alle borse di New York e Francoforte ed una delle pi grandi public company del mondo con 470 mila azionisti.

A livello mondiale, Deutsche Bank articolata in due principali macro-divisioni: Corporate and Investment Banking (CIB) dedicata ai servizi nanziari per le grandi imprese e le istituzioni Private Clients and Asset Management (PCAM) cui fanno capo le attivit di retail banking e risparmio gestito per i clienti privati e le piccole e medie imprese.

CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION ON ALBANIAN NATURAL RESOURCES


Tirana 27 - 30 May 2008

Tirana
Palace of Congresses

www.albanianresources.com

INDEX
- Albanian Agency of Business and Investements ........... Pag. 12 - Mining activity and mining recources in Albania............ Pag. 27 - Albanian Geological Survey responds to todays and futures challenges for the benefit of the national economy and public welfare ........................................................... Pag. 28 - Metallogenic features of Albania .................................... Pag. 29 - Characteristics and perspective of chromites in the ophiolites of Albanides...................................................... Pag. 31 - Iron-Nickel and Nickel Silicate Ores of Albania............... Pag. 34 -Sulfure mineralizations of copper in Albania ................. Pag. 46 -Airborne Geophysical Survey in Search for Massive Sulphide Ore Deposites in Qafe Mali - Perlat Region ...... Pag. 49 -Decorative Stones of Albania........................................... Pag. 62 -Industrial minerals and rocks in Albania (The new market possibilities)........................................... Pag. 68 - Groundwater Resources of Albania................................. Pag. 76 -Petroleum Exploration, Development and Production Opportunities in Albania .................................................... Pag. 84 -Bankers Petroleum Ltd - a success story in Albania......... Pag. 85 - Stream Oil & Gas ................................................................ Pag. 92 - SELENICE BITUMI Sha Groupe KLP Industries / KLP Mines SA .............................................................................. Pag. 94

-Raiffeisen Bank Albania...................................................... Pag. 96 - Hydrocarbon Sources in Albania, Status and Prosperity.. Pag. 99 - Bituminous Sands Deposits in Albania an Alternative Source of Hydrocarbons.................................................... Pag. 109 -Hydro energetic Activity in Albania................................ Pag. 112 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Albania... Pag. 113 -Moncada Energy Group .................................................. Pag. 113 - Utilization of Solar Energy in Albania Experience of the Albania - EU Energy Efficiency Centre....................... Pag. 127 - The Albanian Agriculture, towards its integration in the European Markets............................................................ Pag. 136 - The agricultural land reform, existing legislation, problems related with ownership and chances offered by Albania One Euro initiative for the agricultural land use .............................................................................. Pag. 141 - Food Safety and Consumer Protection, Reforms in this Sector for Approximation of Legislation and EU Standards...................................................................... Pag. 144 - Products, trends and priorities for investment in the agro-food sector-facts and investigations....................... Pag. 148 - Green Market Albania...................................................... Pag. 155 - Sectorial Strategy of Tourism in Albania, for the period 2007 2013 ....................................................................... Pag. 160

- Stimulating Monuments of Nature - The Core of Tourist and Economic Development of the Region BLACKKAVE CASE .......................................................... Pag. 167 - Cluster practices new approach in heritage tourism development Case study in the Southern Albania (Butrint, Saranda, Gjirokastr, Kor) .............................. Pag. 177 - Archeological Resources in Elbasan City, Heritage with Big Touristic Values ............................................................ Pag. 185 - Improvement of Tourism Statistics in Albania ............. Pag. 188 - Immovable Property Market Performance and Trends for 2008-2009..................................................................... Pag. 194 - Geotouristic Aspects of Albanian Alps ......................... Pag. 201 - Geomonuments, Geoparks and landscapes, riches with turistice value .................................................................... Pag.206 - ANTEA Cement................................................................. Pag. 208 - Albanian Motorway Project............................................ Pag. 209 - The Development Prospect of Durres Port................. Pag. 216

- Comport ......................................................................... Pag. 220 - The Institute of Transport - The new mission in the support of the Transport strategy in Albania................ Pag. 221 - Participants in the Exposition Albanian Resources... Pag. 225 - Plan of Exhibition........................................................... Pag. 231
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Preface
Preparation of this Book is an important milestone. Through its publication we aim to respond to the increased interest of the international business community towards the natural resources and the potentials they represent in Albania. Our scope is to deliver a clear picture of these potentials in the framework of the strategic vision of the country to achieve a sustainable development through investments. Since most of these natural assets have been long ago studied and elaborated, our approach intertwined in this objective the experience built in Albania by the best local experts in many years. We revived this experience and we are going to bring it back to the attention of both investors and state agencies this indisputable input in the field of scientific research and expertise. The Book content is an extract of the Expo-Conference organized on May 27th -30, 2008 on the Natural Resources of Albania with the topic: Albania, a Destination for Investments, the first of this kind in the country. It treats different topics such as: Opportunities of investment in Albania, Mineral activities and Mineral resources of Albania, Metallogenic features of Albania, Research and exploiting of oil and natural gas resources, Exploiting and development of hydro energetic power system in Albania, Renewable resources of energy and Energetic efficiency, Albania a secure destination for energetic resources, Sector Strategy of Tourism in Albania, Monuments of Nature, Source for the Development of Tourism, Archeological Resources, Geologic Monuments and geologic parks, Institute of Transport, a new mission supporting the strategy of Transport, Products, Tendencies and Prioritary Zones of investments in Agricultural Sector, The agricultural land reform, Existing legislation, Problems related with ownership and Chances offered by Albania One Euro initiative for the agricultural land use and so many others. Beside the Topics the Book will make publicity for all those companies that contributed and participated to the Expo-Conference. Our special thanks we would like to express to the working groups respectively, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy, Albanian Geological Survey, Agency of Albanian Natural Resources, Albinvest, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Tirana, Association of Geologists, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunications. Thanks are also given for the sponsors generosity: Bankers Petroleum, Steam Oil and Gas, Deutsche Bank, Selenice Bitumi, Raiffeisen Bank, Tirex Explorations and Interalbanian, Aspis Group. We believe this Book will be an important drive for the economic activities in the country, but as well a clearer vision for the investors that have already started their industrial projects in Albania

The Organizers Foreign Investors Association of Albania & ELIDA Co94

Tirana, June 2008

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Albanian Agency of Business and Investements Viola PUCI Europes Last Frontier
ID Director 1. What is AlbInvest? Government agency created in March 2006 Member of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy (METE) Mandate covers Foreign Investment Promotion, SME-s & Exports Board consists of Government & Business Representatives It is a dynamic and client oriented agency Staff body: 32 members, graduated from schools from 9 countries and speak 11 foreign languages 1. Structure

AlbInvests Mission

FDI Promotion Assistance from A-Z in the initial steps: Information, Visit organisation, Investment possibilities. Identification of potential advisors, suppliers, as well as projects in Albania Business Missions in Albania and Overseas Promotional materials & campaigns

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SME Support

Influences Government policy on a range of issues affecting SMEs SMEs Credit Guarantee Fund and SMEs Competitiveness Fund Interreg programs - in support of SMEs European charter of SMEs
Export Enhancement and Needs Identification

Export guarantee credit fund 200 million ALL for 2007 Market research for Albanian products Business missions in potential markets for the Albanian Brand Training for export companies Exporters Guide
1. Services to Potential Investors

Gather/Provide updated information (service free of charge) Information on government initiated incentives and programmes in support of investment decision-making Identify sites and buildings for conducting business Set up a manufacturing operation or business service in Albania Find indigenous suppliers/JV partners Signpost you to the right person from the public sector (Central and Local Government Body, Municipalities and Communes) Provision of Aftercare Services
1. Albinvests Products

High Quality DVD (16 min on Albania) Existing Companies Directory on CD Fact-Sheets updated twice a year Sector Brochures available in 4 languages (Albanian, English, Italian and German) Investment Promotion Brochures for Strategic Sectors (Energy, Mining, Textiles, Shoe and Leather) Other marketing products on Albanian Opportunities
1. Why Invest in Albania?

Economic Stability 2007, 6% real GDP growth (same expectations for 2008)

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2007, annual inflation, 2.9% (controlled inflation within 2-4%) EU Trading Partner and Balkans FTA NATO, SAA, CEFTA, WTO Over 1,000 foreign companies installed in Albania from EU and USA Site availability and high quality office space Available low-cost and highly-skilled labour force 91% of population above the age of 65 Unemployment rate, 13.2% Monthly salary range 100 600 euro Improvements on Business Climate Flat Tax Social security paid by employers from 29% to 20% A tax exemption of dividends designated for investments. Business registration: One-stop-shop, 1 day, 1 Euro at NRC (www.qkr. go.al) The Law no. 9663 On concessions, dated 8.2.2006, approved by the Albanian Parliament Concessionary and Privatisation Projects HEC project concessions granted is expected to reach 99 by the end of 2008 ARMO KESH, Power Distribution Division Water supply and transportation Insurance (INSIG)
1. FDI Legal Provisions

Law no.7764, Nov. 11, 1994 On Foreign Investments No prior government authorization is needed and no sector is closed to foreign investment. No limitation on the percentage share of foreign participation in companies - 100 percent foreign ownership is possible. Foreign investment may not be expropriated or nationalized directly or
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indirectly, except in special cases, in the interest of the public, defined by law. Foreign investors have the right to expatriate all investments in the form of funds and contributions in kind. The most favorable treatment according to international agreements. No distinction is made between foreign and domestic investors in law No.7638 dated 9.11.1992, On Commercial Companies. Albanias tax system also does not discriminate against foreign investors. Legislation concerning public procurement, makes little distinction between foreign and domestic firms.
1. Investment Incentives

100% VAT credit - importers of machinery and equipment for use in taxable economic activity Faon producers are not subject to VAT - for services provided to their contractors. Encouragement of power production Fiscal incentives, such as customs duty exemption on imported machinery and reimbursed customs and excise duties for imported liquid or solid combustibles, are aimed at investors who: establish new production plants with an installed power over 5 MW, , using liquid or solid combustibles, and rehabilitate existing plants. (Law no.8987, dated 24.2.2002 For the creation of facilitated conditions, concerning the establishment of new plants for the production of power). Status of Promoted Persons Relates to tourism activities. A Promoted Person investing in tourism development is entitled to: Exemption from the customs duties and excise taxes on imported goods for the sole purpose of investment and functioning of the promoted activity Exemption from the profit tax for 5 (five) fiscal years from the time of development completion of the investment. For the 5 following years he/she

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will pay only 50% of the profit tax. (10 years tax incentive) Profit from a reduction of the profit tax up to 40%, if the profit is reinvested in Albania The criteria to receive the status of the Promoted Person are elaborated in article 7 of the law no.7665, dated 2.0.993 For development of tourism zones. The criteria to receive the status of the Promoted Person are elaborated in article 7 of the law no.7665, dated 2.0.993 For development of tourism zones. Leasing of the state-owned property at below-market rent rates and, for production activities, with rate reductions according to investment and employment levels (Refer to Fact Sheet No.9).

1. Foreign Investors

(2000 2007) Source: Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Energy (METE)


1. Petroleum Bankers 2. AMC 3. Kurum 4. Vodafone 5. Edil Centro 6. Consortium Atermon s.a Roder & Blackwell Consulting 7. Titan Cement Group Antea Cement Sh.a 8. Lockheed Martin 9. CALIK (Albtelekom) 10. EVN 11. Raiffeisen Bank 12. Interalbanian (Aspis Group) 13. Sigal (Uniqa Group) 14. Airport Partners (Hotchtief ) 15. Alumil Canada Greece Turkey Greece Italy Greece Greece USA Turkey Austria Austria Greece Austria Germany Greece Oil and Gas Production Telecommunications Metallurgy Telecommunications Manufacturing Energy General Manufacturing Telecommunications Telecommunications General Manufacturing Banking Insurance Insurance Infrastructure Manufacturing

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1. Strategic Sectors and Investment Opportunities 1. Agriculture & Aquaculture

2. Energy 3. Tourism and Real-Estate 4. Construction 5. Industrial Zones 6. Transport 7. Mining and Oil Extraction
1. Agriculture

Small size of current domestic companies. Substantial investment needed in the infrastructure and supply chains and logistics, This situation does open windows of opportunities. Environment is best fit for medium sized foreign companies. Strategic Agriculture Sectors Fruits, olives and grape production Vegetables production Dairy and livestock production Processing of fruits and vegetables Processing of grape Processing of meat and milk Bio- agriculture is the hot Albanian trend in this sector. Areas to invest in are: Herbs and spices, olive oils, marine fisheries and meat processing

Adriatic and Ionian Sea - A coastline of 427 km. 4 big natural lakes, Shkodra Lake, Ohrid Lake, Great and Little Prespa Lakes. A number of artificial lakes and reservoirs established in the last 60 years. Hydropower lakes on the river Drin cascade and about 570 agriculture reservoirs dispersed in all country. A number of lagoons with a total surface of 10.000 ha. Karavasta, Narta, and Butrinti. A considerable number of rivers transverse Albania from east to west.
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Drini Rivers, Buna, Vjosa, Shkumbini, Semani and Bistrica River etc. Suitable environment and water properties, makes fishing an important sector. The traditional forms of aquaculture are trout and carp cultivation in freshwater and Sea bass and Sea bream cultivation by Export: Half of marine production goes for export, mainly Italy and Greece. Nearly 80% of the higher-valued fish caught is estimated to be exported. The main strength of the industry relates to its status as a fully approved third country for the placing on the (EU) market of fishery products. Cooperation with Adriamed: Since 10 April 1991 Albania is a member of the FAO-General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, and amended her status to the GFCM Agreement on 10 October 2003. Albania is benefiting from FAO regional project Scientific Cooperation to Support Responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic Sea FAO-AdriaMed, which started in September 1999.
1. Energy

FDI leader in the field, Bankers Petroleum for 600 million Euros in 3 years. The only country in Europe offering immense opportunities for hydro power. 99 Small Hydro Power Plants up for concession. 7 Thermo Power plants for future projects 2 of them on the way , Fieri and Vlora. 2 Large scale power plants, on the DEVOLL and VJOSA river up for concession. Opportunities for solar and wind energy once hydro power is exhausted. Combined with the new Concession Law, the Government and KESH (Albanian Power Corporation) will guarantee the market for energy produced from the above, for a period of 10-15 years. The privatization of the power distribution sector at the Albanian Electroenergetic Corporate

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1. Tourism-Real estate

The British Times : the country also has a balmy southern Mediterranean climate, mile after mile of undeveloped beaches and crystal-clear water, and some of the lowest house prices in Europe. in short, everything to give it the potential to become the next stop on the itinerary of the intrepid British property investor. Differences in Land vary from 30 Euro/m2 up to 200 Euro/m2 in the south. Land on the front line on the coast of the Adriatic and Ionian sea concession for 99 years. Real-estate prices vary from 300 Euro m2 in the North up to 2000 Euro m2 in downtown Tirana. Albanian Government is open to ideas and projects in the tourism sector.
1. TOURISM OPPORTUNITIES

Coastline 327 km GDP Contribution 4.7 % (2005) Albanian Tourism Industry generated around $1.9 billion in 2005, will grow to around $3.5 billion by 2015 * 2006-2015 travel and tourism demand expected to grow in by 15.9 % per annum (in real terms) * Status of Encouraged Person
1. Industrial Zones

3 potential Industrial Zones Identified. Cooperation with GTZ and World Bank for three feasibility studies. The Albanian parliament passed the law on Free Zones. The identified sites are Greenfield, with perfect vicinity to infrastructure, sea port and logistics. Bid for Developers to start soon. Full government support for the development of the sites. Road Network Priorities East-West Corridor 260 km The main section 96 km Other branches

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North-South Corridor 339 km The main Section 72 km Other branches DurresMorine (Albania to Kosovo) Corridor 169 km Motorway Road of Arberit (Albania-Macedonia) Corridor 72,6 km Highway
KOSOVO CORRIDOR

Durres Milot Morine 169 km Full 4 Lane Motorway 1. Durres-Milot, existing 59 km highway 2. Milot-Rreshen, in construction 26 km (World Bank financed) 3. Rreshen-Kalimash, in constrution, 55 km (GOA financed) 4. Kalimash-Morine, in constrution 29 km (GOA financed) What Albanian Road Network Needs Motorways - 507 KM (Conects: 16 Districts from 36 in Total)

Ist/IInd category Highways - 812 KM (Conects: 9 Districts)

IIIrd Category 1021 KM (Conects: 11 Districts)

SEA PORTS Durres Vlora Shengjin Saranda

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1. DURRES PORT The main and biggest Port in Albania and the gateway of Corridor no. 8th Its situated in SW part of the city of Duress and 36 km West of Tirana. Multi-Modal Containers Terminal Construction of Quays in Ferries Terminal DPA is a joint stock Company Where 100% of shares belong to the government. The port has 11 wharfs Road and Railway access Water area 67 Ha Land area 80 Ha Length of the quay 2.2 km Water Depth in the basin 7.5 - 11.5 m Cargo volume over 3 Mio Ton/Year

1. VLORA SEAPORT

Gate of 8th Pan-European Corridor Implementation of Master plan of Vlora Port: Construction of ferry terminal Construction of cargo peer Construction of port superstructure Overall cost of Master plan 31 Mio Euro. Italian Cooperation 15,3 Mio Euro
1. SHENGJIN SEAPORT

Master Plan financed by WB Rehabilitation of Port financed by GOA


1. SARANDA SEAPORT

Tourism Oriented Priority Master Plan financed by WB

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1. CIVIL AVIATION AND AIRPORTS

Infrastructure and facilities: Tirana International Airport BOT Concession to a German Concessionaire, since 2004. There were 600 000 passengers during 2004 New modern Terminal for 3 Million passengers/year, foreseen up to 2024 Only during 2007 were 1,1 Million passengers Another new Airport in Kukes (North Albania) 7 other civil and military airports No regular internal civil aviation service Traffic: ~ 600% more passengers/year than 12 years ago more than 50 flights/day 9 Italian cities with direct connection

1. Three More 1. Service Sector

Service sector comprise 45% of GDP The competitive advantages: Multi lingual workforce (Italian 70%, English 82%) Availability of skilled staff (65% of population 15 and 65 years of age) Lowest labour cost in Europe ( 300 Euros monthly wage) High quality office space. Advanced ICT Infrastructure 1.88 mln population in working age

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1. Textile/Garment

More than 100 foreign companies and still room to grow Extensive tradition of Garment production Qualified and adaptable labour force Application of modern technologies ISO certification and brand leaders-The most important share in Albanian Exports. 1. Footwear and leather Sector Fastest growth in Exports worldwide 6th largest exporter of shoe uppers worldwide Over 20.000 skilled workers 100 shoe and leather companies Turnaround your design and export in just 24 hours 55 million customers

Albinvest Services to SME-s Albanian Agency for Business and Investment incorporated into a single government agency, three former agencies, operating as ANIH, ANE and SME. The Agency was established by the law no, 9497, dated 20.03.2006, On the Establishment of the Albanian Agency for Business and Investment (known otherwise with its acronym Alb-Invest). On the other hand notwithstanding the incredible expansion of SMEs due to an open market economy, a newly established company (start up) strives to grow and survive in an ever-changing environment, facing internal lack of skills and experience and a fierce external competition. From this perspective Alb-Invest can provide professional and qualified services to Albanian SME-s, helping them to overcome the obstacles, and preparing them to compete in international markets. Clearly companies have different needs at different stages of their life cycle. The information required by a start-up is not the same as that required by an experienced exporter. Nor is the amount and type of financial support required by a growing company the same as that required confirmed exporter. Skills requirements are universal but different companies will have
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different requirements at different levels of the organization, depending on its size and sector. It is for this reason that Alb-Invest main objective is to work with growing companies who are not yet exporters and those companies who are passive or occasional exporters. These are companies that by definition have already attained a minimum level of competitiveness. With further focused support they can, as has been demonstrated by the pilot Export Development Programme, achieve measurable results. The product portfolio that Alb-Invest will clearly depend on the resources made available. Information: EU Programs and Projects Donor projects in Albania SME Observatory Company registration procedures Guides on best practice management techniques (marketing, qual ity, finance etc.) Business planning Guide to exporting Detailed market briefs Market research studies (focused on sectors and countries) Export procedures and documents News about trade fairs, missions etc. Links to other national and international sources of information

Advice (Consultancy) Local Enquiry Handling Service available, the local service act as the gateway for the Business Support Provider also handles a number of referrals from other agencies which engage with local businesses. Diagnostic Service available to identify the customers key business issues. This service identify the customers current segment, state of development, growth potential, learning style and key business issues. As an output, this

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service l provide a key business issues response plan, development needs and growth strategies. Training and consultancy services. Training needs analysis Training modules preparation Training program delivery Consulting service Export Development Program The export development program is a structured program of support aimed at companies who wish to start exporting or those who are already exporting but would like to increase exports through entering new markets. It involves a five stage process as indicated in the chart below:

Although the program is oriented to exporting, the process requires a rigorous analysis phase followed by a logical step by step approach towards implementation. In this sense it can be adapted to provide support to any SME. The Albanian Competitiveness Fund offers grants to companies who demonstrate potential to grow sales and improve efficiency in national or international markets. Priority will be given to those companies participating in the Export Development Program Grants will only cover a percentage (maximum 50%) of the expenditure proposed. Areas of eligible expenditure are decided in conjunction with the government policy and grants are awarded based on a transparent selection process. Eligible expenditure may include use of consultants, traveling and participation in trade fairs, production of marketing materials and web sites, product testing and certification and investment in capital equipment. International Promotion A key role for Alb-Invest is to promote the country not only as a location for investment but as a source of high quality, competitively priced products. Alb-Invest undertakes the activities listed below to meet this objective
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Missions abroad Where Alb-Invest determines that sufficient demand exists, the Agency works with groups of companies to organize specific events as listed below; Trade Fairs organization of group stands of Albanian national stands in key markets Sales Missions to specific countries to meet with potential buyers of Made in Albania products and to learn more about specific de mand and competitive conditions Inward buyer missions to introduce foreign buyers to the capacities and opportunities of sourcing from Albania.

Exporters Register It is important that Alb-Invest enable foreign or even local buyers to easily source products or identify potential partners. Currently there is no centralized database of companies interested in selling their products abroad. AlbInvest will therefore create a database of exporters that will eventually be accessible via their web site. It is estimated that there are some 800 exporters active in Albania. During the first year it should be possible to create a register of 150 exporters with full details of their companies and production capacities. Future Projects. Business and Innovation Centers Promote and encourage new enterprises, help companies to start up and grow Help local offices to make better economic development planes, by updating and modernizing existing projects Encourage the development and consolidation of new ventures, in order to improve their chances of success Introduce an enterprise culture throughout the region, creating and managing specialized centers (Business incubators)
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Mining activity and mining recources in Albania

Prof. As. Dr Edmond Goskolli


Director of Mining Department

In our country, the traces of useful minerals mining intending the life level improvement are very old In the year of 1922, under the direct care of Mehdi Frasheri, was compiled the Geological map of Albania, the first of such maps in Balkan Peninsula. In the year of 1929 was formulated and approved the Mining law of Albanian Kingdom, which opened the road towards the initiation of prospecting-exploration-mining of minerals as copper, chrome, coal, etc. After the Second World War, the mines and the industry connected with them, were developed more fully, based in a state centralized economy. The chrome, copper, coal, iron-nickel, clays, limestones and some other minerals were put in the road of centralized planned development, supporting the needs on export and employment. For these minerals were built the beneficiation plants and smelterprocessing plants. Breaking down of social-economic and political monist system, after the years of 1990, brought indispensably also the drastic falling of the mines activity accompanied by its consequences The transition period as the passing of mining industry from an element of state centralized economy to a functional market sector for the country, region and more, seeks an more detailed development (enlightment), because seeing more clearly the road done in this transformation, could be obtained more clear and right conclusions to precede the further development in the minerals extraction and processing industry and to avoid in a more rational way the inherited environmental questionsThere are several changings in the geologic conditions of minerals, in their characteristics, in market demand, in relationships offer-demand, in the methods of mining and processing, the residues resulted from mineral processing, post-mining rehabilitation, etc. Above mentioned questions determine in essence the alternatives of planning of mining of minerals and they are important objects of scientific evaluation of the institutions charged with administering of minerals resources (wealth). Some minerals have the value only as source of specific elements or different components as for chrome, copper, iron, nickel, production of cement, nutritional element in agriculture (fertilizers), food for livestock, for bricks, etc. Other markets require different particular combinations of various properties which could be the peculiarities of certain deposits of useful minerals or of their industrial processing. This makes indispensable the individual assessment of each deposit and also of their groups regarding the markets, and at the same time requires also the reassessment of residues as industrial additives, because in the modern practice, the value raw material uses as additive is many times bigger than the cost of mineral extracted.
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Albanian Geological Survey responds to todays and futures challenges for the benefit of the national economy and public welfare

Prof. Dr. Adil Neziraj Prof. Dr. Kadri Gjata Eng. Musli Dardha Albanian Geological Survey

Created by an act of the Government in 1922, Albanian Geological Survey (AGS) has evolved over the ensuing 86 years, matching all the efforts and knowledge for surface and subsurface assessment of Albania. Today, by the Law the AGS stands as the State Technical and Scientific adviser and the public institution in the Earth Science domain. In line with the targets set when it was reorganized in 1952, the AGS assumed the investigation and the prospecting of the mineral resources, drinking and industrial water, the hydro geological and engineering geology studies, mapping at different scales of Albania and so on. Extensive geological works has been performed and an important mineral resource potential is available. Numerous geological syntheses and thematic reports, complex mapping at different scales, tectonic, metallogenic, geophysical, geochemical, hydro geological and environmental studies are carried out. The value of AGS to the Nation rests on its ability to carry out studies and projects on a national and local scale and to sustain long term monitoring and assessment of natural resources. It is involved in the integration process and to direct impact to sustainable development of the country and according to the Government economic policy is become more focused on society needs. This institution provides useful geosciences information, service and advice that are relevant to national and local needs and serves to todays and tomorrow needs. From April, 2007 AGS is network member of the EuroGeoSurveys. The activity fields are the natural resources (minerals, hydrocarbons, groundwater, and land), mapping, environment, geohazards, hydrogeology, engineering geology, geophysics, geochemistry, information. The main objectives aim to understand the geological processes, to produce and disseminate geological data, to contribute to the sustainable development of the natural resources, prevent natural risks and pollution problems and to support the public planning policies. Field investigations, direct observations of natural geological processes, and monitoring and data collection are the technical and scientific hallmarks of the AGS. In

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

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Central archive are available over 7500 geological reports, projects etc. covering the whole territory. In the framework of the reformation process, the organization chart is made more efficient and compatible with European Geological Surveys models. AGS operates in whole territory of Albania. Its staff is trying to combine the experience and competence in different Earth Science disciplines, but the need of the large development partnerships is of the first hand importance. The Survey is interested to establish an effective international cooperation and an important target is to incite the dialogue with the business community. AGS has a good cooperation with all scientific institutions in Albania and it is in touch with European Geological Surveys.

Metallogenic features of Albania


Prof. Dr. Kadri Gjata Prof. Dr. Adil Neziraj Prof. Dr. Aleksander ina Albanian Geological Survey
ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Albania offers a various and rich metallogenic picture. From the geological point of view its geologic structure named Albanides is very complex. Numerous orogenic cycles affected this segment of the southern alpine folded chain. Sedimentary, magma tic and metamorphic formations are largely developed and folded and tectonic structures complicate the geological architecture. Ordovician-Silurian deposits are the oldest sediments cropping out in Albania, while a large development have the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments represented of carbonate, flysch and molasses. The ophiolite formation composes a thick oceanic lithosphere. According to the tectonic-orogenic phases, magmatic formation development etc., Albanides are divided in Internal and External zones showing different metallogenic signature. The mineral resources of Albania may be grouped in three categories: a) metallic minerals, b) non-metallic minerals, c) organic fuels. The majority of metallic ores are related to ophiolite assemblage. Among them the chromium ores are the most remarkable feature. The mantle ultrabasic sequence of eastern belt ophiolites shows high chromite concentrations and important metallurgictype chromite deposits with high-grade disseminate-massive ores of tabular sub concordant, concordant, pencil-like and different podiform morphology is evidenced. Bulqiza-Batra deposit is one of the largest ophiolite chromite deposits in the world. In the transition mantle-cumulate zone, and in the massive dunites, lenticular chromite ore bodies of the metallurgic type are found, but rarely refractorytype chromite ores are evidenced as well. Scarce podiform massive chromite bod-

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ies, mainly of refractory type occur in the upper parts of mantle sequence of the western ophiolite belt. Many copper sulphide deposits are found in the volcanics of the eastern belt ophiolites. In the Central Mirdita region a regional mineralized belt 40 km long and 3-7 km wide is developed. Within this belt, several important cooper and copper-zinc ore deposits and numerous ore occurrences are identified. The high grade ores are located in the central areas. In this setting, the biggest ore concentrations of polymetallic nature Cu-Zn-Pb-As-Au etc. related to andesite-dacite-rhyolite sequences are identified. The ore deposits display strata bound and lenticular morphology and are of massive structure (Qafe Bari, Munella, Spaci etc.). Downward the mineralization indicates a stockwork character. It is supposed to be similar to Cyprus type of Troodos massif. In the western belt ophiolites are found several minor volcanogene massive copper sulphide ore deposits as well. At the periphery of ophiolites within volcano-sedimentary formation several Cu rich sulphide ore deposits are located (Rubiku, Palaj-Karma, and Gjegjani etc.). The perspective for the copper ores is open. Nickel sulphide mineralization is recognized in cumulate dunites of two ophiolite belts, but not important deposits are discovered. Iron-nickel, nickel silicate ores deposits are widespread in Albania. They are related to weathering crust of ultrabasic massifs. The most important ore deposits are those of Pishkash-Pogradeci area, Kukesi etc. Iron ore concentrations of chamosite type have been recorded in Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian deposits of Korabi zone. Very interesting is vanadium-bearing titan magnetite magmatic mineralization found within ferrogabbro of western type ophiolites (Kashnjet). Bauxites are found in Albanian Alps zone within Middle Triassic-upper Triassic limestones. Other bauxite economic concentrations of upper Miocene age and pre Eocene age are evidenced as well. Non-metallic minerals are also widespread. There are known many deposits of chemical mineral substances (salt, sulphur, phosphorite, volcanic tuffs), metallurgical and refractory minerals (olivinite, dolomite, magnesite), technical minerals (talc), building material minerals (decorative stones, additional building rocks), filling materials (industrial limestones, sands and gravels, gypsum, anhydrite, volcanic glass), industrial minerals for glass and ceramics (quartz, quartzite sand, clays) etc. Organic fuels are represented of oil, gas, bitumen, bituminous sand and coals. Oil fields are spread at the top part of the external Ionian zone and also in the lower part of the Miocene molasses sections of the Peri Adriatic depression. Most oil fields in the carbonate reservoirs are of massive pool type and are located in structural uplifts. This type exists in closed anticline structures usually complicated by reverse faults or thrusts on their western flanks. Oil fields are discovered in the lower, transgressive part of the molasses. Gas fields are located in the western part of the Peri Adriatic depression and are related to Mio-Pliocene anticlines. High-grade bitumen is found in the Selenica field and it is known since antiquity.

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Bituminous sands and sandstones with 8-25 % bitumen are found in Treblova, Kasnica etc. Regarding coal bearing beds, they are linked with molasses formation of the Tertiary basins. There are distinguished Oligocene-Lower Miocene coal bearing basins within Albanian-Thessalian basin (intermountain molasses), Upper Miocene coal bearing basins within Librazhdi basin (intermountain basin) and Pliocene coal bearing basin located within Pliocene intermountain lake basin. Metallogenic potential of Albania is a very important national asset and now it is the time to provide a comprehensive understanding and to update the assessment of the mineral resources. From its earliest days, AGS was a prime mover in aiding the economic development of the Nation and mineral resource assessment and research are a traditional strength of the Albanian Geological Survey. At the mean time, according to the modern standards the issues that require the mineral intelligence encompass a broad specter of the topics: sustainable development land use planning, performance and assessment of the mineral potential, environmental factors, promoting investments in exploration and mining, trade policy etc. In conclusion, the mineral resources and prospecting opportunities are enormous. The sustainable development of the mineral potential contributes to the investment climate and the economic vitality of the country.
ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Characteristics and perspective of chromites in the ophiolites of Albanides


Prof. As. Dr. Nezir Mekshiqi Dr.Veip Gjoni Dr.Isa Haklaj Geoscience Institute, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albanian Geological Survey. Key Words: Ophiolites, chromites, main regions, reserves potential The Jurassic Albanian ophiolites are part of the Dinaride-Hellenide segment of the Alpine orogenic system and occur in a 250 km-long, , northerly zone extending through the Mirdita region between the Pelagonian and Apulia micro continents. The age of the Albanian ophiolites in determined of Middle-late Jurassic on the basis of pale ontological and radiometric age data. They exhibit features of mid oceanic ridge (MOR)- and supra-subduction zone (SSZ)- type ophiolites, with undisturbed normal transitions between them and

31

mostly with a complete ophiolite stratigraphy. The MOR (western)-type ophiolites, with a plagioclase-rich cumulate sequence, are characterized by mantle harzburgites of lherczolites with rare dunite intercalations and scarce, mainly refractory-type pod form chromites ores, plagioclasebearing lherczolites and dunites, olivine hornblenditets, troctolites, gabbros and Ferro gabbros, with layered vanadium-bearing titan magnetite mineralization. High-Ti basaltic pillow/lavas and metabasites form the top of the MOR-type ophiolite sequence. - The SSZ (eastern)- type ophiolites with a pyroxenes sequence consist of: highly dimpled mantle represented by harzburgite-dunite interbedding and transitional dunite in the upper part; a crustal plutonic sequence represented by gabbronorite, gabbros, amphibole gabbros and quartz gabbros, and quartz diorite plagiogranite; and a sheeted dyke complex and low-Ti basaltic to rhyodacitic volcanic and boninites in the upper part of the sequence. Abundant metallurgic-type chromites ore deposits occur in the middle-upper part of the mantle sequence and show a folded, tabular, pencil like and pod form morphology, partly associated with platinum group element (PGE) mineralization. The Albania ophiolite contains pod form chromites deposits. The most important chromitite deposit are located within depleted harcburgites, 500-800m beneath harzburgite/transition zone boundary. In the context of the structural classification, concordant, sub concordant and discordant chromitite ore bodies are evidenced. The most important chromitite deposit are those of concordant and sub concordant type. In contrast, the discordant chromitites are of small size and have no economic interest. in.. The largest and economically important deposits are confined to the transition zone between the tectonic harzburgite and the cumulate dunite (main dunite), particularly in dunite apophyse and lenses within the upper part of the harzburgite. Each chromites concentration in enveloped by dunite,or to enclose with a dunite wall. The exploitable deposits range from a fem thousand to some million tones, and appear in variously shaped layers, lenses and pods. In ultramafic section of ophiolite complexes of the east belt of the Albania, two main morpho-structural types of chromite ore bodies are distinguished. 1). Stratiform-like bodies with preserved cumulate characteristics of primary crystallization and accumulation of chromite, and their relations to host rocks. The internal structures of these bodies are represented by banding and repeated sequences of chromite/chromite+olivine/olivine. They are mostly of limited lateral extension. The texture of these chromitites is cumulate. These deposits derived by fractional crystallization and gravitative setting chromites and olivine. Such bodies occur mostly in uppermost section of ultramafic rocks, in cumulate dunites and dunite in uppermost parts of tectonite peridotites. 2). Pod form SSZ deposits are the dominant type. They are tabular, pencil-like,

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32

lenticular. Pipe-like or irregular in form, rarely of breccias type. The ore bodies are usually arranged within a zone. The textures of the ores are massive grading into disseminated, locally nodular; relict cumulates textures are exceptionally preserved. The structures often exhibit extension features. Pod form bodies derived by plastically deformation and rearrangement (by high-temperature solid flowage) of primary concentration of chromites originating from fractional crystallization and gravitative settling of chromites. Pod forms ore bodies are found in dunites or dunites wall within all section of tectonite peridotites.Transitions between these main morpho-structural types of chromitites are found frequently, which ascertains some identity in origin. The chromites of the transitions zone between these types are found frequently. The major characteristics of both types of morpho-structure of chromitites are briefly described. With regard to chromite composition, three principal groups have been defined: a) High Cr2O3 and MgO chromites are dominant. They occur mainly in Mgrichest peridotite (>45 % MgO). b) High Al2O3 and low Cr2O3 chromites occur occasionally only, in tectonite mantel ore sequence (MgO<45%) and mostly in cumulate sequence near gabbros. c) High iron chromites (over 20-25% wt %) are associated with dunite (serpentines) and pyroxene, close to gabbros contact with which continue EGP. Chromites deposits display features which are considered characteristic of pod form alpine type. They occur in the lower level of cumulate sequence, and tectonite harzburgite; some deposits are found in the transition zone between cumulate and tectonite. Dunite is always the host rock, except on some high iron ores and EGP in the cumulate, where chromite is intergrown with dunite (serpentinite) and pyroxene cumulate. Interrelations between the interval structure of the perodotite complexes and the distribution of ore bodies are the some os in other alpine chromite deposits of Albania are reviewed in this paper.quently. The major characteristics of both types of morpho-structure of chromitites are briefly described. With regard to chromite composition, three principal groups have been defined: a) High Cr2O3 and MgO chromites are dominant. They occur mainly in Mg-richest peridotite (>45 % MgO). b) High Al2O3 and low Cr2O3 chromites occur occasionally only, in tectonite mantel ore sequence (MgO<45%) and mostly in cumulate sequence near gabbros. c) High iron chromites (over 20-25% wt %) are associated with dunite (serpentines) and pyroxene, close to gabbros contact with which continue EGP. Chromites deposits display features which are considered characteristic of pod form alpine type. They occur in the lower level of cumulate sequence, and tectonite harzburgite; some deposits are found in the transition zone between cumulate and tectonite. Dunite is always the host rock, except on some high iron ores and EGP in the cumulate, where chromite is intergrown with dunite (serpentinite) and pyroxene cumulate. Interrelations between the interval structure of the perodotite complexes and the distribution of ore bodies are the some os in other alpine chromite deposits of Albania are reviewed in this paper.

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

33

Iron - Nickel and Nickel Silicate Ores of Albania


ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Prof.Ass. Dr. Fethi ARKAXHIU Albanian Geological Survey.

Prospection-exploration workings carried out in the territory of Albania have certified the important reserves of iron-nickel-and nickel-silicate ores, which potential has supported the opening, development and exploitation of iron-nickel ores for export and for operation in the pasty of Metallurgical Combine of Elbasan (Table 1,2). Geological workings and studies in the direction of iron-nickel and nickel-silicates ores have enabled to be created a more clear view about their distribution in the territory of Albania (Fig.1), to be clarified the metallogenic features of the weathering crust and on the base of them to be done the forecasts more right and scientifically based. Not less important are the conclusions in the direction of the regional geology, supporting to which are also the laterites (the products of weathering crust). The formations of the old weathering crust and the iron-nickel and nickel-silicates deposits are connected with ultrabasic rocks of Mirdita tectonic zone (Albanides). They are formed from the weathering process of the ultrabasic rocks during the various periods of time, starting before lower cretaceous (north-east region), cretaceous (central region) and before Eocene (south-east region), concentrating in the three main regions of Albania(Fig.2): I Has-Kukes-Lure Region (North-East part); II Librazhd-Pogradec Region (Central Part); III Bilisht Region (South-East Part) I - Has-Kukes-Lure Region Has-Kukes-Lure Region includes the north-east part of the tectonic zone of Mirdita (Albanides) of spreading of weathering crust products (laterites). They have a wide strike in a belt form of a length over 45 km and width of 2-10 km with direction NE-SW, forming the particular squares.In general they are covered by carbonatic and terrigenous deposits of Lower Cretaceous age (Cr1) and Upper Cretaceous (Cr2).In general the area covered from lateritic formations is relatively big and for particular squares has big undulations from 0.4 km2 up to tens of km2. So we deal with considerable reserves of Nickel-silicate and iron-nickel ores (Fig.3, 4 & 5). II. Librazhd-Pogradec Region In the region Librazhd-Pogradec iron-nickel ores deposits have a wide extension. According to the geologic prospecting-exploration workings, mining and studies carried out from the year of 1956 up to 1990, have been certified very huge amount of reserves of iron-nickel ores , which have been a strong base to the opening and development of many mines and staring so their successful mining. Mining of nickel ores has started in the year of 1958 in the first iron-nickel Mine

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

34

of Eastern Pishkash. The mineral extracted here has been exported in Republic of Czechoslovakia and in the year of 1978 it served as base for supply of Metallurgical Industry in Elbasan. Presently, smeltery of Elbasan (Metalurgical Combine) doesnt work with mineral but with scrap. The iron-nickel mines are closed and export is interrupted . From the studies and geologic prospecting-exploration workings have been obtained very important data about geologic structure, laws of concentration and the conditions of iron-nickel ores formation. The deposits and occurrences of iron-nickel ores in Librazhd-Pogradec region are extended in two belts, placing in : a) North-East wing, b) North-West wing of upper course of Shkumbini river (Fig.6) a) North-East wing All deposits and occurrences of iron-nickel ores of this wing have almost the same characteristics, excluding the deposits of Katjel and Vulcan. In general, the weathering crust products are placed over the ultrabasic rocks. In the ground surface the iron-nickel orebody is appearing interrupted through contact of ultrabasic rocks with carbonatic depositations of Upper Cretacious which extend for more than 30 km starting from the northest outcrop of Buzgara occurrence and continuing in the south with the deposits of North Bushtrica, Central Bushtrica, Upper Bushtrica, Skroska, Xixillas, North Pishkash, Guri i Pishkashit, East Pishkash, Prrenjas, Radokal, Guri Pergjegjur, Hudenisht, Gradishta, Eastern Cervenaka, Western Cervenaka and the most southern, Guri i Kuq. Exclusion are for deposit of Vulcan, which is located in the middle of paleogene and Neogene depositations and deposit of Katjel placed in the middle of carbonatic depositations of Upper Triasic and those terrigene of Paleogene. Iron-nickel orebody in the direction of thickness has big changings. This is conditioned from the shape of floor relief, over which has been formed and deposed the iron-nickel ore and also from the tectonic faults intensity and washing process during and after formation. So, for example, in the deposit Guri Kuq, real thickness is ondulated from 1-2m up to 30-40m. In Bushtrica-Skroska deposits, from 0.5-2m up to 15-20m, in Prrenjas 1-2m up to 18-25m. The orebody in general has a strike north-west, south-east by a dip south-west with angle 10-45 degrees Chemical and mineralogical composition of iron-nickel orebody has been studied on the base of a huge number of samples and tests. Main constituents of iron-nickel orebody are Fe, Ni, Co as useful elements. For iron the content is 38.9 to 50%, for nickel 0.8 to 1.11% and cobalt 0.06 to 0.10%.Big amount of reserves, good technical-mining conditions, relatively good content of Ni, Fe and Co, good technological results, location in the proximity of dwelling centers and appropriate infrastructure, make possible the opening and mining of iron-nickel ores (Fig.7a). b) north-west wing In the North-west wing make part the important deposits of Liqeni Kuq (Red lake) and Xhumaga, two small deposits Berzeshta, debrova and many occurrences The deposits of Liqeni Kuq and Xhumaga are the continuers of each other, but due to

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the post-mineralization tectonic activity, they are separated. The characteristics of iron-nickel orebody are almost similar by small differecies, mainly in the propagation and placing of ore types and quality.The orebody is placed among the two carbonatic facies of Lower Cretacious (Baremian-Aptian) as floor, and upper cretaceous (Santonian-Kampanian) as roof. (Figure 7b,c). The orebody outcrops along strike in Liqeni i Kuq of a length 1700m and in Xhumaga 2800m. Ore body thickness ranges from 5m to 40m in Xhumaga and 0.36m to 6.9m in Liqeni i Kuq (Red lake). In comparison with the ores of North-East Wing elements participating in the chemical composition of iron-nickel ore are of lower grade : Fe=35.6%, Ni=0.63% and SiO2 is high 10-38.5%, averagely 24.4% . III. Region of Bilishti (South-East part) Geologic studies carried out during the years 1958-1988 include a zone among the villages Bitincke-Tren-Vernik-Kapshtice with an area of 30 km2. In the region of Bilisht are known the deposits of iron-nickel and nickel-silicate of Bitincka and kapshtica and also the occurrences of Shkoza and Vernik (Fig.8). Deposit of iron-nickel and nickel-silicate of Bitincka It is the biggest deposit explored in Albania. It is located in the north of Bilishti town, near to Bitincka village in the easat of it. Is linked by 2 km road with the national road Korca-Bilisht-Kapshtica.The deposit seizes an area of 8.4 km2, by length of 5.6 km. and width of 1.5 km. The perspective is open in the directions of east and south-east. It forms a monoclynal structure of almost meridional strike by azimuth 330-15and eastern dip by angle of 15-35. Bitincka deposit is placed in types of weathering crust (lateritic) remained in situ, with a very wide extension of ironnickel and nickel-silicate ores. The orebody is placed among the ultrabasic rocks as floor and sedimentary rocks as roof. It has an outcrop of huge dimensions that with some interruptions reach a length of 2700 m. For the iron-nickel orebody the more stable thickness is 2 to 4 m. Smaller thicknesses are met rarely and are connected mainly with disjunctive tectonics effects and less with genetic conditions, meanwhile they are connected with bigger thicknesses from 5 8m to 20-28m. For nickel-silicate orebody the most stable thickness is 3 to 5m. Chemical composition of nickel-silicate and iron-nickel ores in general follows the laws: in the iron-nickel ores iron and nickel content is depending of the ore type, politic type is Ni grade, meanwhile Fe higher grade in the oolotic-pisolitic type. In general the values of Fe content move 38-48%, averagely 42%. Extreme values are the smaller 35 % and the highest 50%, meanwhile Ni is concentrated in the values of 0.8-1.3%, average 1.1%. In the nickel-silicate orebody as rule we observe increment of Nickel content from weathered serpentinites (0.3-0.4% to the contact with iron-nickel orebody Nickel content reaches up to 2.5%. Content of Ni are from 0.7 to 1.7 %, meanwhile those extreme are 0.5 up to 4.2%, average 1.3%. The characteristics of structure and composition of iron-nickel and nickel-silicate ores

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

36

Basing in the formation conditions of weathering crust deposit (laterites), their chemical and mineralogic composition and their possibilities of technological processing we distinguish two types of ores : A Iron-nickel ore; B Nickel-silicate ore. A - Iron-nickel ore Is met in three regions, but the biggest accumulation it has in the region of Librazhd_pogradec (central). This type of ore, as rule, is not found in place, but displaced in short or long distances. Here could be separated the inplace iron-nickel ore, displaced and redepositated over the ultrabasic rocks and the sedimentary iron-nickel ores. Iron-nickel remained in-place is that moving less or certainly not, but remained within the confine of the nickel-silicate ore and linked closely to it. Such are the iron-nickel ore of deposit Bitincka, Trull Surroj, Mamez and Nome, and also the belt&pelitic type in the deposits of Bushtrice-Skroske and Cervenake. Displaced-redepositated iron-nickel is in the most deposits of our country. Pelitic-oolitic, oolitic-pisolitic-bean and spotted types are the composing of orebodies. These ores have in the floor the ultrabasic rocks weathered in different degrees. It is characteristic for the iron-nickel deposits of region of LibrazhdPogradec of North-East wing as per deposits of Pishkash, Prrenjas and Guri Kuq. Sedimentary iron-nickel ore has been transported in a longer distance, interrupting the linkage with the ores formed in-place. They usually have as basement-floor, the sedimentary rocks as Upper Triassic limestones. Katjel deposit, Lower Cretacious limestones, deposits of Liqeni Kuq, Xhumage, Berzeshte and Debrove and paleogene terrigene depositations, Vulcan deposit. B Nickel-silicate ore Is characterized as rule is located in their forming place, of high content of Ni, Co, SiO2 and low in Fe. This ore is distributed mainly in two regions, in region of Kukes-Krume-Lure (North-East part) and in the region of Bilisht (South-East part). Limited occurrences in the form of small lenses and small thicxknesses are known also in the region of Librazhd-pogradec (central part) in the deposits of Bushtrice-Skroske-Cervenake. Mineralogic Composition The ores in general are aggregates of minerals and microdisperse, with fine crystallization, difficult to be determined their minerals sorts, particularly their content. a - iron-nickel ore - It is massif aggregate, polymineral, chocolate color, reddish brown up to dark brown, not very much developed crystallization. It is composed mainly by minerals of getite, hematite and their hydrated forms, that altogether are composing 60% of ore mass, in some cases reach up to 75-80%. Other part is composed from argilleous and serpentinite mass and from fine granules 0.01-0.02 mm of magnetite and granules 0.1-0.4 mm of chromspinelit that altogether compose 2.5-4.0 %^ of ore mass. Are observed the irregular granules or thin veins of quartzite and calcite. Other minerals in the form of microdispersive mixer are met in not considerable amounts.

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

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b nickel-silicate ores It is a masive aggregate of spotted color, reddish brown, dark green, much compact and strong, in some cases is a loose aggregate in the
NO Region and deposits. Type of mineral
Year mining

Producti on 000/t

Reserves 1.1.1991 in 000/t

CONTENT IN %

Notes

Ni 6 -

1 I

II

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16. 17

2 Krume Kukes - Lure Fe-Ni Ni Si Librazhd Pogradec Fe-Ni Krahu lindor FeNi Bushtrice Xixillas Skroske Pishkashi Veror Guri Pishkashit Pishkashi lindor Prrenjasi Radokal Katjel Gradishte Hudenisht Guri Pergjegjur ervenake L e P ervenake J e L Guri i Kuq Skroska SouthWest Pishkash Prrenjas West Krahu Perendimor Fe Ni Bilisht Bitincke Kapshtice Fe Ni Ni-Si

5 27 509 52 820

Fe 7 -

CO 8 -

C2O3 9 -

SiO2 10 -

MgO 11 -

12

156 583 17 810 2 570 850 1.060 500 400 3.000 2.620 300 220 380 580 760 1.200 520 2.850 119 700 1 280 4.240 14.550 22.450 360 140 1.400 610 3.770 55.000 10.416 5.484

--

--

--

--

--

1963 1971 1985 1965 1962 1958 1970 1970 1974 1980 1962 1979 1959 1979 1976

1.02 0.98 0.98 1.02 1.18 0.80 0.80 0.96 0.97 0.90 0.98 0.83

48.2 47.2 47.2 46.0 31.8 44.2 46.9 46.0 44.2 38.5 46.6 44.2

0.07 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.05 8. 0.06

4.6 4.6 4.6 4.2 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.6 4.8 4.85 4.16

5.3 7.1 7.1 9.7 28.4 4.1 4.9 5.7 14.2 17.0 6.37 14.7 4 16.2 33.6

3.3 3.3 3.3 -

In Conservat. Mined In Conservat Mined In Conservat Mined In Conservat Explored Explored

III 1.

1980 -

650 18 460 -

53 960 50.826 238 152 103 650

1.10 1.32 -

43.5 13.5 -

0.08 0.05 -

3.1 -

10.7 37.8 -

18.5 -

Total

Fe Ni Ni Si

soil form of brown color. In general it saves the texture of mother rock ultrabasic from its origin or in some places it is presented very much weathered, by full change of texture and structure. In the lower horizons the nickel-silicate ore is enough saturated with carbonatic material cementing it in the form of net and filling the cracks of weathered serpentinites. Together with carbonates is observed also enough iron material filling the voids. In the upper horizons is observed sili-

38

In conserva tion

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

36.883

0.580.85

27.939.4

0.05 0.08

Drilling No Explored deposits


No. of drillings Volume ml.

Galleries

Wells

Trenches

Geological Surveying works

No of Galeries

Volum e ml

No of wells

Volume ml.

No trenches

Volume m3

1:1000 Km2

1:2000 Km2

1:10000 Km2

2 Region

10

11

12

13

Has-KukesLure Region

108

16.653

17

4045

86

849

125

11000

____

8.5

5.5

II

LibrazhdPogradec Region

837

216737

90

13.445

200

2268

630

12.288

5.4

26.5

140.0

III

Bilisht

551

143206

30

4780

115

816

310

9426

___

9.0

30

TOTAL

1596

377592

137

22270

401

3928

1065

32714

5.4

44.0

175.5

ceous material, in the form of veins or massif saturation, which makes the ore in a strong mass called silikofite. Judging from the observations of many samples we can conclude that the mineral is composed from about 12-15% oxides hydroxides of iron, 30-45% silicate minerals, 25%, silica materials 10-15%, carbonatic material and only 3-5 % other minerals. From silicates the most part constitute the serpentines of serpofite type, lisordite, microantigorite and also kerolite with nontronite. Are met less the ferrous chlorites and talc. Argilleous material represented mainly by nontronite is very fine and cementing the other mineral granules which are of bigger sizes. Silica material mainly is quartz microgranular and less calcedone. Opal is met rarely in the form of congreciones in the contact between the iron-nickel ore with nickel-silicate. From carbonates, the most part compose the vein calcite and microgranular and also congreciones of magnesite ans siderite. Chromspinelite and magnetite granules are distributed uniformly in the rock mass are corroded and very much altered. Iron-nickel and nickel-silicate ores of our country, from above mentioned data, are
SKEMA E PRHAPJES S SHESHEVE PERSPEKTIVE, VENDBURIMEVE DHE MINIERAVE N KONSERVIM TE HEKUR-NIKELIT DHE NIKELIT-SILIKAT N SHQIPRI
Fig. 1

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

ZI

Vermoshi

LI

SHPJEGUESI:

B. CURRI
L. Drin

XEHERORI I HEKUR-NIKELIT

XEHERORI I NIKELIT-SILIKAT

KOPLIK

KRUME 2

SHKODRA

KUKS

M A Q E D O N I A

I - Rajoni HAS - KUKS - LUR A- Sheshi KRUM-KUKS 1- Vendburimi MAMZ 2- Vendburimi TRULL-SURROJ B- Sheshi MAJA E MADHE C- Sheshi ARRN 3- Vendburimi NOME D- Sheshi VLASHAJ-DOBRAJ-LUR II - Rajoni LIBRAZHD - POGRADEC

BURREL

PESHKOPI

DURRS

TIRANA

LIBRAZHD

ELBASAN

II

L. Shkumbin

18

20

19

21 17

FIER

POGRADEC

a- KRAHU LINDOR 4- Vendburimi VULAN 5- Vendburimi BUSHTRICA V-P 6- Vendburimi BUSHTRICA J 7- Vendburimi SKROSKA J-P 8- MINIERA BUSHTRICA P 9- MINIERA XIXILLAS 10- MINIERA SKROSK 11- MINIERA PRRENJAS 12- MINIERA KATJEL 13- MINIERA GURI PRGJEGJUR 14- MINIERA HUDENISHT 15- MINIERA GRADISHT 16- MINIERA ERVENAKA J-L 17- MINIERA GURI I KUQ

Korfuzi

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I A

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b- Krahu Veri - Perndimor 18- Venburimi LIQENI I KUQ 19- Venburimi XHUMAG 20- Venburimi BRZESHT 21- Venburimi DEBROV

L.

Vj os a

III - Rajoni i BILISHTIT 22- MINIERA BITINCK 23- MINIERA KAPSHTIC E- SHESHI VRNIK

JO

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ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Fig. 2 Lithological columns of orebodies of iron-nickel&nickel-silicates deposits of Albania

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Fig 3-Geologic map of Has-Kukes Region with the propagation of the iron-nickel and nickel silicate ores (according to the Geologic Map of Albania) 1983-Scale 1 : 200 000 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Ultrabasic Rocks Terrigene and carbonatic deposits of Lower Cretacious carbonatic Deposits of Upper Cretacious Neogene-Quaternary deposits Ores : a-iron-nickel b- nickel-silicate. Occurences of iron-nickel and nkel-silicate ores

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Carbonatic deposits of Lower Cretaceous Redeposited nickel-silicate ore Iron-nickel ore Residual (primary)nickel-silicate ore Weathered and altered serpentinites Fresh ultrabasic rocks

Figura 4-Geologic cross-section Scale 1 : 10 000 in the Trull Surroj and Mamez deposit (according to E.Bushi, etc, 1997)

Lithologic column of Nome iron-nickel and nickel-silicate Deposit 1) Fresh ultrabasic rocks 2) Ultrabasic rocks-serpentinized peridotites 3) Ironized weathered serpentinites 4) Nickel silicate ores 5) Iron-nickel ore : a) olitic type b)oolotic-pisolitic type Upper Cretaceous deposits a-aleurolites thin layers ;b- plate and massif limestones Geologic Cross-section of Nome deposit (Scale H-1:10 000 and V- 1:50 000) 1) Ultrabasic Rocks 2) Nickel-silicate ore 3) Iron-nickel ore 4) Carbonatic Depositations of Upper Cretaceous 5) Tectonic fault

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Fig. 5

Formational Map of region LibrazhdPogradec with iron-nickel deposits 1 Deposits and columns of iron-nickel ores I, Bushtrica; II, Prrenjas; III, Guri Kuq; IV, Liqeni Kuq; V, Xhumage; VI, Debrove; VII, Katjel; VIII, Vulcan 2 Molassic formations, sandstones, conglomerates, clays, etc. 3 Paramollasic formations. Intercalations of thick sandstones with aleurolite-argille layers, marls, sandstone limestones, Etc. 4 Neritic carbonatic formations and terigene : a) Upper Cretacious b). Lower Cretacious 5 Mixture of ofiolitic-sedimentarytectonic 6 iron-nickel ores a). Oolitic pisolitic; b). Pelitic beltform ; c). Conglomeratic 7 Volcanogene-sedimentary formations composed by volcanic rocks basic and average, terrigene-carbonatic schist 8 Ultrabasic rocks a). harzburgites b). Lercolite 9 Upper Triassic carbonate formations 10 Tectonics I-Krume-Kukes-Lure; II-Librazhd-Pogradec, III- Bilisht

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Fig. 6

Fig.7a.Cross-section of Bushtrice-Skroske deposits

Fig.7b.Cross-section of Liqeni i Kuq deposits

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Fig.7c.Cross-section of Xhumage deposits

1.Limestones dhe conglomeratic of limestones of Lower Cretacious 2. Fe-Ni Ores ; 3. Upper Cretacious limestones 4.Tectonic
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Lithological Column 1. Conglomerate 2. marl limestone 3.marls 4. Iron-nickel ores of politic type with 42% Fe, 1.1% Ni and 12% SiO2 5. Nickel-silicate, product of laterization by silicofites with net texture by con centration Ni average 1.3% 6. Altered harzburgites of Ni content of 0.4-0.6 % 7. Fresh serpentinized harzburgites

Fig. 8 Geologic map of Bilisht Region 1. Ultrabasic rocks 2. Limestones of Upper Triassic (T) 3. Paleogene Depositations (Pg2) 4. Neogene Depositations (Burdi gaglian N) 5. Quaternary depositations 6. Ores : a-iron-nickel b- nickel-silicate 7. Geologic contours

Geologic Profile of iron-nickel and nickel-silicate deposit Bitincke -Strana 1 Paleogene conglomerate depositations 2 Iron-nickel ore 3 - Nickel silicate ore 4 weathered and altered ultrabasic rocks 5 Fresh ultrabasic rocks 6 - Drilling wells

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Sulfure Mineralizations of Copper in Albania


ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Prof. Dr. Mehmet ZAAJ Prof. Dr. Minella SHALLO Dr. Tonin DEDA Inxh. Asllan DACI

Geosciences Institute, Polytechnics University of Tirana Geology and Mining Faculty, Polytechnics University of Tirana Geological Survey of Albania Sulfure mineralizations of copper have a wide spreading in Albania. The geological environment are the ophiolite rocks. It is located on northern part of Albanian ophiolites. The copper sulphides mineralizations belong mainly in the endogen genetics group on the hydrothermal class, igneous types with subtype sedimentary - igneous, mixtured igneous, subigneous and plutonic types. The copper sulphides mineralizations magmatic of magmatics class are included in sedimentary genetics group, which are limited spreading in the Albanian ophiolites. The hydrothermal copper sulphides mineralizations of sedimentary - igneous types are located in sedimentary - igneous formations and represent by sulphides pyrite-chalcopyrite ores, which are concordance massive type and are found in the Gjegjan and Rubiku deposits. They are situated in the melanzhe rocks. The hydrothermal copper sulfure mineralizations of mixtured igneous types have occupied a major area compare with the otheres. They are situated in different level of igneous basaltic-dacite sequence on eastern ophiolites and partly in igneos basaltic sequence (eastern ophiolites), representing by sulphides pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite ore, which are massive pseudo sheets and vein shape with dotted minaralizations associative with potenty hydrotermale metasomatics zone, concordance and non concordance represented a lot of mineralizations deposits, objects and occurrences. The hydrothermal - subigneous mineralizations are located between complex of parallel dykes on eastern ophiolites. They are sulphides pyrite-chalcopyriteshtokverkor ores and represent the mineralization roots of the sulfurs mixtured igneous, which are found on eastern ophiolites. The hydrothermal - plutonic mineralizations are located between plutonic rocks and are represented by gabbro plagiogranites (eastern ophiolites) and gabbro (western ophiolites), representing veins ore and lentils ores of chalcopyrite-pyro-

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tine with limited oreole of hydrotermale metasomatics. These types of mineralizations are found in deposits, which located on eastern and western ophiolites. Mineralogy and geochemy of the Albanian sulphides mineralizations characterize by the dominance pregenesis of pyrite ore-chalcopyrite sphalerit, chalcopyrite- pyrite sphalerit, pyrotine chalcopyrite pyrite. Also, they characterize by diversity of mineral compositions and structures-textures variety as indicator of formation process and impact post-ores in the sulfure mineralizations. The chemistry of the sulfure ores characterize by industrial content of Cu and less Zn and accompanist element as Co, Se, Te, Au, Ag, Sb, Pb ,As etc. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of sulfure ores favor an industrial assessment and ways of their technologic treatment. Conclusions: From the geological investigations carried out on coppers field up to 1990 years results that in Albania are 45 million tones of copper ores reserves, which are really a great natural potential for Albanian economy. The coppers sulfure mineralizations in our country are polymineralics, but up to 1990 years in the copper minerals are exploited only sulphur mineral and gold, silver and selenium as well. For the maximal of all accompanies of copper minerals, results that utilizations of new technology on extraction and processing of copper ores will increase the economic effect of this industry seeks firstly to invest in the new tecnollogy on this field.
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Based on ophiolites stratigraphy, geochemical features and geological situations of copper sulfure mineralizations will be determinates the erosional cross sections, the highness of ores interval, level of ores formations intensity etc. which help on perspectives metallogenic avaluation on future investigations. References: ZAAJ M, SHALLO M, DEDA T, DACI A. (2001) - Monografi Gjeologjia dhe metalogjenia e mineralizimeve sulfure te bakrit te Shqiperise.
SOURCE LAK ROSHI

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Airborne Geophysical Survey in Search for Massive Sulphide ore Deposits in Qafe Mali Perlat Region
1. INTRODUCTION Prof.Dr. Perparim Alikaj Tirex Resources LTD.

The Qafe Mali Perlat region is located in the Central Mirdita tectonic zone which is well known for the presence of volcanogenic sulphide mineralization in Albania. This mineralization is widespread and consists of mid to small size massive sulphide copper or polymetallic ore bodies of medium to high grade copper or zinc, and several mineralized zones associated with the massive ores or representing individual vein disseminated sulphide ores of relatively low grades of copper or zinc (Shallo M., 2007). In 2006 the Canadian company Tirex Resources based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada acquired from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy a prospecting permit of about 400 km2 in the Qafe Mali Perlat region. During February 2007 the Canadian geophysical company Aeroquest Ltd. carried out on behalf of Tirex Resources a helicopter airborne geophysical survey. The airborne geophysical survey was performed with two altitude level magnetics (gradiometry) and Time Domain electromagnetics (EM) with the Aeroquest Aero TEM II system. The airborne survey identified 102 discrete conductive zones judged to be of probable to definite geologic origin. Of these, 22 zones (11 on the northern map sheet and 11 on the southern sheet) are judged of greater exploration interest in view of their geophysical characteristics and association with the belt of known deposits. The associated detailed aeromagnetic data are inferred to outline a complex assemblage of volcanics, volcano-clastics and sediments which have been deformed, displaced and dissected into a number of blocks by a network of faults. Based on the generally positive results of the airborne geophysical survey, in conjunction with the indicated geologic potential of this district, additional exploration is under way.

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2. SURVEY DESCRIPTION The Aeroquest AeroTEM system (G. Smith, 2007) was selected for this combined Aero Electromagnetic (AEM) and aeromagnetic survey because of its superior depth of exploration for conductive massive sulphide mineralization (over 200m depth). Furthermore, the compact, rigid AeroTEM-2 bird incorporates a robust design with good aerodynamic stability, enabling effective surveying at 30-50m above the terrain even in rugged areas. * Polytechnic University of Tirana, Faculty of Geology and Mining Coordinator/Consultant of Tirex Resources Ltd The AeroTEM system, which records both the on-time and off-time decaying secondary EM fields over 20 time windows, advantageously measures two different geometric components by means of two orthogonal receiver coils (in line or X component, and vertical or Z component). The survey also acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data, using a cesium magnetometer located 17m above the AeroTEM bird (Fig.2). The magnetometer sensitivity was 0.001nT. Highly accurate navigation was achieved by standard differential GPS with 5m accuracy, supplemented by radar and barometric altimeters with 1.5m accuracy and flight path video camera. All data was captured by a suitable digital data acquisition system. The primary airborne survey coverage comprised 1850 line km, conducted on E-W lines at 250m spacing, 5-7m in-line sampling, with N-S tie lines at 2.5 km intervals. This was supplemented by in-fill lines (at 125m spacing) over the geologically most favourable central sector, plus local in-fill to better define selected discrete AEM responses detected in the primary coverage elsewhere on the permit. In addition, a limited eastern extension block, east of the important Munelle deposit, was surveyed in reconnaissance fashion with flight lines at 500m spacing, bringing the total to 2,520 line km (inclusive of tie lines). The flight was performed with a SA 315B Lama helicopter from Air Walser of Trentano, Italy (Fig.1). 4. Interpretation and Evaluation The processed and plotted airborne geophysical data provide significant new exploration information relevant to the further exploration of the Mirdita concessions.

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As seen on the geophysical maps the contoured total field aeromagnetic data (Figs. 3 and 4) reflect a complex assemblage of moderately magnetic lithologic units corresponding to mapped intermediate to mafic volcanic and volcaniclastic units (J.Roth, 2007). Lithologies characterized by low to negligible magnetization attributed to sediments and/or volcaniclastics are seen dominantly along the western and southern sectors of the survey. The structural regime inferred from disruption and deformation of magnetic sources and assemblages is characterized by a complex network of major faults striking mainly N-S, NE and ENE (Miller A., 2007). These faults collectively divide the magnetic survey data into a series of blocks. A large remnant of non-magnetic carbonate forms the prominent mountain of Munelle which rises abruptly to the east of the Munelle Cu-Zn deposit. Here predominate Cretaceous sedimentary deposits represented by a relatively thick sequence of Berriasian-Valanginian ophiolitic conglobreccia, transgressively overlain by a partly eroded volcanic sequence, on which lies a thick sequence of Lower Cretaceous shallow water limestone with ophiolitic debris in the lower part (Shallo M., 2008). The effect of this thick non-magnetic butte is to suppress local magnetic anomalies from underlying volcanics, reflecting its apparent thickness of 600800m. A large magnetic anomaly with dimensions of about 6km in length (N-S) and 3km in width is obtained around Munelle mountain. The anomaly has an oval crown shape which might be a result of the following reasons: a A near surface source connected to the presence of magnetic volcanic rocks (in flanks) b A deep source possibly connected to a local plutonic intrusion at a depth of 1500 2000 m c The attenuation effect caused by the limestone cap in the central part of the anomaly. As noticed (Fig.3), several magnetic belts radiate out from the Munelle oval crown in all directions, including E-W. These facts can be interpreted as being connected to a possible caldera located underneath the Cretaceous sedimentary deposits. In such a case, a cluster of VMS ore deposits would be expected to exist at depth in the general Munelle mountain area in addition to the existing ones. Such VMS ore deposit models are already accepted throughout the world in technical literature (Gibson H.L. et al 2007). As seen in Figs. 5 and 6, the observed AEM responses form several extensive, gen-

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erally N-S belts or clusters (J.Roth, 2007). The most notable belt generally corresponds to the known mineralized sector on the North map sheet, while the most extensive occupies the southern and SW sectors of the survey. Most of the recorded significant EM anomalies have characteristics consistent with a wide source, although some anomalies within conductive trends are indicated to be narrow. Approximate depths are estimated to lie typically between 30 and 100m. In the northern half of the survey (Fig.5), a total of 33 significant conductive zones are judged to be of probable to definite geologic origin. Most of these conductors occupy an irregular N-S belt corresponding to the geologically most favourable sector of the survey, with scattered conductors detected further to the north and towards the western margin. It is to be noticed as well a weak but firm AEM belt on eastern side of the Munelle oval crown. Strong alteration zones and VMS mineralization would be a possible reason for this conductive trend. Many of the conductive zones, particularly the higher priority conductors, are indicated to be largely non-magnetic. In fact the higher priority conductors generally correlate with distinctive magnetic lows, consistent with the described characteristics of the known mineralization although they could also reflect largely pyritic horizons in a sedimentary setting. Some conductive trends are generally aligned with interpreted strike faults, suggesting a possible structural influence, while others terminate against inferred major faults, indicating fault movement has been both syn- and post- mineralization. The southern half of the survey (Fig.6) exhibits somewhat different aeromagnetic and EM characteristics from the northern sheet, consistent with a greater proportion of mapped sediments and possible volcaniclastics. Note that the highly favourable belt of known Cu-Zn deposits and associated volcanics appears to terminate geophysically near Reps, close to the northern limit of the southern map sheet. The aeromagnetic data for the South sheet indicate that lithologic units are on average less magnetic than the northern half, with less disruption and deformation. Several restricted blocks of moderate magnetic susceptibility, comparable to those outlined in the northern half, are embedded in the north-central sector. The interpreted structural regime for the southern half is dominated by inferred N-S, ENE and NW faults, with secondary faults exhibiting a variety of orientations. In particular, a major ENE-striking fault towards the southern end of the block ap-

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pears to separate two rather different domains. The AeroTEM results for the southern map sheet are dominated by moderately strong, persistent, wide conductive trends predominantly striking N-S. These are inferred to mainly reflect more conductive lithologic units, likely melange (Langore, Alikaj and Gjovreku, 1989), consistent with the indicated low magnetic susceptibility. Sixty-nine discrete conductors of probable to definite geologic origin have been identified on the southern sheet, many associated with the conductive lithologic units, either embedded within or adjacent to them, as seen in the attached interpretation map. Eleven of these conductors are judged of to be of higher exploration priority on the basis of their geophysical characteristics. The 58 lower priority conductors mainly form two large clusters of conductors which extend generally N-S, and which likely include a number of lithologic or surficial conductors. Additional isolated, weak to very weak EM anomalies may merit attention and follow-up depending on careful analysis of the complete profile EM data (including computer modeling) and geologic considerations. 5. Recommendations: Based on the encouraging results of the airborne geophysical survey of TIREXs Mirdita exploration permit, additional detailed exploration is clearly warranted to accurately determine conductive source characteristics and establish geologic origin and possible economic mineralization. This follow-up program should include: Prioritization of the identified conductive zones based on geologic evidence and known VMS mineralization; Careful analysis of indicated high priority conductors to determine probable source geometry, including computer modeling; Soil geochemical surveys, mapping and prospecting where appropriate, especially to winnow the large number of conductors on the South sheet; Limited ground follow-up with ground TEM and Magnetics of those favourable conductors which have not been sufficiently explored; Deep exploration (down to 700m) with Induced Polarization (IP) method with powerful transmitters. The IP method can be used also to screen out airborne EM or ground EM anomalies that can be caused by lithological/tectonic features. Drill testing, accompanied by borehole electromagnetic surveying.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Tirex Resources Ltd for providing permission to use the airborne geophysics data and related reports for the paper.

REFERENCES Gibson H.L., Allen R.L., Riverin G., Lane T.E., 2007 The VMS Model: Advances and Application to Exploration Targeting. Proceedings of EXPLORATION 2007, Toronto, Canada, Volume II, pp 713 731. Langore L., Alikaj P. and Gjovreku D., 1989 Achievements in copper sulphide exploration in Albania with IP and EM methods, Geophysical Prospecting 37, pp 975-991. Miller A. R., 2007 Interim Report: Geological Observations from the Mirdita property and Munelle Mine, Northeastern Albania, prepared for TIREX Resources Ltd, Vancouver, BC. Roth J., 2007 Summary Report Interpretation and Evaluation of Airborne geophysical Survey, Mirdita Project, North-Central Albania, for TIREX Resources Ltd, Vancouver, BC. Shallo M., 2008 A study on reverse fault of Munelle and its dynamics. Prepared for Tirex Resources Ltd, Vancouver, BC. Smith G., 2007 Report on Helicopter-Borne AeroTEM System Electromagnetic and Magnetic Survey, Mirdita Property, Albania, for TIREX Resources Ltd, Vancouver, BC. LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 1 Airborne Survey set-up in the ground Fig. 2 Airborne Survey set-up in the air (A- upper bird, B main bird) Fig.3 Total Magnetic Field map of Northern Mirdita Fig.4 Total Magnetic Field of Southern Mirdita Fig.5 AEM Field Map of Northern Mirdita Fig.6 AEM Field Map of Southern Mirdita

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www.tirexresources.com

About Tirex Resources Tirexs primary objective is the exploration and development of a potentially worldclass VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide) District in Albania. Tirex has a unique opportunity to potentially dene and develop the worlds next great VMS Copper-Zinc-Gold District due to the companys rst-mover status in Albania. While Albania was in the process of economic emergence, the Tirex geological team was busy amassing a huge 344 square kilometre land package (called the Mirdita Project) encompassing the heart of the traditional Albanian Copper Mining District, an area that Tirex believes may be one of the worlds great VMS districts. Tirex is the rst company to use a range of modern exploration techniques while exploring this richly endowed area. Tirex completed the rst ever airborne geophysical survey in the history of the country followed by ongoing geological mapping and state-of-the-art UTEM geophysical surveys. The results of this geophysical and geological work along with advanced prospects generated from the compilation of past project data indicate exceptional exploration potential. VMS Facts Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide (VMS) deposits account for some of the most famous mineral deposits in the world and represent true company-maker potential. Districts such as Noranda, Kuroko and Flin Flon, rich deposits like Eskay Creek and Buchans and giant deposits such as Kidd Creek and Manitouwadge are just some of the well known VMS deposits that have created incredible amounts of wealth and prosperity. VMS deposits are the product of metal-rich hydrothermal solutions discharges onto or near the sea oor and form bodies of copper, zinc, gold and/or silver-rich mine alization.

Symbol: TXX on TSX-V Email: info@tirexresources.com


About Albania Albania is an emerging economy and Tirex has discovered it is a great place for a mining company to do business. The country has had the same investment friendly mining law in place since 1994 and is a European Union (EU) Candidate Country. The country is currently undergoing a construction and infrastructure boom and the government is supportive of and eager to attract and retain foreign investment. Albania is 82 kilometres across the Straight of Otranto from Italy and borders Greece to its south. Located on both the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, the country is Mediterranean and has more than 450 kilometres of gorgeous coastline. Albania is a stable Parliamentary Democracy with a democratically elected government. The population of Albania is approximately 3,600,000 with Tirana (population of approximately 800,000), the nations capital. Direct access to Albania from major European capitals is available from several airlines ying daily into the recently constructed Mother Teresa International Airport. The country is also easily accessible by road from all bordering countries and by sea with daily connections from Italy and Greece. The natural beauty, easy access and extensive beaches are moving Albania to become a tourist mecca. At one time, Albania was the worlds only ofcial atheist country, but today there are a multitude of religions actively practiced in the country with great pride taken in the countrys practice of religious tolerance and diversity of beliefs.

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The Opportunity at Mirdita


For many years, Albania was shut off from the rest of the world in many ways. One of the consequences of this is that while the rest of the world was gaining immense knowledge about VMS deposits and developing new exploration techniques over the past 50 years, Albanian geologists were shut out of many of these advances. Furthermore, by government decree exploration and mining done in this important district focused only on Copper and was conducted by state-run Soviet, Chinese and Albanian organizations. Zinc was not mined despite high grades due to a lack of processing facilities and the focus of exploration was limited. The Tirex technical team, recognizing the potential for a world-class VMS District, acquired the bulk of the mineral rights within this district and has proceeded with exploration based on new geological interpretations and modern techniques. The Mirdita Project consists of numerous old mines, mineral prospects and exploration targets already identied on the property through data compilation work as well as a whole host of highly prospective new targets generated by airborne and ground geophysical surveys. Good road access and existing infrastructure will greatly aid in effective exploration and potential future mining operations. Exploration Plans First Ever Airborne Geophysical Survey of the Mirdita District: Complete Two Drills Now Turning UTEM Ground Geophysical Work: Ongoing Excellent Initial Results: Hole #1 65 metre mineralized section grading 0.6% Copper, 9% Zinc, 0.3% Lead, 48.4g/t Silver and 2.7g/t Gold Hole #2 60 metre mineralized section grading 1.1% Copper, 6.7% Zinc, 0.1% Lead, 17.7g/t Silver and 1.6g/t Gold Drilling to Be Conducted on Priority Geophysical and Geological Exploration Targets

Rich Mining History


From 1950 to 1992, most exploration in this district was carried out by State-run exploration expeditions run by Soviet, Chinese, and Albanian teams. Most of the known deposits were discovered through intense local exploration of surface indications. Estimates are that over 10 million tonnes of copper-bearing rock of unspecied grade was mined from areas on and near the Mirdita property. Zinc was not mined despite high grades due to lack of processing facilities and only limited modern exploration occurred. In early 2007, Tirex Resources ew the rst ever airborne electromagnetic survey in the country and is using that, along with historical data and ongoing geological and geophysical work on the property, to search for potentially world class VMS base metal deposits.

Management
R. Stuart (Tookie) Angus, LLB, Chairman Bryan Slusarchuk, CEO George Gorzynski, P. Eng, Director W.J. (Bill) Weymark, P. Eng, Director Carol Shevlin, CFO Shoni Bernard, Corporate Secretary Contact Us Tirex Resources Ltd. 5052 Victoria Drive Vancouver, BC V5P 3T8 Telephone: (604) 687-7160 Toll Free: 1-877-687-7160 www.tirexresources.com info@tirexresources.com

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Decorative Stones of Albania


Prof.Dr. Bashkim LLESHI Prof.Dr. Defrim SHKUPI Albanian Association of Engineering Geology and Geoenvironment Albanides are part of the chain Dinarides Albanides Hellenides Taurides of the Alpine belt. From the east towards the west, in the Albanides the following geotectonic units have been distinguished; Korabi (Ko), Mirdita(M), Alpet (A), Krasta-Cukali (Kc), Kruja (K), Jonike (J),Sazani (S) and Gashi (G) Fig. 1. GEOLOGICAL LOCATION OF ALBANIAN DECORATIVE STONES Albanian decorative stones resources are represented mainly by marble limestone as a result of dinamometamorphism processes. They are distributed mainly at Korabi Zone and at Mirdita Zone periferic areas. Carbonatic roks of other zones are evaluated as decorative stones in concern with their colour, good decorative, features, dimension blocks etc. Conglomeratic rocks of Depressions, tabulated limestones, gypsum, anhydrite, to preferable ophiolitic rocks as troctolite, gabbros, dunite, plagiogranite, gabrosienite, pyroxenes etc. Are evaluated as decorative stones too. 1. CALCAREOUS ORNAMENTAL STONES Calcareous ornamental stones occur mainly in zona Korabi, in the pheripherical parts of Mirdita, in zones Alpet, KrastaCukali,Kruja and Jonika, fromTropoja and Kukesi in north, up to Dibra, Bulqiza, Mati, Librazhdi, Pogradeci, Korca, Kolonja, Lezha,Tirana, Kruja, Elbasani,Vlora, Lushnja,Tepelena,Gjirokastra and Saranda in south. Fig. 2 Korabi Zone The are deposits of these ornamental rocks lie in the lime stones of Triass-jurassic. Such are deposits are the ones of Muhurri, Kepi i Qytetit in Dibra district, Gjurasi, Kovashica

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in Bulqiza district, Kolesjani (Kukes), and Vrenjti, Prroi i Grames, Radomire, area PermoTriassic, gypsum and anhydrite are evaluated as decorative stones. Muhurri decorative stones

Kovashica decorative stones

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Gjurasi decorative stones

Shtushani decorative stones

Kolesjani decorative stones

Muhurri

Kovashica

Anhydrite - Vrenjt, prroi i Grames, Radomire

Mirdita Zone Mirdita zone is constituted by limestones frame of ophiolites and Cretaceous coverage.The are deposits of these ornamental rocks lie in the lime stones of Triassjurassic, frame of ophiolites, are Qafe Shtama (Mati), Miraka and Derstila (Elbasani), Lini (Pogradec), Mali i Thate (Devolli) and other out corps in the areas of Tropoja ( Qyteze e Pelkave, Shumica) etc.

Miraka Decorative stones(Elbazan)

Lini Decorative stones (Pogradec) Pretusha Decorative stones

Cretaceous coverage consist of limestones of upper Cretaceous, where are found a lot of decorative stones occurences. Lisi, Qaf Kishe Linos and Burgajeti ( Mat), Kodra e Keqe and Munella (Puke), Polena, Vithkuqi (Korce), Germenji (Kolonje) etc. Good decorative feature have also the congomerates of Munella (Puke), Pretusha (Pogradeci), Bitincka (Bilisht),etc

Decorative stones of Lisi (Mat)

Decorative stones of Treni (Bilisht)

Alps Zone In Alps Zone geological Construct are included mainly carbonates deposits from paleozoic and Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous mainly in Malesia e Madhe sub
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zone up to paleogene one that constitutes section top of this subzone. The Paleozoic carbonate deposits at Domen, the Triassic one of Ura e Mesit and Jurassic one in Rapshe are evaluated as decorative stones. Exploration should underway because the early carbonatic deposits mainly Paleozoic and Triassic one have a marble high degree, in Malesia e Shkodres and Tropoja area. Krasta Cukali Zone This zone is divided in two sub zones: Cukali sub zone in northern part is constituted by middle Triassic, Jurassic, Early Paleogene pelagic sediments and go on at Decorative stones of Ura e Mesit (Shkoder) Krasta Subzone that distributed from Shkodra up to Gramoz and Greece. This sub zone is represented by Albian-Turonian pelagic sediments mainly by flitch deposits, Senonian-Mastrihtian deposits mainly by tabulated lime stones, Upper Mastrihtian Paleocene mainly by flysch and Eocene deposits mainly by argilous-sandstone flysch with pelagic thin-layered limestone. Upper Cretaceous tabulated limestone of Rasfiku (Mirdita) and the conglomeratic of Tepe (Shkodra), Fekenit (Tirana), Malit te Rases (Elbasani) are Jurassic, Cretaceous deposit of Spiteni, Treshi and Monatia (Lezha) etc. Kruja Zone In Kruja Zone Geological Construct are included Upper Cretaceous deposits ( The earliest deposits), Mastrihtian, Paleocene, Decorative stones of Treshi (Lezhe) Eocene carbonate deposits passing to Neogenes deposits repr sented by Akuitanian and Burdigalian. Carbonates deposits represented by Upper Cretaceous lime stones and dolomites and Eocene lime stones are evaluated as decorative stones. In the Kruja Zone, limestone and dolomite of Miloti, Laci, Mamurrasi, Lumi i Drojes, Kodra e Shulsit ( Kruja), Zall Dajti, Qaf Priska ( Tirana) etc.

Decorative stones of Miloti (Kurbin)

Decorative stones of Gjonemi (Kurbin)

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Ionian Zone In Ionian Zone Geological Structure are included the early Triassic deposits represented by dolomites, anhydrite, and gypsum (Dumrea diapir), Triassic- Upper Jurassic carbonate deposits up to upper carbonate and flyschoidal deposits of Paleocene-Eocene-Oligocene and Akuitanian-Burdigalian-Helvecian. In the zone Jonick the plate limestone of Zhitomi (Berat), Lazarati, Dervicani and Jergucati (Gjirokastra), Labova and Golemi(Gjirokaster),Muzina and Shkalla (Saranda), the porose limestones of Kosova (Lushnja), the dolomites of Borshi (Saranda), etc. Gypsum and Anhydrite of Mengaj(Kavaja), Bistrica(Saranda) etc. Sazani Zone Sazani Zone is constituted by Cretaceous neritic carbonatic rocks transgresively above Eocene deposits up to Oligocene one. Cretaceous carbonatic deposits are evaluated as decorative stones. In the Sazani Zone is Decorative stone occurrence of Karaburuni (yellow colored limestone). 2.ORNAMENTAL OPHIOLITIC ROCKS

Decorative stones of Jergucat

Decorative stones of Golem (Gjirokaster)

Ornamental ophiolitic rocks occur in the Mirdita zone, from Tropoja and Kukesi in nord up to Korca and Kolonja in sud. The known deposits so far are the ones of olivinites in Kalimashi (Kukesi) troktolites in Shkopeti (Mati) and Dragostuni (Librazhd) and several occurrences in the troctolites,pyroxenites,plagiogranites and dunites in the areas of Tropoja, Puka, Mirdita, Mati, Dibra, Elbasani, etc. Troctolites occurrences of Qelza and Livadhet e Hamzit (Puke), Vigut (Shkoder), Mollez Kacinarit (Mirdite), Cerrujes e Krastes (Mat), piroksenites occurrrence in Laku i Qershise (Kukes), gabroplagiogranites occurrences in Kurbnesh, Blushar,Shtrungaj (Mirdite), Laku i Roshit (Puke),dunites and pyroksenites occurrences in Kraste and Kaptine (Mat), peridotites in Gomsiqe (Shkoder), Shkopet (Mat), Shushice, Gjinar, Mirake (Elbasan), Perrenjas,Rajce (Librazhd), Hudenisht, Pojske (Pogradec), Morave , Zemblak (Korce) and Bitincke (Devoll) etc.

Troctolite of Shkopeti( Mat)

Troctolite of Vigu ( Shkoder)

Lak Roshi decorative stones ( Puke)

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Kalimashi decorative stones

Dunite of Krasta (Mat)

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Industrial minerals and rocks in Albania (The new market possibilities)

Dr. Gjovalin LEKA Prof. Dr. Afat SERJANI Dr. Tonin DEDA Prof. Dr. Halil HALLAI Albanian Geological Survey

Albania is a rich country in mineral resources of sedimentary, magmata and metamorphic origins. During 50 years in Albania there are prospected 500 deposits and a lot of objects and outcrops of the industrial minerals and rocks. In industrial aspect it is going the production in 300 deposits of 25 different kinds of the industrial minerals and rocks. The exploitation of the energetic resources, mineral ores and industrial minerals was gradually increased during last century, especially since 1960, up to the maximum levels during 1990 year, when were exported big amounts of oil, gas, chromites, copper and iron-nickel ores, olivine, dolomite, phosphoresces, bituminous sandstone etc. In this paper we are concentrating in industrial minerals, traditionally known as non-metallic minerals and rocks. International market of industrial minerals and rocks is widening every year. That is clearly seen in regional markets in Europe, USA, Asia, Latin America and Australia, in international, exhibitions and fairs, and in new processing technologies and equipments. In Albania, due to the huge investments done during the intensive period of geological works (1960-1990) there are prospected a lot of industrial mineral deposits, which represent concrete base for economical development of our country Some industrial rocks such as limestone, clay, gypsum for cement, river aggregates and the artificial aggregates produced mainly by limestone and by magmata rocks are strategic mineral row of the wide production and use, especially in building field, which according Scot et al. (2003) are named Bulk minerals. There is need to undertake new projects on technological processing and economical evaluation of some kinds of industrial minerals and rocks for determination of high quality sorts and for discovering new fields of using. There are only few publications on industrial minerals and rocks of Albania to foreign regional and global markets. This paper we consider as a new effort to introduce resources of our country. Some industrial rocks are argued for the first time as row materials such as: serpentines, pyrophilite, radiolarites, marls, ceolites, basalts, clays as no permeable material etc. In such manner will be studied in contemporary level potential of minerals resources of Albania and new analytical and processing data will be taken. At the

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same time it will be possible to do economical evaluation depending by now days markets The genetically groups of the Industrial Minerals and Rocks Industrial Minerals and rocks of Albania are divided in the following genetically groups. 1.Carbonate formations of sedimentary origin related to shallow water platforms and pelagic basins divided in the following groups: Gypsum deposits of Bellove

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Quartz deposits of Kerrnaje

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-Biochemical formations (limestone, dolomite, reach phosphorus, siliceous rocks, tripoli, chalk). -Chemical formations (gypsum, anhydrite, alabaster, salts). -Mechanical sedimentary formations (marl, different kinds of clay, sands and quartz sandstone, river and sea coast alluvium, ground colors) -Weathering formations. 2. Industrial minerals and rocks of magmata origin related to the ultra basic and basic ophiolite sequences divided in the following three groups: -Industrial minerals and rock genetically related to plutonic ophiolites (olivine, harzburgite, lhercolite, gabbros and gabronorite, pyroxsenite, granite, plagiogranite). -Nonmetallic minerals and rocks related to the plutonic granite complex (granite, plagiogranite) and hydrothermal (magnetite, talc, asbestos, serpentine, quartz, barite, fluorite, disunite). -Magma tic origin linked with volcanic complex (basalt, albitofire, volcanic glass, volcanic tuffs, colitis). 3. Metamorphic rocks (quartzite, marble limestone, pyrophilite, graphite schist). Sedimentary Industrial Minerals and rocks Carbonate rocks are the most widespread sedimentary formation in Albania, covering 7300 km2. The thickest sections of carbonates are of Mesozoic age located in Albanian Alps, in Sazan-Karaboruni and Kruja platforms, and in Ionian, Krasta - Cukali, Mirdita, Korabi pelagic troughs. Lime sediments and lime stones. There are prospected and exploited of about 140 limestone deposits. Limestone rock is constituted mainly by calcite (calcspar) and contains from 52% up to 56% CaO. Limestone sediments belong to different geological epochs and are formed in both platform (shallow water) and pelagic (deep sea) environments. Dolomites. Dolostone is widespread in Ionian and Kruja tectonic zones, where are prospected large deposits of content 18-21.7% MgO. The main dolostone formation epoch is the Upper Triassic epoch. During this epoch thick sections up to 10001200m were formed in anticline structures of the Ionian zone, while in Kruja zone, in Tomorri mountain and in Malesi e Madhe sub zone thick packs of dolostone intercalated with limestone packs were formed during Upper Cretaceous epoch. The largest prospected dolostone deposit is Dukati, in the Vlora region, where are accounted more than 60 million tones of industrial reserves. This deposit has been explored for of about 40 years. In the Kruja platform, there is prospected Tervolli deposit, in Gramshi region, where there are accounted more than 20 million tones of reserves with a MgO content more than 19%, and Letan, Torovica, and Pengili deposits, of lower MgO content. Phosphoresces. In Ionian zone are found and prospected uranium-bearing phosphate mineralization of Middle Jurassic linked with submarine gap in sedimentation of hard ground type, and many poor phosphorus deposits genetically related to

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carbonate-phosphate-siliceous-globotruncanic sequence of Coniacian. There are discovered and prospected more than 60 million tons of poor phosphorus ores of 10-12% P2O5 (21.8-26.2 BPL). In Gusmari deposit there are prospected and partially explorated (from 1980 up to 1990) massive phosphorus ores of content 27-33% P2O5 (60-72.1 BPL). Phosphoresces of Albania represent unusual genetical type of formation. They are formed in Ionian deep sea environment, associated with typically pelagic biochemical sediments such as carbonate and siliceous beds. Chalk. In our country it is known Gorica chalk deposit in Kora region of thickness up to 20 m and more than 53% CaO. Reserves are accounted more than 2 million ton. Travertines are porous carbonate rocks, light and with colloidal forms of the decorative features. There are prospected a lot of travertine deposits in Lushnja, Tropoja, Peshkopi, Bulqiza, Librazhdi, Elbasani, Gramshi, Kora, Kolonja, Prmeti, Gjirokastra and Sarand regions. Chemical minerals and rocks. Salt rocks are linked with Permo-Triassic evaporates, which outcrop as diapers in Ionian zone and as large isometric white domes in Korabi zone. In Pre-Adriatic Depression (PAD) there are formed evaporate sequences of Mesinian age in concordance to the surrounding molasses. Sodium salt deposits are discovered in Dhroviani, Delvina district ( 5 milliards ton of 80-90% NaCl), in Kolonja, Gjirokastra district ( 8 milliards ton), in Dumrea salt diapers (60 milliards ton) and in Mengaj, Kavaja district (16 million ton of 80% NaCl) . In Dhrovjani sodium salt deposit since 1973 year was going exploration of 100 000 ton/year salt of content 80-90% NaCl. Gypsum-anhydrite rocks are widespread and outcrop almost in all above mentioned salt diapers in Ionian zone and in salt domes of Peshkopi region. There are prospected Bistrica deposit (1 430 215 m3), ifligu alabaster deposit (60 000 m3), Kalcoi, Zhulati deposits in Gjirokaster, Gradishta and Murrizi deposits in Dumrea, Bashaj deposit in Vlora region. In Korabi zone gypsum rocks form Mali i Bardhe and Bellova large evaporite domes of thickness more than 1000m, placed in three levels. The most important basin is that of Mesinian in Golem-Mengaj-Mushnik region of Kavaja. In Mengaj, there are prospected 5 million tone of the average content of CaSO42H2O 88.8 %. In Vlora there are prospected Oshtima, Narta and Kospital objects, where are accounted 4 million ton gypsum reserves of content CaSO42H2O more than 85 - 95 %. Row materials of sedimentary-mechanical genesis. Clay. In Albania there are discovered and prospected some large clay deposits of marine origin in Pre-Adriatic Depression and in inner depressions, and some clay deposits of continental lake and fluvial environment of sedimentation. The largest clay formation epochs there are those of Lower-Middle Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary. Prrenjasi betonies deposit and some clay deposits of Helmesi suite, because of their non-permeable features are of special interest to be evaluated for using in the environment protection field.

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Marl. In Albania there are formed thick marl sequences of marine genesis. They belong to Jurassic age in Ionian and Krasta-Cukali zones, to Helvetian (Burdigalian and Mesinian) age in PAD and inner depressions, and to Tortonian age in red Librazhdi serie. Marl sediments are formed in estuarine environment or in Lake Environment of fresh waters. Colored clay and ground colors. There are industrial row material of large production especially last tenth years. The colored clays are concentrated in Helvetian formation of the Pre Adriatic Depression and in the clay dolomite series linked with Permian-Triasic evaporate formations. The biggest outcrops are those of Currila (Durres), Vlora, Lushnja, Labova (Gjirokaster), Memaliaj (Luftinja colored series). There are prospected the objects of Ostren, Stebleve, Domen, Meselimaj, Gziq, Tomin-Kabe. The clays of hydro isolated features there are prospected in Prrenjasi betonies where are accounted 800.000 t industrial reserves. Kaolin. The kaolin mineralization is presented by weathered crust of the basic leucocratic plutonic rocks of the western ophiolite belt in Gomines of Qerreti, in Korthpule, and in Kashnjetit. Here are prospected Dedajt, Korthpules, Vigut, Tanushajt deposits. The content of aluminum varies 26-36 % Al2O3. Industrial Minerals and rocks of magma tic origin related to the Mirdita ophiolite complex sequences The Albanian ophiolites underlie about 4300 km2. Along with different metallic ores Albanian ophiolites are a large resource of industrial minerals and rocks as well. Magnesium resources. The main magnesium-bearing magma tic and metamorphic minerals and rocks in Albania are: olivine, magnetite, serpentine, talc, asbestos, brucite. Olivine. In metallogenic aspect olivinites of the eastern ophiolite belt are placed in contact levels between tectonites below lhercolites and varlets, intercalated with fresh harcburgites, while in the wesern ophiolite belt olivinites are placed at the same contact, but are intercalated with harcburgites and lhercolites below plagioclase lhercolites. There are prospected olivine deposits at Kalimashi, in Kukesi ultrabasic massif, and the Cabrati deposit in the Tropoja ultra basic massif. The Kalimashi deposit hosts 60 million tones of olivine reserves, grading 48% MgO, while Cabrati deposit contains 30 million tones of olivine grading 48% MgO. The olivine is constituted entirely by the green olivine mineral of forsterite type (Fo 88-90%) and belongs to deep dunites linked with harcburgite peridotites. They are the result of crystalline differentiation of ultra basic magma. Magnetite. The single magnetite deposit is that of Gomsiqe, formed in a wide brecciaed tectonic fault. Here are accounted more than 1 million tones of industrial reserves averaging 40% MgO and 6.8% SiO2. Separate magnetite occurrences have been found in Levrushk and Shebenik massifs, and in the river terraces of
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Devoll, in Gramshi region. Asbestos. It is mainly concentrated in serpentine and serpentinised harsburgite rocks, more seldom in lhercolites and wherlites, and occasionally in dunites. The largest asbestos deposits are prospected in the Tropoja ultra basic massif (Gegaj), in Gomsiqe ultra basic massive (Puka), in Shebenik ultrabasic massif (Qarrishta ) and in Devolli ultrabasic massif (Boboshtica, Moglica). Total content of the asbestous mass into the rocks varies from 2.55 up to 9% (average content is 3.3-3.8% and the length of the threads from 0.5-2mm up to 5-10mm in Gegaj deposit. Talc. There are prospected Boboshtica and Zemblaku deposits in Korca region and some occurrences along with the tectonic faults in serpentines, harcborgotes and dunites. Boboshtica deposit was explored for long time. Serpentines. Serpentines are related to the ophiolites and linked with oceanic spreading processes. There are distinguished some genetical types of serpentinisation ( Neziraj et al.,1999). The biggest and the clean serpentine occurrences are related to the dunite and dunite-peridotite levels of stratification of Kukesi, Tropoja, Lura, and Bulqiza massifs. The most important serpentine deposits of the first type in the eastern ophiolite belt are Kalimashi and Runa in Kukesi ultrabasic massif, Rragam, Perollaj and Ballaban in Tropoja ultrabasic massif, the occurrences in the periphery of Bulqiza ultra basic massif, and Gurra e Recit in Lura ultra basic massif. Industrial Minerals and rocks related to the Ca-alcaline rocky sequences Albytophire. Na-feldspars and NaK-feldspars of 8-9% alkali content and 4-7% K2O are found in Korabi, Gashi, and Mirdita zones. There is prospected Guri i Zi albitophyre deposit, where are accounted 265. 000 ton industrial albitophyre reserves. Volcanic glass. These rocks of the intermediate-acid composition are widespread into the basalt-dacite volcanic complex of the Central Mirdita, where are discovered, prospected and partly explorated Qafe Bari, Lumzi, and Lak Roshi deposits. In above mentioned deposits there are prospected 2.6 million tones of industrial reserves and more than 6 million tones prognoses resources of SiO2 content 63.465.0% and Al2O3 content 10-12%. Volcanic glass belongs to the rhyodacite group in paragenetical and genetical relationship with this group. Volcanic tuffs. Large deposits of potassium volcanic tuffs are prospected in Tirana syncline in molasses formations (Helvetian age), in Gramshi region in flesh formations (Oligocene age), in Cakrani, Ballshi, and Kavaja regions in molasses of PAD (Lower Miocene), and on the surface of Dumrea and Kardhiqi evaporate diapirs. The content of K2O in above mentioned deposits and occurrences varies from 4% up to 7% and porosity is of about 50%. Ceolite. Ceolites are intercalated with riodacites, andesito-basalts etc. They have content of SiO2 57.35%.
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Some other industrial rocks. Pyroxenite. Have a large distribution mainly in eastern ophiolite belt. They are placed in transition zone from mantelic to plutonic mafic sequences in Kuksi, Tropoja, Lura, Bilqiza and Shebenic massivs. In western belt pyroxenites are less distributed. Gabbro Traktolite. They are the main constituents of cumulative sequence in both ophiolite belts of Albanides. Gabbro of the eastern ofiolite belt have a large distribution (of about 500 km2), mainly in northern part Kaptena massif (300 km2), and Bulshari, Kurbeneshi, Shkoze-Gojani, Repsi massifs. Plagiogranites and quartz diorites. Plagjogranites and quartz dioritesare less distributed forming some small massifs such those of Shenmeria, Qafmali-Kimez-Tu, Orosh-Nershen-Kurbnesh. It is prospected Lak Roshi object. Granite. There are found in Levrushku mountain, near Puka. Are defined biotite, alaskite, microgranit-aplite, pegmatite, gneis and granit-gnejs granites. There are accounted about 50 million ton reserves in Levrushku deposit. Basalt. There are widespread mainly in Mirdita, Puka, Lezha (Qafe-Kinxhel outcrops), Librazhdi ( Gur-Shpat, Lunik, Llange outcrops). There are studied Rubiku, Kroi Ftohte (Rrethi Eperm - Ura Fanit), Ura Cekajve, Malth 1, 2 objects. Siliceous rocks in Albania There are found different genetical types of both endogen and exogene siliceous formations. Endogen siliceous minerals and rocks belong to the hydrothermal-pegmatites and hydrothermal post magma tic (Pluto gene) processes. Quartz. In Tropoja district is prospected and explorated Kernaja quartz deposit. Here are calculated more than 0.7 million tones reserves of SiO2 content from 90.40% up to 99.94%. There are exploitated of about 300 000 ton. Sedimentary siliceous formations. Biochemical and chemical formations Tripoli and apoks. There are prospected in Ionian zone related to the carbonate siliceous formations named siliceous-marl packets of the Doger, Malm, and Aptian-Albian ages. There are prospected Muzina, Lefterohori, Kakodhiqi, Leshnica deposits, where are accounted of about 3.5 million ton C1 and 600 000 ton C2 reserves of content: SiO2 67-80%. Mechanical sedimentary formations Quartz sandstones. As the most production epoch in formation of quartz sandstones in Albania it is that of later Miocene, Tortonian. In Tirana syncline there are prospected Ferraj-Babru, Shish-Tufine, Priske-Gurre, Shkoze and Yzberisht-Mezez deposits of the content of SiO2 83-88%. There are accounted of about 150 million ton reserves of B+C1 Category. Quartz sands are prospected in Devolli Basin, where are accounted of about 3 million ton of the content SiO2 70-86%.

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Metamorphic Industrial Minerals and rocks In Albania there are prospected quartzite, marbled limestone, pyrophilite deposits, and some occurrences of graphite schists and phylloides. Amphibolites and gneiss rocks are outcropped as well. Metamorphic rocks are widespread in Korabi zone, and in the eastern flank of Mirdita zone, where are prospected and exploited some deposits. In Suhadoll of Peshkopi region is prospected a pyrophilite deposit of SiO2 content from 60% up to 80% and Al2O3 content from 13% up to 18%. Quartzite, which are widespread in Korabi tectonic zone in Kukes-Peshkopi region. Quartzites are placed in quartz-sandstone series of Ordovician, in the upper part of the section, and in black shales of Silurian. In Kallabak deposit thickness of quartzite series varies from 80m up to 120m, while the content of SiO2 varies from 95% to 97%. Here are accounted more than 5 million tones quartzite reserves. Some other industrial minerals Barite. There are met in Levrushku granite and in sea coast placers. In Levrushku deposit the content of BaSO4 varies from 20 30 up to 70 90 %. Fluorite. It is prospected Brashta fluorite deposit in Dukagjini region. It is constituted by fluorite, calcite, and rare quartz. The content of CaF2 varies from 15-90%. CONCLUSIONS -Albania is a rich country in industrial minerals and rocks of sedimentary, magma tic, and metamorphic genesis. -During socialist system in Albania there were spent huge investments for prospecting of mineral resources, and there are prospected many deposits of the industrial minerals and rocks, which can be serve as a good basis for industrial development of our country in the future. -The most widespread industrial minerals and rocks there are: limestone, dolomite, salt rocks, marine clays, olivinite, serpentine, volcanic glass, phosphorus, asbestos, kaolin, albitophyre etc. -Siliceous rocks are widespread in all tectonic zones of Albania, belonging to magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphogene processes of formation. -We recommend new projects in collaboration with foreign companies and geological institutions for compilation of formational petrologic and facial maps for different groups of industrial minerals and rocks and for realization of modern chemical, mining, and technological-processing studies for separate minerals and rocks.

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Groundwater Resources of Albania

Prof. Dr. Romeo Eftimi Eng. Ibrahim Tafilaj Eng. Nazmie Puca Albanian Geological Survey

The groundwater consist one of the most important natural resources of Albania. Their study, rational use and protection is one of important factors responsible for a sustainable development of the country. Albania has abundant groundwater resources; they are related to rocks of very different genesis, and litho-stratigraphic construction. Their relation of groundwaters to hydraulically very different aquifers, as well as the complicated geological-structural and geomorphologic picture of Albania, resulted in the formation of the aquifers essentially differing concerning their hydrodynamic and hydro-chemical characteristics. 1. GROUNDWATER AND ROCKS The basic element responsible for the water bearing capacity of the rocks is their hydraulic type, according to which differ porous aquifers, karstic and fissured aquifers, rocks with low productivity and rocks practically without groundwater (Fig. 1). 1.1 Porous rocks The porous rocks are related mainly to the Quaternary deposits, and according to their productivity are divisible into high and low production aquifers. Highly productive porous aquifers are related to gravely deposits usually filling the river valleys, some plains of Periadriatic lowland, as well as intermountain lowlands like that of Kora. Most of such aquifers comprise abundant groundwater resources. Gravely aquifers with maximum thickness of 100 to 150 m are normally covered by less permeable deposits. They form a unique thick unconfined aquifer layer (basins of Shkodra, Elbasan and Dropulli plains, etc,), ore a multilayered confined aquifer (basins of plains of Lezha, Fushe Kuqe, Lushnja, Kora etc,). Generally, they have high permeability and transmissibility, their maximal values are respectively higher than 300 m/day and 15.000 m2/day. As is shown on Table 1 the capacity of wells generally is very high; usually ranging approximately 10 l/s up to over 100 l/s. The rivers intensively recharge the groundwater due to the good hydraulic connection with the gravely aquifers. As a rule, groundwater quality is good as the water has a low mineral content (the total dissolved solids is usually less than 500 mg/l), and the water is soft to mean hard, and the hydro-chemical type it is mainly HCO3-Ca or HCO3-Mg. The phenomenon of the natural softening of the groundwater due to the precipitation of carbonates has often been observed in the gravely aquifers of Periadriatic lowland. This phenomenon is particularly developed in Lezha, Fushe Kuqe and Lushnja plains where resulting total hardness of groundwater is about 1.0 to 1.5 mg/eqv/l. At the coast gravely aquifers is observed also the phenomenon of sea water
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intrusion, which mostly is a remnant phenomenon of the last Holocene transgression maximum. Groundwater resources of the gravely aquifers are intensively used for the domestic and industrial water supply. The depth of the exploitable wells usually vary from about 30 m to over 100 m, and their maximal capacities vary about 100 to more than 150 l/s; this is the case of wells of the basins of Shkoder, Fush Kuqe, Elbasan, Berat, Kora, and Gjirokastra (Table 1). Low productive porous aquifers are represented mainly by different low permeable or porous deposits like alluvial, slope debris breccias and moraines deposits. The low productive alluvial deposits are mainly develop in small inner depressions like Tropoja, Peshkopi, Pogradec and Kolonja; the productivity of wells usually is up to 2 l/s, and rarely is about 5 l /s. The slope debris breccias and moraines deposits have usually high permeability but because have small outcrop they contain small groundwater resources. However, some time big springs discharge about 20 to about 100 l/s issue from these deposits. 1.2 Fissured and karstic aquifers To this group belong the extensive karstic and fissured carbonate rocks which usually have high productivity, and extensive but moderately productive fissured rocks. Highly productive karstic aquifers outcrop over an area of about 6,500 km2, which consist about of the territory of Albania. Usually, they comprise carbonate rocks such limestones and, to a lesser extend, dolomites as well. They are mostly of Mesozoic age. Figure 1: Simplied hydrogeological map of Albania There are some 25 karstic outcropping massifs in the country, while on large areas of the Ionian and Kruja Zones the carbonate rocks are covered by flysch and molasses deposits. The karstic rocks are characterized by well developed karstic morphology developed both, on the surface and on depth. The karst phenomenons in Albania are primarily developed on big and wide carbonate structures of Albanian Alps Zone,

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and in Mirdita and Ionian Zones. Very significant are the wide karstic plateaus which surface vary from about 10 to over than 20 km2, as for example the karstic plateaus of Mali me Gropa Mountain which represent the recharge area for the well known karstic springs of Selita, Shemria etc, (Figure 2) The surface hydrographic net of karstic zones is not well developed, or often even is totally missing; on the contrary of this the groundwater hydrographic net is intensively developed. On special hydraulic situations, often is observed the karst piracy; a karstic area having lower hydraulic head is recharged by another one having higher hydraulic head.
Gravely aquifer (basin) Shkodra Zadrima Lezh - Fush Kuqe Tirana - Adriatic Erzen (Sukth) Elbasan Lushnja Berat Vjosa (Myzeqe) Kora Gjirokastra Vurgu and Murasia Maximal thickness m 60 50 150 25 15 100 25 70 30 50* 50 100 Permeability m/day 100 800 20 200 90 260 20 300 10 50 100 750 20 250 10 400 50 600 5 70 50 600 20 350 Transmissibility m /day 2,000 15,000 300 10,000 1,000 12,000 200 3,000 100 700 2,000 2,000 250 4,000 200 4,500 500 12,000 100 2,100 20 15,000 100 8,00
2

Storage Specific capacity Total capacity Coefficient of wells of wells fraction l/s/day l/s 0.18 - 0.24 10 80 10 150 5 70 5 120 1x10-3 5 50 5 150 1.5-4..5x10-4 2 30 5 60 2 10 2 10 0.17 - 0.25 10 100 10 - 200 -4 3x10 5 30 5 - 100 3 40 10 -100 5 100 5 - 150 4-7x10-4 2 20 5 - 100 0.15-0.25 2 130 10 - 150 1 50 3 70

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Table 1: Summarized hydraulic parameters of the main gravely aquifers of Albania

breccias and conglomerates, shales and mudstones; 3 Shales, effusive rocks, limestones and mudstones; 4 Limestones; 5 Ultrabasic rocks, harcburgite, dunite; 6 Major fault; 7 Hypothetic groundwater level; 8 Karstic spring with average discharge more than 500 l/s; 9 Groundwater flow direction Figur2: Hydrogeological cross-section through the Mali me Gropa karst plateau

Isotope studies have been applied in some karstic areas of Albania in order to better understand their water circulation patterns. Such a study have established that Prespa Lake recharges the Ohrid Lake through the Mali Thate karstic massive and about 50 % of the discharge of Tushemisht spring represents the Prespa Lake water; with the same methods have been established that Poemi karst springs at about 80 % are replenished by Vjosa River, as well as that Blue Eye Spring at about
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30 % is replenished by the Drinos River gravely aquifer. At a regional scale the permeability of karstic rocks is very high but at a local scale it could be not relevant. The result of many groundwater wells of karstic rocks testimony that the coefficient of filtration very from less than 1 m/day to more than 100 m/day, and the transmissibility vary from about 10 to over 5,000 m2/day. The specific capacities of wells vary from 0.1 to over 20 l/s/m and the maximal capacity of wells is more than 70 l/s. The efficient infiltration, which represents the part of the precipitation recharging the karstic groundwater, calculated by the Kessler Method consist about 45 to 55 % of the mean yearly precipitation. The average yearly efficient infiltration in Albanian Alps is about 1500 to 2000 mm, in Mali me Gropa 1,100 mm, in Mali That 450-500 mm and in Mali Gjer is about 1175 mm. Karstic water discharges mainly as large karstic springs which vary greatly in productivity. There are roughly 110 karst springs with average discharges exceeding 100 l/s. Among these, 17 have discharges exceeding 1,000 l/s. The average yearly discharge of the Blue Eye spring, the biggest karstic spring of Albania is about 18.4 m3/s (Figure 3).
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1 Silt; 2 Sands and gravels; 3 Flysch; 4 Limestones and siliceous rocks; 5 Clays and gypsum; 5 Clays and gypsum; 6 Major fault; 7 Maximal groundwater level; 8 Minimal groundwater level; 9 Perennial spring; 10 Temporary spring Figure 3. The hydrogeological cross section through the Blue Eye Spring

Karstic water has significant differences in physic-chemical characteristics. Most related to limestones, are low in minerals and soft (containing mostly calcium bicarbonate). In dolomites of Dajti Mountain, karstic water is again low in mineral content, but harder (containing about 100 mg/l of magnesium). Along the southern Ionian carbonate rock coast, mixing with seawater takes place and there are mineralized karstic springs of chlorine-sodium type. Most important of them are Potami in Himara, Mulliri in Qeparo, many springs between Qeparo nad Borshi, Bufi near Butrinti Lagoon etc. Moderately productive fissured (or fissured and porous) aquifers are related to sandstone-conglomerate Neogene molasses, outcropping mainly in the inner Depressions of Mati and Mokra and in Periadriatik Depression. The maximal discharge of wells nn Mati Depression is about 2 l/s and in this of Mokra it is about 5 l/s. The groundwater is mean hard, the total dissolved solids very from 300 to 700 mg/l, and water chemical type is bicarbonate-calcium or magnesium.
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In Periadriatic Depression widely outcrop the sandstone deposits of Tortonian age. In Tirana artesian basin, the maximal discharges of the wells are about 1 to 2 l/s, in Patosi area it is about 3 l/s. The total dissolved solids of groundwaters down to the depth about 300 m usually is less than 1 l/s, and successively increases with the depth and prevails the chloride-sodium type. The most important aquifer of Periadriatic Depression is that related to Pliocene Rrogozhina Formation. The maximal discharges of wells vary about 10 to 15 l/s. The total dissolved solids vary about 400 to 650 mg/l and the groundwater is hard and the iron concentrations vary about 0.3 to 1.0 mg/l. The groundwater of Rrogozhina Formation aquifer is widely used for village water supply and of small towns like Kavaja, Rroskovec and Patos. Table 2 shows main characteristics of molasses aquifer and wells.
Zone Age of rocks Rocks Sandstone, conglomerate Thin bedded sandstones Thick bedded sandstones Sandstone Friable sandstone Clayey sandstone Conglomerate, sandstone Number Mean T, m/d K, m/d q, l/s/m of wells depth, m 50% Average 50% Average 50% Average 212 46 13 10 5 6 6 211 726 300 189 298 176 194 54 2.5 4.4 80 3.1 5.3 5.2 30.0 4.5 14.0 1.52 0.067 2.74 0,42 0.61 0.03 NAD*) Pliocene Rrogozhina For. Tirana Syncline Tortonian, NAD Upper Section Tirana Syncline Tortonian, NAD Low Section NAD Tortonian Krapsi Zone Tortonian NAD Mati Depression Tortonian Mokra Akuitainian Depression

0.09 0.025

0.077 0.095 0.048 0.056 0.23 0.48 0.15 0.25 0.05 0.27 0.04 0.12

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Table 2: Characteristic values of T, K and q for the molasses sediments

Local productive and practically non aquiferous rocks Local productive rocks are related to widely develop in Albania magmatic intrusive rocks; the total outcropping surface is about 4,200 km2. These rocks consist mainly of ultrabasic ones like dunite, harcburgite and serpentines, of basic rocks mainly gabbros and less of acid rocks. The wells indicate a great diversity in output, reflecting the importance of the distribution of fracture systems and their frequency. The free flows of wells tapping strongly fractured intrusive rocks and placed at favourable locations (like valley bottom) vary from 1 to 8 l/s. As for springs, when they are related to well develop fracture and fault zones the maximal discharge is about 20 to 30 l/s. Hydrogeological data from the numerous chromium mines of Albania testimony that fracture zones with maximal width of about 70 m are observed even at depths more than 500 m. Open fractures act as highly permeable conduits and may have inflows up to about 50-60 l/s. Bulqiza chromium mine developed at elevation from 450 to 1,200 m drains in average about 250 l/s. At Klosi tunnel 6.5 km long caved in Bulqiza ultrabasic rocks massif discharge about 250 l/s, and the pressure changes are transmitted at a surface area of about 40 km2. This has caused the lowering of Vajkani valley surface at maximum 3.6 m. Groundwater in magmatic intrusive
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rocks generally is fresh and low hard; the conductivity vary from 130 to 300 S/cm, the total hardness vary about 4.0 to 10.0 German and the prevailing chemical type is bicarbonate- magnesium. Practically non aquiferous rocks include a variety of deposits regarding the genesis and age, but usually with low permeability. In this group for instance are included volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks, metamorphic such as slates, clayey and flysch sedimentary rocks, as well as gypsum. These rocks outcrop on about 40 % of the countrys territory. All comprise very poor aquifers and considered as almost devoid of groundwater. 2 MINERAL WATERS Albanian mineral waters there are thermal and cold ones. Thermal waters fall into two hydrochemical groups, namely sulphurous waters and methane waters. Sulphur mineral waters are considered the ground waters with increased concentration of sulphur gas (H2S), usually more than 10 mg/l. This type of water occurs primarily in syncline structures of Ionian and Kruja Zones where some mineral springs are known. Deep wells have revealed mineral waters in some buried Mesozoic carbonate structures of these zones which are covered by flysch or molasses. In the Korabi zone, deep circulating groundwaters contacting gypsum deposits produce the famous sulphur springs of Peshkopi. There is a wide range of temperatures, hydrogen sulphur content, total mineralization and chemical types of these sulphur waters. Relevant data are shown in Table 3. Methane mineral waters were detected in numerous oil and gas exploratory wells in the Neogene aquifers of the Periadriatic Depression at depths ranging from 1,000 to 3,500 m. The water temperatures range from 25 and 80 C. The waters have increased total mineralization varying between 10 and 60 gr/l, a chlorinesodium composition and higher hydrogen sulphide and iodine and bromine contents (Table 4). Such waters have been recorded from the Ardenica, Patosi and Seman structures of the Periadriatic Depression. Cold mineral waters are considered the groundwaters which temperature is less

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

1 Sands, gravels and silt; 2 Sandstones, siltstone and clays; 3 Clays, sandstones and siltstones; 4 Clays, siltstones and sandstones (flysch); 5 Limestones, dolomite limestones and dolomites; 6 Major fault; 7 Karst spring; 8 Deep artesian well and the depth in meters Figure 4. Hydrogeological cross-section in the central part of the Tirana Basin

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the than 20 C or is more or less the same as the mean yearly air temperature of the spring location area. These springs issue from the carbonate structures of Ionian Zone in the contact with gypsum and anhydride evaporate deposits. The waters have high concentration of sulphates and chlorides. Some of the springs of this group are Glina and Kolonja near Girokastra, and Bashaj spring in Smokthina. Some relevant data of these springs are shown in Table 4.
Table 3: Summary of data of sulphur thermomineral groundwater
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Investigation point Llixha Peshkopi Uji i Bardh Prmet Deep well Mamurras Deep well, Ishmi -1 Deep well, Kozan 8 Llixha spring, Elbasan Holta spring Banjo Kapaj spring 3 Leskovikut spring Discharge Temperature H2S Mineralization l/s C mg/l mg/l 23 35.5-43,5 49,5 3.8-4,4 70,0 18,5-22.5 326-358 5,4-5.6 3,8 17,1 170,0 5,1 6,6 59,0 1220 13,5 4,4 54,3 about 400 5,2 15 48-58 335-408 7,0 20-50 24,0 2,4 3-5 17,7 15,0 26,7 7,0 1,2 Br mg/l 2,1 27,3 6,75 J Chemical type mg/l 0,6 SO4Ca ClNa ClNa 4,0 ClNa 1,8 ClSO4NaCa ClSO4NaCa SO4MgCa (?) HCO3Ca ClHCO3NaCa

Table 4: Summary of data of methane thermomineral groundwater and of cold sulphate springs
No 1 2 3 4 5 Investigation point Ardenica well 11 Kuman well 1 Seman well 7 Bashaj spring Glina spring Dischargel Temperature CH4 % l/s C 18,0 ? 53.5 ? ? 30,0 67,0 20 - 25 12,0 1,84,0 13,716,0 Mineralization Br gr/l mg/l 53,8 109,7 42,3 100,2 24,0 25,0 17,18 1,17 J mg/l 21,2 12,9 30,0 Chemical type ClNa ClNa ClNa ClNa SO4Ca

ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

3 GROUNDWATER RESOURCES The total natural groundwater resources of Albania are calculated separately for the main aquifers related to different water bearing rocks. For the calculation are taken into the consideration the outcropping areas of the aquifers, the mean yearly precipitations and their territorial distribution, as well as the infiltration values. The exploitable groundwater resources of Albania consist about 50 % of the total calculated natural groundwater resources. Groundwater resources of gravely aquifers could be increased about two times comparing with the natural resource by using induced infiltration wells located near the recharge sources, rivers. On Table 5 are summarised the data regarding the groundwater resources of Albania. According to approximate estimations in Albania actually for centralised urban and Industrial water supply are used about 11 m3/s, while for rural water supply are used about 1.5-2.0 m3/s, or in total about 12-13 m3/s. This number consists only about 8.5-9.0 % of the exploitable groundwater resources of the country.

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Table 5: Natural and exploitable groundwater resources of Albania Aquifers related to Natural resource m3/s m3/vit Carbonate (karst) rocks 7.15x109 227 Magmatic intrusive rocks 1.00x109 32 Molasse deposits 0.45x109 14 Gravely deposits 0.47x109 15 Total groundwater resources 9.07*109 288

Exploitable resources m3/vit m3/s 2.84*109 90 0.41*109 13 0.22*109 7 0.945*109 30 4.4*109109 140

Ground water is a vital resource in Albania; it covers about 95 % of the total drinking and industrial water consumption of the country. Beside this the groundwater has important ecological implication for maintaining ecosystem services. This unknown treasure should be better evaluated from our society; it needs to be deeper investigated and should be long-term monitored, protected and intelligently exploited. As a country aspiring to join KE it is an obligation to popularise, to incorporate in our legislation and to apply into practices the European Water Directives. According to the criteria of the KE an intensive scientific work has to be done for the identification of the Groundwater Bodies of Albania (this concept do not overlap with the already known concept of the aquifer); on this basis should be later organised the investigation, monitoring and management of groundwater resources.
5 LITERATURA
Eftimi R. 1966. On overlook on hydrogeology of Mati River alluvial plain (in Abanian). Tirana, Prmb.Stud. No 4, f 53-65; Eftimi R. 1975. Groundwaters of Lushnja area (in Albanian). Tirana, Permb. Stud. No.3, f.133-151. Eftimi R. & Tafilaj I. 1979. A short overlook on groundwater of Albanian (in Albanian). Tirana, Permb. Stud. No.1,f.65-89. Eftimi R. 1982. Filtration properties of gravely aquifers of western lowland of Albania (in Albanian). Ph Dr Theses f. 177. Eftimi R. Tafilaj I. Bisha G. & Habilaj L. 1986. Hydrogeological map of Albania, scale 1:200 000 (in Albanian). Tirana, Bul. Shk. Gjeol. No.4, f. 133-148. Eftimi R. Tafilaj & I. Bisha, G. 1989. Hydrogeological division of Albania (in Albanian). Tirana, Bul. Shk. Gjeol. No 4, f. 303-316. Eftimi R. & Zoto J. 1996. Isotope study of the connection of Ohrid and Prespa Lakes: Tirana, Towards integrated conservation and sustainable development of transboundary Macro and Micro Prespa lakes, Korca, p. 32-38. Eftimi R. 2003a. Some considerations on seawater-freshwater relationship in Albanian coastal area, in Coastal aquifers intrusion technology: Mediterranean countries, ed. J. A. Lpez-Geta, Madrid, IGME, Tome II, pp. 239-250. Eftimi R. 2003b. Hydraulic parameters and yield of wells of sandstone-conglomerate aquifer of Rrogozhina Formation in Albania, Tinos Island, June 12-14, G. 2002, ed. Prof. Stournaras, pp. 59-72, Athens. Eftimi R. 2003c. A comparative study of the hydraulic parameters and of yields of wells of some sedimentary hard rocks of Albania, in Groundwater of Fractured Rocks, 15-19 September 2003, Prague, ed. Krsn, J. Abst., 55-56, Prague Eftimi R. 2005. Hydrochemical characteristics of some lithologicaly different karst massifs of Albania, in Water Resources & Environment Problems in Karst Cvijic, Shtator 2005, Beograd Kotor, pp. 499-504. Eftimi R. Stichler W. Gourcy L. Amataj S & Zoto J. 2006. Investigation about recharge sources of Tirana alluvial basin in Albania by means of environmental isotopes, May 23-25, Marrakech Morocco, 2005. Eftimi R. Amataj S. & Zoto J. 2007. Groundwater circulation in two transboundary carbonate aquifers of Albania; their vulnerability and protection. Selected Papers on Hydrogeo Vol 11: Taylor & Fracis Group, London, UK, pp 199-212. Gjata A. Tyli N. Eftimi R. 1963. Hydrogeology of Tirane Koplik area (in Albanian), Archive of Albanian Geological Service Lako A. 1973. Hydrogeological conditions of Shkumbini Rever valley in Labinot Fushe Cerrik area (in Albanian). Tirana, Permb. Stud. No.4, p. Tafilaj. I. 1977. Hydrogeological classification of mines of Albania (in Albanian). Tirana, Permb. Stud. No.1, f. 109-121. Tafilaj. I. Dyrmishu . 2001. Land subsidence in Vajkali Valley (in Albania) A typical example of groundwater pressure lowering influence. Sofia, Expert Assessment of Land Subsidance Related to Hydrogeological and Engineering geological Conditions in the Regions of Sofia, Skopje and Tirana, Proceedings, p. 35-44. Tartari, M. 1982. Hydrogeological conditions of Berati plain (in Albanian). Archives of Albanian Geological Service Tyli, N. 1963. report on the results of groundwater wells of Dobrac area, Shkodra (in Albanian) Archives of Albanian Geol. Service
ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

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Petroleum Exploration, Development and Production Opportunities in Albania


Fatbardh Ademi
Director of Hydrocarbons Department

Albania is an oil and gas bearing country. It is almost one century that Albania is producing significant petroleum quantities. Petroleum operations in Albania started early 1800 when the first geological surveys have taken place. Later, early 1900 petroleum operations were intensified and a lot of oil and gas fields were discovered. The cooperation with international petroleum industry has started around 1900, when some concessions were granted by Albanian government to the most known petroleum companies of the time. After 1990 several licensing rounds were organized and a number of petroleum agreements with foreign companies were approved. Petroleum operations carried on during these times, produced also a great number of data, which are used for evaluation and planning of the current petroleum operations. Currently there are 4 licensed areas for exploration, development and production of petroleum. Two of them are offshore and the rest onshore. Meanwhile AKBN is promoting the free areas and is in negotiations for some of them. At the same time 6 Licenses Agreements for development And production of petroleum in existing oil fields have been granted. The conduct of petroleum operations is possible thanks to a specifis and very effective legal framework in petroleum sector. A suitable institutional organization is in place in petroleum sector. There are specific licensing procedures issued by AKBN that are clear and make possible a time save in this process.

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Bankers Petroleum Ltd - a success story in Albania


Bob Petryk
Bankers Petroleum Ltd

Bankers Petroleum Ltd. is a Canadian-based oil and gas exploration and production company focused on maximizing the value of its heavy oil assets in Albania and shale gas assets the United States. The Company is targeting growth in production and reserves through application of new and proven technologies by a strong experienced technical team. Bankers operates in two distinct international areas, Albania and the United States through its subsidiaries, Bankers Petroleum Albania Ltd. and Bankers Petroleum (US) Inc. The majority of the Companys revenue is currently generated from its operations in Albania. In Albania, Bankers operates and has the full rights to develop the Patos Marinza heavy oilfield pursuant to a 25 year license agreement with the Albanian National Agency for Natural Resources (AKBN) and a Petroleum Agreement with Albpetrol Sh.A (Albpetrol), the state owned oil and Gas Corporation. The Patos Marinza oilfield is the largest onshore oilfield in continental Europe, holding approximately two billion barrels of original oil in place. Bankers is also pursuing additional oilfield development opportunities in Albania. Historically, Albpetrol was the sole operator of the Patos Marinza field. Anglo-Albanian Petroleum Ltd. (AAP), a joint venture of Albpetrol and Premier Oil Plc. was formed as a new operating company in 1994 and operated a portion of the field until 2004. AAP was dissolved in March 2004, and Albpetrol resumed operatorship. In June 2004, Bankers entered into a Petroleum Agreement with Albpetrol Sh.A., to evaluate and redevelop the Patos Marinza oilfield, under Albpetrols existing license with the AKBN. On July 20, 2004, we took over the operation of 28 wells, a disposal well, and associated equipment and facilities.

PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

Main economic and financial indices of the Company during 2007


Results at a Glance
2007 Financial ($000s, except as noted Oil and gas revenue Net operating income Net loss Basic and diluted loss per share Funds from (used in) operations Additions to property, plant and equipment Total assets Bank loans Other long-term liabilities Shareholders equity Operating
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2006 31,586 13,111 (1,561) (0.004) 8,512 67,727 138,030 6,772 4,719 115,170

2005 13,709 3,921 (3,498) (0.011) (171) 35,048 56,846 282 50,798

62,105 32,483 (2,342) (0.005) 24,136 80,703 204,295 30,805 16,010 139,036

2007 Albania - crude oil Average production (bopd) Average price ($/barrel) Netback ($/barrel) U.S. - natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate(1) Average natural gas production (mcf/d) Average condensate & NGL production (bopd) Average natural gas price ($/mcf) (1) U.S. production commenced in September 2007 154 13 5.73 4,724 35.54 18.53

2006 3,392 25.51 10.59

2005 1,668 22.52 6.44

Average condensate & NGL price ($/barrel) 69.67

During the year, Bankers significantly increased its revenue, net operating income and funds from operations through well reactivations in Albania. The active well count in Albania increased to 164 at the end of 2007 from 122 in 2006 and 67 in 2005. In Albania, the average oil price increased to $35.54 per barrel from $25.51 per barrel in 2006 and $22.52 per barrel in 2005. The increase in 2007 was primarily related to the increased volume of crude oil exports at prices higher than that of domestic sales. The higher commodity price and export volumes experienced over the past year translated into higher year-over-year netbacks. Netback improved to $18.53 per barrel in 2007 from $10.59 per barrel in 2006 and $6.44 per barrel in 2005. Consolidated cash capital expenditures increased to $80.7 million in 2007 from $67.7 million in 2006 and $35.0 million in 2005. In Albania, capital expenditures increased to $45.5 million in 2007 compared to $37.5 million a year ago, primarily due to an a celerated reactivation program and the completion of the central treatment facility.

PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

Highlights
Bankers accomplished several key achievements in Albania in 2007 that advanced its plans to access additional reserves: In Albania, average production increased 39% to 4,724 bopd from 3,392 bopd in 2006. Exit production at year end 2007 was 5,337 bopd as compared to 4,406 bopd in 2006. Revenue increased to $62.1 million from $31.6 million a year ago, an increase of 97%. Net operating income improved 148% to $32.5 million from $13.1 million in 2006. The debt facility increased by $10.0 million to $31.0 million; total bank loans drawn at year end were $30.8 million. The total facility was further increased to $51.0 million in early 2008.

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Two equity financings were closed in March and November, representing 36.0 million common shares on a bought deal basis and 4.4 million units (comprised of 4.4 million each of common shares and warrants) through a private placement. The net proceeds from these issuances were $22.4 million.

Albania
Total export volume and production increased in 2007, representing 53% of production at an average price of $42.25 per barrel. Export to a second Italian refinery began in March, providing benefit from higher prices. The central treatment facilities were completed in October, increasing oil treatment capacity of the Company to approximately 8,000 bopd. Construction of a thermal steam pilot was completed; testing and steam injection commenced in November.

Some of the major investments made?


Since June 2004, we have invested over US$105 million in the development of the field, helping to improve local environmental, health and safety standards, as well as benefiting Albanias economy. Capital expenditures have primarily been for equipment and services required to rejuvenate existing oil wells and increase production therefore. The reactivation process includes removing old equipment and contaminated soil, rebuilding the surface location, replacing production equipment with new and applying new production methods in order to improve well productivity. In 2007, Bankers invested over $US30 million in well reactivations and also embarked on two relatively large capital projects: the first, a central treating facility, was completed in November at a cost of over $9 million; the second was an initial pilot phase for evaluation of thermal (steam) stimulation of the heavy oil reservoir, costing nearly $ 3 million. In early 2008, Bankers created a three-year plan for its Albanian assets that entails increased capital expenditures for vertical and horizontal infill drilling, as well as the initiation of water flood development and thermal programs, to substantially increase production and reserves in 2008 and beyond. Execute plan to develop Patos Marinza & Kucova oilfields Grow production to 20,000 bopd by the end of 2010 Significantly increase reserves and production from execution of plan

PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

Production dynamics
Production and Revenue
2007 Albania - crude oil Average production (bopd) Average price ($/barrel) Oil and gas revenue ($000) Albania 61,289 31,586 13,709 4,724 35.54 3,392 25.51 1,668 22.52 2006 2005

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During 2007, production continued to increase as more wells were reactivated in Albania, bringing the active well count to 164 from 122 in the preceding year. In 2007, the Company took over 122 total active wells from Albpetrol: 56 wells were successful and added to the producing well count by year-end; 40 wells were added to the non-producing well count (29 pending major workovers and 11 wells waiting on reactivation); 25 wells were added to the suspended well count pending further review (includes failures due to well bore conditions and high water cut production); and one service well was added for water disposal. Total wells taken over in the field amount to 333 by year-end 2007. Average production increased 39% to 4,724 bopd from 3,392 bopd for the preceding year. The exit production rate was 5,337 bopd at 2007 year-end. Bankers sold 47% of its crude domestically to ARMO at an average price of $27.97 per barrel during the year compared to $23.70 per barrel in 2006. The price increase resulted from a higher negotiated base and the appreciation of LEK against the U.S. dollar. The Company exported the remaining crude to two Italian refineries under export sales contracts at an average price of $44.25 per barrel. The crude price under one of the contracts was determined by reference to a basket of refined products which fluctuates seasonally. The other contract was based on Brent pricing and an agreed upon differential.
600,000
PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

Ac u t alOilPr o d u c t io n (Qu ar ey t r l) 500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

Q4-05

Q3-04

Q4-04

Q2-05

Q3-06

Q1-07

Q2-07

Q3-07

Q4-07

Q1-05

Q3-05

Q1-06

Q2-06

Q4-06

Q1-08

Q2-08

Q3-08

Bankers Social Responsibility Policy


Bankers Albania is supporting Albanias movement to an open-market economy by employing local contractors for equipment fabrication, services, and

88

Q4-08

trades, in addition to directly employing a majority of Albanians in our operations. We take a pragmatic approach to our development in Albania a key aspect of which is to capitalize on the strengths of the Albanian people in our operations. Bankers Albania has had an established presence in Albania since June 2004, but most of our local employees have been involved with the Patos Marinza oilfield project for many more years. We are a major employer in the Fier region with more than 180 direct employees, and employ at least another 350 indirectly through subcontractors. These numbers will grow significantly over the coming years as we expand our development in Albania and increase our production. By 2010, we expect to have more than 250 direct employees while indirectly employing an additional 500 people. We also support Albanias economy through contracts for goods and services with over 100 local companies. Over 40% of our capital spending and 70% of our operating expenses are paid to local companies. As such, Bankers Albania is positioned to contribute significantly to Albanias future growth. Bankers Albania aims to be the employer of choice and a role model for other companies doing business in Albania. We have developed a culture of high ethical standards, including high regard for the health, safety, and welfare of employees and respect for the individual. In our field operations and with exports, we strive to minimize the impact on the natural environment by careful planning and a responsible approach. Were focused on implementing international standards for health and safety practices in the operation of the Patos Marinza oilfield, improving working conditions to protect our employees, contractors, and the local community. Bankers Albania has established health and safety policies and procedures for all its employees.

PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

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developing large oil & gas reserves

Fact Sheet

B ankersSt rat egy


Focus on devel opi ng l ar ge oi l& gas r eser ves Pur sue new and pr oven t echnol ogy appl i cat i ons t oi ncr ease r eser ves & pr oduct i on M ai nt ai n st r ong bal ance sheet C ont r olcost st hr ough ef f i ci entoper at i ons I dent i f y and cr eat e devel opm ent oppor t uni t i es Lead envi r onm ent alpr oj ecti n Al bani at o at t ai ni nt er nat i onalst andar ds C reat el ongt erm val ue f orsharehol ders

Hi ghl i ght s
C ur r entdai l y pr oduct i on > 5, 200 bopd Q uar t er over quar t ergr owt hi nr evenue,net backs and cash f l ow f r om oper at i ons Al bani a Pat os M ar i nza f i el d: o R eser ve base of147 M bbl s( P+P) Al bani a Kucova f i el d: o OOI P of490 M bbl s U. S.Ti shom i ngo f i el di n O kl ahom a: o R eser ve base of45. 8 Bcf e( P+P) N etr eser ve val ue of$780 M M ( P+P,af t ert ax,10%
di scount )

Al bani a

A sset s

Banker si s pr i m ar i l yf ocused on accessi ng t he heavy oi lupsi de f r om i t s Al bani an asset s.The C om pany oper at es i nt he Pat os M ar i nza f i el d pur suantt o a 25 yearl i cense agr eem ent ,w i t ht he opt i on t or enew f oraddi t i onalf i veyeart er m s. Thi s 70 km 2 heavy oi lf i el di st he l ar gestonshor e oi l f i el di n cont i nent alEur ope wi t h 2. 0 bi l l i on bar r el s ofor i gi naloi li n pl ace. I n addi t i on,Banker s has a 50% i nt er esti n a pr i vat e com pany w hi ch hol ds t he r i ght st ot he Kucova oi l f i el di n Al bani a,w hi ch has i n excess of490 m i l l i on bar r el s ofor i gi nal oi l i npl ace and has an opt i on t o acqui r e 100% by June 2008.

PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

St rat egy
I n ear l y 2008, Banker s cr eat ed a t hr eeyear pl an f or i t s Al bani an asset st hat ent ai l si ncr eased capi t alexpendi t ur es f or ver t i caland hor i zont al i nf i l l dr i l l i ng, as wel l as t he i ni t i at i on of wat er f l ood devel opm ent and t her m al pr ogr am s, t o subst ant i al l y i ncr ease pr oduct i on and r eser ves i n 2008 and beyond. Execut e pl an t o devel op Pat os M ar i nza & Kucova oi l f i el ds Gr ow pr oduct i on t o 20, 000 bopd by t he end of2010 Si gni f i cant l yi ncr ease r eser ves and pr oduct i on f r om execut i on ofpl an

U ni t ed S t at es
I nt he U ni t ed St at es,Banker s hol ds an aver age 75% w or ki ng i nt er esti n over400, 000 netacr es,cover i ng f ourpr ospect s i nt he N or t her n and C ent r alr egi ons oft he U ni t ed St at es.The C om pany i s pr i m ar i l yf ocused on a devel opm entpl an f ori t s Ar dm or e basi ni n O kl ahom a,wher ei thas com m enced nat ur algas pr oduct i on and di scover ed r eser ves t hr ough t he successf uldr i l l i ng ofsever alhor i zont alw el l s.

St rat egy
Fur t herdel i neat e Ti shom i ngo gasf i el d,Ar dm or e basi n,O K Execut e 30 w el ldevel opm entpl an i n 2008 Exam i ne r est r uct ur i ng al t er nat i ves as a separ at e ent i t y

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B ankers Pet rol eum Lt d.


Banker s Pet r ol eum Lt d.i s a C anadi anbased oi land gas expl or at i on and pr oduct i on com pany f ocused on devel opi ng l ar ge oi land gas r eser ves.I n Al bani a,Banker s oper at es and has t he f ul lr i ght st o devel op t he Pat os M ar i nza heavy oi l f i el d and has a 50% i nt er esti nt he Kucova oi lf i el d.I tal so hol ds an aver age 50% i nt er esti nt he Ti shom i ngo gas f i el di n O kl ahom a and var i ed i nt er est si nt hr ee ot herar eas i nt he at es,w her ei ti s cur r ent l y pur sui ng t he N or t her n and C ent r alr egi ons oft he U ni t ed St expl or at i on,devel opm entand pr oduct i on ofshal e and t i ghtsand gas pl ays.

R esul t s ata G l ance


( U S$000s ,exceptasnot ed) Fi nanci al Oi land gasr evenue N etoper at i ng i ncom e I ncom e( l os s )f ort heper i od Fundsf r om oper at i ons Tot alas s et s Shar ehol derequi t y 62, 105 32, 483 ( 2, 342) 24, 136 204, 295 139, 036 22, 061 12, 963 ( 2, 156) 10, 072 204, 295 139, 036 16, 392 8, 834 264 6, 420 185, 652 135, 200 12, 913 6, 176 600 4, 792 175, 550 136, 596 10, 739 4, 510 ( 1, 050) 2, 852 166, 175 135, 382 2007 Q4 2007 Q3 2007 Q2 2007 Q1 2007

B O AR D O F D I R EC TO R S R ober tC r oss,C hai r m an Abby Badw i Er i c Br ow n Jonat han H ar r i s For d Ni chol son Vi ct orR edekop John Zaozi r ny EXEC U TI VE Abby Badw i ,C EO Ri char d W adsw or t h,Pr esi dent&
CO O

D oug U r ch,VP,Fi nance & C FO Eugene C hr i st ensen,VP,


Expl oi t at i on

SuneelG upt a,VP,Busi ness


D evel opm ent

I an M cM ur t r i e,VP,Expl or at i on
O per at i ng -Al bani a A ver agedai l y pr oduct i on ( bopd) A ver agepr i ce( $/ bar r el ) N et back ( $/ bar r el ) D ec.31,2006 Res er ves( p+p,gr os s ,m boe) Res er veval ue( p+p,gr os s ,U S$m i l l i ons ) 157 780 4, 724 35. 54 18. 53 5, 429 42. 84 24. 82 4, 753 37. 14 19. 93 4, 314 32. 89 16. 14 4, 388 27. 19 11. 42

R ober tPet r yk,VP & G ener al


Di r ect or ,Al bani a

W ol fR egener ,Execut i ve VP &


Pr esi dent ,Banker s Pet r ol eum ( U S) I nc.

Susan J.Sopr ovi ch,VP,I nvest or


R el at i ons & C or por at e G over nance
PETROLEUMALBANIA L.T.D.

STO C K EXC H AN G E LI STI NG TSX:BN K,BN K. WT& BN K. W T. A


Production Growth

D ai l y aver age pr oduct i on ( bopd)

$25. 0 $20. 0 $15. 0 $10. 0 $5. 0 $-

Oil & Gas Revenues (millions)

6, 000 5, 000 4, 000 3, 000 2, 000 1, 000 -

AI M :BN K and BN KW B AN K ER S PETR O LEU M LTD . Sui t e 400,906 12t h Ave.S.W . C al gar y,Al ber t a,T2R 1K7 Phone:( 403)5132699 Fax:( 403)2289506 Em ai l :i nvest or r el at i ons@ banker spet r ol eum . com Forf ur t heri nf or m at i on: www. banker spet r ol eum . com

Q 1 05 Q 2 05 Q 3 05 Q 4 05 Q 1 06 Q 2 06 Q 3 06 Q 4 06 Q 1 07 Q 2 07 Q 3 07 Q 4 07

4 5 5 05 05 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 07 08 04 t -0 n-0 r-0 l - nl l l t t- nt- nrrJu O c Ja A p Ju O c Ja A p Ju O c Ja A p Ju O c Ja

$30. 00 $25. 00 $20. 00 $15. 00 $10. 00 $5. 00 $-

Netbacks ($/barrel)

$14. 0 $12. 0 $10. 0 $8. 0 $6. 0 $4. 0 $2. 0 $-

Net Operating Income (millions)

Q 1 05 Q 2 05 Q 3 05 Q 4 05 Q 1 06 Q 2 06 Q 3 06 Q 4 06 Q 1 07 Q 2 07 Q 3 07 Q 4 07

Q 1 05 Q 2 05 Q 3 05 Q 4 05 Q 1 06 Q 2 06 Q 3 06 Q 4 06 Q 1 07 Q 2 07 Q 3 07 Q 4 07

C anaccor d Adam s M ai son Pl acem ent s

AN ALYST C O VER AG E G enui t y C api t al M acquar i e R esear ch Tr i st one C api t al

91

Stream Oil & Gas Ltd Profile

Stream Oil & Gas Ltd is a publicly listed Canadian company currently trading in the CNQ and shortly in the TSX-V exchanges. Stream has entered into Petroleum Agreements with Albpetrol Sh.A. dated August 8, 2007 to evaluate and redevelop the Cakran-Mollaj, Ballsh-Hekal, Gorisht-Kocul Oilfields and the Delvina Gas field under Albpetrols existing License with the National Petroleum Agency of Albania (AKBN). The four Petroleum Agreements were ratified by the Council of Ministers of Albania as announced in the Government gazette August 23, 2007 and became effective September 9, 2007. The Cakran-Mollaj, Ballsh-Hekal, Gorisht-Kocul are onshore producing oilfields and the Delvina field, located in the south is Gas and Gas condensate producing. To earn its ongoing rights under this agreement, Stream has a minimum capital expenditure commitment during the evaluation period of US$4,800,000 to rehabilitate corresponding wells. Stream has up to 24 months to evaluate the fields and propose a Development Plan to Albpetrol and the AKBN. The Agreement includes the rights to redevelop, produce and sell product from the existing oil and gas fields utilizing the existing wells and infrastructure at no additional cost to Stream except treatment and transportation. The duration of Streams Production License will be 25 years with an option to extend at Streams election with continued economic production. Sroule International Limited (Canada) has prepared a report on the Albanian Properties and Streams work programs in compliance with National Instrument 51-101. In November 2007 Stream prepared work programs and budgets for each of the four Albanian Properties, and has: Established operations offices in Tirana, Fier and Delvina; Completed the take-over of the Delvina gas field and several wells in Cakran-Mollaj, Ballsh-Hekal and Gorisht-Kocul crude oil fields; Initiated upgrades on surface facilities and environmental work in all fields; Initiated internal reservoir behavior study in the take-over areas to understand and drive the rehabilitation process; Signed a Crude Oil and Gas sales agreement with ALBPETROL and ARMO to provide crude oil and gas; Engaged Rompetrol for the environmental baseline and technical studies, to propose upgrade of existing equipment, methods of rehabilitation and take-over of wells; Engaged Albpetrol work-over rigs in order to be able to start well completion and rehabilitation work; and has to undertake a Passive Seismic Study in Delvina. Stream plans to hire a larger drilling rig and continue to introduce state of the art production enhancement methodologies in order to continue field rehabilitation and contribute to the Energy Sector of Albania. Long term plans include a feasibility study for the development of the gas fired power plant for electricity in the Delvina area.

92

CCI focus is on encouraging economic growth. We know that Policy, Institutions, and Human Resources are keys to development. Hence we are driven to address them in a comprehensive way, utilizing all of the expertise and tools available to us. Our aim is to provide to a continuously improving business community the instrument that represents their collective needs in a fast growing economy. In establishing this vision, the CCI is also marking its own growth and assuming proactive accountability for its future actions.

TIRANA - A

LB

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY

NI

Information Publications Consulting

Seminars Tr a i n i n g s Workshops

Networking Partnership Advocacy Lobbing

SERVICES

Executive Services - N R C Services - Consular Services

Development Projects
Founded as independent institution in the earliest 1920 the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Tirana, Albania is an organization that blends old national traditions with the modern experience of the European Chambers.

Industrial Property Protection - Patents - Trademarks - Industrial Designs

WEB

Business Directory

Newspaper

Magazine

Leaflets/ Brochures

International Events Guide

Web page, access to info data base on request, networking, etc...........................

93

A successful challenge
Mr. Patrick Pascal SELENICE BITUMI Sha Groupe KLP Industries / KLP Mines SA SELENIZZA, SELENITZA, SELENICE, NYMPHEUM, BITUME, STRABON, PLINE, the pavements of the Paris streets and Milan too, all these names of places, persons remind us frequently of the distant and near history. It is true that Selenice mine is unique in the European continent, and that people have been exploiting this natural bitumen since the most ancient times. And it is precisely this history that has guided my steps and those of the French Group KLP Industries that has undertaken the recovery of such a legendary mine, which is the main asset of this mine SELENICE BITUMI Sha. The French, that have succeeded the British, present in the area since 1870, were the first to perform industrial works in the zone of Selenice in 1891, by building the first railway of Albania and developing the zone. They were succeeded by the Italians of SIMSA in 1922 and later on by the Albanian state, from 1945 to the present-day, when we became the worthy heirs of these pioneers. The mine is situated in the South-West of Albania, 28 km far from Vlora, inland. The deposit is defined from the river Vjosa in the North, the village of Treblova in the South, the village Armen in the West; its total surface is about 6 km2. Actually we are working mainly in surface because the fall of dollar compels us to have maximum profitability to maintain our sales in confront of our two competitors who are in the dollar zone; the mine zone is maintained in preparatory works for the exploitation of virgin horizons in 2009 and to assure the foreseen tonnage demand of our clients. Our bitumen is in fact an additive that improves the characteristics of asphaltic mixture and of asphalts and it may be considered as one of the best in the world. We are investing in an innovatory oven that will help us to become leaders in various field such as the road asphalts and hermeticity as well, in paints and many other applications in chemistry. SELENIZZA SLN 120 which is the commercial name of our local product is mainly used as: - additive of road bitumen serving for the construction of the streets and motorways, having a big traffic, to the ports and airports, round points, etc. - additive waterproof ness asphalts serving for the roofing of the buildings , parking of the commercial centers - additive of asphalts for the pavement, in order to prevent the perforation during the hot weather - additive of the fillers water proof ness asphalts concerning the artistic works.

94

One study, made by the Italian University in Roma LA SAPIENZA, proves all the advantages and qualities, obtained using our bitumen. The study is available in Italian and Albanian in our site Internet. There is a recent study on our bitumen performed by the Polytechnic University of Lausanne as well. This study that permitted the homologation of our Selenizza SLN 120 for Switzerland road market, clearly prove that its resistance and ageing characteristics are exceptional and that the road coating can resist to the traffic for 30 years!!! The utilization of our product doesnt need any particular equipment and in fact, make it possible to substantially economize, considering the total road market that in the worst case the cost will not exceed 2% but offering in return a longevity superior to all other works accomplished in this area in Albania the last 10 years. We hope that the Albanian market will open to us, particularly by establishing standards adapted to the climate and the specific country needs. It is a paradox to export such a good quality product and not to see it on the Albanian roads. The majority of our production is exported in France, Morocco, Algeria, in Caraibs Islands, Spain, Italy, Germany, Switzerland Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia and China and next year we hope to start to export in Austria, United Kingdom, Greece, Lithuania, Israel, Poland, etc. We were present in the show Biennale Milano, PADOVA ASPHALTICA 2003, 2004 and 2006, and in the Exhibition Sense of the City in Montral now days. Many professional magazines speak about us and we are pride to present a professional face of Albania. We are members of SITEB (Italian Asphalt road Association) of AEA and soon founding member of ARBA Asphalted Road Balkan Association. When I see the road that we have gone through from the end of the year 2000 I am proud of our Engineers and Miners, because it was not so easy to go to Selenice area in that time, to restore this Company, that was neglected very much since the year 1997, and which had suffered grave damages by the end of the pyramid schemes epoch. It was necessary to change the mentality, the working procedures, to become modern, so that to be accepted by a professional community for a product that no one had ever used since 50 years, to resist the attack from the competition, who did not wish to see us in the market, and to ensure official homologations in order to be introduced in these famous standards, without which no serous client would come to you. Now the difficult years are behind us and we sincerely believe that our future and that of our Albanian collaborators is insured for a long time. We are intimately convinced that this rapid expansion will enable the development of other industrial activities in the Selenice area.
95

Raiffeisen Bank Albania is the largest bank in the country and occupies the number one position on all major key performance indicators. Its asset base is over 1.95 billion Euros and it has a network of 98 branches throughout the country almost 3 times more than its nearest competitor. 164 Bankomats, 508 POS terminals and a team of mobile bankers gives the Bank a comprehensive distribution network. Raiffeisen International purchased the Albanian Savings Bank in 2004 and over the last 4 years has completely transformed the old State Bank into a full service bank serving all sectors of the business and private individual markets. The loan portfolio has grown from zero in 2004 to outstanding of 480 million euros. The transformation is now complete and the Bank has a product range processes, systems and a branch infrastructure that compares favorably with 21st century European standards. Raiffeisen Albania, focused on private individual, SME and corporate markets, invested a lot in branch upgrades and computerization. With the introduction of lending to corporate customers and small and medium-sized enterprises, the intensive training of staff and the offering of new banking products, Raiffeisen Bank has underpinned its leading market position. This will include all forms of borrowing, access to leasing finance, employee banking services including loans and overdrafts, and on-line real time banking services through our market leading, Internet-based facility called Multi Cash.

96

97

82 Monitor - 291

NEED DATA COLLECTION IN ALBANIA?

98

N
1. SUMMARY

Hydrocarbon Sources in Albania, Status and Prosperity


Prof. Dr. Fotaq Diamanti Eng. Aleksander Dulaj

From the geological point of view, Albania is an important hub for hydrocarbon resources in Mediterranean Alpine Zone. The hydrocarbons accumulations are unrepeatable subsurface natural resources, by means of; Albania has provided and will provide in the future important financial funds. Several oil and gas field are discovered and put on production (Fig. 1), more than 2.118.516 meters of exploraKO S O VO MONTENEGRO tory-drillings and 4.836.204 meters production & development-drillings are drilled and more than 50 million ton crude oil and 10 billion Sm3 natural and associated gas are produced. Albania has considerable potential for future oil and gas discoveries in both onshore and offshore. As a matter M AC ED O N IA of fact, the worldwide experience have evidenced T IR A NA that the hydrocarbon reserves discovered have exceeded and the most enthusiastic predictions. In general, much more hydrocarbon resources are found than human knowledge has estimated in a certain moment of time. The number of oil and gas fields discovered, until now in Albania, has been limited, in extension and especially in depth. The G REEC E IT A L Y IO NIAN presence of potential sedimentary thicknesses, SEA rapid subsidence, existence of several oil prone source rock levels in the sedimentary cover, the favorable relationships of the source rocks, reservoirs and seals, as well as the intensive tectonics, Fig. 1 Location of the oil & gas fields in the Republic of Albania create favorable conditions for generation and entrapment of the hydrocarbons in the proven and future prospects, for both oil and gas. Actually, the exploration of hydrocarbons in these targets is difficult owing to both high depths and presence of overthrusting and salt diapirism tectonics. The localization and exploration of these structures can be fulfilled only by application of the integrated data analysis of geosciences and especially a combination of the high quality multidimensional seismic, advanced data processing systems and interpretation together with geology. The interpretation of all onshore and offshore complex data of geosciences evidence that PeriAdriatic Depression will be still in the future prior exploration area in Albania. These together with rehabilitation and improvement of the existing oil and gas fields in
19 E 20 E 21 E

S H K OD R A

42 N

ADRIATIC SEA

Durres

B allaj

Pekisht-Muriz

Divjaka

41 N

Kallm-Verri-Kolonje Kucova

FIER

Povelca Frakulla Selenica Panaja

V LO R A

Patos-Marinza Visoke Cakran-Mollas Ballsh Hekali Gorisht-Kocul Gernec Amonica

Drashovica

Delvina

40 N

Oilf ield

Finiq-Kra ne

G asf ield

C ORFU

50 Km

99

continental edge of the African plate, with bends and uplifts in form of blocks splited with listrice faults and with continental crust thicker than all other units. The Peri-Adriatic Depression lays in the western most territory (both onshore & offshore) of Albania. It represents a basin that overlays the Sazani, Ionian and Kruja zones, especially in its eastern part. The latest tectonic movements have played a considerable role in the creation of structures and tectonic faults of the Peri-Adriatic Depression. According to this model, the entire above mentioned morphologic configuration in which is based the orp ganization of all smaller geostructural elements is result of the relationships of lithospheric plates and where the process of moving away has reached its own maximum. As result of this process, between the plates different q/ sedimentation environments are created, in which occur sedimentation of different facies. The sediments deq/ posited in the platform and continental edge are mainly neritic, semi-pelagic and pelagic facies, meantime in the o n oceanic flexure mainly deep water facies and magmatic material (Fig.2). In the geological setting of the External Albanides take part a wide variety of sedimentary rocks. Based on the Fig. 4 Geologic & tectonic map of Alba- depositional environments, these sediments are innia and hydrocarbon zones cluded in the evaporite formation (salts), carbonate formation, flysch formation and pre-molase and molase Platform (Sazani Zone) Continental Edge, mio-geosynclinal formation with an age range of Triassic-Pliocene (Fig. 2 folding (Ionian, Kruja and Krasta-Cukali and 3). zones) Ocean (internal eu-geosynclinal zones) The External Albanides comprise an environment with Zones of orogenese (depressions) thick sedimentary successions and active tectonics. In /a Mio-geosynclinal foredeep (UPA) /b Intramountain (Kora-Burel, pigg- the tectonic evolution and setting influence:
0

19 00

19 30

20 00

20 30

21 00

M O T E N E G R O

K O S O V O

42 30

S HK O DR A

K r -C u k a li

42 00

41 30

T IR ANA

DUR R E S

M A C E D O N I A

ADRIATIC SEA

41 00

K r u ja

F IE R

B ER AT

KORA

VLORA

Ionia n Zone

40 30

G J IR O K A S T R A

G R E E C E

IONIAN S E A

40 00

S A R A NDA

C O R F U

25 km

50

back basin)

1. Mesozoic extensional tectonics associated with vertical displacement. 2. General uplift during Oiligocene-Miocene. 3. Compressional tectonics of late Miocene and Pliocene associated with convergences of the orgenic belts of Apennines (in west) and Albanides (in east). 3. PETROLEUM PLAYS In regional framework, the External Albanides represent eastern part of the oil & gas bearing province of Adriatic. This consists of several sedimentary-structural basins (Fig. 4): Platform basin (Sazani tectonic zone). Continental edge basin (Ionian, Kruja and Krasta tectonic zones).

101

The oil accumulations and abundant oil shows are related with carbonate reservoirs, limestone and dolomite that include in three lithologo-stratigraphic complexes: Dolomite complex (T3-J1). Argillaceous-cherty-limestone complex (J3-Cr1). Carbonate complex (Cr2-Pg1-Pg2). In individual cases (Drashovica, Gorisht-Koculi, Ballshi), the hydrocarbon accumulations are partly related with terrigenous reservoirs, such as sands and sandstones of the flysch deposits of Oligocene age. As seal rocks serve flysch-flyschoidal deposits of Oilgocene-Miocene, but are also predicted the argillaceous-carbonate deposits of Toarcian. Taiking into consideration the factors that influence in trapping of the hydrocarbons, several proven and future traps are distinguished (Fig. 5). The combination in section of the source rock levels, reservoir and seal rocks allow us to differentiate some exploration targets (Fig. 6), such as: 1. The upper target, proven (Ballsh, Cakran, Amonic, Finiq-Krane, Visok, etc.), with reservoir the limestone deposits of Cretaceous-Paleocene-Eocene age and safe seal, the flysch deposits of Oligocene-Miocene. 2. The lower target, accepted, with reservoir rocks the Fig. 7 Types of oil fields in the miogeosynclinal foredeep basin (PAD) dolomite and limestone with age Triassic-Lower Jurassic and predicted seal, the Toarcian shale. Based on the interpretation of the petrophysical experimental data, analyses carried out at laboratories of Chevron Company, is concluded that Toarcian shale can comprise an excellent seal rock upon the condition to keep homogeneity in extension. Their curve of pores is characteristic for clay rocks, with uniform distribution of the porous capillaries. The majority of porous capillaries are those with dimensions of 0.002-0.006 microns. The thickness of this horizon in surface section ranges from 22 to 51 m, but in several deep exploratory wells Fig. 8 The principal sketch and classification of (Go-11, Go-104, Ba-27, Kr-2), it is thicker, more than 120 proven and probable traps in the PeriAdriatic Depression m. Based on the analytical data, this type of rock is capable to isolate perfectly petroleum barring reservoir with reservoir pressure of 200 bars, a number that correspond with pressure of isolation capacity.
1 8 2 9 5 6
V V

Ar gila c e ous D ia pir is m


V V V

3. Unique petroleum-bearing target, proven in particular area (Gorisht), with reservoir rocks the dolomite-limestone section of Triassic-Eocene age and safe seal, the flysch de

103

posits of Oligocene-Miocene. In particular areas, hydrocarbons accumulations can be also explored and found in flysch deposits. In particular areas, hydrocarbons accumulations can also explore and find in flysch deposits of Oligocene age, as in case of Drashovica oil field, but also in individual wells as in Ballsh, Marinza and Gorisht fields. Hydrocarbon accumulations related with evaporate deposits can explore also in some particular areas. The molase deposits of Mio-Pliocene age, that setup Peri-Adriatic Depression, lie on the deposits of continental edge basin, meanwhile in the western part on the deposits of platform basin (Sazani tectonic zone). In the eastern part, Mio-Pliocene deposits lie transgressively on older ones, sometime directly on carbonate formation. The creation of this basin was as result of continuous subsidence during entire Mio-Pliocene age, sedimenting the potential thicknesses of clay, sand-clay and clay-sand facies in environments with different depositional energy of shelf and deltaic types (Fig. 3). From the genetic point of view, the Peri-Adriatic Depression (PAD) has a double character, capably for generation and accumulation of the syngenetic natural gas and accumulation of the epigenetic oil and gas generated and migrated from the deep parts of the Ionian Basin. The types of hydrocarbon fields and pools are related with reservoir types and their respective lateral screens. Sand bed reservoirs have contacts of different types, creating combined oil pools (Fig. 7), as to the natural gas there are numerous types (Fig. 8). The spreading character of the surface oil shows, those encountered in wells, as well as the occurrence and position of the existing oilfields in this region, among the others, evidence for their genetic correlation with stratigraphic position of the potential source rocks, especially and mainly with Upper Triassic level (I), those of the KRUJA ZONE Lower and Middle Lias (II), the Upper Cretaceous level (VII), but also with the argilla-ceous evaporite horizon that is analog with Burano formation in IONIAN ZONE Italy. The carbon isotopic ratios (8 13 C13) measured in the organic Fig. 9 Diagram of carbon isotopic ratio (C ) versus sulfur content S (%) matter soluble fractions extracted from source rocks, surface and well oil shows, as well as crude oil samples collected from different oilfields, differentiate and confirm for the presence of at least two large oil families well-distinguished from each other (Fig. 9):
-1 8 ,0 -1 9 ,0 -2 0 ,0 -2 1 ,0 -2 2 ,0 OM Extract, IONIAN ZONE Oil Show , Bitumen, IONIAN OM Extract,KRUJA ZONE Oil Show , Bitumen, KRUJA Miloti-26/b Erzeni-2 Droja-6 Makareshi-1 Droja-384

CARBON ISOTOPIC RATIO

-2 3 ,0 -2 4 ,0 -2 5 ,0 -2 6 ,0 -2 7 ,0 -2 8 ,0 -2 9 ,0 -3 0 ,0 -3 1 ,0 -3 2 ,0

Revenja-2

Thumana-1

Dajti-w ell

Makareshi-2

Makareshi-3/1

Vranisht-15/3

Dukat-18

Dhrovjan Salt Mine

Ftere

Dukat-4/1

10

11

12

S u lp h u r ( % )

The Triassic-Lias family, with carbon isotopic ratios in the range -28.3 to -30.4 is analog with oils of Central Adriatic Basin (Moldava et. al., 1992), in which this ratio ranges from -26.7 to -30.4 , but also with soluble fraction of Lias-Triassic source rocks (Peters et. al., 1993) with isotopic ratios from -28.0 to -29.0 . From the geographic spreading point of

104

view, all these oil shows on surface and in wells, as well as the oils from fields are mainly from the central and southern region of western Albania, as the most perspective region for hydrocarbon exploration. The Cretaceous Family, with carbon isotopic ratios in the range -20.5 to -24.0 . This family includes: the soluble fractions of Cretaceous source rocks (Droja, Erzeni), surface oil shows (Makareshi 1, 2, 3, etc.) and oil shows from wells (Miloti-26/b, Thumana-1), but also their respective analogs in Dalmatia Coast, which indicate that have isotopic ratios in the range -21.6 to -23.5 (Moldavan et. al., 1992). The soluble fractions of Cretaceous source rocks are collected from the northern region of western Albania, near by Thumana-1 and Milot-26/b wells. 4. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION AND EXPLORATION OF THE HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATIONS IN ALBANIA In conformity with data for oilfields discovered in Albania and the character of surface hydrocarbon shows, since 1930-1940, Prof. Dr S. Zuber defined in Albania three hydrocarbon field types: 1. Asphaltic type, related with uppermost Eocene levels, rather frequently found in Balkan countries. 2. Flysch type, related with oil accumulated in the argillaceous-shale complex of Paleocene (Drashovic), in which the saturation of beds with oil consists in the change of the consistence of beds. This phenomenon show rather similarity with such phenomena observed in Apennines (Italy). 3. Neogene or Mediterranean type, related with eastern boundary of Mio-Pliocene transgression (Kucova, Patos), in which the oil impregnation belongs to old lagoonal zones or descents with visible traces of the changeable regimen owing to outfall of different rivers during Miocene. By end of 50, immediately after discovery of the Marinza oil field, in beds of Marinza suite of Tortonian-Mesinian age, it was formulated concept of pools of monocline type (Patosi), lithological type (Kuova) or of bay type (Marinza). Based on these concepts, it was concluded on a practical conclusion, that in the areas in which a transsgresive contact exists between the deposits that set up anticline structural shapes with younger deposits of Miocene, oil pools of the monocline type, analog with those discovered in Kucova and Patos can accumulate and preserve. The presence of the abundant oil shows in Cretaceous-Eocene carbonate deposits, exposed at the surface, many others in several exploratory wells, as well as their analyzing and interpretation, served as starting-point for exploration of the petroleum accumulations in buried carbonate structures, and first of all in the Patos-Verbasi buried structure. The continuity of exploratory drillings towards north and south in this structure, the drilling of well 622, in 1963, in the south termination of the Patos-Verbas buried structure, resulted with discovery of the Visoka hydrodynamic oilfield. For the difficulties in their exploration,

105

Dr. Tomi Kristo named these traps crafty or tilted. Considerable amounts of oil and gas are accumulated in carbonate deposits. This discovery defined and a new object with high perspective, the Cretaceous-Eocene carbonate deposits covered by flysch deposits of Oligocene-Miocene age. Under such conditions, the complex of the geosciences for preparation of the new exploration prospects was diversified, giving priority seismic method. As consequence, the effectiveness of investments in exploration increased. This followed with discovery of other oil and gas accumulations in carbonate deposits covered by flysch deposits of Oligocene-Miocene (Ballsh, Gorisht-Koul) or partly (Visok, northward Patos-Verbas) and later it followed with oil, gas and gascondensate accumulations such as: Finiq-Krane, Amonica, Cakran-Mollaj, Hekal-Karbunare, Delvina, etc. This situation and experience defined another important exploration criterion, the identification and preparation with G & G complex works for drilling of the structures in Cretaceous-Eocene carbonate deposits covered Oligocene-Miocene flysch. The commencement of the production of these oilfields brought increasing of the annual oil production, reaching its peak, in 1974, with some 2.248.000 ton oil (Fig. 10). Thereafter, in 1980-1990 and especially after 2000, the annual oil production drop in the lowest level, reaching in 2005 in about 300.000 ton. This drop of production was consequence of the lack of investments. During this period, the exploration operations remained restricted whereas drillings were limited. The entering of the foreign investments during 2004-2006 and commencement of the rehabilitation and improvements in Patos-Marinza oilfield, associated with implementation of the new technology, especially with using of the progressive cavity pumps, brought the increase of annual oil production in Albania (Fig. 10). In 2007, new petroleum agree- Fig. 11 Correlation of the gas-generation zones according to vitrinite reflectance (Ro) ments signed with foreign
Pa na ja Fra kull Povelc a Sema n Ard enic a Divja ka
1200

DIAGEN

EARLY CATAGENESIS

CATAGENESIS

Durrs
760

Preza -1/ s
1227

1500

1400

Stage

G e ne ra ti o n Zo ne

Ro

1760

1752

B IOGE NIC GAS

0.25

2720

1720

3577

0.3

3813

4148

MIX E D GAS

4240

4443

0.4

4720

E AR LY T HE R MO G E NI C G AS

5401

5505

0.5

MAIN P E T R OL E UM GE NE R A T ION ZONE

6232

6896

6885

7609

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companies. For carbonate fields Ballsh-Hekal, Gorisht-Koul, Cakran-Mollaj and Delvina Albpetrol entered in petroleum agreement with Stream Petroleum Ltd. whereas for Kucova oilfield with Sherwood Petroleum International Ltd. Actually, Albpetrol is in negotiations process with others companies for Visoka and Amonica fields. The discovery of commercial natural gas fields is result of the exploration period 1960-70. The drillings for natural gas until 1962, in the structures of the Peri-Adriatic Depression, were unsuccessful. The new geoscientific conception of the common influence of lithologic and structural factors in the gas entrapment for Divjak region, Lushnje later followed with new gas discoveries in Frakulla and Povelca areas, but from the commercial point of view the discoveries in individual wells, as those in Panaja and Durres. Even the satisfactions are completed in the framework of sedimentologic studies; this criterion is still useful for gas exploration in PAD. In this context, as well as the vertical generation and accumulation zonality of gas in PAD (Fig. 11), within the potent thickness of the Neogene deposits, there are still targets of high perspective for gas, located in different depths that are related with these different parts of the anticlines and monoclines, both onshore and offshore. However, annular production of natural gas, the same as oil production, during the period 1980-1990, suffered a drastic drop, but especially this occurred in 1990 and in continuity (Fig. 12). 5. GEOLOGIC-GEOCHEMICAL PRACTICAL EVALUATION As the new potential prospects and of the first priority for the hydrocarbon accumulation discoveries, in Albanian territory, actually are still the carbonate deposits. These potential and probable prospects are mainly located in the Ionian, Kruja, Sazani zones and partly in Krasta Zone, in the continuity of structures in the Ionian and Kruja zone anticline belts, under the entire western part of the Peri-Adriatic Depression or where the Adriatic carbonate platform extends under it. In these regions, the depth of these structures is in the range 3-5-6 km. The geological setting in two stages, where the carbonate structures are transgressively covered by the Peri-Adriatic Depression deposits, is the main distinctive feature for these areas. With the same features and characteristics have to be also the regions in north and south of Tirana, up to Shkoder-Lezhe, where should exist carbonate struc-tures covered by flysch deposits, with single stage geological setting, but complicated by overthrusting tectonic of the other structures easternmost. This overthrusting tectonics hides part of the deep structures and makes difficult their localization. With the same characteristics should be also the more northwestern regions of Kruja Zone, where the carbonate structures are masked of the overthrusting of Krasta Zone flysch deposits. The Dalmatia-Montenegro range, which comes from northwest, disappears in the collapsed zone of Shkodra, and appears again in two anticlines, in Renc and Kakariq, afterwards it dips and disappers again in the collapsed zone between Drinit (Lezhe) and Matit, appears in Mamuras and continues to Kraba. The Tertiary formation lies with discordance

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on limestone and Paleogene flysch deposits. The pushing tangent forces may have caused fractures along the folding axis, with presence in the contact of limestone-flysch deposits with Tertiary. These structures can be of two types: Usual faults that can continue and much more deeper Faults of disnjuctve types with western flank collapsed or rise in the eastern flank. These faults must be considered of the first-order importance. Those have defined the evident overthrusting of the Kruja Zone towards the west and the possibility of the continuity of the Ionian Zone structures under it, but migration of the hydrocarbons from deeper part as well. In these cases, in depth, future carbonate structures of the Ionian tectonic zone of order more than 3.4 km predict, where the intensive migration of hydrocarbon generated has associated all tectonic phases, and as a consequence of this, all closed traps (the parts of the structures in which the equilibrium of gas, oil and water is reached) should be penetrated by migration and have created hydrocarbons accumulations. Actually, the exploration of the hydrocarbon accumulations in these structures is more difficult, because of being deeper, overfrusting tectonics and tectonics of salt diapirism. The identification and exploration of these structures can be committed only through an integration and interpretation of the data of different geosciences, and especially of a high quality processing and multidimensional seismic analysis. So, the main condition or most important one for discovery of new favorable structures is entering deeper and deeper in their geology and tectonics.
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Bituminous Sands Deposits in Albania an Alternative Source of Hydrocarbons


Prof. Dr. Defrim Shkupi Prof. Dr. Fotaq Diamanti Albanian Association of Engineering Geology and Geoenvironment Actually, the main source of the energetic matters is: the petroleum, gas and coals. But at the recent level of the world techniques and technology is to be increased the attention towards other resources of the hydrocarbons as natural deposits of the bituminous sands and sandstones. Based on the different studies abroad and in Albania, results the bituminous sandstones are an important material, that can be used is different directions. Based on the done engineering assessments from the Institute of the Geological Research, and from different specialist making part of other Institutes and Associations, results that bituminous sands can be used as material for extracting different productions of the petroleum and the bitumen. In these conditions the problem is issued for finding. a. Which is the possible value of this wealth based on the different technological variants? b. Which will be the probable investments to be done for arriving at the foreseen and immediate level of the rentability for being competitive? c. Which will be the probable marketing of the bituminous sands? d. The bituminous sands being a country wealth, the problem is, which is their balance in the construction of the infrastructure and it is possible to be applied a budget politics towards the financing of the construction of the road infrastructure? Through the answers of the above mentioned questions will be concluded for the importance of this natural resource. Also, depending from the conclusions mainly related with the effects that will have the use of the bituminous sands in the Economy scale in whole country. In this context we can say that in some countries of the world the bituminous sands and sandstones are an important object of different studies accompanied with interesting practical results. It is very useful to be known and from us the news in this field, because Albania since many years, is in the way of the exploration and exploitation and the treatment of the bituminous sands and sandstones but not with the intensity requested actually. The bituminous sands and sandstones deposits are the energetic matter for the perspective. Their reserves are increased from the reassessment of the known dates. In such way, the authors request to be attentive because the exploitation and their treatment will help to overpass the energetic crisis. In our material is recommended that would be very useful to be used a technological scheme of the elaboration of the bituminous sands for the production not only of the synthetic petroleum, but and the continually extraction of other products with economic value. Economic calculations have shown that the use of the bituminous sands only for the construction of the roads, have as economic effects 5 6 times lower that their complex use.

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Albania is valued as one of the riches countries with bituminous sands. Having in the consideration only two main fields: Kasnice Visoke Patos in Fieri Region and Trebleve Selenice in Vlora region - are calculated: - verifies reserves 120 million tons - probable reserves 360 million tons - prognosis reserves 00 630 million tons (from some other calculations until 2 billion tons). Bitumens as constituent of the bituminous sands and sandstones are related genetically with the petroleum. They are natural substances with different colour, hardness and volatility, composed mainly by elements: C and H accompanied by another organic material. They are colloidal systems, where the dispersive environment is constituted by oils (mainly hydrocarbons), meanwhile the dispersive phase is contented by asphalts (polycichz components with high molecular weight). The bituminous matter gives to the sandstones a dark gray colour until black, this one is liquid and half liquid, meanwhile in outcrops is presented as plastic until solid. The bituminous matter has the density 1017 1050 mg/cm3. The point of the softness is 22 48C. The spectroscopic analyses has evidenced in the bitumen of the bituminous sands the content of V, Ni, Mo, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ga. The mineral fraction of the bituminous sands is fine grained and medium grained, friable with weak clay and silt cement. Granulometric analyses have shown that the fraction 0.4 0.25 mm is occupying the greatest part of the rock (36 41 %). The content of the sandstones is mainly quartzite (60 6 %), the carbonate is high and at some occasions until 2.9 % of the weight. Below we will give some geological technical and economic considerations: 1. The main deposits of the bituminous sands belong structurally to a monocline zone (Patosi, Treblova, Selenica) contented mainly from the mollusk deposits of Tortonian Pliocene, that contact at the depth with ancient deposits. The sediments are detaic, in the upper form of the layers or layer lents with great dimensions the sands have a monocline inclination 10 14 15 towards the North West. 2. Vertically are evidenced some levels of the bituminous sands with thickness 1 2 until 17 18 m, alternated with clay layers with thickness 25 30 m. The depth of the objects is under 100 m. 3. The content of the bitumen is in medium 8 11 %. 4. The report mineral/steril is 1:3. The loss of the mineral is until 10 %. 5. The exploitation is realized in quarry, with scales 10 m and subscales 2 5 m. There are used modern machines for all the operations. 6. The bituminous sands deposits of Kasnica Visoke Patos (village) are situated in the south east of Fieri (15 km away), concentrated in the zone of Kasnica, Visoke, Patos Villages. The bituminous sands deposits of Trebleve Selenice are situated in the North East of Vlora (25 30 km away) in the zone of Treblova village. From the geographical position, they belong the most populated zone in Albania, the most industrialized zone near of ports: Vlora and Durresi near of the cities: Fier, Vlora, Patos and Ballsh and traversed by local and national roads, also and by railway that are linking the main cities with the ports of Vlora and Durresi. These zones covered totally from electric network. 7. The deposits of the bituminous sands are performed many works and geological studies.

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There are compiled all kinds of the maps with different scales (1:25000, 1:5000, etc). There are performed a lot of geological sections, drillings and analytic studies. 8. The deposits of the bitumineous sands are of state ownership and partially private and are treated conform the law on Hydrocarbons and Mining Law. 9. The deposits of the bitumineous sands are initiated to be studied and exploited since the year 1940 from AIPA.With some shallow drillings and shallow geological works ,are studied and evaluated all the outcrops of the bitumineous sands of Gjanica Valley (Patos) and also is studied the possibility of the extraction of the carburants from these sands,by the way of the hydrogenization .The works for the the industrialization of these sands and of the construction of the plants for their elaboration are done from eng.Fauser of ANIC Company (Natural Agency of the Hydrogenization of Carburants ). For this , was prepared a project,but it was not applied because of the Harting of the Second World War. 10. Since the year 1970 are performed some experiments for the possibility of the extraction of petroleum from the bituminous sand deposits of Kosnica-Patos zone. In the year 1976 is constructed an experimental plant with daily elaboration of 4000 ton of bituminous sands. But this capacity is not realized. Practically in this plant are elaborated 800- 1200 ton daily only.There is used the method of the deliberation of bitumen from the sands through the hot water in 92oC temperature, accompanied with caustic soda (alkaline water).This method had great difficulties, not arriving at the requested parameters. There was recuperation in medium 40 % of the quantity of bitumen in the rock. After this variant is experimented the dissolvation with organic solvents (benzene, petroleum) and combining also with distilled water in the temperature 60-70oC. And those experiments stayed at laboratory stage and didnt overpass in the rentable industrial stage. There was not used pyrolise method at 550oC temperature , because bitumen had considerable quantities of V and Ni. In these conditions we continued with the exploitation of bituminous sands Kasnica-Patos, for the production of asphalt-beton. This one realized the production of 100 000-110 000 ton/year in the period 1986-1990. Today is producing 15 000-20 000 ton/year that are to be used for the construction of the secondary roads.Partly these ones are exported to Czech Republic and Macedonia. 11. After the year 1990 a lot of efforts are done for ensuring the intrusion of the foreign investments.In this context in 1994 y was included in the contract-agreement of Premier Oil (English company) for the rehabilitation and the remediation of the field Patos-Marinez and the deposits of bituminous sands of Kasnica-Patos.After many technological tests, the project of the use of bituminous sands for the production of asphalt-beton was considered unrentable. 12. In the next years there are arrived many interested companies mainly from Canada, but not concretizing any contract agreement in a permit license.As conclusion we emphasize that the deposits of bituminous sands constitue a great natural resource as row material for energetic matters in Albania and for Chemical Industry, Metallurgy and Construction. Therefore is requested their introduce in economic use depending from the technological rentabilities of their extracton and elaboration. Prestigious Investitors from abroad and Country can invest there successfully.

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Hydro energetic Activity in Albania


Marjana oku Director of Hydroenergy Department

Albania is a rich country in water resources. Because of its morphological characteristics; Albania is very rich in rivers. There are about 152 rivers and torrents which create eight big rivers. The hydrographical territory of Albania has a surface of 44.000 km2 or 57 % more than the national area of our country. The average height of the hydro graphic territory of Albania is very large, about 700 m above the sea level. THE AVERAGE PERENNIAL TOTAL INFLOW OF OUR RIVERS IS ABOUT 1245 M3/S. All our rivers run to the sea about 40 billion water cubic meter/year. Hydro energetic potential of Albania Albania has a hydropower potential, where only 35 % of it, is used so far. Total resources are about 4.500 MW. The annual Generation potential would get around 18 TWh. The installed capacity is 1461 MW. The average generation is 5224 GWh. Hydro Power Plants (HPP) There are 89 Hydro Power Plants actually, where only 37 of them are in operation. There are 82 HPPs with installed capacity 10 KW 1000 KW, 7 HPPs with installed capacity 1000 KW- 5000 KW and up.
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Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Albania


Engjell Dakli Director of Renewable Energy Department

Albania has worked to combine energy efficiency and renewable energy policies, and doing it as part of an overall energy strategy. Many countries link energy efficiency and renewables as part of their climate change strategies, whereas we are making this linkage through sustainable energy strategies. Integrating energy efficiency and renewable energy into both energy and environmental policies is important for establishing a framework for ripping the practical benefits of the integration opportunities. Energy security and climate change in Albania is as increasingly important drivers for energy policy, which is reflected in the increasing role of energy efficiency and renewables. The main objective of Albania energy policy is to implement a transition to a sustainable energy system, moving towards an environment-friendly energy system, which denotes broad reliance on renewable energy sources. Measurers to induce or support energy conservation and develop and use sustainable, renewable energy resources thus play key role energy policy in Albania.

Moncada Energy Group

Moncada Energy Group

Moncada Energy Group is one of the biggest Italian energy producers from the renewable source of wind. The Company progressively has achieved the effective and efficient integration of the highest professional standards, in the frame of constructions by the best
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practices available, in the frame of renewable energies. Below are presented the most meaningful stages of the Company: 1991 Moncada is born in Agrigento by the will of Moncada brothers, and focuses its core business in the sector of constructions. 1991/2000 The Company develops its competences in the sector of constructions and infrastructures by realizing initiatives of a high complexity, from the residential constructions and industrial constructions on hydro plants, public lighting, road works. All the works are realized in compliance with the standards foreseen from the systems of quality management (the latest is realized UNI EN ISO 9001). In the last two years Moncada initiate an enlargement process by ensuring participation with a company which operates in the area of installation/maintenance of remote commanding and controlling systems. 2001 We are in the tomorrow of the liberalization of the Italian electricity market (Bersani decree). The company initiates a second phase of enlargement and appears in the sector of renewable wind source energy, by optimizing its professional and organizative capacities. 2005 Enter in production the first wind farm of Moncada: Mount Mele, located in Agrigento Province, with an installed power of 9,25 MW. In this wind farm is installed the first prototype of wind generator of 750 kW with a direct drive technology, designed and realized entirely from Sistemi Elettronici, Company of the Group. 2007 Enter in production 4 other wind farms, again in Agrigento Province: Mount Malvizzo, Mount Durr, Mount Narbone and Altopiano Petrasi with an installed power of 96,05 MW. The group has tried to : Ensure the new segments in the market of wind source energy, through the realization of new Wind Farms in Italy and abroad; Consolidation of the position ensured in the biggest market of renewable energy by the realization of the initiatives of different typologies; Implementation of Core Business in the International Market of the energy through

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the realization of the interconnection infrastructures between Italy and Countries of the Mediterranean Basin.

Completion of the realization of the in-sourcing process of wind farm through the systematic use of the wind generators produced by the Group; Generate economic values by ensuring revenues which may provide the support of the development programs; Creation of an Excellence Pole in the frame of the renewable energies by means of continuous interactions between the human resources of the Group, and the territory; Guide the public opinion by reaching the awareness toward a sustainable e ecological development. Reaching the missions objectives is based upon values which has continuously characterized the history: Achievement of excellence Engagement toward the technological innovation Detailed understanding of the market Care toward cooperators Care and respect toward the environment Moncada Energy Group is characterized by an organisative structure of the network type: In detailing and developing the industrial plan, the Group: Has initiated the realization of a wind farm, and plan to initiate within June 2008,
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two other wind farms with a complex installed power of 100 MW; Is in an advanced phase of authorization an onshore wind farm in Albania with a complex installed power of 500 MW; Is in an advanced phase of authorization, in different maturity stages, other onshore wind farms in Italy, for a complex installed power of 780 MW; Is in authorization phase of an offshore wind farm in partnership with Enel Produzione S.p.A. in Sicily Chanel of a complex power of 345 MW; Has initiated the realization of Thermo electrical Plants with liquid Bio Combustible, for a complex installed power of 35 MW; Is in authorization phase of Thermo electrical Plant with liquid Bio Combustible of the installed power of 10 MW; Has initiated the realization of a Thermo electrical Plant with Combustible Biomasses of the installed power of 10 MW; Has in authorization phase two Thermo electrical Plants with Combustible Biomasses of the installed power of 20 MW; Has initiated the realization of a geo-thermo-electrical plant of an installed power of 2,5 MW; Has in authorization phase photovoltaic plants of the installed power of 130 MW; Has received the authorization for a Interconnection Line in continuous current (merchant line) between Italy and Albania, of a capacity of 500 MW and High Voltage of 400 kV; Is in authorization phase for a Interconnection Line in continuous current (merchant line) between Italy and Tunisia, of a capacity of 600 MW and High Voltage of 400 kV; Has bought a closed industrial plant (former Montedison area at Port Empedocle) which will be converted partially for the realization of a Hub, for storing liquid bio combustibles, and partially for the production of wind generators, shovels and relative holding towers; Has gained in concession, the availability of 35000 hectares in Ukraine, destined for the production of combustible biomasses. Also: Is in developing phase of three on shore wind farms in Bulgaria of a total power of 300 MW; Is in purchasing phase of a wind farm project in Sicily of 90 MW; Is developing and improving the concession related to the use of 50.000 hectares of soil, for the production of combustible biomasses, partially located in Mozambique and partially in Ghana. Such actions will allow the consolidation of the Group and will represent an important step in the strategy of enlargement of the Group.

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Wind source.

Plants in Construction Through Enpower 3, Moncada Energy Group has initiated the realization of a wind farm located in Cattolica Eraclea (AG), of an installed power of 34.85 MW. In this farm, will be installed 43 wind source generators realized by Sistemi Elettronici, company of the group. The plant will enter in production during the second half of 2009. National Plants in authorization phase Within march 2008, will start the realization of two plants which are in the phase of completing the procedure of issuing the authorization. It is also foreseen that within 2010 may initiate the construction sites of 11 onshore plants and 1 offshore plant, of a total installed power of 1185 MW. International Plants in authorization phase The Group has developed a project for the realization of a wind farm in Albania, in south and south-east of Vlore, located partially in Karaburun Pen island and partially in the Mounts Longare and Mounts Kanalit, of an installed power of 500 MW. This is the biggest wind farm ever designed in Europe. The Initiative is introduced in the beginning of 2007 to the Albanian Authorities, in the presence of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Energy, by receiving the particular attention and good understanding from the Press Organs. The project has received an environmental approval in December 2007. The initiation of construction works is estimated within the end of 2008. International Plants in development phase. The group has developed a project for the realization of a wind farm in Bulgaria, located in the central part of the Country, near the areas of Panagurishte, Karlovo e Stara Zagora, and in the west of Struma river along the border with Macedonia. Related to the way of connection with the national power network, are established
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the preliminary contacts with the Bulgarian Authorities. The project will be introduced with the first semester of 2008. Photovoltaic The group has developed different projects for the realization of photovoltaic grid connected plants located on the inside of Sicilian territory, in the Provinces of Enna and Agrigento. Photovoltaic plants in authorization phase

EACH OF THE FOUR INITIATIVES HAS AN INSTALLED POWER BIGGER THAN THE BIGGEST PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT IN EUROPE (Portugal P=11 MW) Total installed power in the photovoltaic plants which are being designed is equal to 130 MW Biomasses The group has adopted toward biomasses the support that was followed earlier in the wind source segment, by getting organized in order to gain all the necessary competences for designing, realizing and managing the biomasses plants. Actually there are in developing phase of one liquid combustible biomasses and one combustible biomasses, plants of the power of 10 MW each and are in authorization phase for one liquid bio combustible plant and two plants with combustible biomasses with an installed power of 10 MW each. The research and development activity of the Group has made possible the design and realization of more plants with liquid bio combustibles of a complex power of 450 KW to be attached to the wind source generators installed in the wind farms now operative. Initiating from 2006 Moncada has enlarged its area of activities in the sector of renewable sources energy by setting the goal to realize a series of combustible biomasses plants by using traditional technology (Incinerators with mobile burning bed). First Plant, realized, built in the Province of Agrigento, will be completed within 2008 and is designed to facilitate the use of burnable biomasses of different

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typologies. After the completion of the works of the plant will start the construction of two other plants, always in the Province of Agrigento with the same characteristics, which will enter in function in 2010. With the purpose of monitoring the adequacy with the geo - climate conditions of the territory and the corresponding level of energy, the group has planted some experimental areas using several cultures for the production of (Panicum Virgatum e Jatropha Curcas). At the conclusion of these experiments the Group has decided to tak, in concession, other 185.000 hectares of soil in order to initiate the production of biomasses. From these, 35.000 hectares are received from the Controlled Company Biopower Ukraine, 50.000 other hectares are in the process of receive, partially in Mozambique and partially in Ghana. The group aim at using the Palm Oil and the use of Fast Marine Engines. Use of standard engines has demanded the design of a warming and filtering of oil system, developed from Moncada technicians. Within 2008 will enter in function more Liquid Bio Combustible plants of a total power of 35 MW divided in one thermoelectric central of 10 MW and in marine engines with a total power of 25 MW which will function in parallel with the wind source generators. In the frame of the first plant, the Moncada technicians has designed a system of recovering the heat derived from the exhaust gas and the cooling water, with the objective supplying with heat the surrounding constructions, in order to improve the efficiency. The idea of parallel functioning of the marine engines with the wind source generators will allow to optimize the efficiency of the existing infrastructures and regulate the power inserted in the network by guaranteeing sure advantages for its sustainability. Geo thermal Moncada is the owner of a project for the construction of Geo -Thermo Central in the island of Pantelleria, through the Geotermica S.r.l. which controls it by 100%. Its initiated the research for the best possible locations of the wells of extraction and the relative analysis of the energy production. The extraction wells, of a depth of 1000 meters each will be prepared in such a way to allow operations of deviation or re-entering. After the perforations (first semester of 2008) will be possible to define the geo-thermal power developed, estimated 2,5 MW, and evaluate the best elevation of the existing deposits and their characteristics, in such way to proceed with the executive desing and with the realization of the geo-thermo central. The works will end in spring 2008. Until 2011 is foreseen to produce 100 wind source generators WPR 850/58 per year, which will be installed in the wind farms of Moncada. Progresively will enter in production also other models of wind source generators

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of 2 MW, 20 KW e 1,5 KW, actually in phase of designing and prototyping. Merchant-lines The group has developed the project of Inerconnection Line in continuous current between the transmission networks of Italy and Albania, with a capacity of 500 MW and Ud= 400 kV. The line has a total length of 154 km, of which 14 km in Italian soil (Brindisi Commune), 10 km in Albanian soil, and 130 km under water, located inside the Otranto Chanel, where is reached the maximal depth of 825 metra. The two extremities are connected to the Conversion Stations (transformation of continuous current in alternate) which are connected with the E.S.S. 380 kV of Brindisi South (Italian side) and with the E.S.S. 220 kV of Babica (Albanian Side). The project which has received the favorable opinion of the Managers of the ransmission Network (Terna for Italy and TSO for Albania) is lately approved (on January 9, 2008) from the Albanian Government, with a decree of the Council of Ministers and is in an advanced phase of authorization in the Italian Territory. Interconnection is today functional for the import of wind source energy in Italy, which the Group will produce in the Albanian Land, also for the Import of Electric Energy form Italy to Albania. The Group has developed also the project of the Interconnection Line in Continuous Current between the Italian and the Tunisian network, with a capacity of 600 MW and Ud= 400 kV. The line has a total length equal to 223 km, of which 25 km in Italian land (Communes Partanna, Castelvetrano and Menfi), 1 km in Tunisian land (Province of Nabeul) and 196 km underwater, located inside the Channel of Sicily, where is reached he maximal depth of 770 meters. The two extremities are also in this case connected to the Conversion Stations which are connected with the E.S.S. 220 kV of Partanna (Italian side) and with E.S.S. 220 kV of El Haouaria (Tunisian Side). The project has achieved now the favorable opinion of Terna, and is in the phase of authorization. Interconnection is functional for the import of energy produced in Wind Farms, which the Group aims to realize in Tunisian Land. It is not excluded that in a near future, an interconnection for the import of the energy produced in Tunisia, in Italy, from plants which use gas coming from Algeria.

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THE FULFILL OF ELECTRICITY DEMANDS IN HARMONY WITH ENVINRONMENT


Prof. Dr. Alfred Paloka Prof. Dr. Defrim Shkupi Albanian Association of Engineering Geology and Geoenvironment The paper discribes the new policy in exploitation of power sources. It must be provided the advances in ecological generation options, especialy in the construction of new power plants. Hydropower projects are regarded in Albania as most valuable assets of power production. It is imperativ to impruve the regles and conditions, in such way, as to secure the harmony betuine the hydraulic and thermal power and environment. Ecology and power production: beyond the possible opposition of these notions, it is important to pay attention n the global advantages coming out of their parity. The government programs for resolving the electricity supply of the country, must supports also the development of a decentralized way of electricity production and distribution, ith care about ecosystem resources and environment. For all power projects, which are planing to be realised, it must brifly discribed the functioning of a watery ecosystem of the flow water for H.P.P-s. and the ecological therms for T.P.P-s; and after that: it is necessary to summarize the posible impact over environment. Finaly, by some practical idea can makes the reduction of demages. 1. About the fulfilling of electricity demands in harmony with envinronment In the entire world, there is a great interest for living the environment in clean condition. This preoccupation for today and the moral obligation to leave the new generations in better social, economical and environmental conditions, dos that the high political leaders and the business mans to faced with demand for the wide employment of the removable power resources. The climatic changes from the green-house effect and the Chernobyl catastrophe indicated that the uncontrolled development of economy has one other great cost, which is the pollution cost. The definitive solution of the 20 years electricity crisis in Albania, thru the new hydro and thermal power plant constructions, appeared as it were in opposition with ecology. In particularly: ecology and waterpower, rarely displayed the possible opposition of one another, it is important to pay attention, on the global advantages coming out of their parity. The Albania government programs for resolving the power energy crisis, mast supports also the development of a decentralized way of electricity production, with care about the ecosystem resources. The realisation of a normal electricity supply, in concordance with environs and with out dangerous dependence from electricity imports, it is necessary an exact evaluation of the power native. Basis in these sources must decided for the weight which will takes hydro, thermal, nuclear and other power renovable sources (solar, wind, biomass, etc.) in the fulfilling of the power demands.
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To afford the hard condition in electricity supply in Albania, it must be provided the advances in ecological generating options, especially in the construction of new hydropower plants and rehabilitation of the existing HPP-s. The ecological movements has an important role in the protection of the environment and the conditions of life, but isnt necessary the stumbling of the great electricity production objects, with out serious arguments. If we have in consideration the fact that in the general energy consumer (with out electricity) in our country, predominant are the fuels, which overcomes for 2,3 times the electricity production. The concentration of these ecological movements must be in thise direction; further more when is known that fuel combustion realized almost in the open air. Very favorable natural conditions, allow complex, comprehensive, rational and optimal use of all water potentials and all effects such are: water provision supply and water quality, regulation of water courses and influence on overflows, influence on sports, recreation and tourism, ecological effects, fish habitats, and so on. It is imperative to improve the political and legislative framework, in such way, as to secure the role of hydraulic power, as major component of the country supply with electric power. External events and new developments in the hydropower sector can change the prospects of Albania power industry. The new construction and the refurbishment of the Hydropower plants, must take in consideration the amelioration of the existing ecological conditions of watery ecosystem, for each hydropower plant. All human interventions on river water flow, changes the dynamic processes. Those modifications create some times the hard conditions for the ecosystem. Those happen, when a water flow, loses his original functionality. For all existing hydropower objects and the new hydropower projects which are planing to be constructed, the specialist can briefly describe the functioning of a watery ecosystem of the flow water, and after that: In a first step, it is necessary to summarize the possible impact over environment more emphasis by the HPP-s. In the second step, it must exanimate the references about the situation in all country. In the third step, by some practical idea can makes the reduction of damages. In Albania gives preferences the construction and operation of HPP-s, because the hydropower generation is a potential sustainable source of energy not only in their environmental ranking, but and the feasible electricity production. A qualitative study is completed about the possibilities of efficient HPP-s construction in Albania rivers and torrents. There is some key factors, emerge which garanties a secure electricity and the futyre pozitione of hydropower and other kinde of power sources, which are: Competition for water resources; Energy and environmental policies; Prosperous power markets; Hydropower sector regulation; Public participation in decision making; Public acceptance of Hydro and thermal Power Plant-s and awareness of risk, Organization of power sector development, etc. There are only three factors clearly defined as active element for solution of the problem of successful investment and strategies: -Prosperous power market;

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-Public participation in decision making; -Public awareness of risk. Government and the other institutions which managing electricity sector in Albania, share the basic characteristic and prerequisites of power technology by the public. More precisely: water is a public resource, till now hydropower is a centralized resource, hydropower is non-pulling energy. Programs of actions to be composed in our Country, for the hydropower option will need to ensure that: The Government should pledge ones word for the privatization in hydropower sector; the public maintains in how electricity is generated and distributed; the public must well informed about the risk of the various power production options. 2. HPP construction and exploitation Without causing damages in environment From a long time, in Albania is pay attention the dams control, especially for the highest of them. This essentially, to avoid the dangers of their splitting, in consequence and for the dangers from inundates, while in fact causes a little or nothing negative influence from daily exploitations of HPP-s. The water flow, which not yet disturbed by the human activities, represent a consistent unites functional. All human interventions on water flow, changes the dynamic processes. This modifications dont is always grave, in consequences of the ecosystem. The grave consequences arrived, when the water flow loses their functions original. The construction of the big dams and the irregular power operations, with great quantity of the water for the energy production, especially in peak, may engender the perturbation on the ecosystem of the water flow. The changes of water inflow, carriage de deposits and the materials organic, low temperature in winter and high temperature in summer, which make possible the development of the vegetations, are the principal motors of the dynamic of the water flow. The high flux of materials and energy, fait the quantity of micro habitats dont the ecology conditions submitted by that dynamic, which modified in a constant manner. Those permit the development of community vegetables and animals which are precisely adapted by these permanent changes. We can determine three types of impacts: 1. The hinder of free emigrations of the fish. The construction of the dams or thresholds, for the exploitation of the hydraulic power, caused a obstacle non traversable for the migration of the faun and also encloses the hydro-graphic network. Such incidents are observed in some European country, similar as Albania. 2. The modification of the phenomenon of the row material carriage. A certain number of hydropower plants, have the regulation of their water incomes in the dam. Some others make that, by accumulation of a certain water volume, which caused a snare for the depots that are carried by water. This change of the dynamic of the water flow system represents two disadvantages: In the slant of the hydro plant, the phenomenas of the carriage are strength re-

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duced. The river bed, which reached by this brings is modified, often creates a calming of subtract. For a quantity of depots accumulates in the bearer, it is necessary a periodic evacuation by emptying. These remnants has the character of extraordinary bloats, where water is carriages with row materials, which can often bumps away the organisms of a small dimension. In this perturbations added the fact that often rested behind the remnants on the river bed, a quantity important of sediments fin, which obstruct for a long period the spaces of cracks of the river fond, which play a fundamental role for the watering life. 3. The modification of the water flow regime. In the cases of increasing of the electricity production in hydro power plant, in intention to profit the high prices energy (in the peak hours), the aggregates elaborates a high quantity of water. This situations caused by hydropower plant on the water return of river slant, the artificial oscillations, which regulates the effects of debits, which sometimes are measured in a very long distance. The consequences on the watering area are then: Inundates of the upheaval of slush surface of the riverbed, which provoked the die of watering organisms happened in dry. Artificial derivation of lived organisms which dont resist in the great of water quantity, evacuations in the movement of turbines. 3. The reduction of environment damages from the TPP In dependence of the combustibles which used in TPP for electricity production, the negative impact in the environment, may be less or more negative in environment. The negative influences go up particularly when the operation works isnt well controlled. The long experience of electricity production in the TPP-s, which used different kind of fuels (coal, crud oil, natural gas etc.), has makes the standardization of the pollution level of the evacuation excrements. The utilization of the computer control of the quality of the exit smogs, essentially NOx gases, has evident influences in limiting of the break of the exploitation rules in TPP-s. The technological progress in the construction of the filtering equipments for the exit burning gas smogs, makes possible the reduction of the environment from the pollution from TPP-s. 4. Some advices for solution of the ecological problems At the same time with efforts to fulfilling the demands for electricity supply through the augmentation of the power production, it is necessary a good will to fulfil existing law to favourites the necessary measures, not only for the protection of the watering environment, but also to makes improvement of the watering environment, that is to say:to make the best in report to actual situation. The intentions for increasing the hydropower production on contrary of saving the water area, creates false attitude behaviour at non-constructive. Only a good collaboration between of fields interest (production & environment) allowed finding a good solution. Each of two fields mast be treated in the same kind, because between production of hydropower and protection of environment dont the loos-

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est. Exists many examples which showed that with a small will can find the wiliness solutions and often more cheaply. In Following, are present some examples. 1. Creation of the habitats favourable on the water bringing canal On a very much cases, the water retreat is established on hundreds meters on amount of the hydropower plant. Often the water flows throw an open channel which frequently is constructed by materials dont favourable for the development of the watering life (concretes, elements fabricate, etc.). A simple and most natural management of these channels, allowed his transformation on a veritable water area, where for example the fishes dont only can exist, but can find a favourable side for their reproduction. One of the more successful and simple means is the using of the bio technique, which consist on revitalization of the long monotone channel, by local establishing of great blocs, where is restructuring the slants, by the aid of lived vegetable materials like briers, saplings etc. The optimal management of the cleaners of the dam. It is necessary to appeal for that a dam blocked the phenomena of fetching of sediments. For the security questions and the management of the accumulation reservoirs, it is necessary the periodic elimination of this sediments, by the cleaner. In the practically cases the regular cleanings perturbed the river-side and the other users of the water flow, which are established on the river slant. The planning for the cleaning of a dam not is so simple. Is not exist the universally prescription, meanwhile an observation of the phenomena which happen to the respective water flow, allowed to planning these type of events with intention to reduce the damages. For such thing it is necessary to respect the follow conditions: -Realization of the cleaning process, in the time period of water flow increase. -Planing detailer of opening procedure for gates. -Verification of the concentration of liberty rudiments, just as events over cleaning process, which tied with the contents of oxygen in water flow. -Observation of cleaning events, by intention to determine if happen the phenomena of cleaning out the periods or the state sensible for the life of watering organisms, which growled in the water flow. The equipments, that facilitates the management of floating remainders, accumulates in the water retread. According the seasons, a river flow transported a great or small quantities of remain floats (foliages, branches, trunks, etc.), which takes part in the flux of the necessary material for the water life in the river flow. For the protection the hydro turbines, from penetration of these remains is prevision the placing in water retreat the grills which hindrance this materials. With the help of small interventions which modifies the morphology of the water flow, can provoke the change locale of the condition of water flow, which allowed the maximum limitation of the quantity of remains floating, which arrived on the grill. The possible impacts of HPP-s on watering area. The water flow not yet disturbed by the human activities, represent a consistent unites functional. All human interventions on water flow, changes the dynamic processes. This mod-

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ifications dont is always grave, in consequences of the ecosystem. The grave consequences arrived, when the water flow loses their functions original. The construction of the big dams and the irregular power operations, with great quantity of the water, for the energy production especially in peak, may engender the perturbation on the ecosystem of the water flow. The changes of water inflow, carriage de deposits and the materials organic, low temperature in winter and high temperature in summer, which make possible the development of the vegetations, are the principal motors of the dynamic of the water flow. The high flux of materials and energy, fait the quantity of micro habitats dont the ecology conditions submitted by that dynamic, which modified in a constant manner, what permit the development of community vegetables and animals which are precisely adapted by this permanent changes. We can determine three types of impacts: The hinder of free emigrations of the fish. The construction of the dams or thresholds, for the exploitation of the hydraulic power, caused an obstacle non traversable for the migration of the faun and also encloses the hydrographic network. Such incidents are observed in some European country, similar as Albania. The modification of the phenomenon of the row material carriage. A certain number of hydropower plants, have the regulation of their water incomes in the dam. Some others make that, by accumulation of a certain water volume, which caused a snare for the depots that are carried by water. This change of the dynamic of the water flow system represents two disadvantages: In the slant of the hydro plant, the phenomenas of the carriage are strength reduced. The river bed, which reached by this brings is modified, often creates a calming of subtract. For a quantity of depots accumulates in the bearer, it is necessary a periodic evacuation by emptying. These remnants has the character of extraordinary bloats, where water is carriages with row materials, which can often bumps away the organisms of a small dimension. In this perturbations added the fact that often rested behind the remnants on the river bed, a quantity important of sediments fin, which obstruct for a long periods the spaces of cracks of the river fond, which play a fundamental role for the watering life. The modification of the water flow regime. In the cases of increasing of the electricity production in hydro power plant, in intention to profit the high prices energy (in the peak hours); the aggregates moved a high quantity of water. These situations caused by hydropower plant on the water return of river slant, the oscillations artificial which regulates the effects of debits, which sometimes are measured in a very long distance. The consequences on the watering area are then: Inundates of the upheaval of slush surface of the riverbed, which provoked the die of watering organisms happened in dry. Artificial derivation of lived organisms which dont resist in the great of water quantity, evacuations in the moment of the turbine operation.

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Utilization of Solar Energy in Albania Experience of the Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre
Dr. Eng. Edmond M. Hido Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre Email: ehido@eec.org.al Website: www.eec.org.al 1.0 Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre The improvement in the supply security, the reduction of the energy consumption in industry, the increasing of energy efficiency in the buildings, the reduction and control on energy losses, and significant economic and environmental gains that will result from the implementation of such measures are very important for the vitalization of the Albanian Economy and for improvement of the living standard of the population. In this framework, objectives of the activitis of the Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre (Centre) are: Promotion of the Efficient Use of Energy, Exploitation of Renewable Energy Resources, Energy Conservation and Energy Management in Albania. Promotion of Implementation of Several Projects for Efficient Use of Energy and Exploitation of Renewable Energy Resources in Albania. Organisation of different Training Seminars in order to transfer the know-how in the above mentioned fields. Launch of different Public Awareness Campaigns for the Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy and Exploitation of Renewable Energy Resources in Albania. Increase and strength of the co-operation between different Albanian Institutions that work in the Energy Field, and between Albania and other countries. 2.0 Necessity for Utilization of Solar Energy The geographic position of Albania and its Mediterranean climate provide favourable conditions for the successful utilization of the solar energy. The high intensity of the solar radiation and its duration, temperature and air humidity etc. will contribute to this effect. The Mediterranean climate with mild and damp winters and hot and dry summers make Albania a country with higher potential for the utilisation of solar energy than average potential. It is for this reason that Albania must be considered as a country with a good solar energy regime. It is now evident that among the renewable energy resources, solar energy is a very promising energy source for future application and it is very attractive because: Solar energy is an inexhaustible natural energy source, Solar energy is ecologically clean, and poses no threat to the environment, Solar energy is the largest natural energy source spread all over the world in amounts exceeding our energy needs,
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Solar energy is free of charge and its exploitation is accompanied by low running costs. 3.0 Potential of the Solar Energy in Albania On the basis of the climatic peculiarities, the Institute of Hydrometeorology has carried out special studies for the evaluation of the solar radiation regime in order to define some meteorological parameters that will provide the preliminary data for feasibility studies and technical calculations on the solar energy systems. A preliminary evaluation of the solar energy resources, based on the average annual solar radiation, by the nine meteorological stations throughout Albania, is given in the Figure 1. According to the calculations on the solar radiation carried out by the Institute of Hydro meteorology, under the conditions of the geographic belt where the station is located, the total annual solar radiation will vary from a minimum of 1,185 kWh/m2 in North Eastern part of Albania (in Peshkopia) to a maximum of 1,690 kWh/m2 in the South Western part of Albania (in Saranda). So, the average annual solar radiation in Albania is 1,450 kWh/m2. Most areas of the Albania benefits more than 2,200 hours of sunshine per year, while the average for the whole country is about 2,400 hours of sunshine per year. The Western part of Albania receives more than 2,500 hours of sunshine per year, while in Fieri 2,850 hours of sunshine per year has been recorded. The average daily solar radiation, based on the data of the nine meteorological stations, varies between 3.2 kWh/m2 per day in the North Eastern part of Albania (in Kukes) and 4.6 kWh/m2 per day in the South Western part of Albania (in Fieri). So, the average daily solar radiation for the whole country is 4.0 kWh/m2 per day. The Table 1 shows the average daily solar radiation only at the selected six stations. Here great differences have been shown, both between seasons and among stations. In this Table, in case of Shkodras station, it is notice that the average daily solar radiation varies from a minimum of 1.70 kWh/m2 on a December day to a maximum of 6.50 kWh/m2 on a July day. The same phenomena have been seen at other stations. The ratio between the month of a maximum solar radiation and the month with minimum solar radiation varies from less than 4 at Erseka and Saranda stations, to almost 5 at Fieri and Peshkopia stations. Table 1 - Average Daily Solar Radiation in Selected Stations (kWh/m2) Month January February March

April May

Shkodra 1.70 2.30 3.35 4.50 5.45

Peshkopia 1.55 2.30 3.25 4.15 5.25

Tirana 1.80 2.50 3.40 4.20 5.55

Fieri 2.15 2.85 3.90 5.00 6.05

Erseka 1.90 2.70 3.40 4.40 5.60

Saranda 1.90 2.40 3.60 4.80 5.80

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Month June July August September October November December

Shkodra 6.10 6.50 5.55 4.45 2.90 2.10 1.70

Peshkopia 5.85 6.25 5.45 4.35 2.90 1.85 1.50

Tirana 6.40 6.70 6.05 4.70 3.20 2.15 1.75

Fieri 6.80 7.20 6.40 5.15 3.50 2.40 1.85

Erseka 6.40 6.80 5.90 4.70 3.10 2.10 1.80

Saranda 6.80 6.10 4.80 3.60 3.20 2.10 1.80

Fig. 1 - Average Annual Solar Radiation in Albania (kWh/m2 year) Compared with the average daily solar radiation in The Netherlands of 2.5 kWh/m2 per day, in Denmark less than 3 kWh/m2 per day, in Germany 3.0 - 3.8 kWh/m2 per day, in France and North of Italy 3.8-4.6 kWh/m2 per day, in Spain 4.6 kWh/m2 per day, and in Greece more than 4.8 kWh/m2 per day, Albania has the average daily solar radiation of 4.0 kWh/m2 per day and in South of Albania 4.5 kWh/m2 per day. The comparison of the average daily solar radiation ratio for the above mentioned European countries and Albania is summarized in the Figure 2. As we can see from this Figure, Albania must be considered as a country with a good solar energy regime. Fig. 2 - Average Daily Solar Radiation for some European Countries and Albania (kWh/m2 per day) No special data exists to distinguish separately between the components of solar radiation, for instance the direct and the diffusive components of the solar radiation. Such records will be necessary for more adequate and exact evaluation of the solar energy projects that require a concentration of the solar beam.

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4.0

Uses of Solar Energy

During the last three decades, the use of solar energy has become important and spread all over the world. Now it is clear that among the renewable energy sources, the solar energy is a very promising energy source for the future. In general, its utilisation represents technical and economical problems related to the countries with low solar radiation, night-day change, seasons and weather cycles, and finally relatively low efficiency of the energy converting equipment. The main uses of solar energy are: Production of hot water for sanitary and technological needs. The systems used for this purpose are called solar water heating systems, The production of electricity. The systems used for this purpose are called photovoltaic cells, The production of electricity and hot water. The systems used for this purpose are called solar thermal power stations, The production of steam or hot water for district heating of buildings. The systems used for this are called solar water heating systems combined with boilers, Production of hot air for industrial needs, heating of dwellings and public buildings, and drying of agricultural products. The systems used for this purpose are called solar air heating systems. As it was presented above and based on the conditions of Albania, the production of hot water for sanitary needs in the sectors of residential, hotels, hospitals, and for technological needs in the industry sector (food industry) are the most possible and feasible uses of solar energy. This is because the solar collectors can be used during all the year and this use requires low temperature heat. The use of solar energy for heating of dwellings and public buildings is made when the heating conditions are the most difficult ones, the solar energy potential is lower and the equipment to realise it are more complicated and expensive. Thus, this use can be introduced in the future. The use of solar collector systems to produce hot water for sanitary and technological needs are divided into three main fields: Individual systems for domestic hot water production, Collective systems for heating of swimming-pools, Collective systems for space heating in dwellings and public buildings. The largest market of the solar heating systems is that of individual domestic hot water production. However, the market for collective installations has declined since 1985. This can be explained by the strong competition from conventional energy sources (oil, electricity and gas) and also by the number of system failures, due to lack of technical skill amongst the professionals involved (engineers, manufactures, installers and system managers).

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5.0 Basics of Solar Water Heating Systems


5.1 Solar Collector Systems Solar collector systems, designed to produce hot water for sanitary and technological needs, are made up of the following parts (see the Figure 3): - Solar collector area, - Hydraulic circuits and heat exchanger, - Hot water storage tank, - Back-up heating system. The conventional flat plate solar collector consists of an absorber plate, with its hydraulic circuits, fixed behind a sheet of glass, in a water-tight case. Thermal losses are reduced by both the greenhouse effect of the glazing and the thermal insulation of the casing. This type of solar collector can work efficiently throughout the year, heating a heat transfer fluid up to 50 O C more than the ambient outdoor temperature. As these collectors are used throughout the year, an antifreeze fluid is generally required. Therefore, the solar installation needs to have two independent hydraulic circuits, linked by a heat exchanger: the primary circuits is the circuit flowing through the collectors using an antifreeze heat transfer fluid, the secondary circuit is the domestic hot water circuit flowing through the heat exchanger to the hot water storage tank. Each of these components should be sized in order to offer optimal system efficiency. Only the good working order of all the parts together can make it possible to guarantee the performance of the installation and its energy production. 5.2 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection It is true that Southern Europe receives more sunshine than the North. But in reality the variations are less important than generally believed. The productivity of a solar water heating system is indirect relationship with the installation. But other factors can also help in conventional energy savings. For example, a solar installation works as a back-up system during the winter and as a main system during the summer. In this way, the conventional energy boiler will only be used during the period of the year when space heating is needed and its efficiency is at its best.

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Furthermore, the use of a solar energy system is one of the best ways of reducing the carbon dioxide emission and its effects on global warming. The reduction of CO2, from the use a solar system, depends on the energy source that it replaces. A solar collector with an area of 1 m2, installed near the Mediterranean, as for example Albania, can every year reduce CO2 emissions by the following amounts: 440 kg, if the replaced energy source is fuel oil (60 % conversion efficiency), 195 kg, if the replaced energy source is gas (75 % conversion efficiency), 380 kg, if the replaced energy source is electricity (with a 50 % nuclear contribution). These figures are far from being negligible and if one considers that, in the Southern European countries every other domestic water heater could be eventually solar heater (as already in Cyprus) the total emission of CO2 could be reduced by nearly 10% in these countries. In Albania, solar collector systems used for hot water production offer a minimal contribution to the national energy balance. Totally the contrary occurred during the last decade with the penetration of solar collector systems used for thermal power production, where the generation increased from 0 to 23 GWh in 2001. 5.3 Albanian Market of Solar Water Heating Systems If Albania develops solar collectors systems on a similar scale to other developed countries of the region, in per capita terms, the production of hot water could be equivalent to about 360 GWh (or 75 MW installed capacity). The figure of the total installed capacity in Albania can reach about 2.27 million m2 with a similar situation like Greece / Cyprus / Israel - i.e. 0,75m2/inhabitant. This installed capacity will be equivalent to 1,774 GWh (or 335 MW). These figures corresponds to a total collector surface of about 400 thousand m2 or 0.5 m2/family, and may be taken as indicative for Albanian Market potential over the next 20 years. However the involvement and participation of relevant institutions that should be developing solar energy in Albania is still insufficient. The comparison of the solar water heating systems penetration for different European countries and Albania is summarized in the Figure 4. In Albania, in the year 2000 and 2005, there were installed respectively 0.3 and 2.0 m2/1000 inhabitants. As it can be seen from this Figure, the forecasts for 2010 and 2015 are respectively 6.5 and 16.0 m2/1000 inhabitants. Fig. 4 - Solar Water Heating Systems Penetration in Different Countries (m2/1000 inhabitants)

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6.0 Experience of the Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre in Promotion and Installation of Solar Energy Systems in Albania
The main activities for utilization of Solar energy in Albania are initiated and implemented by the Albania-EU Energy Efficiency Centre (EEC). In more details these activities include: Seminars and Conferences; Public Information Campaigns; Publications in Albanian Language; Production of Television Documentary Films and TV-Spots; Feasibility Studies; Project Implementation; International Collaboration. 6.1 Seminars and Conferences organized by the EEC The Use of Ecological Sources of Energy - 1996; Albanian Energy Policy for a Common Future - 1996; Active & Passive Solar Energy Utilisation - a Necessity and Need for Albania - 1999; Albanian Energy Policy for a Sustainable Economic Development of the Country 2000; Media Training on Use of Alternative Energy Sources - 2001; Energy Payment, Efficient Use of Energy, Alternative Energies Utilisation - A Necessity for Overcoming the Energy Crisis in Albania - 2001; The Use of Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems as an Alternative Source of Energy - 2003; Solar Water Heaters - Albania - 2005; Renewable Energy Coordinated Development in the Western Balkan Region - 2006; Designs and Dimensioning of Solar Water Heating Systems - 2006; System Designs and Components of Solar Water Heating Systems for Hotels and Multifamily Houses - 2006; Acceleration of the Cost-Competitive Biomass Use for Energy Purposes in the Western Balkan Countries - 2006; Design, Dimensioning and Simulation of Solar Water Heating Systems - 2007; Design and Protection against Lime and Scale of Solar Water Heating Systems - 2007 Solar Combi Systems and Solar Heat for Industrial Applications - 2008.

6.2 Publications of the EEC


Proceedings of the Papers presented in organized Seminars - 11; Numbers of Newsletter The Energy in Albania - 18; Leaflets and Posters for Public Information Campaigns - 4; Feasibility Studies - 6; Opinion Surveys of Public Information Campaigns - 4.

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6.3 Public Information Campaigns Organised by EEC


Promotion of the Use of Solar Energy - City of Tirana - 1996; Promotion of the Use of Solar Energy - National - 1999; Population Awareness Campaign about Payment of Electricity Bills, Efficient Use of Energy and Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Albania - National - 2001/2002; Advantages of Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems - National - 2002/2003.

6.4 Production of Television Documentary Films and TV-Spots


Television Documentary Film Solar Panels in Albania - 1996; Television Documentary Film Solar Energy Utilisation in Albania - 1999; Television Documentary Film Solar Water Pumps Utilisation in Albania - 2003; Television Documentary Film Solar Pumps Utilisation in Rural Areas of Albania 2003; TV-Spot for promotion of Use of Solar Energy in Household and Service Sectors 1999; TV-Spot for promotion of Use of Solar Water Heaters in Households - 2001.

6.5 Projects Implemented by the EEC


Installation of Solar Water Heating Systems in the Psychiatric Hospital No. 5 -1993; Installation of Solar Water Heating Systems in the Home of Elderly Men - 1995; Opened the first Production line of Solar Panels in Albania - Tirana - 1997; Installation of Solar Water Heating Systems in Two Junior High Schools - 1998; Installation of Solar Water Heating Systems in Three Small and Medium Size Industrial Enterprises - 1999; Installation of Photovolatic Systems for Water Supply in Two Rural Communes 2002/2003; Solar Water Heaters in Albania - 2005/2008; Installation of Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems for Capacity Building, Technology Demonstration and Research Work at Polytechnic University of Tirana - 2007/2008.

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The Albanian Agriculture, towards its integration in the European Markets

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Prof. Dr. Ndoc Fasllia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumor Protection

Albania as a Mediterranean country has very good climatical conditions for the development of the agriculture. Agriculture continues to be one of the most important sectors of the national economy contributing at 21 % of the GDP. The rural families continue to dominate the national economy, more than 50 % of the population lives in the rural areas, and agriculture is the main working alternative of people living in these areas.
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The real economic growth of agriculture production during the last five years is estimated to about 3.5 % per year. The total value of agricultural production was about 2 milliard Euro, from which 30% belongs to agro industry. The total agriculture land represents only 24 % of the total area or 700.000 ha, from which 560,000 ha is arable land. The average of agricultural land per capita is 2000 m2. The total number of agricultural farms in Albania is 370.000 and the average of size farms is 1.2 ha. The most suitable area for developing of agriculture is western lowland of our country. The structure of the arable crops is dominated by the forage crops which take around 50 % of the surface of the cultivated land, cereals take 30 %, vegetables and potatoes take 10 % and others 10 %. The surface of vineyards reaches around 10 thousands ha, fruit trees around 40 thousands ha and olives around 20 thousands. Vineyard and arboriculture continue to increase annually respectively with 800 and 1000 ha per year.
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The livestock production takes around 45% of the total value of the agricultural production. The main products of this sector are milk, meat, eggs and honey. Trade and marketing of the agricultural products The trade of local agricultural and food products is growing up. At the moment the trade of the agricultural products is dominated by the imports. The commercial balance of import export is negative in the rate of 1:8. In 2007, the total exports of the agriculture sector reached 60 million compared to 53 million realized in 2006 or with an increase of 12 %. The exports continue to be dominated by medicinal plants which constitute the main weight of our exports around 34.2% of the total agricultural exports during 2007 with an increase of 13% compared to 2006. There is an increase of raw leathers by 2% during 2007, but their value takes only 15.5% of the exports. It is observed a rapid increase of the exports during this period particularly the export of eggs which has reached to 1785 thousand euro in 2007 compared to 87
Export and import of agricultural& food products Value( Million Lek) 2000 3827 34856 1:9 2005 5567 42445 1:8 2006 6643 53190 1:8 2007 7473 62849 1:8

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Item Description Export Import Export/Import

thousand euro realized in 2006. The other products most exported during 2007 are tomatoes, melons and watermelons, sunflower oil, pasta, wheat flour, vegetables conserved, etc.
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Eksporti - Importi ne vite Exports - Imports in years


milion leke Export 15000 Import 67500 62500 12500 10000 57500 52500 47500 7500 5000 42500 37500 32500 2500 2000 2005 2006 2007 27500

Eksport

Import

The imports of the agricultural products result with an increase of 18 %, reaching a value of 502 million in 2007 compared to 422 million realized in 2006. While according to the main branches, livestock sector realized 114.1% imports compared to the same period of the previous year, agriculture 117.5% and agro-industry 112.9.2%. According to the weight they take in value of the products imported during 2007, the products that have realized higher values are: wheat realized 141% and takes 12.1% of the total value of import, cattle 3.8% of the value and realized 126%, sunflower oil 108% and takes 5.3% of the value, biscuits, pastry bread are realized 114% and take 5.4% of the value, sweetened waters realized 131% and take 3.4% of the value, beer realized 145% and takes 3.7% of the value, etc. Some problems that restrain a rapid development of the agriculture sector in the country: 1. Small area of the agricultural farms 2. Low productivity in agriculture 3. Problems with food safety standards 4. Poor infrastructure in the rural areas 5. Limited opportunities for crediting of the agriculture Strategy of the Albanian Government for development of agricultural sector for the period 2007-2013 In the framework of the National Strategy for Agriculture Development, we are focused now in the main objectives and directions planed to be fulfilled in the period 2007-2013.

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Reform of Agricultural sector will continue within context of future and requirements of EU. In conformity with the EU lines some of the immediate measures under the implementation process in this sector are: Strengthening of the food security control system Legal regulations, clear definition of competences, as well as improvement of food and veterinary laboratories. Improvement of phyto-sanitary and sanitary conditions in compliance with the requirements of EU particularly for the potential products for export Compilation (drafting) of strategies for land use, land market, rural development, diversification of farm activities and increase of agriculture competitiveness Strengthening of gathering and processing process of teh statistic data for agriculture according to the EU standards and methodologies. In the middle terms our objectives are: Compliance of the fishery policies with EU standards particularly in the field of fishery resources management, inspection and control as well as the structural policies of the market. Achievement of fundamental improvement of food security, veterinary and phyto-sanitary conditions in compliance with EU requirements. Accreditation of food and veterinary laboratories. Identification and registration of animal farms Ensuring of efficient control of local agriculture production particularly for the products with specific requirements of EU and the increase of analytical capacity in phyto-sanitary sector. Significant improvement of transport and trading of agricultural and livestock products in the local market. The strategic priorities 1. Increase of the financial assistance for the farms and agro-business and agroprocessing 2. Improvement of management, irrigation and drainage of the agricultural land 3. Improvement of the marketing of the agricultural products, raw and processed 4. Increase of the level and quality of the technologies, information and know-how of the farmers and agro-processors. 5. Increase of food quality and food safety of the agricultural products, raw and processed

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The strategic sectors 1. Production of fruit trees, olives and grape 2. Production of vegetables 3. Production of livestock products 4. Industrial processing of fruits and vegetables 5. Industrial processing of grapes 6. Industrial processing of milk and meat The strategic aims of the Strategy of Agriculture are five: 1. Sustainable management of land, as fundamental basis for a sustainable agricultural development and in complete harmony with it 2. Increase of employment, incomes and the level of living of the farmers and their families 3. Increase of the economic efficiency in the agricultural and agro-processing sectors, that is indicated by means of increase of the productivity and the quality of their products 4. Guaranteeing a higher standard of food safety for the whole population 5. Improvement of the agricultural marketing

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Land reform

The agricultural land reform, existing legislation, problems related with ownership and chances of fered by Albania One Euro initiative for the agricultural land use
Prof. As. Dr. Irfan Tarelli Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumor Protection

The change of the property rights on agriculture land (from state to private owners), is one of the biggest and more radical reforms implemented in Albania, after nineties. Till the middle of 1991, the agricultural land was asa state propertywith a total surface of around 700, 000 ha. Up to know, 563 thousand ha of agricultural land have been divided (privatized), which represent 98.8 % of the surface planned for that purpose or 80.5 % of the total. Still, 136, 000 ha or 19.5 % of the total surface belong to the state. The law no. 7501, date 19.07.1991 On land, was the legal base, on which this land reform has been carried out. A number of implementing acts prescribed the criteria and procedures for land privatization, which was under administration of cooperatives and state farms. The main principles of the abovementioned law were: - the state gives agricultural land, in ownership, to the local physical and juridical persons, free of charge. These persons are agricultural families or individuals, members of former cooperatives living in the villages and other categories as well; - the old land boundaries before collectivism should not recognized; - the land received in ownership according to this law, is inheritable based on Civil Code. Meanwhile, by the law no.8053, date 21.12.1995, the workers of the former state farms privatized the land of these enterprises. Land ownership consolidation Legal documentation of land privatization or land titles are given for 543 thousand ha or 96.5% of the divided land. The land was given to 445 thousand family farmers, who represent 65% of all country population. First registration of the land titles, till the end of 2005 was done by a special unit, which was administratively under the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection.

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Until now, this process is completed in 2563 Rural Cadastral Zones out of a total from 2928 zones that country has. This is 87.5% of the total Cadastral Zones. By the Albania Governments Decision, no. 159, date 21.03.2006, the first land registration activity have passed to the Center Office for Immobile Property Registration, which is under the Ministry of Justice. The existing legislation to the agricultural land For the agricultural land, as a private property, (563,000 ha or 80.5% of the total surface) the Civil Code provisions are the base of its juridical regime. Also the law no.9244, date 17.6.2004 On agricultural land protection harmonize the rights of ownership and using with obligation to protect this land. The status of the agricultural land, as a state property, (136,000 ha. or 19.5 % of the total surface) is regulated by the following laws: - According to the law no.8743, date 22.2.2001 On State Immobile Properties, article 4, the agricultural land is qualified as a non-public immobile property of the state.
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- By the law no.8312, date 26.3.1998 On undivided agricultural land, the surface of about 100 thousand ha have been transferred to the local government authorities (communes and municipalities), which have the right to use it for the development needs of their communities. This category of the land, keeping the state ownership can be rented by the physical and juridical persons, local and/or foreigner, up to 99 years and used for crop and livestock farming. - By the law no.8053, date 21.12.1995 On free of charge ownership transferring of agricultural land, about 25 thousand ha have passed to the Central Agency of Property Restitution and Compensation. This land surface will be used to create the physical fund designated for old land owners. - The law no.8337, date 30.4.1998, article 4, states that ownership right transferring is not allowed to the foreigner physical and juridical persons, local and/or foreigner, but they can rent the land up to 99 years. -The law no.9590, date 27.7.2006 On ratification of the SAA between Republic of Albania and EU and its member states, excludes the ownership right on agriculture land for the EU firms, but meanwhile states that after 7 years this agreement came into force, the modalities for extending of these rights will be established. Within this period of time, the Albania

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will approximate the legislation in order to make possible the immobile property buying in Albania by citizens of Member States. Albania One Euro initiative and agricultural land use The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer protection has recently carried out a study on undivided or refused agriculture land, which is about 100 thousand ha. The main findings of this study are as the following: - This category of land is extended allover the country territory; - The bigger surface is found in Korca prefecture (about 25 thousand ha), in Dibra prefecture (about 15 thousand ha), in Elbasan prefecture (about 25 thousand ha); - In the lowland prefectures such surfaces are much more limited. This category was refused to be taken by agricultural families, because: - They have a lower natural fertility compared with other agricultural land, which is already under cultivation; they mostly belong to the class VII-X; - They are located far from urban areas, roads and irrigation infrastructure are not appropriate - The terrain is mostly hilly and mountain. Anyhow, this land surface represents a great valuable national asset. It could be used for the development of fruit trees, grapes, pasture and meadows and forestry. Within this space, a total surface of 25 thousand ha is composed by compact blocks more than 10 ha each, where the investment can be more effective. The existing legal framework, as it was mentioned above, allows: - Renting of this land up to 99 years; - The changes of cadastral categories from agricultural land to forestry, pasture, meadows etc; - Using of this land for construction activities, based on provisions of the urban law. The instruction no.3, date 16.5.2007 of Council of Ministers, has foreseen that when the required surfaces for renting are more than 10 ha and a well argued business plan is submitted, the renting cost could be 1 Euro per ha of agricultural land. After this instruction came into force, local and foreign entrepreneurs have shown interest for long term renting of large land surface mainly in Tirana, Gjirokastra, Vlora and Elbasani prefectures.
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Food safety and Consumer Protection, Reforms in this Sector for Approximation of Legislation and EU Standards Luljeta Cuko Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumor Protection

National systems of Food Control are very important. They play a principle rol in public health protection and establish the confidence of consumers. They guarantee the safety and quality of domestic foodstuffs and their imported. The global trade have put the constrains for countries that import and export foodstuffs, foer their systems for food control, for implementing and strengthing the strategy for food control. Actually, the consumer is very interested for the manner how is produced, proccesed and distributed the food and he want to have more responsabilities in the procces of the food safety guaratee. Based on inforce legislation, the responsabilities for food safety are divided between the central and local governmant. This division between the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection, Ministry of Health and local level cause some confusions. It is not racional and with efective cost to have two paralel administrative systems for control of food safety. Stabilisation Asociiation Agreement between Europen Comunity and Albania in Trade Interim Agreement and trade issues have put Albania before the obligations to fulfil the standards with the Comunity countries standards. The institucional, legal and administrative framework in food safety area are working for approximation of food safety legislation with EU legislation. The most important is the draftin of new food law which is fully harmonized with EU Regulations and it is approved at 28 January 2008. This law is discussed with the specialists of different institutions involved in food safety, consumer associations and food business associations, and at 30 May 2007 it is discussed in Brussels in the meeting of Working Group EU-Albania for Agriculture and Fishery. After this discussion, two other communications with DG SANCO for clarification and specification for some specific aspects on this draft law has been. The CARDS 2005 project has colaborated with working group for some changes in this draft law which were been present during the discussion in the Parliamentary Commissions. This law is the most important act in food safety area and for this reason it is introduced to all state structures for food safety control, associations of food and feed business operators and consumer protection association as well. The representatives from food and feed business operators, Konfindustria, Albanian Agro-business Council (AAC) and consumer protection associations have been part of around table during the discussion of draft law before approval by Council of Ministers and also, Konfindustria, AAC and consumer protection associations were invited in auditory sessions during the discussion of draft law in the Parliamentary Commissions.
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There are more than 30 Ordinance of the Minister of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection (this means that more than 37 EU Regulatios and Directives translated) which have approved regulations prepared by partially or fully harmonization of EU directives and regulations in food safety area, which will continue to be part of secondary legislation in implementation of law On Food. It is finished the whole gygienic package which has started to implement in the food stabiliments for drafting and implementing the HACCP. Also, it is finished the package of food contaminants and it is near the end the package of materials in contact with food In frame of revision of National Plan for Implementation of Stabilisation Asociiation Agreement a working group is working on determining of priorities for approximation of national legislation with EU legislation for short-term, medium-term and long-term period. Also, a working group for legislation transposition will setting up near the above Project. The composition of this working group will be with representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energetic and Veterianry Office near the Municipality of Tirana. This working group will scrutinize the enforce legislative framework in food safety area. In the mean time, according to working plan for preparing of seconadary legislation for implementation of law nr.9863, date 28.01.2008On Food, based on National Plan for Implementation of Stabilisation Asociiation Agreement and Annual Plan for preparing of legislation as well, this working group will work in preparing the secondary legislation for impelementation of this law. For implementation of this legislation and to eliminate the two paralel administrative systems for achive the necessary standards, the National Food Authority will be established as a new structure, independent and efficient, capable to provide the scientifical and technical independence and to provide the information for Government, consumer and food business operators. To realize the Government objectives relating to food safety and consumer protection CARDS 2005 Project is helping the food control institutions. The main specific objectives: of the CARDS 2005 project, leading to the improvement of Consumer Protection in Albania, sustained by a restructured, consolidated and efficient food safety and control system, are: Food Authority Food Legal Frame Food Policy
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The Overall objective: Consumer protection in the country is improved and sustained by a restructured, consolidated and efficient food safety and control system The purpose of this project: By effect of a food law in line with the EC legislation, NFA is established as an independent structure, able to ensure the transposition of EU legislation in food safety field, to create a food safety policy accepted by all stakeholders and to offer them adequate communication of information on food safety. Project result: NFA is established as an independent, efficient and sustainable structure, able to implement the EU and national legislation on food safety and control issues. The new food law is amended in line with the EU legislation and supported by the necessary implement in legislation. A clear food safety policy is designed and accepted by all stakeholders. A restructured, efficient and effective food inspection system with clear tasks and responsibilities at all levels is established through a clear food safety policy. The capacity of structure involved in food safety issues with regard to transposition of acquis is strengthened through a clear food safety policy. The veterinary and phyto-sanitary border control is brought in line with EU regulations. Inter-institutional conflicts among institutions involved in food safety and control issues is cleared, including implementation of the principle one enterprise one inspector a d a functional relationship between NFA and Ministries is established. Food safety level in the country is improved following the development of communication, coo-operation and proactive participation of all stakeholders, including institutions, food operators and consumers, from the institutional set-up to the practical implementation of the regulations. A specials attention is paid to safety of food products of animal origin: meat, milk, fish, eggs, ect. and to feed on animal and non-animal origin, which must be through in line with EU demands. Capacity of the inspection and laboratory network at central and regional level is improved by providing them with technical knowledge, including specification of tools and equipment and by avoiding skilled staff dismissal. An alert system covering food and feed is put into operation, along with the capacity of rapid alert actions in the case of emergency situations, monitoring capacity related to food safety issues is established, data base created operational.
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Capacity to tracings products through the whole food chain is initiated and applied in defined products, in co-operation with other running projects To assure the complete success of the project and in order to establish the NFA, it is imperative that there is full and close co-operation between the two Albanian Ministries involved in this Projects development and success namely the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumers Protection (MAFCP) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). If the projects milestones of achievement are to be respected and delays avoided, it is imperative that any conflict and duplications situations or conditions are clarified and eliminated from the very commencement of the project. One of the main constraints and possible areas of delay is the poor communication within the State institutions involved, between their central quarters and regional bodies and between these institutions and the consumers. An improvement in these aspects is vital and expected through the planned activities of this Project. These are very ambitious objectives that will be true by join working of specialists of MoAFCP and experts of CARDS 2005 Project.

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Products, trends and priorities for investment in the agro-food sector-facts and investigations

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Prof. Dr. Myslym OSMANI Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumor Protection

I. Traits and trends of the agriculture production Over the last years the Albanian agriculture has been characterized by several trends and characteristics. Among them the ones we consider the most evident and important are the following: General trends and characteristics The Albanian agro-food sector is economically already an open sector Agriculture is a very important economic sector, by contributing around 21% of the countrys GDP. Agriculture is the major employment opportunity in Alnbania in rural areas. The average agriculture growth over the last 5 years achieved 3-3.5% per year, beeng only 1% in year 2007 due to particular climatic conditions and energy supply shortage.
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Table 1: Gross agri-food production Branches 2000 2005 2006 2007 Livestock 63328 74531 76432 77778 Crops 42535 42391 42226 40603 Fruits 12180 15552 18446 19219 Total agriculture 118043 132474 137104 137600 Agro-industry 27990 42790 46431 47970 Grand total 146033 175264 183535 185570 However, growth of agriculture lags behind the economic growth for the country as a whole (5-6%) Continually, growth of agriculture has been led by fruit-culture and animal husbandry, by 4 and 3% respectively for year 2007 as against year 2006. Particular trends and traits Gradual decrease of area planted with some kinds of crops, wheat and tobacco in particular Gradual, evident increase of area wih forages and potatoes, increase and stabilisation of area planted with vegetables Fast increase of area under greenhouses Remarkable increase of yields in forages, potatoes, cow milk, goat milk, eggs and more generally in fruit-culture and viticulture. Fast increase of the number and area of fruit trees (this in particular after year 1996
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and due to government grant support to agriculture in year 2007. Fruit sector has been the fastest growing sector during the transition. Over the last years one can observe an increase in the number of specialised livestock farms. One can observe the creation of some poles of agriculture production such as Korca, Berati and Dibra Qarks for the production of fruits; Fieri Qark for the production of dairy products; Elbasani, Shkodra, Dibra and Vlora Qarks for small ruminants; Shkodra and lezha for pigs; Fieri, Tirana and Durresi Qarks for the production of vegetables; Fieri, Berat and Vlora Qarks for ther production of grape, etc. It is observed a clear trend of increasing exports and reducing import-export ratio Remarkable strengthening of organic farming is observed during last years A slight increase of farm size by 10%, in year 2007 as against year 2000. Table 2: Farm size (ha)
Years Size 2000 1.04 2005 1.1 2006 1.13 2007 1.14

More working days on farm (422 in year 2007, 414 in year 2006) More off-farm working days (128 and 131 respectively in 2006 and 2007) Increase in the number of farms with cows, those with 5-10 caps in particular Remarkable increase of farms with sheep, goats and sows. II. Investment in agriculture and agro-industry Foreign-supported and budget investment Government financing as well as foreign financing for agriculture, as planned in the framework of various projects, fell to 1399 million leks from 1645 millions spent in year 2006, where the biggest part is contributed by foreign financing which fell from 1203 to 1003 millions. Taken in general, financing for agriculture fell to 2791 millions leks from 3098 millions spent in year 2006. It is to mention the government grant of year 2007 in support to agriculture production by 400 million leks, and the grant support of year 2008 as increased to 860 million leks. For year 2007 the grant was intended to support planting of new fruit trees, vineyards and olive trees. For year 2008 the grant is being spent to support the same activities, plus livestock, organic production of olive oil, drop irrigation in intensive tree orchards, as well as subsidization of bank loan interest rates. Table 3: Public investments
Years Projects Total investment 2000 4108 5371 2005 1588 2263 2006 1645 3098 2007 1399 2791

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Private investment by farms It is considered as a very positive event increase of private investment by the farmers themselves. In year 2007 it reached 2870 million leks from 2077 million in year 2006, which means 38% more money invested.

Private investment in agro-industry Agro-processing businesses have invested 3052 million leks in 2007, figure that has been only 2045 million in year 2006, which means about 50% more investment. Table 4: Private investment in agro-industry
Investment Own sources Government budget Foreign loans Local loans Total
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2000 898 50 17 898

2005 2917 327 1444 2917

2006 2045 0.4 314 2045

2007 3052 27.5 48.5 1518.3 3052

Major areas of investment in agro-industry Major areas of investment in agro-industry over the last years have been meat processing, bread production and sweets, as well as bottled water and refreshments. New trends, but still not very strong, present processing of fruits and vegetables. Table 5: Major investments by products
Products Meat products Milk products Bread and sweets Bottled water and refreshments Total 2000 120.7 51.5 67.4 394.7 2005 425.6 624.3 203.4 62.8 2006 170.3 1194.8 295.8 47.0 2007 118.5 159.5 554 1655.9

890

2916.5

2045.5

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III. Priority sectors and products for investment in agriculture Investment in agriculture and agro-industry we can prioritize based on a set of criteria, the most important of which we consider the following: I. Production potentials (in terms of land, climate, knowledge, tradition and

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experience) It is known already that the priority areas for the production of vegetables are the plain western areas, in particular those near big cities like Tirana, Durresi, Fieri and Vlora. For the production of apples it is Korca area and after that Dibra region, for the production of grape it is the western plain area and Berati region as well. I I. Efficiency or opportunity cost Based on the efficiency criteria, analysis show that the most profitable crops are vegetables. Fruits also are very efficient. From fruits we specify apples, pears, peaches, cherries and grape. In particular areas other products may be efficient, like nuts, hazelnuts and chestnuts. From vegetables it is efficient production of fresh vegetables like tomatoes and cucumbers in the cold winter-to-spring time and production of high value vegetables like cauliflower, green peas, string bean and asparagus, etc. I I I. Degree of meeting the local demand For several products the market demand is met by imported products. It is so for wheat, meat, fruits, for which imports make about 60%, 50% and 40% respectively. In the agro-processing sector it is processed vegetables and fruits for which demand is met in larger degree by imported commodities. The same could be said for the olive oil where most of demand is met by imported oil. Based on this we could recommend investment to produce these deficit commodities. IV. Price trends and globalization Because of high degree of openness of the Albanian agriculture, but also because of its small size in relation to the world economy, effects of globalization on it are strong and evident. In Albania they have shown in the form of increased prices of wheat and corn, all vegetables, those of high value like cauliflower, green peas, string bean and asparagus in particular. V. Market structure: competition in local and foreign markets Because of low customs protection the competitiveness of some Albanian products in the local market is low. Low competitiveness is based on low productivity, which causes high production costs, and problems with quality and food safety. This is more valid for fruits, grape, some vegetables and olives.

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VI. Specific market characteristics: niche market and transportation costs Good investment may be based on the identification of niche markets, in the local market or international areas. This may be more valid for small- scale products like cauliflower, asparagus, and some fruits like kiwi, hazelnuts, etc. On the other side, the transportation costs associated with bad road conditions and distance from large markets puts additional limits to investments. Because of this, at least for the time being, the area of Dibra is less priority for the production of apples as compared to the Korca region. Based on the above discussion, in summary some of the major directions for investment in agriculture and food processing industry might be: Production of fruits, grape and olives Production of meat Production of vegetables, especially of those highly valued. Improving the quality of production, in technology in particular Development of (push-sectors), like marketing and agro-industry Low-input agriculture and organic products Why in those directions? Because: There is high local demand for fruits and vegetables Imports of fruits and vegetables are high There is much place for breed improvement and improved livestock management Yields in almost all products are very low There is low quality of produce because of inadequate technology and insufficient knowledge Only 5-10% of local products are processed IN some areas there are trends to increase the use of pesticides as well as uncontrolled farm practices. There is fast increasing demand for safer products But we must develop more effective policies to manage some aspects of agriculture development, such as: Inefficient use of agriculture land Farm level as well regional production specialization

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Increase of the farm size Use of good agriculture practices Increase the quality of farm inputs Increase of public budget for agriculture Development of a sustainable system of agriculture finance Anex Table 1: Most exported products (million leks)
Products Water melon Medicinal plants Fruits Canned fish Canned vegetables Mineral water Tobacco Total 2006 112092 1581037 120779 2123562 132761 566650 403166 7E+06 2007 143854 1764769 107387 2E+07 168624 753843 596111 7E+06 % 128.34 111.62 88.91 930.39 127.01 133.04 147.86 112.50
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Table 2: Most imported products (million leks)


Products Vegetables -Tomatoes -Dry onions Fruits and grape -Apples -Grape Wheat and rye Cattle Pig meat Poultry meat Vegetal oil Sugar Mineral water Bier Total 2006 1195143 413538 169317 5.5E+07 1715752 581186 5074332 1.8E+07 1883958 1044397 3028696 3133380 1816890 1504508 5.3E+07 2007 887474 313128 195071 5436781 1371678 350668 7258632 2276366 1.8E+07 1515161 3317361 2288087 2425351 2174572 6.3E+07 % 74.26 75.72 115.21 9.84 79.95 60.34 143.05 12.64 953.37 145.08 109.53 73.02 133.49 144.54 118.16

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Tabele 3: Cow farms


Years Farms with 5 and more cows Farms with 50 and more sheep Farms with 50 and more goats Farms with 5 and more sows Poultry meat farms (>5000 caps) 2000 1011 5569 2712 243 17 2005 1942 5403 3218 234 23 2006 1229 5616 2738 251 20 2007 2499 7771 3109 506 29

Table 4:Price trends


Products Retail level Wheat Maize Cow milk Veal Eggs Potatoes Tomatoes Dry onion Apple Okra Cauliflower String bean Grape Wholesale level Potatoes Tomatoes Dry onion Apple Okra Cauliflower String bean Grape Farm gate Tomatoes Dry onion Apple Okra Cauliflower String bean Grape 2006 30 30 55 630 11 51 94 49 106 147 109 146 207 39 60 33 56 111 79 129 80 40 24 42 71 64 80 62 2007 35 36 56 635 13 52 115 57 112 139 119 170 196 38 77 40 60 102 94 139 95 50 23 43 44 55 90 59

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Green Market Albania


Roland Larashi Green Market Albania Green Market Albania is created by Green Hours Ltd, an agency offering very specialized services on real estate business (lands and buildings) including detailed buy and sale information about properties on sale, legal assistance regarding the ownership titles transfer, technical and financial consultancy orienting to the most effective investments. As a partner of European real estate organization Green Hours Ltd collaborates closely with the biggest European real estate companies, especially that land business oriented. Green Market Albania was born as an initiative of a group of experienced agriculture and food experts, businessmens, bankers, statisticians, and other important actors in the agriculture, food and trade sector, to produce business information where needed, when needed, to whom needed. It provides: Daily news about the sector from anywhere in the world, Updated Custom References for imported goods, Daily wholesale and retail prices for a broad specter of agricultural and food commodities, On the other hand it gives you the best market offers from domestic and foreign markets. It provides you with statistics about production and yields and much more. Green Market Albania brings buyers and suppliers together at a point of interest faster, better conclusively. Business comes to us and we go to business. The deal is made in fairness and goals are achieved.

Why Green Market Albania?


Many donors and agricultural Governmental similar initiatives have resulted in failure or in the best case theyve have only partially met the needs of the increasing interests on the marketing information system. Information in the early 90 up to a few years ago has been the missing chain in the marketing impeding the understanding of the economic sectors needs. This brought about conceptual empirics of the constrains. As a result the design of development programs and policies brought about chaotic development of the agriculture and food sector.
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Under the new circumstances, the new century challenges, development itself aroused interest of information in all life aspects even in Albania. Advertising became more and more important constituting the other parallel line with the production and business increase in size and up to a certain level in quality. The growing awareness of producers that producing more means gaining more and more profits means business expansion and life quality improvement distanced the primitive economy of small scale and self consumption. It is again a fragile, not consolidated business that of agriculture and food but a keen observer could say now that we are in the middle of the road. Many Albanian old and famous brands were revitalized and are very present in domestic markets and some in foreign markets too. Living in a global world, means facing like the other entire countries food crisis and all this is translated in better resources management starting from food and why not. Producers want to know what market requires most. Producers want to know who the purchaser is and what his requirements about goods are. Traders want to know what ultimate costumers want. Traders want to know if theres a shortage in domestic market and run to fill it. What if market is ruled in a laisee faire condition and nobody including Government does anything? Is it a case to suggest in Albania? Frankly not. Easy to understand why Governments and donors are doing efforts since 1992 to give a hand to domestic producers to pass from a very small scale economy totally insufficient to business expansion in size, labor and capital. The issue is so complex and involves land market first, input trade, organizational issues; know how, loans and grants, building and consolidating of agricultural wholesale urban markets, farmers markets, etc. Agro industries are in the middle of this chain. They represent mostly the small and medium entrepreneurship. They follow and depend from agriculture production trying to survive in a sub sector that once has been proudly recognized as the best in the country. But business means business and agricultural and forestry products should not be missing and should meet the required costs. Buying raw materials from abroad and the question is where or domestically again where, how much etc. Should they contract first and wait for the production? Are they so good to export? Where to export? What prices? For traders who are usually buying from farm gates it is better to know about as many locations as possible and more wholesale markets and retailers product availabilities. For exporters/importers is always good to know as many suppliers in the region

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and worldwide, be alert about domestic market shortages in real time. Be connected with the demand.

What Green Market Albania offers?


It comes from Albania and it is called Green Market. A unique combination of Marketing Information System with on line business to business! The system includes scientific forecasts on domestic production and prices for main agriculture and food items, special offers regarding production quantities, availability, location, cut prices etc. On the basis of the system information comes from big producers and farmers association as well as from Green Market employees spread all over the country, entrepreneurs engaged in agro industry activities, who are sources and targets of the flow of such vital information in achieving the goal of profit. Other important partners are the rapidly increasing network of supermarkets in the country. The online information updated on daily basis focus on key domestic agricultural and food markets. One has to click Green Market www.greenmarket.al first and see what is available in the main wholesale markets, how many quantities, and prevailing price and decide to purchase sell. The information comes so easy and it is so close. Open the TXT page number 700 of National terrestrial and satellite TV KOHA and one can be updated with prices, quantities and products locations! (Still under construction) Basic infrastructure idea of Green Market Albania is the establishment of small unit of information in key wholesale markets using big size TV screens in which prices can be shown either in TXT or in www.greenmarket.al, collaborating with governmental and donors development programs and projects in the sector in holding workshops with key traders areas in the premises of the wholesale markets, designing professional update programs for market users etc. Periodical analysis on domestic production and trade and associated with events in similar regional and worldwide markets will soonest be broadcasted in TV KOHA. What producers, processors, traders have to say and what policy makers, Government officials has to reply. What could be done to facilitate producers to decrease the unit cost? What can be done to facilitate importers from the tax burden? What about Albanian niche products of high quality? How can they have export facilities? Why the price of a specific item continues to increase. With which item it can be

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apartments purchases or for small and medium industries like agro processing ones. What the latest trends in the sector and sub sector tell about? Find out with us at TV KOHA Green Market Albania coming soon. A special attention is shown to regional markets. Greenmarket will soonest signed an agreement with Wholesale Markets Foundations of Central and Eastern Europe (CEI) The agreement will include exchanges of: Daily prices for agricultural and food products traded in all those markets and domestic similar markets Market surpluses and shortages at a certain moment of time and instant offers made by interested clients of both sides. Business to Business helps producers, wholesalers, traders and entrepreneurs etc. in general to find more attractive prices for their products in a shorter time and get bigger profit. Green Market Albania makes no promises. It acts and does the deal for businesses as wanted, where wanted and when wanted. Fairness is the basic principle. Fairness is everything about Green Market one can tell at the end of each completed deal.

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Sectorial Strategy of Tourism in Albania, for the period 2007 2013


Elton Noti
Ministry of Tourism, Culture Youth and Sports

The Tourism Strategy document is designed in line with the process initiated by the Albanian government to coordinate the strategies of the different sectors of the economy, prioritizing the need for revising the Tourism Development Strategy and linking it to the Strategy and Action Plan for the Development of Natural and Environmental Tourism, aproved on 2006. The sector strategy describes the strategic concept of tourism development by giving the strategic directions and the development of tourist products in order that Albania be a future tourist destination in the international tourist market for attracting the foreign tourists. The attraction of foreign tourists in Albania will influence for functioning of tourism sector in Albania based on the same principles that the world tourism industry operates, too. Albania is faced with a regional competition from tourism developed countries such as: Greece, Croatia, Turkey, Montenegro etc, all of them with a very advanced tourism infrastructure and natural and cultural potentials similar to our country. The tourism strategy will therefore: assist the sector to manage growth in a way that ensures long-term sustainability provide ways manage conflicts between increasing tourism growth and environmental, social and cultural values that are important to Albania and its visitors provide the appropriate structure within which industry investment and profitability can be facilitated and maximised (clear responsibilities and cooperation) reduce overlaps and gaps within the sector secure commitment and funding to tourism from central and local government make it easier for operators and investors to do business in the sector provide cohesion to strategic directions and strategies. Important indicators of Tourism Sector in Albania last years: The number of foreign tourists in Albania reached a number of 1,100,000, in 2007, compared with 309,000 foreign tourists in 2003 ; The contribution of tourism on GDP between 3.8 - 4% or 45 billion lek The contribution of tourism in Albanian Economy is about 11% The number of employees in the tourism industry is aproximately 138 000 In the tourism market of the Southeastern Europe, Albania takes 0.6% of the total tourism demand The number of travel agencies in Albania has reached 116 in 2007, from 60 that
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have been in 2004 The number of hotels in 2007 is about 627 with a number of beds about 22,743,whereas the total number of accommodation units in 2007 has reached 908 with a total number of beds about 33,943. The gross income from tourism the last three years is :
Year 2004 Year 2005 Year 2006 Year 2007 592 million Euro 692 million Euro 805 million Euro 1 billion Euro

The Tourism Development Strategy launched in 2003 was an instrument that brought about the following achievements:

Drafting the tourism development draft-law. During 2006-2007 the tourism draftlaw was drafted, aiming at creating a sector compliant with international standards. It also aimed at assisting tourism industry development with concrete solutions, which are in line with the strategic directions of tourism development, by prioritizing and linking the cultural and natural heritage sources with tourism development Approval of Tourism Ports law Infrastructural development: the international Rinas airport, located in the vicinity of Tirane and Durres, is operational by now.Rehabilitation of several road axis and investments into secondary roads (6000 km); sea ports development and rehabilitation projects. Design of the tourism development integrated plan for the southern coast (World Bank Project (ICZMP) whose draft will be finalised this summer. This regional masterplan will be considered as a supporting platform for the urban planning process that will be made from the respective local authorities in the southern coastline of Albania. The Tourism Entity was established in 2005 to increase Albanias promotion as a tourism destination, to increase the marketing of the Albanian tourism product and to control and standartize the accommodating structures. Pursuant to our efforts for the improvement of Albanian image to the international market, on april 2008 we launched the promotional tourism spot in the wellknown international television channel CNN for the first time in Albania. This very important promotional investment, will have a direct impact in the number of tourist that will visit Albania this year. Strengthen Albanias presence on the internet. The National Tourism Organizations web site (http://www.albaniantourism.com) and the MTCYS www.mtkrs.gov.

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al are very good initial effort to ensure that potential visitors can find detailed information about the tourist attractions of the country. And they send a message that the country is open for visitors and especially for potential investors. In the framework of strategic priorities for the tourism development in Albania and the increase of the national budget year after year, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports has allocated funds for investments in Tourism signage and Tourism Information Centers at many tourism destinations of Albania. The following preconditions for tourism development in Albania still remain: 1. Sustainable development implementation by all the planning, decision-making and management s 2. Structures, at the central and local level and also by the private sector,Completion of tourism legal framework, 3. Effective organization of the public and private sector in order to achieve the vision and strategic objectives, 4. Infrastructure development road, water, and air transportation development, 5. Establishment and improvement of efficient systems of solid waste and wastewater treatment and management, 6. Telecommunication and internet, 7. Revision and establishment of standards for drafting land use plans in potential tourism development areas, 8. Ownership - one of the preconditions for tourism development and sustainability in tourism investment is to resolve as quickly as possible the legal issues relating to land and construction ownership, 9. Increase of financing for the preservation and maintainance of natural and cultural assets, improvement of management systems in areas of cultural and natural interest, development of human resources and improvement of image. Albania should invest in various critical human resources so that the tourism sector is effectively developed, 10. Data collection and processing -- it is necessary to collect and analyze data effectively and in accordance with the international standards nationally, regionally, and locally. Albania should make important investments in data collection and management systems in order to monitor and analyze the characteristics of tourist visits, spending, behavior, and profiles. It is impossible to plan tourism without such data.

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VISION 2013 Albania is a safe, high-value tourism destination featuring an unparalleled variety of world-class natural and cultural attractions in a small geographic area, managed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner, easily accessible to European tourism markets. Main tourism products and their strategy Based on the surveys and the analysis of the tourism potential of the country and other factors, the main tourism products in Albanian are the following kinds of tourism: 1. Sun and beach tourism 2. Special interest tourism 3. Business and conference tourism

Position One of the important objectives of the strategy is to achieve a geographic balance in the distribution of tourism activities throughout the country. Coastal area of the Adriatic Sea it is necessary that current developments be controlled for compliance with the present legal framework. The product development should be aimed at offering the visitor a combination of experiences, by combining attractive natur Due to the flat terrain, resort constructions (hotels or villages of 3, 4 or 5 stars) should be of low height to fit the landscape, should preserve the green coastal areas and should be grouped together. Other developments could include camping sites or casinos. Sea parks should be created for preservation purposes and water sports.While planning facilities for local tourism, the balance between local and international tourism should be considered. Buildings should preserve the local architectonic style (material, colors, details, etc.). The density of constructions should be 100 tourists per hectar. Coastal area of the Ionian Sea The product development should be aimed at offering the visitor a combination of experiences, by combining attractive natural

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and cultural products that complement each other and are in line with the permitted environmental, social and cultural capacities. The area should be reserved for the development of potential high-class tourism, hotels and village resorts of low height and a density of 100 tourists per hectar, which are designed to create the least possible changes in the natural environment and local topography. The existing villages along the coast should be taken into consideration not only with regard to construction but also in economic and social terms. Navigation access should also be developed in this area. Mountainous areas developments should be compact, using existing constructions or new resorts village constructions to fit the green landscape. The density of the construction should be 150 tourists per hectar. Albania will seek to position itself as an attractive destination for tourists seeking a unique experience featuring high quality cultural sites and nature destinations presented in a truly authentic way. Albanias core product will be the discovery of Albania. The product is a presentation of a broad cross-section of Albanias history, nature, archaeology, living culture, cuisine and hospitality. By participating in this discovery, visitors will be left with a lasting impression of the diversity, complexity and beauty of the culture and the land. Albanias strength will rest in creating value for tourists in a wide variety of geographic locations. This approach opens up more of the country to discovery, which: - offers a great variety of products, strengthens the range and diversity available to visitors. - icular customs and traditions of the various regions of the country. - allows more provincial and rural communities to participate in and benefit from tourism visitation and development. - creates the basis for geographic linking of Albanian tourism with that of the neighbouring countries - increasing visibility and allowing tourism to develop in provincial and rural areas, bringing development opportunities to a broader section of the population. - permits the development of complementary specialty tourism markets (such as trekking, climbing, diving, agriculture, hunting and fishing, archaeology, culinary, festivals, among others), within the existing infrastructure and proposed central tourism products. The guiding principles for achieving the strategy and the future management of the industry development are: Sustainable development

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Accepting this worldwide concept is essential for tourism development. Future development of natural, cultural, and human resources is vital and critical for the longterm sustainability of the tourism industry. Three main sub-principles are: o Ecological sustainability ensure that development is in line with the preservation of essential ecological processes, biological biodiversity and resources, o Social and cultural sustainability ensure that development increases peoples control over their lives and is in line with the culture and values of the people it affects, and also preserves and strengthens community identity, o Economic sustainability ensure that development is economically efficient and the sources are properly managed to create premises for future generations. Local community benefits Tourism should bring benefits to the community or people living in the vicinity of the cultural and natural areas of interest, increasing their standard of living. It should use financial mechanisms and incentives to support the efforts for the preservation and improvement of revenue sources in the rural areas. Partnership While the market changes rapidly, national and international partnerships should be successful in order to be competitive (cooperate to compete). Such partnerships are beneficial for all the parties concerned. Public-private sector partnership. The international experience shows that successful destinations are the ones built on public-private partnerships. Such partnerships should be considered in planning, development, marketing, and promotion issues. Quality By improving service standards, the quality of the work force in tourism industry and offering continuously products of required value and quantity to the target groups, Albania will be able to compete successfully in the international markets. Strategic Priorities The Development The tourism formation, organization and development and its products are shortterm priorities and medium-term ones. The development potential will be accessible through the combination of particular interest tourism and the business of conferences for the short-term and medium-term period, developing in parallel

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the tourism of sun and sand according to the international standards. The measures: I. For the short-term period the unauthorized buildings must be seen in interrelation with the law and relevant rule; II. The focusing for the short-term period in the improvement of the localized existing product in regions of great development potential and in particular the augmentation of the accommodating units quality; III. The inclusion of the natural and cultural assets in the development of tourism; IV. The identification and analysis of the existing product and its promotion; V. The revisal and the hitherto development analysis of the tourist zones, the improvement of the approved plans in using the lands in the tourist zones, related to the principles of sustainable development, the creation of attractive natural and constructional panoramas; VI. The development of infrastructure elements, mainly the management of sewage and inert remnants; VII. The composition of plans for the use of land for the zones with a high potential in the development of tourism, putting priorities on the zones with natural and cultural potential and villages that offer a potential for the development of rural tourism. The establishment of the institutional structures and capacities; The growth of funding and creation of the long-term mechanisms of financing for the natural and cultural zones aiming the preservation and development. The creation of the accumulation system and elaboration of the statistical data, as well as researches on the investigation of the tourist market. Albania has excellent tourism development potential. Many cultural and natural resource attractions are of very high quality and would attract high levels of visitation, if they were more widely publicized within the target market segments. Albania can position itself according to the important comparable priorities of the countries of high quality sites in a small geographic area and create an identifiable position in the international market place, based on the discovery of the country.

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Stimulating Monuments of Nature - the Core of Tourist and Economic Development of the Region Black Kave Case
Prof. Dr. Ilia Kristo Prof. Dr. Perikli Qiriazi Prof. Dr. Sknder Sala, Dr. Ferdinand Bego
Tirana University

One of the most important alternatives for regional development in Albania is the creation and support of internal and external flows of tourists. To work towards this goal it would help increasing the attractiveness and appeal of those monuments of nature which are both abundant and proportionally allocated over all the Albanian territory as a whole. Even the smallest county and district could not be exclusion to this abundance. This is an important premise for generating enough economic development to increase the necessary growth that is needed for factors such as knowledge, financial capital, institutional capital, human capital, and culture, to concord. Considering the current state of affairs in Albania, and among the factors mentioned in the first paragraph, it is crucial to identify the lack of institutional capital, which is primarily indispensable for generating consequential progress. This specific factor and the lack thereof, becomes more evident in times when trade openness, communication and other international commitments have vowed to increase the efficiency and freedom in the movement of people and capital. The presentation in this conference is a direct result of a multi-annual collaborative

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relationship among Professor Perikli Qiriazi and colleagues of the Geography Department in the College of History and Geography at the University of Tirane. The material presented aims at portraying the state and the regulatory environment as they relate to the Albanian monuments of nature by recommending the necessary instruments to transform these monuments into potential economic attractions. The foundation of this framework relies primarily on the reformation of the administrative and territorial organization of the country. The study presented suggests several strategic instruments that will allow for an effective use of local resources in the long run, such as monuments of nature and the like, with the ultimate goal of improving the standards of living of these territorial units, and bringing upon a better, structured development, regionally as well as nationally. The idea of sustainable growth, among other things, requires the study and appraisal of space dimensions and their effect on tourism, in conjunction with other active forces and factors. It is imperative to find a solution for clarifying aerial relations of the contributing regional units, or ways that would enforce healthier inter-regional communication, bringing a consequential national growth in the industry, and the economy as a whole. It is also important to set the necessary priorities for the development of regional units based on the natural supply of tourist attractions, and create a potential link between society and the active factors influencing the market economy of the country and other international structures. As one might think, the issues related to the topic on hand can not be resolved in only one setting. However, we have tried to contribute into answering questions such as:

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Where must regions look for this king of development? Naturally, the answer is tourism. Such an industry is proved to hold comparative advantages to function as an engine that supplies resources for consequential growth in other sectors of the economy such as construction, organic farming, agriculture, and other vital services including infrastructural development. All these effects take into consideration the improvement of the overall status of the Albanian economy in the light of global competition and economic integration regionally as well as internationally. Other questions which we have tried to answer in this presentation are: How should nations look for development? Are bigger regions put at a comparative advantage to smaller regions in terms of cost-benefit effects, including the administrative and territorial re-organization of the country? What are the conditions that will allow for a tourist exploitation of the monuments of nature? What are the phases in which such exploitation could bring economic benefits through the sustainable use of tourist attractions? To answer these and other questions we have found support in the theoretical analysis of the governmental development strategies, in the conclusions found in the studies conducted on the administrative division of the country, in the identified protected sites (including monuments of nature), and in the laws and regulations related to such issues. Of immense value, have been the data and information gathered by speleological exploration realized by the Italian, Dutch and Bulgarian speleologists in close collaboration with the Albania speleological associations and other international
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projects engaged in the development of tourism and improvement of a successful administrative division of the country

The main conclusion of our study asserts that a considerable part of the local administrative units do not meet the necessary requirements for autonomous governance. This fact has allowed them to become a considerable barrier for an increase in the communitys welfare covered by a specific territorial cluster, and consequentially, putting the overall economic development of the country at a serious halt. The enlargement of these local units creates better chances for growth and development, while avoiding extreme economic and social differences between regions, with the end goal of supporting the eradication of poverty. Larger local administrative units could be much more effective in their infrastructural development policies, which are a caveat for the economic development and investments attractions in these areas. This work also suggests arguments supporting the enlargement of territorial administrative units by considering not only national data and research, but comparative studies and instances in world regions as well. Improvements in the administrative and territorial reforms will make possible a much more effective utilization of economic resources, transforming these sectors into a start-up of a potential social development, and of a more organized administration in the respective communities. Following is the project that proposes the transformation of a monument of nature into an actual tourist hot spot. This monument is the Cave of Pellumbas, better known as the Black Cave. It is important to know at this point that in the absence of this project the cave has already been an ignition for the development of the area. You can recall the recent restaurant-theatre Kame, which in conjunction with other restaurants in the area attracts many visitors and makes use of a considerable portion of the agricultural produce in the area. The project proposed herein would multiply the current effect that the cave has

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on weekend visitors, and transform the whole vicinity into an important hot spot not only for inhabitants of surrounding cities, but for the country and international regions as well. The transformation of objects like the Black Cave into a proper stimulated monument of nature being administrated by local government, and later on by the Ministry of Tourism, would help establish these sites as important development hubs in their respective regions. This sector of the tourist economy has an additional potential of functioning as a strategic point of attraction for foreign and domestic direct investments for this and other industries.

PROJECT PROPOSAL Turning the black cave into a geographical, archaeological and palaeontological museum
Carstic caves natural monuments of high values 23 % of the country is made of soluble formations. There are found about 1000 Carstic caves. It is believed that the country must have other thousand ones. Carstic caves are: Temple of nature, Real natural laboratories, Amazing beauties, Misteries of the undergroung world, Good environment to treat certain deseases The experience of touristic developed countries shows that carstic caves are the most natural objects visited by tourists. Black Cave sensational unveiling of albanian speleology: It is located 27 km SE of Tirana, at Skorana gorge; its 360 m long, 45 m high and 15 m wide, horizontal development.
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Its scientific values can be listed as follows: There are skeletons of cave, bear living here 10.000 - 400.000 years ago. It is one of the 6 similar caves in Europe! Human residues belonging to Paleolit Era up to Early Middle Ages. Objects with high touristic values, Rare beauties. The project of turning the cave into a museum aim at: Full study, Museum preparation, Preparation of living environment for bear and human caves, Publication of values, Museum functioning The museum will be: One of the most visiting objects, High values for a wide group of people Other possibilities for touristic activities, The surrounding area will have opportunities to develop the tourism and benefits out of it Conditions for success Scientific institutions Close collaboration and contacts with national and international scientific institutions The cave has already the interest of the scientists The international experience in this field is well known The cave is public property It is located close to Tirana, Durres etc, with high investing potentials

The activities and the results of the project


Urgent intervention: Security of the cave and protection from the damages The trafficants of natural heritages are a potential threat for the skeleton of bear caves First stage Assign the responsabilities to the Local Authorities, NGO-s etc Complex study of the Black Cave Propose and declare the cave as an object with special status for protection Preparation of master plan to return the area in a touristic center Scientific publications, articles, monography,
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Establishment of the information center for the visitors Second stage Establishment of the museum with the elements of an environment of ancient bear and human. Trainning for the staff of the museum and Ecological Information Center. Values promotion. Developing the necessary infrastructure for the visitors.
Beneficiars and developers Albanian Speleological Didactical Scientific Association - Coordinator National Universities Academy of Science and its institutes Prefecture and Municipality of Tirana Commune of Brzhita Ministry of Environment Ministry of Culture Tourism, Youth and Sports Ministry of Public Works and Transports Ministry of Education and Science Museum of Natural Sciences of University of Firence -Italy Departament of Geology of Bologna University Speleologic Group of Faenca -Italy International Union of speleology Private Domestic and International Investors

Approximate budget of the project (Euro)


Road and infrastructure outside the cave museum Infrastructure of cave museum Exploration and study of cave Museum establishment Museum infrastructure Environment of ancient bear Environment of ancient humans Unit of cordination and management Center of Ecological Information Publicatio, promotion and public awareness costs Trainning courses, seminars Unpredictable (10 % of the project) T OT A L 719 000 125 000 100 000 120 000 50 000 30 000 40 000 95 300 16 650 50 000 20 000 100 000 1 220 650

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Butrinti

Butrinti

Butrinti

Syri i Kalter

Syri i Kalter

Syri i Kalter

Ksamili
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Ksamili

Gjirokastra

Gjirokastra

Berati

Gjirokastra

Berati
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Berati

Rozafa

Rozafa

Rozafa

Kruja

Kruja

Kruja
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Kruja

Cluster practices new approach in heritage tourism development Case study in the Southern Albania (Butrint, Saranda, Gjirokastr, Kor)
Elenita Roshi MBA,
Executive Manager, Gjirokastra Conservation and Development Organization: Part time lector, University of Tirana. E-mail: elenitaroshi@yahoo.com,

Rezarta Perri PhD,


Lector, Faculty of Economy, Tirana University. Albania E-mail: rezartaperri@yahoo.com

Mirdaim Axhami PhD, candidate,


Lector, Faculty of Economy, Tirana University. Albania. E-mail: mirdaimaxhami@yahoo.com In a time when tourism has become the password for sustainable development in Albania, heritage is (maybe) the only way to develop tourism in the country. Combined with the Albanian nature (as well rich), heritage is a very attractive magnet for foreign tourists. Considering the growing competitiveness in the Balkan and wider, a new approach in the development of the heritage tourism, which can face this phenomenon, is required. The authors of this article suggest that cluster practices can be this new approach that can improve competitiveness of the Albanian tourism. The article starts with a presentation of the tourism situation in Albania along with the reasons why heritage tourism is a (maybe) the only way to make tourism, now and for some time, in the country. Some brief explanation on what cluster practices are will follow: presentation of the main issues about cluster practices, their benefits and drawbacks, their implementation and the ways they can be monitored and evaluated. We believe it is important to attract attention on the fact cluster practices are becoming an important means to development and to the enforcement of social capital of the geographical areas they are implemented. In the end the article will prove why cluster practices can be worth of being implemented in area of Butrint-Saranda-Gjirokastra-Korca. The paper concludes with the main findings and conclusions of the analysis. Why Heritage Tourism? April 2008 showed a 25% increase (compared to the same month last year) in tourists number visiting Gjirokastra, the only World Heritage Town in Albania. At a CNN

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promotional spot for Albania, the famous Bazaar of Gjirokastra is shown as a nice girl passes it by. Just a second after, the Great Basilica of Butrint is the next temptation tourists to visit. A fantastic gorge for rafters is the next luring image. Heritage and nature: an invincible binomial for Albanians tourism. As much as we want to distinct the two elements of this binomial, it seems the academic world is broadening the definition of heritage . From the whole of the collective, socially formed memory, earmarked for the transfer to heritage being the part of the cultural patrimony meant for leisure or commercial purposes. To some extend one can argue whether the environment around us (including nature) determines the heritage we inherit. However, apart from raising some awareness on the importance of protecting nature and heritage, this definition serves only for a reason to this article: to introduce us to the wide variety of heritage we are blessed with and which will be tools to the authors hypothesis. How we, Albanians, use heritage to increase competitiveness in tourism is the main argument of this article. (i) In the abstract of the article, the authors dare to say that heritage tourism is the only way to make tourism in Albania. So let us proof why the heritage tourism (more widely recognized as cultural tourism) is the only way forward for the Albanian Tourism Development, which must also be a sustainable development. 1- It is not news that Albania attracts no mass tourism: the greatest competitors in this market are just next door to us. Turkey and Greece are aggressively trying to get clients away from each other. Unfortunately, we have neither the right facilities to implement mass tourism nor any hope to have them soon. 2- The other growing trend in tourism the geo-tourism requires satisfying a very sensitive target group the environmentally conscious tourist. While the system for certifying a geo-tourist destination is quite long and detailed, the bountifulness of garbage in the environment all over Albania leaves no hope for being a geo-tourist destination any-time soon. 3- Based on an UNDP research in several sites (Butrint, Gjirokastra, Berat, Theth) in Albania last year (first time published data) the reasons for tourists satisfaction in our country, are mostly: friendly people (also a part of our intangible heritage), nice walks, good scenery and museums visits (part of build heritage). (ii) Once agreed on this, the next obvious issue arising is What is the best strategy to maximize profits while raising competitiveness in heritage tourism? The authors of this article suggest that cluster practices could be a way forward. Let us argue why: 1- Based on this survey by UNDP Albania , tourists interviewed are quite satisfied to have visited Albania, they will recommend it to friends but they will not come back again to visit Albania (see table one); the reason is lack of activities and entertainment (mostly in Gjirokastra and Berat). Cluster practices are well-known for being effective ways for product development and we are in lack of several tour-

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ism products in our case study, (the geographical area of our case study is a whole part of the South of Albania.)
AVERAGE Level of satisfaction Visit again Recommend to visit 4.15 3.59 4.52 MIN MAX 2 1 1 5 5 5 STDEV 0.74 1.22 0.73 MODE 4 4 5 MEDIAN RESPOND ENTS 4 789 4 5 798 792

2- Also the survey shows that tourists stay generally two days in each of the site (Berat and Gjirokastra), while they spend averagely ten days in Albania. It means tourists can travel in five destinations in the country. The data also states that there are connections with neighboring countries like Greece, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia so the trip has sometimes an inter-regional dimension (look at Error! Reference source not found. for a geographic idea of the main routes undertaken by the tourists.) We know that cluster practices are most effective into a defined geographical area and our aim is to show that cluster practices can increase competitiveness in the geographical area of Butrint Saranda - Gjirokastra Korca. Before we continue let us present some of the main principles of cluster practices. What are Cluster Practices? What do we need to know about cluster practices? This concept has become popular because of its use by the famous scholar Michael Porter in its book The Competitive Advantages of Nations (1990). Using the Porters Diamond one can determine which firms or industries can have a competitive advantage, and how important it is that the industries cooperate and support each-other this is what he called by the trendy name the cluster practices. Even though the initial hypothesis is applied to nations and countries Porter, realizing that the majority of the economic activity is performed in regional level, adapted the theory for separate regions and cities. There are several definitions about what exactly a cluster is. In the following paragraph we are citing only two, being all of them very similar to each-other.

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A cluster is a group of related companies or institutions that operate in a specific area, that have common features and that are complementary to each-other and geographically near (Porter). So, a cluster implies a certain way of business organization that groups together entities within what is called the product value chain, from the raw materials supplies till the final products are delivered to the client (Porter). The same author (Porter) gives a simple definition of two kinds of clusters: 1. Vertical cluster: it is created by those industries tied together by the seller-buyer relations. 2. Horizontal cluster: it includes industries that can share the same market of the final products, that use a common technology and/or human labour, or that share the same natural resources (Porter, 1990). How does a cluster works? A cluster works through the participation of: The main business the one that produces the goods or services which are in the focus of the cluster practices. The supporting business the one that supports directly or indirectly the main business. Examples of such can be the machinery suppliers, raw materals suppliers and the service offering firms. The supporting soft infrastructure a succesful cluster requires the involvement of the local community, schools, universities, societies and the economic development agencies. The supporting hard infrastructure the physical and visible logistics such as road, ports, and other transportation means. The proces of creating clusters requires: extended people-to-people contacts; consensus about the main issues; multi-level cooperation; wide involvement of the community; business networking rather than business lobbying; gathering a task force. Benefits from clusters: Grouping together the companies and their partner institutions creates a better access in the economic data, information and the specialized knowledge workers. Being complementary to each-other the business companies and institutions can fully exploit the benefits that come from reduction of costs of developing and making new products. Cooperating in a cluster: The companies can buy cheaper inputs such as the raw materials; The companies can share the costs of the market representatives in the exporting

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markets; Reduce the costs of searching for new markets; Share the cost of consulting and hiring expertize in the strategic and operational level They can participate together in commercial fairs all around the world. The managerial benefits that call for the cluster implementation are: The cluster is an extended value chain: nowadays in the global economy the competence is occurring among the value chains instead among companies. In this context the cluster is engaged in managing the logistic of the whole chain. Information flow and information share: an individual firm tends to keep its information as confidential whereas the cluster logics is exactly to inform the participants about each component of products sales aiming toward productivity and benefits growth. Creating trust and a cooperation culture among firms, increases the specialization of the firms. Therefore a friendly atmosphere is built Evaluating the cluster practices. In Albania there have been just few researches about the efectiveness of the cluster practises in generating economic growth in regions and cities of our country. The traditional measures of economic development are the number of the new employement positions and the level of the earned income tax. In literature there are used several criteria to evaluate the overall eficency of clusters. Number of new businesses participating in clusters. New technologies development and increased capacity for R&D; The improvement of the skills of the labour force; Intensity and quality of the firms in the networks created. General drawbacks of the cluster practices: The biggest problem of the cluster practises is that they encourage the specialization in economy. Therefore if the cluster industries fail the whole economy is damaged. Many scholars encourage the economy diversification and there is some worry that using the cluster practises works against this trend. Cluster policies are criticized because they are more appropriate for the small business and because of the high cooperation level required to make a cluster sucessful. The critics complain that actually the economy is dominated by the big international companies and they ignore the trust needed for an effective cluster. Critics complain also that being impacted by the geographical vicinity the telecommunication technology is substituting the need for the cluster practices. Beoynd this fact firms are not even experiencing geographical advantage any longer.

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How cluster practices can work in Butrint Saranda - Gjirokastra Korca? A few months before, some representative of the Italian NGO CESVI knocked at the door of the (GCDO) Gjirokastra Conservation and Development Organizations office (a.k.a The Gjirokastra Foundation). The success of the Tourist Information Center in Gjirokastra, a GCDO project, had attracted the attention of this organization which for several years has worked in Permet. What CESVI wanted, was to have the TIC experience in Gjirokastra to help the setting up of their Tourist Information Office in Permet. CESVI has plans to start developing Agro Tourism in the Permet area and preferred to coordinate tourism activities with the town of Gjirokastra. It is a genuine sign that a cluster is somehow naturally developing between the two tourist destinations. In the national eco and cultural tourism strategy (December 2005), the most important goals set by the working group (UNDP and MTKRS) seriously consider the connections required and advantages needed for every participators in the sector. These conditions establish the right environment for cluster practices to be implemented almost anywhere tourism is made into the country. Albania is not a rare example of cluster practices helping tourism development: ASEAN countries (The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, of 10 countries, having a population of about 560 million people, a total area of 4.5 million square kilometers, a combined gross domestic product of almost US$ 1,100 billion, and a total trade of about US$ 1,400 billion) decided to use cluster practices to develop the regional tourism investment thrust. The project is ongoing and will continue until 2010 having already good results. In Alberta, Canada, another cluster practice supported (and still does) the development of Agro tourism in this region of Canada . Cluster practices are not unknown in Albania; USAID/EDEM has used them successfully in development of meat processing industry, medicinal herbs etc. But let us go back to our case study: the region we have considered for the usage of cluster practices, in South of Albania, is not the typical one, as it is suggested by the Figure one; the current trend has Butrint as point of start and Berat as its end. We believe that it would be highly interesting and therefore competitive for tourists visiting from Greece, to come to Albania via Corfu or even Qafe Bota, stay two days in Butrint and Saranda region, two more in Gjirokastra, visit Korca via Permet and get out of Albania to Macedonia or even back to Greece again. This route is six days long and offers for visit the only two UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Albania, one of the most untouched forests in the country (near Erseka) and one of the most fantastic towns in the country: Korca with its region, specially Voskopoja. In this route, heritage has a spectacular mixture of Hellenistic and Roman Civilization in Butrint and Saranda, Ottoman architecture combined with local Architecture in Gjirokastra and up to Korcas very interesting urban development and Christian Churches in Voskopoja.

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Whether this route is reasonable to do, considering data is showing another trend (Butrint Bus 31 % Berat), needs some thought over. We would like to challenge the pattern for the sake O w n ed C ar of some reasons; 25% 1- The research has not considered Korca and so Figure 1 can somehow be biased. However, O rg a n ize d B u s there is a justification to the Taxi 21 % 10% current situation, we believe that lack of regular transportation means (busses run only once a day from Gjirokastra to Korca) is one of the main arguments for not following this route. The survey from UNDP shows that most of the visitors come either with their own vehicle (see figure 2) or in organized tours but yet, there is a 31% of tourists that want to take the bus. This should be one the of issues to be solved in the cluster. 2- The bad driving conditions (from Gjirokastra to Erseka) can also bias us toward the conclusion that it can affect the indifference towards the route: Table 2 tells that the kind of tourists that visit our country (such generalization can be made) is not very much influenced by driving conditions and appreciates others factors as important.
R e n te d c a r 8% O th er 5%

IMPORTANCE Friendly people Scenic landscapes Personal safety Interesting architecture Food and dining General affordability Cleanliness/waste disposal Information availability Climate Lack of crowds Lodgings Roads & Transport Guide services Outdoor recreation Local arts & crafts Local music, dance, or customs Communications (internet, telephone) Medical/dental services Entertainment/nightlife

AVERAGE 4.45 4.39 4.21 4.18 4.05 4.05 4.04 4.03 3.88 3.88 3.75 3.61 3.51 3.47 3.43 3.39 3.25 2.85 2.71

MIN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

MAX 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

STDEV MODE 0.72 5 0.69 5 0.88 5 0.86 5 0.84 4 0.82 4 1.01 5 0.89 4 0.87 4 0.97 4 0.9 4 1.09 3 1.26 5 1.06 3 1.02 3 1.03 3 1.09 3 1.34 3 1.19 3

MEDIAN 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3

More importantly, the attempt will be to make the route more competitive. Therefore, it is believed that the route: 1- Having an amazing mixture of heritage and nature,

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2- Being the shortest route than passes three countries, Greece, Albania and Macedonia, 3- Has both the start point of the route and the end one, as neighboring towns with Greece and have good border crossing points, 4- Has a good tourism experience in both Saranda (along with Butrint) and Korca (even during the communist regime), has all the right potential to be competitive, not only nationally, but also can tempt Greek agencies to make it part of their regional tours. The route has to be promoted just after the cluster development practice has managed to create the necessary conditions for heritage tourism to be more competitive. Part of this route is Route 8 of the National Albanian routes of tourism, promoted last month by the National Tourism Agency. Cluster practices to be implemented in the heritage tourism? (Instead of conclusions): The route is characterized by several features that make the route very promising in terms of cluster practices success: a- This route has all the right conditions to be a horizontal cluster. b- The cluster can work: (i) the main business tours agencies that bring tourists from Greece operate either in Saranda or in the other end of the route, Korcaand they are interested to increase competitiveness. At the moment, there are only day tourists visiting both ends of the route. Also the accommodation units, very diverse, from 5 stars Hotel Butrinti in Saranda and up to bed and breakfast in Voskopoja, will be more competitive if part of a well organized tour. (ii) The supporting business guide tours, restaurants, museums, information offices as well as the involvement of local government create benefits for all participants. (iii) The supporting soft infrastructure including universities in three of the towns (Saranda, Gjirokastra and Korca) are potential pushers for developing the cluster as they also should be interested for academic reasons. Development agencies like SNV in Korca and GCDO in Gjirokastra also softly support the dialogue and sharing information. (iv) The hard infrastructure is on the way to get developed: roads are responsibilities of the central government yet, increasing transportation traffic between Saranda to Korca is a solvable issue (the local associations of the buss drivers). c- The cluster can help attract more money into these areas: based on some data from TIC and UNDP, tourists are willing to pay 30 euros more for each destination they go. d- As attempts are being made to liaise the tourist information offices of Saranda, Gjirokastra and Korca together, the flow of information will be easier. The future will make it known whether this approach, which will take some time to be implemented, will result fruitful

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Archeological Resources in Elbasan City, Heritage With big Touristic Values


Kreshnik Belegu
Director of Cultural Heritage, Elbasan The city of Elbasan does have the Skamp castle, which represents a castrium statum, center of the Roman Legion. The castle is the most important monument in this city and, its a square-form object, and its dimensions 308 m x 348 m make it undoubtly the biggest field castle in our country. The castle has four entrances and twenty six towers, out of which only eight have been preserved. The castle has been built during 284-305, under the domination of Emporator Deuklician. Egnatia street passes throughout this castle and it has been sorrounded by a deep channel, sized two-persons height. The Roman castle served as shelter to Roman Legion, which task has been to ascertain movements at Egnantia street. This castle costitutes the descent of the future city of Skampa. The history of this city has always been connected to Egnatia street. When the street became important, the city developed and prospered, on the other hand when the city importance lapsed, also the city itself shrinked and diminished. This cycle keeps repeating itself till nowadays. Many foreign and native writers have written about the Skampis Castle and relevant archeological digs have taken place at the area. Due to internal castrum (Roman military camp), it has not been possible to explore anything until the end of the 80s, time when Dr. Y.Cerova began excavations at the south-western angle of the castrum. Archaeological diggings enabled the partial discovery of a Paleo-Christian basilica atrium (an open-roofed central court in an ancient Roman house), and elements of basilica sculpture and in particular did illuminate its opus mixtum construction technique. In the meantime, at the end of 60s, a Paleo-Christian basilica has been discovered near castrum vicinities of. The basilica in Tepe supplied a high quality sculptural material. Dr. Cerova also delivered a completed catalogue of the Paleo-Byzantine architectonic sculpture, discovered in castrum, along with the ones coming for the aforementioned basilica. Archaeological excavations that took place in the Eastern port tower of the castrum in December 2007 - February 2008, have revealed additional information about the internal castrum stratigraphy, which was a bit different from the one Dr. Cerova encountered in the Southwestern angle. Right here, under the buildings wracks of XIX - XX century and under the destroyed castrum wall wracks (for terrain levelling), the archaeologists found a deposit of about 1.5m alluvion, which directly lead to underneath the tower floor. The themel here was shallower than the other side of the castrum, which was probably due to the non-horizontal terrain where the fortification was initially built up. Last year (2007) has been decisive for the archeological future of Skampis castrum and the entire area. Initiated by Mr. Qazim Sejdiu, Elbasan town mayor, excava-

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tions initiated at the Southern part of castrum, across the boulevard, about 6070m away from the Southern fortification wall. The trigger behind the digging intiation, was the information dated 1932 which shred light on the existence of a mosaic in this region, which has been located during a shop construction in the old town bazar, near the Bezistan plane-tree. After the excavations of 2 quadrats, it came out that the the monument was a Paleo-Christian basilica and the discovered part belonged to its Central /Southern nave. This digging discovered the major part of the basilica sculpture, and particularly the Central nave mosaic, which consisted of glassy tesseras and Southern basilica wall fresco, the only Paleo-Christian one being preserved at this level in our country. This fresco is simple, geometrical, varicolored, with big rectangular panels, confined by different bandages and it is being preserved for the entire wall height, approximately 1.7m above the Sothern nave floor. Two panels are also part of the discovered mosaic. The one at the Eastern part represents the Eucharist scene with the image of two people at both kantar sides, with many animals and birds between the twisted grapevine branches, which do occupy the entire panel surface. This panel stands in front of the sanctuary entrance and this was detected by finding out an element pertaining to the sanctuary gate stylobate, belonging to its entrance part. The panel discovered at the Western part, smaller size, displayed large shrubs, made of green glassy tessera (mosaic tiles) with red fruits, having birds flying around them, represented in natural potions, which are different from the ones usually encountered in our Paleo-Christian basilicas mosaics. To be mentioned, is a style which resmebles more to the Arapaj basilicas mosaic and with the ones found in Macedonia, which do reinforce the idea of the same school belonging to all centers along the Egnatia street. The scultpure itself is qualitative and it belongs to two groups: the first group (the biggest one) is importing and it is made of black marble (columns and gate tiles); the second one is made of local limestone (gate tiles) and it resembles more to the material encountered in Bylis and probably in Arapaj also. Another part of the discovered elements were produced from the Roman spolia, and we should emphasize here the revelieation of the stylobate extracted out of a Roman mortal kennel reuse, having an inscription on. The rest were reused ionic capitals or cover fragments from a Roman sarchophagus. An almost complete column, 2.4m height, and other fragmented ones show that the basilica has been harkadfa over the columns or at least mixed with columns and masonry pilasters. A second archeological digging campaign took place in April-May 2008. In this framework, the digging, which began in 2007, concentrated in its central part, expanded to East, so to start excavating part of the sanctuary and absyd, having as the main intention to generally define the Eeastern monument outlining. In the Western part has been encountered the Western naos wall, approximately defined by the end of the previous year excavation. Doring the groundworks, other remains were encountered, which did belong to bazar shops, dated the beginning of the 20th century, which in general were pre-

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served as the only trace documenting the fact that this area of the city has been in use. Also the Bezistan plane-tree, is preservered as a natural monument and served as point of reference for the town. During the archeological groundworks, almost the same stratigraphic situation is encountered at the internal part of castrum, having a thick alluvious layer, where was apparently intruded during the construction of bazaar shops and pavement. The reuse of one of basilica columns for an Ottoman fountain (one house), close to the surface where basilica lays, shows the fact that there it has been intervened even in earlier times. Based on the discovered archaeological research, one can yet again distinguish the sculpture and it is better perceptible the reprocess of Roman funerary sculpture, compared to 2007 finding. This is because following the discovery of the western part of the gate, it was noted that in order to build up its stylobate, fragment of Roman funerary kennels have been systematically reused (probably the same kennel with the one found out last year, but the information still need to be verified) and sarcophagus covers having ogival scales. Only a small part of them is being in situ preserved. However, taking into account that the ruins layer is intact and non-touched from later interventions, we have the possibility to achieve a complete reconstruction of the object. The construction technique here, the same as in the discovered basilica within the fortification (as mentioned above) is opus mixtum. It was ascertained the fresco existence also in other parts of the monument, non-discovered due to lack of ability to handle it. The massive reuse demotes that the monument is over or close to a Roman necropolis. The digging showed that the monument extends towards south and beyond the basilica borders. Future campaigns might reveal and give a better idea on the campus placement and of the entire quarter placed in southern part of the castrum, along its cardo. In collaboration with Elbasan city municipality, the definitive encirclement of the excavation actual area is in the accomplishment process, aiming its expansion towards North direction, relevant to future archaeological excavations. In the framework of a long-term project for the complete discovery of the region, the instant objectives are: enlargement of basilica digging thoroughly its surface spread (within the possibilities, so to be in line with the new city centre urbanization and the placement of the plane tree, as a natural monument); identification of the city synagogue, identified via the resources and being positioned close to basilica, on its southeast direction. These discoveries, that took place in our city after August 2007, along with other city monuments such as Shen Meria Church, the Old Hamam of the city, the Fortress Hamam, Naziresh Mosque and monuments placed close to the city such as Ad-Cuintum Station (dated 2nd century B.C) Shen Gjon Vladimir cathedral (1381), Shelcan and Valsh churches (1554), the natural beauty of Shpat and lakes of Dumre, make Elbasan and its surroundings an attractive place for tourism development.

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Improvement of tourism statistics in albania


Prof. Dr. Fatmir MEMAJ Dr. Albert QARRI
University of Tirana
We make use of statistics as a drunken man uses lampposts to hold on to, rather than get lighted.

We must emphasize that the tourism statistics are overrun by problems and limitations, which should be adjusted as soon as possible. Firstly, identification and legalization of all the accommodation tourist units and the standard of their activity. Secondly, statistics on tourism are insufficient. These data may be used to support in analyzing many problems as the total expenditure and the average daily cost of a tourist per daily accommodation, expenditure frames, data on county or regional level, lack or insufficient data on tourist agencies etc. The main problems remain two. At first the accounting cost of the tourist expenses, on the other hand the most concerning problem is the fact that based on the accumulated data, there cant be made a precise definition the reasons the foreign citizens visit Albania. By our ascertainments we have observed that the statistics on the hotel service are inadequate or lack accuracy. The same problems are noticed on other structures operating on the tourism field, where there is enough space for improvements regarding the statistical information that should be acquired. In third place, we notice a lack of agreements with respect to a strict and plain definition on the basic concepts of tourism. Logically, on the actual conditions and achieved stadium, there need be taken noticeable measures in order to be obtained better statistics over tourism in Albania. This objective can be accomplished by a coordinated cooperation among the institutions interested in generating tourism statistics, thus INSTAT, Ministry of Territory and Tourism, Ministry of Public Order and the Bank of Albania. Key words: Tourism, Statistics, ImprovementIndroduction In many world countries, not just in highly developed but in the emergent ones also, tourism is considered of great importance and often regarded fairly significant on the economic and social aspects. In many countries tourism is regarded as on of the priority branches of the development of the economy and for the creation of employement opportunities having in this way an impact not only on the economic development, but also increasing of the employement level and also buffering the level of unemployement. A developed tourism is considered to be as such when the all the folloing elements are meet together: High and increasing demand for such activity, Natyral and climate conditions, Appropriate

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premises and infrastructure for tourism that favorises such a development. Since the beginning of transition, tourism was proclaimed to be a priority branch. In the course of many years, in Albania there are made attempts to give tourism growth a primary role in the development of the country. There are many different declaration made through this long period and it should be admitted that there is a substantial development and increase of the tourism industry in different zones and regions of the country. However, we should emphasize that the urge to give tourism development a prominent role in the countys progress, on one side is attended by a great and high quality work done by publishing a lot of propagandistic materials on this field (their quality is not on focus of this paper), but on the other hand we must underline that the tourism development isnt accompanied by an improvement of the standard of the statistical data that make possible an accurate concept of the standards we actually meet, accounting the expansion and policy making capacities and determined strategies, which will support the boost and progress of tourism. 1. The issue Hereupon, we must emphasize that the tourism statistics are overrun by problems and limitations, which should be adjusted as soon as possible. Which are the main difficulties that a researcher faces when seeking to analyze the data related to this fiels. Firstly, identification and legalization of all the accommodation tourist units and the standard of their activity. There are many companies in the tourism industry and other different industries that operate in the conditions of informal economy; this is mainly due to the long and difficult transition period. The licensing of the hotels is not done only as common business, but their licencing is made also from the Ministry Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports. This Minstry did not approve the licensing for many hotelery activity companies due to the uncomplishment of the most indispensable requirments and criterions like the omission of the security stairway etc. But, in practice these businesses continue to exercise their activity, eben though let us say illegally (at least from the tourism activity point of view) and noone may provide data for their number or their respective clients. Also due to the high level of the informal economy many of the licensied units reports a smaller number of clients than they truly have which brings as a result the decrease of the data regarding the number of client and their overnights in the respective units. Secondly, statistics on tourism are insufficient and often the data for these statistics are acquired from INSTAT, instead it should be that the Ministry Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports should support and furnish INSTAT with full statistical data.
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The statistical data for our country are provided as a result of four interested institutions: Ministry Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports, INSTAT, Ministry of Interior and Central Bank of Albania. However it is noted in such cooperation that there is not a common program for the acquirement of the data regarding the tourism. These institutions simply cooperate by acquiring the data that they need for their activity and as a secondary product the data provide information regarding the tourism. Thus, for the acquiring of the statistical data, INSTAT supports its offices in the districts that acquire the information from the accommodation tourist units (numbr of hotels, their capacity by rooms and beds as well as the number of foreign and local clients) Also in cooperion with the Ministry of Interior are acquired data regarding the entries and exits of the foreign citizens in the border points of the Republic of Albania related to their country of origin and transport used, also attempts are made to acquire data regarding the scope of their travel. However the data regarding the scope of the journey are not correct and often uncomplete, due to the fact that the qualification of the border police employees for making a correct and detailed classification in not on the required level. Another factor that it should be stressed out is that the subtituion of these Policy employees is very frequent making in this way very difficult the achievement of a high level of qualification. Let us look at the main data provided those are published in this field in different t INSTAT publications. The following tables (Table 1 to 5) present the data from the most complete publication of INSTAT. A detailed information is found in the published data, but stills the problem lies at the accountability of the method used for the acquiring the information.

Years No. of hotels No. of bedss Increase of the no of hotels Increase of the no of beds

1993 27 3110 1 1

1994 64 2617 2.37 0.84

1995 62 2018 2.30 0.65

1996 81 3719 3.00 1.20

1997 85 3423 3.15 1.10

1998 85 3423 3.15 1.10

1999 102 3575 3.78 1.15

2000 142 5919 5.26 1.90

2001 185 7677 6.85 2.47

2002 194 7996 7.19 2.57

2003 199 8420 7.37 2.71

2004 205 8500 7.59 2.73

2005 230 7642 8.52 2.46

2006 252 8341 9.33 2.68

2007 220 7791 8.15 2.51

Increase of the no. of hotels and beds (year 1993=1)


10 8 6 Years 4 2 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 No. Incr ease o ft he noo fho t es l Incr ease o ft he noo fbeds 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

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Table 2. Arrivals of foreigners and Albanians in hotels (in thousands)


Years Total Foreigners Albanians 1993 188 45 143 1994 157 28 129 1995 142 41 101 1996 214 64 150 1997 61 23 38 1998 86 22 64 1999 103 26 77 2000 165 32 133 2001 170 34 136 2002
171 36 135

2003
172 41 131

2004
182 42 140

2005
132 48 84

2006
161 60 101

2007
192 57 135

Table 3. Overnigts of the foreigners and Albanians in hotels (in thousands)


Years Total Foreign Albanian Vitet Gjithsej T huaj Shqiptar 1993 321 131 190 1994 238 68 170 1995 211 88 123 1996 394 144 250 1997 108 66 42 1998 154 73 81 1999 215 96 119 2000 326 98 228 2001 395 92 303 2002
532 143 389

2003
536 136 400

2004
588 146 442

2005
354 110 244

2006
499 129 370

2007
525 141 384

Table 4. Arrival of foreigners ny menas of transport (in thousands)


Years Total By Air By See By Land 1993 336 35 71 230 1994 340 40 81 219 1995 304 45 83 176 1996 287 39 78 170 1997 119 32 19 68 1998 184 79 33 72 1999 371 86 152 133 2000 317 72 79 166 2001 354 91 103 160 2002 470 80 111 279 2003 558 87 120 351 2004
645 103 138 404

2005
748 128 130 490

2006
937 150 141 646

2007
1126 182 162 782

Table 5 Arrival of foreigners according to the means of the visit (in thousands)

2001 Total Pr pushimwe Pr biznes T tjer (tranzit) 353

2002 470 262 100 108

2003 558 310 87 161

2004 645 416 63 166

2005 748 433 68 247

2006 937 696 47 194

2007 1126 296 66 764

Also, the Central Bank of Albania gives its contribute related to tourism statistics through Balance of Payement. Thus for the first 9-months (nntmujorin) of 2004 we have the data presented at the following table.
Table 6. Evaluation for the incomes and expenses for the tourism Source: Balance of Payement, Central Bank of Albania

Period 2006 2007

Incomes (mln. Euro) 805 1002

Expenses (mln. Euro) 768 923

Balance 37 79

According to these tables it is noted that the data in this field are scarce, fragmental, and as a consequence do not help to make a deeper analysis of the role played by tourism in the economic development of the country. Based on this data we can arrive at the following conclusions: 1. The tourism industry in our country is increasing and developing. 2. A decrease is noted not only on 1997 as a result of the situation created in the country (which affected also the other branches of the economy), but alos other oscillations, which ought to be studied. But this data do not help to analyze: 1. Total expenditure and the average daily cost of a tourist per daily accommodation.
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2. Expenditure frames of tourist in total and a daily average. 3. The information may exist but it is not published in detailes for turism statistical puposes regading the data related to district or regional level. 4. There are many accommodation tourist units which are not registered based on the actual transition ans as e result we can not acquire data from such units. 5. Lack or insufficient data on tourist agencies and for their activity o different disctricts. 6. But, the most important is that there are omissions in the information required on the entry or exit of the foreign citizens on the Republic of Albania that could be used for tourism statistics. This is related to the fact that it is very difficult to clearly specify the scope of travel (entry to Albania) from the foreign citizens. The main problems remain two. At first the accounting cost of the tourist expenses, on the other hand the most concerning problem is the fact that based on the accumulated data, there cant be made a precise definition the reasons the foreign citizens visit Albania. Do they come for tourism? They come for business or work related purposes? Do they come to visit their friend or relatives? etc. This brings as a consequence that we do not have a correct division of the real tourism development (entry of the foreigner for tourism purpose) from the cases when te foreigners enter in Albania for business purpose or as a representative of foreign institutions. Aslo, the division between the visit for work pupose if part of it it is used for combining with one or many days for tourism purpose. The improvement of the acquired data for the entries and exits of the forign citizens represents a urgent need and the experience to be used for such improvement are many. The developed countries but also the less developed or underdeveloped countries accumulate more detailed data regarding the scope of the visit based on different methods. In many countries the data are acquired through the entry card. Based on our ascertainments we notice that statistics regarding the hotelery are incomplete or with omissions. This is as a resut not only of the lack of a correct reporting system, but also fro the insufficiency or omission of the laws, regulatios, decisions that would make possible the acquiring of the data on the Hotelery sector regarding their number, classification capacity and number of persons visiting these hotels (foreigners and Albanians). As a result there is lack of of statistical information for this matter. These omissions on the administrative and legislative structure must be fulfilled as soon as possible in order to create enough space for improvements. (evaluation of the hotels and their obligation to report). The same problems are noticed on other structures operating on the tourism field, where there is enough space for improvements regarding the statistical information that should be acquired. In third place, we notice a lack of agreements with respect to a strict and plain definition on the basic concepts of tourism.

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Based on these conditions often it is operated with in-between and evasive concepts that affect the accuracy and source of the data. Here we may note the uncertainity regarding the classification of the Albanian that are not resident in Albania. (emigrant in different countries), but who return for holiday purpose. 2. Opinions on solution Logically, on the actual conditions and achieved stadium, there need be taken noticeable measures in order to be obtained better statistics over tourism in Albania. This objective can be accomplished by a coordinated cooperation among the institutions interested in generating tourism statistics, thus INSTAT, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports, Ministry of Interior and the Bank of Albania Based on our opinion we sugest that the interested institutions based on a detailed plan should determine the additional statistical data that should be acquired, the respective methodology for the acquiring as well as they should define the changes that have to made in the statements that accumulates the information about the tourism. Here it should ne mentioned the data of entry and exit to/from the territory of Albania (it is needed to change through the completion with additional information is actual in order to became more useful and workable) and the statements used by INSTAT to acquire the information from the hotel accommodation units and from other tourist operations 3. Conclusions and recommendations We may say as a conclusion that tourism statistics are not only poor regarding the quantity but also incorrect and not accountable regarding the quality. This is a result of the due care towards them. It is noticed that there are no relevant changes in the data collection regarding tourism statistics through this transition period. Taking in consideration the conditions of the statistics we think that the main steps that should ne undertaken in this direction should be as follows: 1. A teamwork should be created that should: a. Compile the methodology together with the respective statistics of the acquiring statistics fro the hotel systems b. Give recomandation regarding the administrative and legal improvements that should be undertaken in order to apply this system of acquiring the information. 2. Create the methodology and respective statistics of the acquiring statistics from the other entities that operate in the tourism area as well as to give recommendation over the improvements that should be made. 3. To present the main changes that should be made on the data collection regarding entry/exit data of the foreign citizens to/from the Republic of Albania territory recomanding also the way of their application. 4. To provide a practical advisory through training regarding the application in practice of the new information system in particular the trining of the border policy employees that acquire the information from the Cross Border Points.

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Immovable Property Market Performance and Trends for 2008-2009.


Dr. Bardhyl Qilimi
Technical Director Green Hours LTD

Since 1991, were privatized 565 ha of thousand agricultural land, 300 thousands of apartments, small and medium, about 20 thousands Ha of forests and 38 thousands of pastures. The privatization of the large scale enterprises is under process. Meanwhile, a big number of private enterprises were established and own assets i.e. the construction companies have build and sold a total of a 1 million square meters of apartments and other objects. Currently under process are 400 thousands of houses. The property restitution and compensation is undergoing too. A system for immovable property registration have been operational and completed the registration of properties awarding owners with property rights in 83% of the cadastral areas. The process is still undergoing. Parallel with the above developments other institutions, which advertise and keep records about properties, were created too. The banking system has increased the loaning and as a consequence the number of properties used as collateral. The immovable property market is functional in Albania nowadays. In this market is included Green Hours Ltd, founded by an initiative of such subject experts. In a very short time, the Green hours has assured the collaboration with licensed experts in legislation issues, urban planning, rural development, statistics, immovable property registration and evaluation, geology, hydrogeology, agro industry, etc Green Hours Ltd during a two years period, has been intensively employed in property evaluations, sale, environmental impact etc. in collaboration with banks and privates, the Green Hours experts has carried out 150 evaluations of immovable properties like apartments, building plots, businesses, forests etc. Observing Land Market performance in Albania

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The immovable property, market in the developed countries influences a lot the economy. Its impact is coherent nowadays when real estate market crisis in USA brought about drastic decreases in price making the giants of the world economy loosing a lot of money. The crisis has affected Europe real estate market too. What about Albania? Is it affected by that crisis? How the land market performance going and which is are the prices trends for the near future? During the last 10 years, in our country, it was observed a market increase followed by an increase in the value of the immovable properties. More developed is the market segment, which has to with the sale of apartments. Comparing to 2005, the value of apartments was increase in average by 35-40% and in special areas even doubled. The increase in the value of apartments is more evident in the city centers. This increase is lower in suburban and industrial areas (the space between Tirana and Vora) An increase in the market value in apartments is observed in small towns too, apart from the lower intensity and number of transactions. The land market in the urban areas (building plots), especially in the big towns like Tirana, Durresi, Vlora, Elbasani and Korca is developing fast. After 2001 the increase in the value of building plots was associated with the increase in the value of apartments. The land market according to the purpose of use is classified in two categories: for agriculture use and for constructions. According to the sources coming from the registration office, the market for agriculture land use is not developed. The contrary should be said for the market of land use for constructions, especially developed in coastal area and for tourism development.

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Which are the factors, which bring about the increase in the immovable propPOPULATION ON 1 JANUARY, 2005

Year

Total

Male

Female

Urban

Rural

Density

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

3196.8 3140.7 3110.3 3095.1 3033.3 3037.1 3062.9 3088.2 3061.5 3049.2 3058.5 3063.3 3084.1 3102.8 3119.5 3135

1635.7 1582.3 1548.5 1527.2 1574.9 1566.4 1573.9 1580.9 1551.9 1533.9 1531.7 1527.5 1537.7 1546.7 1554.7 1562

1561.1 1558.4 1561.8 1567.9 1458.4 1470.7 1489 1507.3 1509.6 1515.3 1526.8 1535.8 1546.4 1556.1 1564.8 1573

1154 1149.8 1154.5 1164.5 1156.7 1173.6 1199.1 1224.7 1229.7 1240.2 1259.6 1277.1 1300.6 1342.2 1369 1396

2042.7 1991 1955.9 1930.6 1876.6 1863.5 1863.8 1863.5 1831.8 1808.9 1798.9 1786.2 1783.6 1760.6 1750.6 1739

111.2 109.2 108.2 107.7 105.5 105.6 106.5 107.4 106.5 106.1 106.4 106.6 107.3 107.9 108.5 109.1

erty value? Source of information : INSTAT Comparing the figures of 1990 with those of 2005, could be easily noted that the rural population represents in the first case 64% of the total country population while in 2005 it represents 55% of it. It comes out than in average 20300 inhabitants have been removed from rural areas each year. According to INSTAT, in two big cities like Tirana and Durresi in 2006 live 25, 5% of the population or 2, 6% more than in 2001. According to forecasts made, in 2021 in those big cities will live32, 4% of the country total population or 10% more than in 2001. About 70% of this massive removal toward big cities will come from migration.

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Population projections according to Albanian regions Total population every 5 years, and distribution according to regions POPULLSIA GJITHSEJ (1 Janar) Regions Years 2001 2006 2011 2016 2021 North Number 371396 366759 360546 352254 340564 % 12.10% 11.30% 10.50% 9.80% 9.20% Center(without T-D) Number 990641 1040137 1086544 1129517 1163330 % 32.30% 32.00% 31.80% 31.50% 31.30% South Number 1001264 1010720 1016994 1018386 1009740 % 32.70% 31.10% 29.70% 28.40% 27.20% Tirana-Durrs Number 700017 828120 956393 1083997 1205074 % 22.90% 25.50% 28.00% 30.20% 32.40%

Source of information : INSTAT The constructions in city centers. In Tirana i.e. it can be evidenced a vast range of selling prices in the city center. The maximum prices are registered in the area 2/1 and 5/1, 2 in which the price of a meter square varies from Euro 1500-Euro 2000 An increase in selling prices for apartments was observed in other areas like 5/4 and 2/3 coming from the improvements in areas infrastructure. The increase in profit for unit size received from owners of the buildings plots. In Albania is developed an original way of market regarding building plots as a result of the low purchase power. So, the value of ground is converted to building plots In the city centers the building plots are limited. This brought about an increase up to 50% in the profit received by the ground or building plots owners when selling the plots. As a consequence the cost of apartments is increased too. Lower increase in apartments cost (25-30%) was reflected in the suburban areas where new apartments are built. (The area of Kashar, Yzberisht, Sauk, Linza etc) Another increase in the investment value is that buildings are made with one or two parking places within and many of the spaces are used for stores, offices etc other than inhabitance purposes. The quality of building materials used is improved a lot and affected the cost of construction too. The cost of building is currently higher than in the previous 3-4 years. According INSTAT, the sales index in construction activities in 2007 reached 126, 8%. This means an increase of 2, 5% against 2006. Comparing to 2006 the cost item direct expenses was increase 3,7% in 2007. The forecasted profit cost item decreases by 1, 6% while the cost item complementary expenses and some other cost item remained the same
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Within the cost item direct expenses the biggest increase in 2007 comparing to 2006 was observed in the item expenses for machineries by 2,7%. In the other cost item group of expenses for constructions materials the biggest increase in 2007 was that of the price for construction materials by 4, 9% and electric materials by 4, 2%. Construction licenses There are no awarded construction licenses since the early 2007 and there will be not awarded even the next year. Another reason affecting the increase in prices in the sub sector is the strengthening of the fiscal system and the decrease of informality in employment, which had increase the cost item of wages by 67% comparing with 1999. The Latest Ministry of Finance order for the introduction of property transfer tax will affect to the prices in this market.
CONTRUCTION COST INDEX 1994 2007 (in percent) Years 1997 1998
78.3 79.2 88.9 89.5 92.3 106.7 48.3 62.7 83.3 69.2 82.4 62.5 69 89.1 87 100.3 95.5 92.7 100.3 62.9 127.7 99.6 79.6 108.1 100.9 87.1

Code

Description
Totali (I+II+III+IV)

1994
60.5 58.7 73.7 70.3 89.4 72.5 24 87.6 75.7 53.5 81.8 120.5 30.1

1995
65.7 64.1 79 75.4 85.1 85.4 31 79.1 80.1 58.1 87.1 113.1 35.9

1996
67.8 66.2 80.8 77.2 84.1 86.2 35 71 78.1 60.4 85.6 138.8 35.4

1999
96.8 94.1 101.5 98.3 94.2 102.7 80.8 104 99.6 93.7 116.3 123.1 100

2000
106.3 107 110.9 111.3 108.5 105.3 114.4 108.6 101.6 109.6 110.9 102.8 100

2001
113 115.8 114.3 114.8 109.8 107.9 123.1 113.1 101.7 121.7 109.5 109 100

2002
114 115.6 112.9 113.4 108.9 106.3 127.9 117.3 101.7 132 113.9 115.8 100

2003
117.1 119.1 115.9 116.5 109.4 107.8 130.7 115.6 103.8 141.7 113 114.6 100

2004
120.7 123.8 120.4 121.2 115.1 107.9 139.9 121.9 101.7 146 115.3 112 100

2005
122.3 126.3 122.1 123 117.3 108.8 145.6 129.4 102.4 148.6 112.9 109.8 100

2006
123.7 128.4 124.3 125.3 120.5 108.9 147.3 135.5 102.8 149.6 111.6 108.1 100

2007
126.8 133.1 130.2 131.4 125.5 110.5 147.7 135.8 105.6 149.6 109.8 108.1 100

I 1 a b c 2 3 4 II III IV V

Dir ec texpendit ur es Mat er ial s (a+b+c ) Buil dingmat er ial s El ec t icMat r er ial s Hy dr o sanit ar y Mat er ial s Basicsal ar ies f ees anspo r t tf r ees Mac hiner yf ees Co pl ement ar y Ant ic ipat ed pr o it f Set -up st o c k sit e Tur no vert ax

Source of information : INSTAT The process of legally recognizing of occupied properties, property restitution and compensation. The approval by the Parliament of the laws for properties and legally recognizing of occupied properties has affected the land market too. The approved methods of property evaluation have oriented the ground/land prices different areas of the cities, in tourism areas etc. It is very obvious that a formally owned property costs more.

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The index of sales. The following information was received from the Department of Tax and Tariffs and based on The Payment Declaration Format According to INSTAT, in 2007, the sales indexes were increased by 219% comparing to 2001. The significant increase in the index started in 2004. Since 2004 to 2007 the proportion of increases are respectively 26, 2%, 27, 2%, 34, 4% and 21, 2%. This last tells about a still high purchase demand.
The sales indexes by economic activities % Code Activity 2001 2002 2003 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total Economy Construction

100 100

114.6 102.7

128 110

139.5 136.2

162.3 163.4

188.2 197.8

227 219

Source of information : INSTAT The value of services sector objects (stores, offices, studios etc) The main reason of the increase in selling price of stores, offices, studios etc built objects is the demand increase. The big cities are for several years now crossing through big demographic changes. The employment in the public sector was significantly decreased. These are the trends for the near future too. The value of apartments, villas, and tourism grounds/land In the last for years in the tourism areas was observed an increase in the value of immovable properties. It could be the demand increase and limited areas but still the evidenced increase is not well justified. The increase of the land value in the tourism areas has derived mainly from the lack of urban studies and indifference shown against the illegal building. The nearest urban areas property evaluation is used for those areas too. With the carry out and implementation of the studies the value of the immovable properties is forecasted to be different. Out of the studied tourism areas will have a decrease in prices and maybe an increase or at least a stabilization of the immovable property values in the studied ones.

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Agriculture land market In the agriculture land market we observed different tabloids. In the remote areas away from main roads and from populated areas the agriculture land is usually sold undervalue. Close to inhabited areas with a urbanization, tourism, or industrial area prospectus, the land prices so far, are 10 times higher than the real value of the agriculture land. Main reasons? Demand increase and the convert of the agriculture land in land for constructions. As an example we can mention both sides of land of the highways Tirana Durres, Tirana Lezhe, Tirana Vlora etc. Demand increases the price by 5-6 times against real value of agricultural land. Conclusions the value of apartments will increase maybe not in proper levels evidenced so far (it deserve to be emphasized that apartments prices in certain areas are increased 10-15% since their building started) -the starting of the process of awarding construction licenses wont affect the supply because of the last of the period of constructions and increased demand. The same reasoning could be used for services objects) stores, offices etc) the increase on the selling price of apartments, stores, etc will increase the ground/building plots price. As for industrial objects we foresee prices increase in the next two years as a consequence of the increase of the ground/building plot value. It should be emphasized that the increase in the value of ground/building plots has been higher than the depreciation value of the objects and machineries. Many businesses has reached the point of consolidation and become production units and their value as business will be added to their assets value.

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Geotouristic Aspects of Albanian Alps


TopTours Shkoder-Bajram Curri-Valbone-Theth-Vermosh-Koplik

Prof.as.Dr.Kujtim Onuzi Prof.Dr.Cerciz Dyrmishi


SHKSM,AAV Adress: Rr.Pjeter Bogdani,P.20/4,Ap.2B.Sh.2 Tel.+fax.++355 4 249383, 4261827,Cel.682397202 E.mail:onuzi@yahoo.com A long many years ago, since 1970, continuously, attracted fantastic mountainous landscape of Albanian Alps (I practised mountainous tourism and climbing) and at the different periods I had seen the alps of Swiss, France, Austria, Bavaria and Italy and this view added furthermore my idea for realization a mountainous guide for our Alps. This guide realized in collaboration with different members . In Albanian Alps included some ecosystems with rare natural beauties. Wonderful alpine mountainous landscape with a diversified flora that developed mainly at carbonate rocks, typical cataracts, water resources seemed at the rivers, streams or natural superficial springs form, composed the base and existence for these ecosystems. The mountains with their diversified contracts give the best possibilities winter and summer sports development as climbing, skies, horsemanship, kayak using in canyons, amateur fishing in canyons and speedy rivers and mountainous cyclist. High elevation over the sea level, dictate fresh clime up to cold, but very healthy. The environment, because of the distance from industrial centres, has more possibilities to protect better than other parts of our country. The life in Albanian Alps with a big diversify of natural landscape, folklore, canon, history, etc. present a wonderful region for geo-touristic mountainous development. Reliev Map of Albanian Alps There are good possibilities to bring the active tourists in Albanian Alps. Mountainous touristic activity in this region of Albania will be with a reciprocal advantage as for tourists that will explore a wonderful landscape, an interested

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region from geographic point of view, and a legends and mysteries place as well everywhere in Balkan Mountains. It is also, with good advantage for region itself and its peoples which can increase the life standards. The Alps included between two cities as Shkodra and Bajram Curri that serve as waiting and initiation points towards the alpine beauties. Some small villages offering accommodation for tourists as touristic villages: Tamara, Lepusha, Vukel, Vermoshi, Boga, Thethi, Valbona, Rragami. Last years, Albanian Alps have been the object for numerous geo scientific, folkloristic, historical, geo-touristic, environmental studies that studied the fixed regions into the Alps territory. As result of all the above mentioned factors, the Albanian Alps offer numerous possibilities for tourism development at these areas:

1. GeoturizemAlbanian Alps include some wonderful nature phenomenon: -geosites-geo-monuments-karst

2. Winter sports, mountaineering, ski, creeping in ice, etc.

3. Summery sports as mountainous going, rocky creeping, mountainous cyclist, kayak, oar age, horsemanship, hunting, etc.

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4. Visits in ecosystems, forests, lakes, rivers, etc.

The development of Albanian Alps Zone, realization every day and more for state structure and their policy makers and for the local community give every time in addition the premises for protection and development of mountainous ecosystems from the more beautifulness of our country. This is related with sustainable life development in these zones that abandoning with velocity from peoples which have not real possibility for a normal living because of the benefits that offering from this zone are bed management, unexposed in front of national and international tourism. Stimulation and development of these natural resources, protecting strongly the environment, based in analogue European regions development, will compose a hard base for abandonment prevention of dwelling from the habitants of these zones. For this reason we are presenting this new potential for development the regions Alps where the Alps located. From mountainous tour point of view, we are presenting the Albanian Alps for regions that including between Shkodres-Bajram Currit-Vermoshit-Koplikut places. Representation us: 1. Geo-tourist of Albanian Alps (GeoTourCD) 2. Geo Tour map of Albanian Alps 3. Accompany text of Geo Tour map of Albanian Alps The guide (Geo Tour, Albanian Alps) realized by different observation in terrain and in the base of the other existing materials. It is worked in terrain with GPS in these regions: AATT (Albanian Alps Top Tour) AATT(Albanian Alps TopTour)
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AATT - Tour 1 Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Mali Tarabosh-Mali Sukes-Zogaj-Shiroke-Bashkimi Lumit Buna-Drin -Kalaja e Shkodres AATT - Tour 2 Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Shkoder-Koplik-Hoti-Rrapsh-Tamare-Selce-Lepushe-Vermosh AATT - Tour 3 Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Shkoder-Koplik-Hoti-Rrapsh-Tamare-Vukel-Nik AATT - Tour 4 Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Shkoder - Koplik-Boge-Qafa e Thores-Theth AATT - Tour 5 Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Shkoder - Koplik-Boge-Qafa e Thores-Theth-Nderlysaj-Breg Lumi-Kiri- Ura e Mesit AATT - Tour 6 Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Shkoder - Koplik-Razem AATT - Tour 7 Koman(Vendi Tragetit)-Liqeni i Komanit-Fierze(Vendi Tragetit)-B.Curri AATT - Tour 8 B.Curri-Margegaj-Kanioni i Valbones-Kelcyre-Dragobi-Mbaskollate-ValboneRragam-Qafa e Valbones-Thethi

Description of the road and its quotas. AATT - Tour 1 AATT(Albanian Alps TopTour) Paqe village (Buna bridge)- Tarabosh mountain- Sukes mountain-Zogaj-ShirokeBuna-Drin conflux- Shkodra castle
NR 0. Km 0 Height 25 Land Paqe village(Buna bridge) Direction of the journey Left Description of the road Road whithout asphalt Simbol Attribute Hilly

1.

1.0

120

Tarabosh

Forward,according to the unasphalted road

Low mountainous walking according to the unasphalted road

Low mountainous

2.

2.8

395

Bajraku peak(Tarabosh) Taraboshi Peak

Forward,according to the unasphalted road,left Forward,footpath countinue with road way,left Forward,to footpath

Low mountainous walking according to the unasphalted road Mountainous walking according to the footpath Mountainous walking according to the back of Tarabosh mountain Mountainous walking according to the back of Tarabosh mountain Descent mountain walking,then tripping nearZogaj-Border Post Tripping according to the roadway near Shkodra lake. Tripping according to the roadway near Shkodra lake Tripping according to the roadway near Shkodra lake,where the Buna river goes out the Shkodra lake. Alps zone muont over Krasta zone Tripping according to the roadway near Buna river Tripping according to the roadway near Buna river through the buna bridge to the castle

Low mountainous Mountainous

3.

4.4

594.2

4.

6.9

651

Golishi Peak

Mountainous

5.

8.9

494.1

Suka Peak

Forward,to footpath ,right Right,left

Mountainous

6.

10.0

10

Zogaj-Border post

Mountainous

7.

11.5

10

Zogaj gulf

Forward,to roadway

Plain

8. 9.

15.0 18.0

10 10

Shiroka Bar-Kafe Marashi (Buna bridge)

Forward,to roadway Forward,to roadway

Plain Plain

10.

19.5

10

Ex cement factory

Right

Plain

11.

20.0

10

Bar-Restorant Enigma Rozafa Castle(Shkodra)

Forward,to roadway

Plain, hilly Plain, hilly

12.

22.0

120

Forward,about 1.5km turn on Buna bridge and forward to the castle

Fshati i Paqes(Ura e Bunes)-Mali Tarabosh-Mali Sukes-Zogaj-Shiroke-Kalaja e Shkodres

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Zone: Tarabosh mountain-Zogaj-Shiroke Tour type: Low mountainous climbing, medium partially lowering to Zogaj village. For Childs: Childs up to 14 years whith an adult. Region: Marvellous varied mountainous veiw,in background a passage of a fluvial view, a lake view,field view to a hilly one, United whith agreenness diversity etc. Best time: April until ende October. Difficulty rating: easy, partialy medium Start altitude: 25meter Paqe village (Buna Bridge) Climbing altitude: 651 meter Golishti peak Description: For the realization of the valley of Taraboshi mountain guide exist this possibilityes: The guide starts on foot or in bike starting from Paqe village (Buna bridge) riding gradually according to the roadway that passes near Taraboshi antenna going up in Bajraku peak 395m , and then continue through the road Taraboshi peak 594.2m and Golishti peak 651m and in the end going down in direction of Zogaj village with about 10m quote from the point that the guide continues near Shkodra lake through the roadway Zogaj-Shiroke-Buna bridge-Buna river Drini river conflux (Enigma Restorant)-Buna bridge-Shkodra castle. In Zogaj village is located a mosque also a little tradicional souvenir center and the fishing center.here is locatet the last stand of bus-line Zogaj-Shiroke-Shkoder. In Shiroke village is located a church, summer resort and different restorants wich cook Shkodra lake fish. In all the road Zogaj-Shiroke-Buna bridge-Buna river Drini river conflux there are a lot of different restorants wich cook Shkodra lake fish also Buna and Drini fish. Near the ex cement factory,near Buna river is located a mervellous geotop where we can see clearly the mount of carbonic rocks triasik age (205-250million years) of the tectonic zone of Albanian alps over the flish alevro formacion whith an age paleocen-eocen,Pg1-2(37-65million years) of Krasta tectonic zone Start: The guide starts on 25meter quota on Paqe village (Buna Bridge) and arrives on 651 m Golishi Mountain and lower in 10m in Zogaj and later go up to 120m quota in Shkodra castle. Equipment: Lihgtly alpine equipment, alpine shoes, warmy and lightly wearing Literature: Tourist,Climbing, Physic geography Maps:Topographik Map scale 1:25 000,1:50 000 of Alps (1:25 000,1:50 000 Shiroka) Road length Paqe village (Buna bridge)-Rozafa castle (Shkodra) Total: 22 km From wich: 10km - mountanious walking, 12km - plain field

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Geomonuments, Geoparks and landscapes, riches with turistice value.


ALBANIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Halil HALLAI, Adil NEZIRAJ Afat SERJANI, eriz DURMISHI Sokol MARKU
Geological Survey of Albania. Geology and Mine Faculty, Tirana. Albania it is situated in western part of Balkan Peninsula, in crossroads, which connect east with west, named as Adriatic Gate in Balkan. Albanian territory is constructed by sedimentary rocks, mainly carbonate, by flysch and molasses formations and by magmatic, mainly ophiolite ultra basics and basic volcanic rocks. The western part, which belongs to Pre-Adriatic Depression (PAD) it is constructed by molasses. Along with Adriatic and Ionian coast-lines there are placed Patoku, Karavasta, Narta, Orikumi and Butrinti lagoons, which represent important ecosystems all over Mediterranean. The complexity of landscapes and water system, different kinds of soil cover and climate have conditioned a plant cover of different species. There are known more than 3250 different kinds of plants, which represent of about 29% of species of European flora, 150 of, which are considered as endemic plants. Due to its geological position in Albanian territory there are expressed special geological phenomena which testify about history of evolution of Earth Crust in this part of our Planet, and there are formed rare beautiful, aesthetic natural landscapes, which represent geological sites of different origins of local, national, regional and global importance. In geomonumantal aspect can be noted the findings and determination for the first time since 1896 by Openheim: Barbatica Albanica, in Drenova and findings on 1911 by F. Nopsca the collection of Triassic ammonites in Kira,Puka region.Gustav Van Arthaber determined 5 families, 5 subfamilies, and 48 species of ammonites of high paleontological values. Albania is a sunny Mediterranean country with a lot of natural beauty. The wild and untouched landscapes, Geoparcs, geomonuments,the diversty of glacial, erosion and karst phenomena,the richness of water,the springs and the river landscapes of Albania form a great potential for development of tourism. The tourist potential is enormous due to the heterogeneity of the landscape, geoparcs ,geomonuments and the immense wealth of cultural heritage.Geological evolution,various
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types of rocks, climate changes and atmospheric activity have caused formation of varied landscapes that astonish withtheir natural beauty.They occur in mountainous units, along with the Adriatic coast and the Inonan Riviera.The most part of these landscapes represent tourist spots of education, didactic, geoecotourist and climate-curative-recreational values.The longest geotur passes through ancient towns of Berati and Gjirokastra, to Butrinti archeological town and then along the beautiful Ionian Riviera. The Northern geotour runs through historical towns to the Albanian Alps.To the east a recommended geotour crosses Albanian ophiolites up to the Peshkopi salt domes and on to the Korabi Highland. Separate geoutours are recommended to Mali me Gropa. Mountain full of forms and to Lura Geopark with some beautiful glacial lakes.Short geotours from Korphy to Saranda Gjirokastra region,from Monte-Negro to Western Albanian Alps,and from Kosovo to Northeastern Albanian Alps can be undertaken as well. Albania is a country of high potential of natural wealth and geosites of geomonumental values which must be known, protected, advertised and used for geosintific, didactic-educational, tourist, and geoturist purposes.

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ANTEA Cement Sh.A.

TITAN in Albania Antea Cement Sh.a

TITAN Group, one of the key international cement producers, controls over 40 companies in 11 countries, employs more than 6,000 people and, in 2007, achieved a turnover of 1.5 billion. Founded in 1902, TITAN is growing as a multi-regional, vertically-integrated cement producer combining an entrepreneurial spirit and operational excellence with respect for people, society and the environment. ANTEA Cement is the subsidiary of the TITAN Group in Albania and was established in 2006. As part of its investment program, ANTEA is building a 1.5 million-ton-per-annum cement plant in the area of Fushe Kruje, including the development of the required quarries, infrastructure and logistics. Recognized by Fortune magazine as one of the 10 Great Companies to work for in Europe, and acknowledged as the Leading Company in Greece for 2006 and 2007 (Hay Group), the TITAN Group embraces the values of integrity, know-how, value-to-customer, commitment-to-delivering-results, continuous improvement and corporate social responsibility.

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Albanian Motorway Project


Darren Mort

Albanian Motorway Project is a fourlane, 61 km motorway, stretching northeast from Rreshen in central Albania to Kalimash on the countrys border with Kosovo. Albanian Motorway will be an integral part of the Durres-Morine route, currently the largest infrastructure project in the region. The Project maximizes Albanian content in staffing, purchasing and subcontracting. The Project implements rigorous zero accidents safety philosophy. The Project is being implemented on a fast track to complete this key infrastructure in as short a time as possible.

209

Tunnel Kukes Camp

Thirre Camp

Reps Camp

Tirana

Total length: Motorway width: Carriageways: Paved shoulders: Designed traffic speed:

61 km 26 m 2 x 7.5 2x2m 80-100 km/h

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Major Challenges Fast track completion schedule in challenging environment Size 4,500 employees at peak Large quantities Terrain Geography mountains, river valleys Material ranging from clay and gravel to rock Remote location Mobilization of people, camps, and equipment State of existing local roads Volume of Works - Tunnel 5.5 km long Twin bores; 84-96 m2 cross section Drilling operations on both bores on both sides of the tunnel (i.e. 4 faces) Drilling and blasting operations based on the New Austrian Tunnel Method (NATM) Drilling machines used: Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer and L2C Drill Jumbos Progress to date: Total: 4,831 m North side North tube: 1,308 m North side South tube: 1,267 m South side North tube: 1,097 m South side South tube: 1,024 m Work started in May 2007

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Volume of Works - Earthworks 55.5 km of road alignment Progress to date: Clearing and grubbing: 270 ha Excavation: 18 mil m3 Fill: 5.9 mil m3 Work continues using approximately 500 pieces of earthworks equipment Major equipment includes: 3 crusher plants 231 trucks 55 excavators Work started in June 2007

Volume of Works - Structures 27 bridges in total, 10 m to 80 m high 4 km of roadway on bridges Work continues on 21 bridges Structural concrete forecast quantity: 147,000 m3 Structural concrete placed to date: 104,000 m3 Major equipment includes: 6 tower cranes 2 beam plants 6 concrete batch plants 33 transmixers 1 beam launcher Work started in June 2007

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Volume of Works Structures Contd

Pre-cast Concrete Beams 3 per span, 2 carriageways (a total of 621 beams) 40 m long, weighing 165 t each placed by beam launchers or cranes Building Environmental, Safety and Health Culture Zero Accidents Philosophy every accident is preventable People Based Safety changing unsafe behaviors Safety - a major challenge on the Project Some key elements: Personal protection equipment issued to every employee ESH general induction to all employees and visitors Specialized safety training provided to all employees based on their job Continuous ESH education through weekly Toolbox Talks. Management reviews and walk downs. Work stoppage in case unsafe behavior is observed
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Employment and Training 3,600 people working on the Project 2/3 Albanian Training and expertise in all aspects of construction safety, safe driving, operation of equipment, specialized software, construction techniques, procurement, and contracting standards
Project Personnel

Albanian Expat

Subcontractors & Suppliers Project actively solicits subcontractor and supplier interest from Albanian companies. Selection factors: Safety and environmental protection practices Quality Experience and performance Financial stability Technical capability Price Project assists local subcontractors in meeting the quality and safety goals.

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Albanian Motorway Economic Development

Provides a vital connection within Albania and the region, linking the markets through Adriatic port of Durres. Contributes to economic growth as Albania prepares for accession to the European Union. Creates jobs through: Direct hires Subcontractors Purchase of materials Spurs short and long term economic development through: Local infrastructure improvement New and expanded businesses International investment Increased trade and tourism
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The development prospect of durres port


Mentor Gunguri
Tecnical Director

We give our thanks to the organizers, for giving us the opportunity to express our options on the current state and the development prospects of Durres Port, which serves, to successfully face, stevedoring operations, & passenger transport, in the framework of national development, it being the main Albanian Port and the gateway of the 8th corridor. The current managerial team is working with maximum devotion so that Durres Port FULFILS THE APPROPRIATE PARAMETRES OF A MODERN PORT ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL STANDARTS concerning either port infrastructure and superstructure, handling operations of goods and passengers or port security, as an important aspect of port operations progress. In this framework, we take advantage of this occasion to thank the Albanian Government and Parliament, MPPTT, EU countries for the technical assistance and grants in the service of development projects, American government, USAID for financial help and technical assistance given to the Costal Guard, in the constant assistance and training of the Port Security Force. We also thank World Bank, EIB, and EBRD for the cooperation in the service of persistent development of the Port. Realizing the real strategic importance of this institution for the economy of the country, having a good institutional collaboration with state and private operators, operating in Durres Port, as well as BE, USA donors assistance and consulting companies selected through competition by DPA, such as HPC Hamburg, the current progress and future development is by far ambitious. DPA in close collaboration with international assistants has determined the strong points of Durres Port such as: main and strategic port for the Albanian economy and transit of goods and passengers to Kosovo, the gateway of 8th corridor especially for the Macedonian market, location at Adriatic entrance (at the same time a disadvantage concerning the draught, for at such a position large capacity vessels are required, which can not be realized due to shallow waters of the approach channel and basin), a relatively dense network of ferry transport, for both goods and passengers resulting in considerable income for the port, low operational costs owing to low salaries in our country. In addition to all these factors and strong points, the values and motivation of managing staff and powerful support by the government and downers, make up a reliable bases for the development and normal

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functioning of the port. Simultaneously, we have highlighted the disadvantages which influence the effects of port activity such as: Limited port draughts (basin and approach channel), basin dimensions which do not allow ships longer than 200m, impediments for further enlargement and that of environmental aspect because it is surrounded by the city, railway connections within port and the railway network with Macedonia, and road network to Kosovo, to encourage competition in inter-modal transport, low level of terminal and quay equipment, implemented in low draughts which require potential investments in renovation, the existence of other territories (Kurum, fuel deposits and fishery) effect negatively the organization of other terminals. All such factors, which effect negatively work progress in Durres Port, are thoroughly analyzed by DPA managing staff, and due measures for minimization and elimination of their effects, are being applied. We make you known that very soon the new port master-plan will be completed. It presents port development for 25 year period, and has undergone through all steps of discussions with main state and private actors operating in port, accurately defines the layout with the best possible option of the port development as well as the actions to be undertaken until 2030 for the strategic accomplishment of port mission and at the same time, determines the steps taken for the strengthening of real opportunities of the port and getting rid of the existing, current risks and the potential ones in the future. This master-plan towards completion, is prepared by the prestigious Danish company Royal Haskoning selected through competition and financed by the technical assistance of EC. More over, with the grant of EC assistance, is completed the project and tender documentation for building and reconstruction of quays 7&8 for draughts 11,5m, project prepared by Italian company Technical which is to be implemented very soon, with approved funds of EIB & EBRD credit. During this year, we shall start the reconstruction of quay 10 in eastern zone of the port, of the length 150m, at the value of about 10 million$ and water depth 11.5m, with our own funds. The start of works in the New Ferry Terminal by the winning Slovenian firm SCT of the tender carried out in collaboration with EC and EIB assistance, gives a new modern dimension to the Port, attractive and of interest to accomplish passenger and goods transport potential, by ferry for all stages of further activity in this terminal. DPA itself, has accomplished the purchase of three new Mafi Trac tow heads, to enhance the operations of imbarkment / disimbarkment of vehicles on ferries, in addition this year the purchase of a vehicle for the transportation of luggages on ferries, satisfying the modern operational infrastructure in this terminal.

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Continuous annual growth in container goods transport, is responded by continuous measures to create appropriate infrastructure for the successful realization of port operations, with this aim we have built a functional site, expecting enlargement, foreseen in master-plan, we have procured with our own funds, the purchase of a universal crane of 60t capacity and during this year it will serve container handling and it is being produced by Fantucci company. Further, we have accomplished the purchase of a lift taker to handle empty containers up to 5 stakes, and for a long term this important port terminal will be equipped in infrastructure and equipment like a modern terminal and swift operations in container handling. In the service of capacity growth of port handled vessels, this year is planned to be completed dragging project of the basin and approach channel, with the scope of implementing this project next year, profiting relevant effects. DPA operates on the bases of law 9130 dt 08.03.2003 On Port Authority which foresees the strategy of its infrastructure, superstructure, equipment, financial and human resources development. Further, in this law is sanctioned port transition, from a service port to a land lord port, bringing services closer to the international practices. Along with two private stevedoring companies, with the help of foreign consulting experts, for the competition, on third private operator, which will soon be published, we have completed the documentation. Also, this same year, will be carried out the tender for privatization of crane and vehicles maintenance sector, which documentations are almost completely finished, for tender, by consulting company HPC Hamburg, which, according to the carried out tender contract, is also finishing preparation of new port tariffs and new stevedoring rates. At the same time, IFC is completing documentation for the concession of Container Terminal and with the latter operations of Ferry Terminal and Port Security in concession, we reach a maximum accomplishment of the real image of an operational port, as a land lord port. Implementation of port security project, with funds announced for tender at 1.4 million euro, permanent assistance of American Coast Guard ICITAP, towards port security force, has shifted Durres Port to the Port list of high security, which, due to investment and motivated job of all managing staff, will keep ameliorating. Cooperation and continuous support by state structures, foreign donators, local power structures and private operators, of managing staff, guarantee a safe progress for the future of Durres Port.

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Your will to win needs a professional insct that nds the right way, while ying high in excellence...

Almost ve years ago we had a dream for integrated professional PR solutions in Albania. We succeeded to share it. Now, its time for COMPORT to take the next step. Its time to move ahead. For we still have a dream, to share. In 2005 we grounded and supported the Albanian Institute of Public Relations, making of it one of the most active thinktanks in the country. Several projects and strategies designed by AIPR have been endorsed now from state institutions and donor organizations. COMPORT is the rst ever Albanian PR rm supporting Grassroots Communication and activities. Be it for a crisis management, research process or awareness building, COMPORT can immediately launch a workforce of over 400 students from the Sociology Faculty of Tirana, all trained and led by their University professors. If you search on Google Albania Marketing, COMPORT comes rst, because of our SEO services. We dont need to tell anyone how good we are. We just are. And our clients know it. In order to better provide comprehensive and integrated solutions to nowdays

demands, COMPORT acquired a fullservice multimedia agency that creates advertising, design, interactive, and productions. GracaPlus now a COMPORT owned company- is led by a veteran of the Albanian design Mr. Arben Bejko the National Opera Scenographer over a dozen years. From TV studios to National Squares, from small collaterals to large format, from 3D animation to live road shows, Arben Bejko has delivered always the result. For we at COMPORT, we measure actions by results, not just by efforts. Last but not least, COMPORT registered on August its new branch in Kosovo offering the same range of services and quality to clients, that wisely consider the Balkans as one integrated market. This new dimension is the heart of our human growth in resources. COMPORT staff is made of independent & creative thinkers acting as a team. For that reason we advise now clients who are developing project worth up to $6 Bln in a wide range of sectors from Energy to Mining, Health Care and Pharmaceuticals, Banking and Finance, Tourism and Real Estate, etc.

SERVICES PR & Media Communication Brand Promotion / Marketing CRM Strategy Building Research Training Representation /Ground work FDI Attraction B2B / B2C PRODUCTS Creativity / Design Promotional Communication Products Web & Software Research Training

Independent and Creave Thinkers Acng As A Team MAIN CLIENTS


WB Mission in Albania UNOPS/ Italian Gov. UNDP YAPS/UNICEF, Tirana CARDS/UNDP Program ASG Power SA/ Swiss based company FCDG /USA Prime Asset Finance Investment/ Swiss based Albanian Chrome ACR (former DARFO Albania) Landsvirkjun (Islandic National Company of Energy) UPS (repres. In Albanian by United Transport) ARCOLA PETROLIERA, Italy MUVITA Arenzano, GE, italy Brignola Colori- Genova, Italy Boeri Studio, Milano, Italy (Domus Academy) GUCLU INSAAT, Istanbul, Turkey TEKIMAS, Ankara, Turkey OLIM /DEKA (AM Group) Tirana KURUM Elbasan/Durres/Tirana SHAGA shpk Ministry of Justice Ministry of Transport, Public Works & Telecom.

Rr.Hajdar Hidri 24/1, Tirana - Albania, mob:+355 69 20 98 400, Tel:+355 4 258 170, Mail:info@albcomport.com Hotel Iliria 109 Nena Tereze p.n. Prishtine Kosove Tel: +381 38 223626 Mail:kosova@albcomport.com url:www.albcomport.org

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The Institute of Transport - The new mission in the support of the Transport strategy in Albania
Brikena Tare
Director
Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecomunications Institute of Transport in Albania, established on 1985, is the unique juridical, public, state and governmental institution specialized on transport studies for road, rail, maritime and air transport Legal base: Ministry of Public Works, Transports and Telecommunications Law No. 7893 date 22.12.1994: On Science and Technology Development for studies and research on road, rail, maritime and air transport systems IT MISSION With the Decision of Ministers Council No 861, of date 21.11.2007, on Establishment, organization and operation of Institute of Transport, IT operates as a Service Agency under the administration of MPWTT. The new mission of IT consists on: Establishment of the transport sector database for all transport activities, including the maintenance and updating of this database. The IT will act as a Central Information Source for transport sector providing data and analytic instruments to MPWTT for transport sector policies and strategies development. To maintain and update the Albanian National Transport Plan (ANTP). Assistance and consultancy to MWPTT on revision and adjournment of the transport sector policies, regulations and implementation of EU directives as well as respective recommendations. Assistance to MPWTT in the preparation of the transport studies. Other services and studying activities for third parties in transport field, evaluations, urban plan of traffic and signaling of the cities and their updating, expertise, trainings, etc. Participate as consultant or local partner in regional and international projects in the field of transport. The new structure of IT in perspective (Recommended by Albanian Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunications (MPPTT) National Transport Plan (ANTP)
General Directory on Transport Policies and Planning Stering Commitee IT Director Sector of Supporting Services Technical Council

Sector of Transport Planning Transport Modeling by Modes Social-Economical Data

Sector of Transport Information Transport database by Modes Transport Information Archive

Sector of Policies and Legislation Policy and Regulations

Sector of Studies and Projects Studies and Projects for MPWTT Sector of Local Transport Services for third parties

Legislation & Harmonization in Transport

IT STAFF 15 employers Technical staff : 9 engineers, 4 economists Qualifications: Master Degree and University Degree in Transport/ Engineer, Transport/Economics, training courses and qualifications in transport issues. Collaborators: highly experienced experts in transport field, academics, and lectors from the Polytech-

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nic University of Tirana. IT - ACHIEVEMENTS The Institute of Transport, up to now, accomplished up to 90 different kinds of studies on the Transport modes: Stuides on Transport Planning and Traffic engineering Feasibility Study on Corridors of Transport in Albania Planning of National Road Traffic The Multimodal Transport between Albania and Kosova The Development of International Passengers Transport to and from countries with expanded Albanian emigration Study on Environment Pollution by Road Traffic Study on the Domestic Maritime Transport and Connection through Buna River with Shkodra Lake Feasibility Study on Saranda Airport Feasibility Study on Kora Airport Feasibility Study on Rail Connection between Macedonia-Albania The Study on Market and Combination of Kinds of Transports for Goods Transportation and Efficiency Growth. Traffic and Signalling Urban Plan of Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlora and Fier City Auditing of National Road Network Signalling; Studies on Transport Infrastructure The Amendment of the Master Plan of Shengjin Sea Port The Amendment of the Master Plan of Saranda Sea Port Feasibility Study for Constructing of Terminals for Petrol and Liquid Gas (GLN) in Porto Romano, Durres The Application of Advanced Technologies on Goods Processing at Seaports, Railways Stations and Airports. Studies on Transport Policies and Strategies Study on the Integration of Albanian Transport Corridors to the Balkan-European Transport Corridors and Networks Study on Privatization of the Urban Transport Sector Strategy for Maritime Transport Development Study on National Civil Air Transport Study on Information Systems and Methods for Statistical Data Collection on Transport

Studies on Legislation in Transport Approximation of Transport Legislation with International Conventions and EU Standards with regard to Motor Vehicles Compilation of Regulation on Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail (referring to RID) ADR Manual of Road Signalling

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IT STUDIES ON 2008 On-going 2008 Studies for MPWTT Outer Cost in Transport; Methodology on Accident Evaluation Civil and Commercial Air Transport by Helicopter and Hydroplane; the Prospect of Development in the Republic of Albania Study and Implementation of Computerized System in the Interurban Lines Network Action Plan for Implementation of Maritime Code Unification of Road Transport Documentation; System of Taxes and Tariffs Road Safety, Recommendations and Measures for a Safe Movement in the whole Albanian Road Network.

IT INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION Foreign Consultant Finacing 1. Pre-feasibilit y Study (PFS) for Bypasses of Gjirokastra and Tepelena SWK UK European Commissio n (2003-2004) World Bank (1998-2000) Phare (1996-1997) Phare (1996)

2. Master Plan of Saranda and Shengjin Ports 3.Albanian New Road Code and Implementation Measures 4.Feasibilit y Study on the Re-organization of the Vehicles Technical Control Centers in Albania

NEA Holland SWK UK GEM/Cons Holland.

4.Balkan Transport Study 5.Feasibilit y Study for the Development of the Railway and Co mbined Transport in Internat ional axes in Central and Eastern Europe 6.Study on re-organizat ion of Public Transport by bus in Tirana

GIBB UK TEAM Italy

Phare (1995-1996) Phare (1994-1995)

Transurb Belgium

Phare (1994-1995)

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Participation in Inter-Regional Projects I. INTERREG III A Adriatic Crossboarder European Commission Programm The Project: Survey and Information System of Adriatic Roads(SISA) 2004-2006 Objective Survey of about 1200 km roads along the Eastern Adriatik Coast from Vlora, Albania, in the south to Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnje Hercegovina, Croatia Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Marche and Abruzzo, Italy. Partner countries: 6 Surveyed roads:1.280km In Albania Surveyed roads: 320 km (Hani Hotit Vlora, Durres Tirana, II. New Adriatic Neighborhood Programme INETRREG/CARDSPHARE (2007-2008) The Project: Technical Assistance in Developing and Training Network for Human Resources in the Logistics and Transport Sector (ADRIAFORM) Specifications: Institute of Transport (IT) Albanian Leader Partner in Adriaform Project Durres Port Authority (DPA) Albanian Local Partner Grant Contract No 140 738 signed with European Commission Delegation in Tirana. III. New Adriatic Neighborhood Programme INETRREG/CARDSPHARE The Project: COoperating for mobility Demand management Enhancement CODE (2007 2008) Internal Leader Partner: Polytechnic University of Bari, Itali External Leader Partner: Polytechnic University of Tirana Institute of Transport (IT): Local Partner in the Project Action Plan: to create a center of knowledge for transport issues management in promoting the of collective, public and private transport (bus) users, (car-pooling), reducing the external factors regarding with over-population and pollution and in the other part guarantying the mobility for public and freight transportation. INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT Welcome Foreign Partners Investors in Albania Institute of Transport - Your Collaborator in the Project-Investments in Albania

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Participants in the Exposition Albanian Resources


1. Association of Albanian Alps Str. Pjeter Bogdani, P 204, Ap. 2B, Sh.2, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel:+ 355 42 249 383, Fax:+355 42 249383 E-mail: onuzi@yahoo.com 2. ACR (Albanian Chrome) Str. Deshmoret e 4 Shkurtit Sky Tower Bldg, Suite 6/4 Tirana - Albania Tel:+355 42 24 29 38, Fax:+355 42 259846 www.albanianchrome.al 3. AEnpower Albania Str. Nikolla Tupe , No. 5, Tirana -Albania www.moncadaenergy.com 4. AKBN (National Agency of Natural Resources) Blloku Vasil Shanto Tirana - Albania E - mail : k.rexhepi@akbn.gov.al www.akbn.gov.al 5. Albanian (Arabic Chamber of Commerce and Industry) Kavaja Str, Bld Gyden, No. 114 PO. Box 2406/1, Tirana - Albania Tel: +355 68 20 14 551 E-mail: rsinani@aa-cci.org, www.aa-cci.org 6. Albtelecom SH.A. Str: Myslym Shyri No.42, Tirana, Albania Tel: +355 42 234065, Fax: +355 42 232200 www.albtelecom.al 7. 8. AAEEG (ALBANIAN ASSOCIATION OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND GEOENVIRONMENT) Blloku Vasil Shanto , Tirana - Albania Tel: ++355 42 372320, Fax: 42 372320 E- mail : ikgj1@albaniaonline.net Alumil Albania Highway Tirana-Durres, 7th km, Albania Tel: +355 48 300238, Fax: +355 48 300236 E-mail: info.al@alumil.com

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9. A.G.S (Albanian Geological Survey) Str. Kavajes No 153, Tirana - Albania Tel : +355 42 229 441, Fax : +355 42 229 441 E-mail: aneziraj@gsa.gov.al E - mail : aneziraj@yahoo.com, www.gsa.gov.al 10. ANTEA Cement SH.A. Str of Durresi (Ish Uzina Tirana) Bldg. LIM-EM, Gate 4D, No. 1 Tirana-Albania Tel+ 355 4 22 30 402, Fax + 355 4 22 30 402 E-mail: info@anteacement.al, www.titan.gr 11. ALBINVEST Bulevard Gjergj Fishta, Pall.Shallvareve Tirana - Albania Tel: ++355 4 252 886, ++355 4 254 316, Email: info@albinvest.gov, www.albinvest.gov.al 12. Atlantik SH.A Str: Themistokli GermenjiNo3/1 Tirana - Albania Tel:+355 42 235088, Fax:+355 42 251088 E-mail:info@atlantik.com.alwww.atlantik.com.al 13. Balkan Resources INC Str.Deshmoret e 4 Shkurtit , Sky Tower Bldg, Suite 8/4, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel: +355 42 243066, gert@balkanresources.com, www.balkanresources. com 14. Bankers Petroleum Albania LagjaKastriot , Rr.Vasil Pecuke , Fier - ALBANIA Tel: +355-34-20845 /6 /7/8, Fax: +355-34- 20850 Blvd. Bajram Curri, European Trade Center, Kati 13 Tirana - ALBANIA , Tel/Fax: 4 22 74 786 15. CCIT (Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Tirana) Str. Kavajes, No 6, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel:+355 42 230 284, Fax: +355 42 227 997 E -mail: info@cci.gov.al, www.cci.gov.al

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16. COMPORT SH.P.K Str. Hajdar Hidri 24/1, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel/ Fax + 355 4 22 58 170 E-mail: info@albcomport.com Website: www.albcomport.com 17. CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE Str. Muhamet Gjollesha nr. 54, Tirana-ALBANIA Tel/ Fax + 355 4 1273449

18. DOKO Ex Metallurgic Factory Elbasan - ALBANIA Fax : +58326061, Mob : ++355 682075700 shshmndoko@yahoo.com, www.doko.al 19. General Directory of Roads Str: Sami Frasheri No. 33 Tirana - ALBANIA Tel:+355 42 223600, Fax: +355 42 223600 www.dprr.gov.al 20. Eagle Mobile Str: Murat Toptani, Eurocol Business Center Tel:+355 42 290100, Fax: +355 42 290 103 E-mail: info@eaglemobile.al, www.eaglemobile.al 21. Elida Co. 94 - ALBEXPO Str. Themistokli Germenji , Building Pegasos, 2nd floor, No 2, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel:+355 42 272412, Fax: +355 42 272412 E-mail: info@albexpo.com, www.albexpo.com 22. Eurosig Str. Lek Dukagjini Villa No. 5, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel :++3554 238 999, Fax :++355 42 223 841 E - mail : info@eurosig.al, www.eurosig.al 23. FIAA Foreing Investors Association of Albania Str.Themistokli Germenji , Building Pegasos, 2nd floor, No 2, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel :++355 4 22 25 553, Fax : ++355 4 22 25 553 fiaalb@albaniaonline.net, www.fiaalbania.com

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24 . FMT Servo Matik Str. Hoxha Tasim Tirana - ALBANIA Tel/Fax: +35542 264411/ +355 42 364479 E-mail: info@servomatikelektronik.com www.ser vomatikelektronik.com 25. Institute of Urbanistic Studies and Projects Str. Muhamet Gjollesha next to ITU Tirana - ALBANIA, Tel/Fax : +355 42 223361 E - mail : ispurbanistike@yahoo.com 26. Institute of Transport Str : Kavajes , Tirana - ALBANIA Tel/Fax: +355 42 250057, E - mail : info@itsal.org, www.itsal.org 27. Interalbania SH.A., ASPIS Group Str.Sulejman DelvinaZayed Business Center, Tirana - ALBANIA, Tel : ++ 355 4 22 29 578 Fax: +355 4 22 29 511, www.interalbanian.com E-mail: marketing@interalbanian.com 28. IFC (International Finance Corporation) Str Deshmoret e 4 shkurtit , No 34, SkyTower 8/1 Tel: +355 42 231401, Fax: +355 42 231260 www.ifc.org/pepse 29. BAIMA S.r.L. Via XX Settembre 28, Galliate, 28066 Italy Company ID: 145728, Tel: 39-0321038295 30. Kamza Development Garden City, Kthesa e Kamzes, Tirana-ALBANIA Tel: +355 48 302659, Fax: +355 48 302656 E - mail : aar_shah63@yahoo.co.uk 31. K.A.SH. - Albanian Agro Business Council Str. Mine Peza , P87/3, Gate 2, 1-st Floor Tirana - ALBANIA. Tel/Fax : ++355 4 229 446 E-mail: eferizaj@kash.org.al, www. kash.org.al 32. Municipality of Elbasan (Archeological Discoveries Elbasan) Elbasan - ALBANIA. Tel, 054 53195, Fax: +355 54 52246, www.elbasani.gov.al E - mail: bashkiaelbasan@yahoo.com. 33. MONITOR Blvd: Zogu I , Bldg. 13 Floors, Gate 5/c, Tirana - ALBANIA. Tel : ++355 42250653 E-mail: www.monitor.al

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34. Municipality of Orikum Orikum City - ALBANIA, Tel: +355 391 2325 Fax: +355 391 2325, www.orikum.gov.al E-mail: kananbraho.orikum.gov.al 35. National Commercial Bank Blvd: Zhan Darrk, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel: +355 42 250961, Fax: +355 42 250960 E-mail: info@bkt.com.al, www.bkt.com.al 36. National Agency of Tourism Str : Abdi Toptani , No 4, T irana - ALBANIA Tel: +355 42 273 778, Fax: +355 42 273 281 E - mail: info@albaniantourism.com www. albaniantourism.com 37. Organization for the Development and the Conservation of Gjirokastra Str : Ismail Qemali , Vila 12/1, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel: +355 42 244870 Obelisk, Qafa e Pazarit, Gjirokaster - ALBANIA Tel: +355 84 67077, www.gjirokastra.org E-mail: elenitaroshi@yahoo.com 38. OST SH.A. Blvd:Gjergj Fishta, Bldg. 10, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel/Fax: +355 42 225581 E-mail: yballa@ost.com.al 39. Port Authority of Durrsi Durres City - ALBANIA, Fax: 355 52 223 115 E-mail: info@apdurres.com www.apdurres.com.al 40. Raiffeisen Bank European Trade Center, Blvd. Bajram Curri, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel:+355 4 22 22 669, Fax:+355 4 22 75 599 E-mail: info@raiffeisen.al, www.raiffeisen.al 41. Schneider Electrics Industries Sas Schneider Electric Shqiperi Villa 133, Str Elbasanit Tirana - ALBANIA Tel: +355 42 377558, Fax: +355 42 378696 E - mail: dorina.islami@al-schneider-elctric.com

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42. Selenice Bitumi Sh.a PO Box, 4326, Vlora - ALBANIA Tel:+355 69 20 99 743, Fax:+355 33 33 123 E-mail: client@selenicebitumi.com www.selenicebitumi.com 43. SINTEZA CO Str Asim Vokshi , No.33, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel: +355 42 238530, Fax: +355 42 233160 E - mail : sinteza@sinteza-al.com www.sinteza-al.com 44. Teqja International Zogu i Zi Square, Bldg among the two Towers, Tirana - ALBANIA, Tel: +355 4 22 74 829 Fax: +355 4 22 39 826, www.teqja.com.al E-mail: info@teqja.com.al 45. TIREX RESOURCES Str Deshmoret e 4 shkurtit, Bldg 30, Ap. 4 Tirana - ALBANIA. Tel: ++355 42 249 903 E - mail: alikajp@albmail.com, www.tirexresources.com 46. Republic of Kosova Independent Commission for Mines and Minerals Str Rustem Statovici , No 29, Prishtine Tel : ++381 38 240 252, Fax: ++381 38 245 844 www.kosovo-mining.org 47. MinistryofAgriculture,FoodandConsumerProtection Bulevardi Deshmoret e Kombit Nr.2, Tirana - ALBANIA. Tel : ++ 355 42 230 851 Fax : ++ 355 42 230 851, www.mbumk.gov.al 48. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy Bulevardi Deshmoret e Kombit Nr.1, Tirana - ALBANIA. Tel : 00355 42 222 245 www.mete.gov.al 49. Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Telecommunication Sheshi Skenderbej Nr 5, Tirana - ALBANIA Tel : ++ 355 42 234 695, www.mpptt.gov.al 50. Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports Str. Kavajes , Tirana - ALBANIA. Tel : +355 42 222 508 , www.mtkrs.gov.al

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VIEW OF CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION ON ALBANIAN NATURAL RESOURCES Albania, a destinations for investment

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