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Ennio Tosi 051 2095214 SOMMARIO Origine della meteorologia Servizi meteorologici Esempi di mappe sinottiche Geopotenziale ed altezza del geopotenziale

METEOROLOGIA SINOTTICA le cose che sono in alto discorso insieme sguardo

Il nome meteorologia risale ad Aristotele

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Il nascere della meteorologia come scienza moderna si pu far risalire alle invenzioni del termometro,1597 (Galileo Galilei, 15641642) e del barometro, 1644 (Evangelista Torricelli, 1608-1647). Le misure della temperatura non furono facilmente confrontabili prima che fossero introdotti metodi standard di taratura degli strumenti. Scala Fahrenheit 1724 (Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, 16861736), Celsius 1742 (Anders Celsius, 1701-1744). Un ulteriore e fondamentale passo in avanti si deve alla invenzione del telegrafo 1837 (Samuel Finley Breese Morse, 1791-1872).

Guerra di Crimea e assedio di Sebastopoli (1853-1856). Invenzione della telegrafia senza fili, 1 brevetto 1896 (Guglielmo Marconi, 1874-1937).
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DANIMARCA Allerede i 1820 foreslog H.C. rsted (1777-1851), at der systematisk skulle foretages meteorologiske observationder rundt om i Danmark. I 1827 blev der nedsat en permanent Meteorologisk Comite, som foreslog oprettelsen af et centralobservatorium i Kbenhavn, der skulle samle disse observationer fra poster i forskellige dele af landet. De ndvendige midler til oprettelsen af dette frste "Meteorologiske Institut" blev samtidig bevilget, og den frste systematiske landsdkkende dataindsamling var en kendsgerning.

I rene fremover bredte interessen for vejret sig mrkbart. Begivenheder uden for Danmark prgede ogs udviklingen. En bermt begivenhed fra Krimkrigen, hvor en engelsk/fransk flde i 1854 blev overrasket af en pludselig storm ved Kalaklava foran det belejrede Sevastopol, satte gang i oprettelsen af det franske meteorologiske institut i 1856. Efterflgende undersgelser viste nemlig, at stormen efter al sandsynlighed kunne vre forudsagt. Senere fulgte oprettelsen af de engelske og norske meteorologiske institutter i 1866.

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GRAN BRETAGNA History of the Met Office 1854 The Met Office forms as a small department within the Board of Trade, under Captain Robert FitzRoy (famous for commanding HMS Beagle on Charles Darwin's historic expedition), to provide meteorological and sea current information to mariners. 1861 Sufficient numbers of regular observations are being received by telegraph from Great Britain and France to permit the issue of storm warnings to ports and forecasts to the Press. These services are stopped in 1866 on the recommendation of a Royal Society committee. Storm warnings are rapidly reinstated but published forecasts do not reappear until 1879. About this time, the first international meteorological congress in Vienna establishes an International Meteorological Organization to further essential international co-operation. This eventually transforms into the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialised agency of the United Nations.
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1922 Forecasts are first broadcast by the BBC in and captions are shown on TV in 1936. 1939 The start of World War II sees the introduction of a system for obtaining data from the upper air by 'radiosonde', balloon-borne sensors transmitting pressure, temperature and humidity data to receiving sites on land. There is a huge increase of staff during this era, with numbers rising to 6,900. WMO The World Meteorological Convention, by which the World Meteorological Organization was created, was adopted at the Twelfth Conference of Directors of the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which met in Washington in 1947. Although the Convention itself came into force in 1950, WMO commenced operations as the successor to IMO in 1951 and, later that year, was established as a specialized agency of the United Nations by agreement between the UN and WMO.
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INDIA History of Meteorology in India Ancient Beginnings : The beginnings of meteorology in India can be traced to ancient times. Early philosophical writings of the 3000 B.C. era, such as the Upanishadas, contain serious discussion about the processes of cloud formation and rain and the seasonal cycles caused by the movement of earth round the sun. Varahamihira's classical work, the Brihatsamhita, written around 500 A.D., provides a clear evidence that a deep knowledge of atmospheric processes existed even in those times. It was understood that rains come from the sun (Adityat Jayate Vrishti) and that good rainfall in the rainy season was the key to bountiful agriculture and food for the people. Kautilya's Arthashastra contains records of scientific measurements of rainfall and its application to the country's revenue and relief work. Kalidasa in his epic, 'Meghdoot', written around the seventh century, even mentions the date of onset of the monsoon over central India and traces the path of the monsoon clouds.

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Modern Meteorology It was in 1636 that Halley, a British scientist, published his treatise on the Indian summer monsoon, which he attributed to a seasonal reversal of winds due to the differential heating of the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean. India is fortunate to have some of the oldest meteorological observatories of the world. The British East India Company established several such stations, for example, those at Calcutta in 1785 and Madras (now Chennai) in 1796 for studying the weather and climate of India. The Asiatic Society of Bengal founded in 1784 at Calcutta, and in 1804 at Bombay (now Mumbai), promoted scientific studies in meteorology in India. Captain Harry Piddington at Calcutta published 40 papers during 1835-1855 in the Journal of the Asiatic Society dealing with tropical storms and coined the word "cyclone", meaning the coil of a snake. In 1842 he published his monumental work on the "Laws of the Storms". In the first half of the 19th century, several observatories began functioning in India under the provincial governments.

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The Work of the Pioneers Very early in the history of IMD, the importance of the publication of scientific results had been recognised. Blanford introduced the publication of the "Memoirs of the IMD" and himself authored several of them. His work on the rainfall of India is unsurpassable in clarity of thought and content. In view of the importance of foreshadowing monsoon seasonal rainfall for the agricultural economy of the country, Blanford initiated the system of Long Range Forecasting (LRF). The system of LRF of monsoon rains went through several evolutionary phases and eminent pioneers like Sir J. Eliot and Sir Gilbert Walker (Both Directors-General of Observatories) and generations of Indian researchers have made their contributions to this scientific effort. To Sir Gilbert Walker also goes the credit of linking the monsoon with global meteorological situations and his discovery of the socalled Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Swings of the Southern Oscillation were later linked by J. Bjerknes with the EI Nino in the equatorial Pacific Ocean and Bjerknes also coined the term "Walker circulation" for describing the east west vertical circulation in the equatorial plane in honour of Walker. ..
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SVIZZERA La meteorologia, come scienza moderna nel senso di un rilevamento quantitativo dei fenomeni atmosferici, nasce nel 15 secolo con lo sviluppo dei primi strumenti. Ma soltanto a partire dal 1835, grazie all'invenzione del telegrafo, fu possibile scambiare rapidamente misure e osservazioni e utilizzarle per la previsione del tempo. In Svizzera fu l'allora Societ Elvetica di scienze naturali a promuovere nel 1860 la creazione di una rete di rilevamento ed emettere la prima previsione nel 1879. Nel 1881, l'attivit meteorologica fu rilevata dalla confederazione con l'istituzione della Centrale meteorologica svizzera. OLANDA Het KNMI werd bij Koninklijk Besluit opgericht op 31 januari 1854. Prof. C.H.D. Buys Ballot (1817-1890), de eerste hoofddirecteur, koos als locatie de sterrenwacht "Sonnenborgh" in Utrecht. In 1897 verhuisde het KNMI naar De Bilt, waar ook nu nog de hoofdvestiging is (ca. 390 medewerkers).
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AUSTRIA The Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics was founded in 1851; it is one of the oldest independent meteorological services in the world.Records of regular non-instrumental weather observations in Austria have existed since the beginning of the 16th century. Regular instrumental meteorological observations in Innsbruck date back to 1654.Since 1763, an uninterrupted series of meteorological observations has existed in the Benedictine monastery of Kremsmnster, Upper Austria. The meteorological and geophysical series of ZAMG in Vienna date back to 1775.In the year 1848, the Imperial Academy of Sciences began to set up a network of meteorological stations.

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JAPAN Outline The National Meteorological Service in Japan was started in 1875 at the Tokyo Meteorological Observatory (TMO) established in the Ministry of the Interior. JMA is responsible for contributing to the improvement of public welfare including natural disaster prevention and mitigation, safety of transportation, prosperity of industries, and international co-operation activities. The major activities are: 1. 1 to issue warnings, advisories and forecasts in short-range, one-week and long-range ; 2. 2 to deal with the global environmental issues such as global warming and ozone depletion; 3. 3 to provide information on earthquake and volcanic activities.

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ITALIA La nascita del Servizio Meteorologico dellA.M. risale al 2 luglio 1925, appena due anni dopo quella dellAeronautica Militare italiana, allorch venne costituito lUfficio Presagi, che integrava precedenti esperienze in diversi settori, alla luce del positivo impiego delle previsioni meteorologiche nelle operazioni aeree, marine e terrestri durante la prima guerra mondiale. Tenuto conto dei 75 anni di et e dellorigine interdisciplinare forse non sorprende che il Servizio Meteo dellA.M., pur focalizzato sui compiti intimamente connessi alla navigazione aerea civile e militare, rappresenti il Paese presso lOrganizzazione Mondiale della Meteorologia (OMM). Il Servizio Meteo A.M. rappresenta inoltre lItalia nellEUMETSAT, lagenzia europea per lesercizio dei satelliti meteorologici e costituisce il braccio operativo del Ministero dellUniversit e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica per la gestione della partecipazione italiana al Centro Europeo per le Previsioni Meteorologiche a Medio Termine (CEPMMT) di Reading (Gran Bretagna). Pi recentemente il Servizio Meteorologico dellA.M. divenuto membro di altre due agenzie europee denominate EUMETNET ed ECOMET, per il coordinamento delle attivit osservative e di ricerca la prima, nonch della commercializzazione dei dati meteorologici la seconda.

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=gz = gdz
0 z


Z= / g0

g0 il valore medio al suolo della accelerazione di gravit (9.81m/s) Visto che g praticamente costante in troposfera Z coincide con laltezza

Come si calcola e quindi Z, visto che le sonde non forniscono la quota, ma pressione, temperatura ed umidit?
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dp =g eq. idrostatica dz p= RT eq. gas perfetti

d = gdz =

dp RT = dp = RT dlnp p

Z 2Z 1 =

R T dlnp g0 p

( z 2 )( z 1 )=R T dlnp


Per tener conto della umidit si usa la temperatura virtuale

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Z2-Z1 viene detto anche spessore o thickness Dalla idrostatica e dalla legge dei gas perfetti si ricava anche che la dipendenza di p dalla quota esponenzialmente decrescente con fattore di scala H=RT/g0

Ricaviamo a quale quota corrisponde la variazione di 1 hPa alla pressione di 1000 hPa e alla temperatura di 20 C
287.293.15 287293.15 1001 Z 2Z 1= dlnp= ln =8.57 m 9.81 9.81 1000 1000

Al livello del mare ad ogni hPa (mb) corrispondono circa 8 metri

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