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ENTE PER LE NUOVE TECNOLOGIE

' L'ENERGIA E L'AMBIENTE

VALUTAZIONE

DEL COSTO ENERGETICO

DEGLI SPORT

DI COMBATTIMENTO IN

I«REMOTE SENSING*

PROGRESS REPORT 7

Man environment, heat-exchange

equations

a new thermodynamic approach

A. SACRIPANTI .
-
E.N.E.A. Direzione Centrate Sicurezza e Protezione Sanitaria

- -
Roma, Coordinatore Federazione Italiana --Lotta Pesi Judo

A. DAL MONTE'

C.O.N.I. - Istituto Scienze dello Sport

Dipartimento di Fisiologia e biomeccanica

Coordinatore Scientifico

M. FABBRI, L. ROCSI

-
ENEA Area Energia e Innovazione

Centro Ricerche Energia Casaccia, Roma

Paper presenteci at the

EIGHTH MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN

SOCIETY OF BIOMECHANICS

June 21-24, 1992

Rorne - Italy

Testo pervenuto nel luglio 1992

Gli autori ringraziano i gruppi sportivi della


GUARDIA FORESTALE
e
GUARDIA DI FINANZA
per la gentile e fattiva collaborazione prestata,
nel corso della ricerca

I contenuti tecnicclscientifici dei rapporti tecnici dell'ENEA


rispecchiano l'opinione degli autori e non necessariamente quella dell'ente.
ABSTRACT
* .
This progress report shows a new thermodynamic
approach to the problem of man-environment heat exchange. The
obtained goal for our studies is a new and more useiul forra
of the equation describing the energy output from a man who
performs a physical exercise.
In appendix, the new energy equation is the basis of a
computer code used to .get quantitative results in the
C.O.N.I.- E.N.E.A.- F.I.L.P.J. joint research.

RIASSUNTO
.
In questo progress report e ' utilizzato un approccio
termodinamico per ottenere unrequazione che descriva lo
scambio termico uomo-ambiente in forma piur utilizzabile per
la ricerca congiunta C.O.N.I.-E.N.E.A.- F.I.L.P.J.
In appendice viene presentato il codice di calcolo che
utilizzando la nuova forma dell'equazione ottenuta, permette
la verifica quantitativa delltesperienza.
7
1.0 - THERNOPHYSIOLOGY: A SHORT OVERVIEW

2.0 - THE EVOLUTION OF HEAT EXCHANGE EQUATIONS

2.1 - THE MICROSCOPIC VISION UPDATE:


THE WEINBAUM AND JIJI BIDTHERMAL EQUATION.

2.2'- MACROSCOPIC
r-
VISION UPDATE: THE CHARMY AND LEVIN MODEL

3.0 -,mAS HEAT ENGINE ,

3.1 - CQMPONENTS OF THE INNER AND OUTER HEAT CURRENTS


. C
3.2 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL HEAT REGULATION

4.0 - HEAT EXCHANGE, .CLASSICAL EQUATIONS END NEW


THERXODYNAMIC APPROACH

4.1 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY RADIATION

4.2 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY CONDUCTION


E
4.3 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
4.4 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY CONVECTION FROM THE SKIN
4.5 - HEAT E X C W G E BY DIFFUSION AtjD MASS TRANSFER
5.0 - APPENDIX: A COMPUTER CODE FOR THE ENERGY EQUATION
6.0 - BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.0 - THERMOPHYSIOBOGY: A SHORT OVERVIEW

As is well-known, man is a homoiothermic animal. This


means that his idea1 life conditions'are possibles only
within a very limited temperature range, without the use of
clothing. Both an "internal temperaturen and a "surface
extcrnaln temperatura of the body can be identified since, in
the case'of the man-environment heat exchange, homoiothermy
is guaranteed by the existence of a temperature gradient from
insidie to outside. Interna1 tempeqature can usually vary
from 36.3O C. and 37.7O C.
If it reaches 3g0-39.5O C. the individua1 is on the
verge of a heat ,collapse; a 40?S0 C. value entaizs the risk
of a complete paralysis of the therdo-regulating mechanisms;
whereas values higher that 4 2 O C. cause irreversible brain
- damage alongside with enzymic blocks and letal consequences.
Tests' on animals showed tiiat the pre-optical
hypothalamus is the main seat of thermic regulation contro1
processes. This area is assisted by extra-hypothalamic sensor
located in the bone marrow, sensitive to the local
temperature variations.
In order not to alter the internal heat exchange, the
heat produced by the oxydation and fission processes at
muscolar level is removed by the body througth the skin. In
the case of muscolar activity the heat energy produced by the
fission pro-cesses builds up in the muscular mass and causes
the related increase in the local temperature which, ,-by
thermally levelling off in the micr~ca~illaries, warms the
blood flow. . I

Hence the blood, after entering the muscle at the


internal body temperature, reaches the skin surface at the
muscle temperature, thereby dispersing the heat surp1.u~
through ~$11-knownphysical and physiological mechanisms.
After al1 the heat energy produced by the physical and
metabolic activity is removed from the production area by
means of the blood flow and dispersed in the external
environment at the skin level.
Hence the changes in the skin blood flow play a key
role in heat dispersion. The increase in the skin blood flow
entails a further drafn on the cardio-circulatory load (the
heart capacity can reach values 5-6 times higher than the
basa1 ones for naximum loads), even though it is partially
made up for by the increase in the plasmatic volume to the
detriment of the interstitial liquid. The changes stemming
from the correspondent vasomotorial changes . practically
confide themselves to change the features of the "skin
radiatorn.

2.6 litres/min/ma
indeed, ince the hlood floow can range from 0.16 to
the temperature, conductivity and skin heat
dispersion ability are substantially altered. The process of
heat dispersion in the external environment has a werely
"physicalH chasacter and depens on the temperature humidity
and radiant power of the integuments in relation to
temperature humidity and speed of the environment air.
The man-environment heat axchange can occur by
convection, radiation, conduction and evaporation. Convection
is the process transferripg heat from the skin to the
environment by~direct radiation associated t& the status of
thermal excita,tion of the air film molecules in contact with
the body.
Radiation is the process tranferring heat from the
skin to the environment by direct irradiation linked to the
release of electromagnetic radiation emission in the infrared
band by the body.
Conduction is the process tranferring heat from a
higher temperature area to a lower temperature one.
Evaporation is the process tranferring heat from the skin to
the environment, linked to the change in the status of a
vaporizing liguid.
At the level of the skin two different processes
occur: the former which is generally below 30"., known as
"perspiratio insensibilis", caused by the natura1 diffusion
.
of steam through the skin; the latter over 30° C. known as
"perspiratio sensibilis", which is. subject to the
thermo-regulating contro1 causing perspiration.
A further vaporization occurs dt the level of the
mucosa of the brething segment. Therefore espiration is .ade
through a he&t cession to the environment whiEh can be
relevant, durlng bhysical efforts, due to the increase in the
ventilation frequency.
Thus physical activity and the related heat production
trigger a series of physiological meohanisms designed to keep
homoiothermy sueh as: variation in the oxygen consumption,
lung ventilation, heart beating frequency, peripheral
circulation and finally the activation of sweat-glandes.
4-
9

2.0 - THE EVOLUTION OF HEAT EXCHANGE EQUATIONS


5

The study of the methods of regulating the body


temperature has excited investigative interest since the
dawning o£ Biomechanics.
The subsequent developments of tbermodynamic theory
and the related experiments have increased human
understanding of this phenomenbn.
In thermophysiology the key instrument for dissipating
the interna1 heat surplus is given by the increase of the
peripheral blood flow which, by changing the conductivity of
muscular tissues, consequently alters the emission-dispersion
characteristics of the "sknin radiant*.
Even though the procesb for dissipating heat appears
to be well-defined and undestandable in its entirety, indeed
the "local~'microscopic vision of the heat exchange mechanism
and the definition of the tis6ue temperature has so far been
devote8 no satisfactory analytical description.
The problem of human external body heat exchange is
usually tackled determining both the indipendent variables in
human thermal environment and the physiological "dependent"
variables and ,at the end, applying an experimental modified
heat tranfer theory (Fanger 1970, Kerslake 1972,Gagge 1972,
Nitchell 1972, Hanson 1974, Gagge and Nishi 1977, etc.).
Due to sport evolution, the need to extend knowledge
calls for an in-depth analysis of the equations tegulating
man-environment heat exchanges under "free" (real) conditions
- with al1 the difficulties we can imagine.
Even though these equations are al1 well-known - with
a certain degree of approximation - they were confirmed by
extrapolating them from Zaboratory controlled conditions:
In this respect a joint study by C.O.N.I. - E.N.E.A. -
- F.1,L.P.J was started at the beginning of 1989 designed to
assess the athleters energy eost in rea1 competition.
Considering the high complexity of thc issue, it was
recognized the need to tackle that through an integrated
multi- disciplinary approach, by resorting to knowledge in
the field of physiological biomechanics and the specific
equipment provided by C.O.N.I., to the sophisticated methods
and instrument provided by E.N.E.A. and finally to athletes
and to the technical and specialized knowledge in the field
of physical biomechanics provided by F.I.L.P.J.
The "simple" idea is that of viewing athletes as
complex thermal machines. Therefore the joint applicakion of
both principles of thermodynamics must allow us to
statiitically assess the average work carried out by athletes
during competitions.
Obviously, from a theoretical point of view, the
problem could be rapidly solved if it was possible to
evaluate the athletesf direct calorimetry during their
performance. Since this is technically impossible, it is
comon practice in sport to assess the athletefs work by
means of the "simpleru indirect calorimetry.
This means that through arl appropriate mechanical
equivalent we can trace back - through the fuel kinetics -
the work carried out in laboratory which, for many sporti, is
made day by day more similar.to the rea1 competitive load.
In the case of fighting sports pertaining to
F.I.L.P.J. (wrestling and judo) a e few experimental data are .
indeed limited and it is virtually impossible to extrapolate
reliable data from these laboratory results which can allow
an adequate training based on scientific principles.
The idea is therefore that of retracing direct
calorimetry by meqns of improved energy equations of the
man-environment heat exchange, which take into account the
phenomenon kinetics each point every 15 seconds.
2.1 - THE MICROSCOPIC VISION UPDATE:
ITHE WEINBAUM AND JIJI BIOTHERMAL EQUATION.

.
Since 1985 through 1989, on the Journal of
Biomechanical Engineering, a group of researchers from the
New York University seemed to provide a remarkable
contribution to the evolution of the microthermophysiology by
defining a new biothermal equation.
Weinbaum, Jiji, Zhu and Lemons thus proposed and then
generalized an equation where the microscopic average tissue
temperature was, for the first time, connected with the blood
flow .and the local microvascular geometry.
A mode1 was made of the basic machanism which allows
the heat transfer from the tisiue to the blood. This transfer
is not - as belie3sd so far - the result of the heat exchange
with al1 capillaries, but the result of the heat exchange of
arteriovenous counter-flow of those capillaries having a
diameter higher that 100 pm, which are considered to be more
important from the thermal viewpoint.
This was made on the basis of a theoretical forecast
proposed by Chen and Holmes in 1980 who - as for the
microcapillary blood flow - made a clear cut distinction
!
;
l
between the heat exchange and the mass (oxygen) exchange.
This means that blood vessels under 50 pm are already
thermally balanced with the local tissue and do not
participate to the removal of heat which is exchanged and
removed only at the leve1 of those arterioles and venoles
" having a diameter higher than 50 pm.
The first equation proposed was valid only fÒr blood
i C' vessels of the same diameter, but it is interesting to note
that the last generalization of the equation, to inclu&e
I different diameter blood vesseles and the expression of the
effettive conductivity tensor, has the advantage of keeping
'1, the same analytical form alco in the genera1 case.
! . In this last instance the mathematical device of the
analytical exstension of the temperature function enables us
to describe - with a good degree of approximation - the
temperature range o-f the close tissue, thereby allowing for
the first time to assess the theoretichl results by means of
the experimental data of the tissue temperatu're.
2.2 - MACROSCOPIC VISION UPDATE:.
,THE CHARNY AND LEVIN MODEL
: ,

A good exemplum of macroscopic heat exchange


application is the whole body thermal model of a man, with a
reafistic circulatory system, made by C. K. Charny and R. L.
Levin (1989), used for simulating t h e r a p e u ~ chyperthermia
treatments of non-thermoregulat8d malignant tumours.
Man is lumped into 16 body segments; each body segment
is subdivided into four tissue elements: core, muscle, fat,
and skin. In the origina1 model there is only one central
blood compartment; this last one is characterized by a single
temperature throughout the,body at a given time. Therefore
there are 64 tissue elements plus one blood compartment in
the origina1 model; each tissue element is characterized by
its tempereture, volume, surface area, density, specific
heat, thermal conductivity, basal metabolic rate, basal
evaporation rate, basal blood perfusion per unit of mass of
tissue, and electrical conductivity.
The blood compartment is characterized by a single
temperature, volume, density, and specific heat. The new
version of this model subdivides the central blood
compartment into one arteria1 element and one venous element
for each body segment. Also, the abdominal segment is
subdivided into an abdomen and pelvis segment. Each of the
seventeen body segment now consists of six layers: core,
muscle, fat, skin, artery, and vein. Thus there are a total
of 102 elements in the current model of the man: 68 tissue
elements plus 34 blood elements. Each blood element-is now
characterized by its volume, specific heat, density, and
electrical conductivity. Arteria1 and venous blood flows
through each segment via a large vessel which exchanges heat
with the surrounding tissue.
This surrounding tissue is the muscle layer in al1 of
the body segfttents except the thorax, abdomen, neck, and head,
in which the large artery and vein are both assumed to be
embedded in the core tissue,
Heat exchange in the pulmonary circulation is. modeled
separately by considering the lungs and heart as part of the
lumped thoracic. The effect of temperature on skin blood flow
and sweating is modeled based upon the work of Stolwijk.
The ancestor of this model is the thermoregulation
model presented by S. J. Stolwijk 'and J. D. Hardy in 1977
which predicts, with reasonable accuracy,' th-e dynamic
thermqregulatory responses to dynamic loads of ambient -
temperature and interna1 heat productios even during a very
heavy exercise.
3.0 - MAN AS HEAT ENGINE

The thermodynamic approach to the athlete-environment


heat exchange is a very difficult task which shows us the
high complexity of the "athleteN as heat engine and the lack
of complete theory of the topic.
Heat production by man depends upon a large number of
factors which are also significant for the core temperature
regulation. Roies of various importance are played by size of
body, food consumption, age, sex, activity, function of
glands with interna1 secretion, acclimatization, and above
al1 the varying environmental temperatures and the
continuously effec'tive elements af heat radiation, of air
humidity, of air displacements, etc.
Essentially there are three factors controlling heat
and energy production in the h w a n body:
- A ) consumption of food and its combustion by means of
inspired oxygen.
- B ) physical activity (work, sport, etc.)
- C) incoming heat radiation from natura1 and artifieial
radiators (sun, skin, room, walls, heaters, etc.)
They form thg assets in the heat balance which are
necessary for the maintenance of a costant core temperature.,
The Losses are those of removal of sensible heat by
conduction and convection, and by radiatlon governed by the
temperature of the body and of the surroundings as well as by
evaporation. Al1 of them are closely connected with weapher
and climhte fluctuations.
Dominating roles in these intricate influences are
played by the characteristics of the human skin surface with
its often greatly varying behaviour, and by the lungs
respiratory sistem. Comprehension of the . changeable
circumstances in the weather courses and climate structures
are facilitated by a review of heat physiological facts.
These dea1 "ith transport methods and the heat fluxes f rom
body core towards body sheL1 and beyond to the surroundings.
According to estimates by Hensel et al. (1973) in a
human body at rest the greatest heat production
(appcoximately 50%) is concentrate in the abdominal organs
(particularly in the liver); under medium work loads the
production is naturally taken over by the muscles (75 % ) . The
sketch in (fig. 1) shows the processes of heat transport 'from
the interior of the body to the skin surface. The bodyfs heat
emission and evaporation through the skin surface and the
respiratory sistem including the lungs, besides+conduction
and convection are the main mechanisms for heat exchange with
l
I
the environment.

Fig. 1 - Heat transport between body and environment


(Hensei et ai., 1973)
3.1 - COPIPONENTS OF THE INNER AND ,OUTER HEAT CURRENTS

Three factors are important in the heat transport from


the interior to below the skin surface and above al1 within
the skin system itself, namely : W* = blood stream (progress
of arteria1 blood to below the outer. skin); WL = heat
conduction stream, conditioned by the drop in temperature
from the incide towards the outcide; WA = heat exchange
(disorganized movement of liquid constituents of the skin).
Thus the sum WB + WL + % constitutes the i n t e r n a l . heat
stream which plays a decisive part in the principal behaviour
of physical heat regulation.
Total heat emissiofi Q, the external heat stteam,
corresponds to khe sum of the four factors:

Q P R + K + C + E

where
R is the heat exchange by long wave emission,
K is the heat exchange by conduction,
C is the heat exchange 'by convection,
W
E is the heat exchange by evaporation by way of skin surface
/
4.0 - HEAT EXCHANGE, CLASSICAL EQUBTIONS AND NEW
,THERNODYNAMICAPPROACH

In C.O.N.I. -
E.N.E.A. - F.I.L.P.J. experience t0
study athlete's performance in rea1 time using "remote
sensing" techniques, it is basic to have predictive
equations, as function of indipendent variables of the human
thermal environment related to the "human heat engine" by
skin temperature.
If the athleters body is in thermal equilibrium with
the environment, the application of the first principium of
thermodynamics allows us to write the known relation:
b

.IitCiL-È-o

where M is the metabolic.energy.


During the kinetic evolution of a performance, a correction
factor must be introduced and the following equation is
applicable:

P t i t E * L - è = * S
where the term 6 called "body heat storage" (Winslow, 1939)
would be better renamed "thermal inertia" of the body.
As matter of fact this term accounts both for the lag
of time present between the start of the performance and the
visible thermal emission related and for the thermal tail
present at the end of the same. it quantifies therefore the
body trouble (inertia) to change his thermal status. -
For the evaluation of the body "thermal inertian
usually it is applied the following. equation:

6 - (Cb g ATb)/d t

where g represent the body weight, Cb is the specific heat of


the body assumed to be 3.47 kJ/Kg OR but it may range from
2.93 u p t o 3.55 kJ/Kg O R (Hardy, 1970) and ATb is the mean
body temperature determined by a weighted average of AT
(skin) and *Tr (rectal) as prpposed by Burton ( 1 9 3 f :
(0.65 AT,, + 0.39 bTSk) or by Ctolwijk and Rardy (1966)
(0.8 A + 0.2 ATSk)..It is also clear that the therial
- inertia !o the-body during an exesercise (in hot environment)
cannot be determined from any fixed ratio of inner and skin
temperature (Wyndham, 1973).
The metabolic energy source M represents the free
energy produced by the trasformation of chenical energy
during aerobic and anaerobic-activities within the organism.
It is impossible to d e s c d b e this process quantitatively, in
a useful form, therefore usually it is assessed by the "more
easyn measurement of fuel upkake (oxygen).by the formula:

where
e
r is the respiratory factor and
v02
is volume of oxygen uptake,
Since the mechanical efficiency of the human body is
mostly below 2 5 %, the interna1 heat production during
exercises corresponds to the 75 % of the total energy
utilized.
The greater is the exercise intensity, the greater is
the total amount of heat produced. The heat id excess has to
be removed and dissipated in order to prevent overheating and
hyperthermia. j

In heat transfer theory and fluid mechanics conditions


at the bourdary of a finite body in-which heat is flowing are
usually described in terms of one or three idealizatims, of
which the last includes the first'two as special cases:
1) - the boundary is assumed to be maintained at a fixed
preassigned temperature T, by good thermal.contact with a
well-stirred reservoir.
2) - the boundary is assumed to be impervious to heat a o w ,
which means that the normal component of the heat current, I,
and hence n*grad T vanishes at the boundary ( * &'scalar
.
product )
3) - transfer of heat across the boundary is assumed to be
proportional to the temperature of the boundary surface
(this means the temperature relative to the surrounding
.
cooling mediumj This is known as "Newtonfs law of coolingn.
The transfer of heat across the boundary is
characterized by a heat-transfer coefficient h (W/m 2 K ) such
that at the surface the normal component of I is hT and
therefore if n is the outward unit normal veotor to the
surface, the boundary condition at the surface-is
The nature of the thermal contact is thus
characterized by a parameter k/h which has the dimensions 0%
length. Case 1 corresponds to k/h=O and case 2 corresponds to
k/h becoming Infinite.
Mixed cases may arise in which h has different values
on different parts of the bo&ndary surface, as when some
surfaces are in good thermal conctact with a reservoir.
Then the mathematical form of the physical heat
regulation equations satisfies this simple relation:

where Q is the heat rate for unit area in (W/m 2 ); (T2 - TI)
is the temperature gradient.from warmer body to qolder region
in (K)'; h is the heat tranfer coefficent in (W/m K).
If we confine ourself to study heat exchange produced
by physical performance, al1 technical comlexity will be
found in defining a right 'Iheat transfer coefficient" for
each process performea -in the fundamental thermodynamic
relation.
4.1 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY RADIATION

On this basis the linear radiation


. .
exchange satisfies
the equation:

where Tsk is the skin temperature, calculated directly by


thermography or by assigning determined factors to each of
the thermocouple neasurements (one every 30") proportionally
t6 the fraction of the body total surface area,'represented
by each specific area (Hardy and Dubois, 1938):
(0.07 head + 0.14 arms + 0.05.hands + 0.07 feet + 0.013 legs
+ 0.019 thigs + 0.35 trunk).
Tr is the mean radiant temperature of the surrounding,
and because the physical process is regulated by the Stefan-
Boltzman law ( A = S T4 ) the heat transfer coefficent takes
the form:

where a is the Stefan-Boltzman constant and equals 5.67


w ~ - ~ K - The
~ . term S(a) is tha 4n radiating arei of the human
body surface according to Dubois surface, and will vary with
posture. The term has been determined with considerable
accuraey by Fanger (1970) by use of optical'methods and was
found to vary from 0.70 for the sitting position to 0'.725 for
standing within +/- 2 % regardless of height and body weight.
When clothing is worn, the radiating area of the body,S(a) is
increased by a factor f. Fanger and Breckenridge & Goldernan
have shown that f increases approximately 15 % for each clo
unit of clothing insulation worn, i.e., by factor (1 + 0.15
Iclo)' E is called radiation coefficent of the skin; it is
the relation of the emission of a given surface to that of a
black body at'the same temperature. Reliable measurement is
by Buettner (1938) and set it for human skin at 0.954, for
long wave emissivities, which is a deviation from the black
body radiation of only about 5 a . This means that within the
energy range spectrum of human skin (5 - 50y ) only l - e parts
are reflected from vertically incoming radition, and the
greatest percentage (approx. 95 % ) is absorbed. The radiation
factor for skin is very close to that for water and other
substances of importance in the skin structure. Obliquely
incoming radiation shows an s of 0.893 (Buettner, 1938).
Gaertner and Goepfert (1964) again iqvestigatd the
radiation characteristics of live human skin. For the back
they found E at 0.976, for the forearm at 0.960 and the sole
of the foot at 0.941. incidentally the average lies very
close to the value determined by Buettner. Based on the
studies by the above-mentioned authors it must again be
stated that live human skin' is not a "black radiatorn, but a
"gray body* (see tab 1). Other values of s carne from Hardy, .
1938 (0.98) and Mitchell, 1967 (0.979).

Radiation figures $or temper-ature radiation


(After ~uettner, 1938)

BLACK BODY 1.000


SNOW
FROST
WATER
HUMAN SKIN ( e )
BRONZE COLOUR
FUR
WOOL
PINE NEEDLES
WOOD
CLOD WITH GRASS

E VARIES FOR DRY AND PERSPIRED SKIN.


4.3 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiration is the exchange of'the gases oxygen and


carbon dioxide between tissue and atmospheric air. The
subdivision into approximately 3-4 millions of alveoli at the
end of the finest branches 02 the trache causes the lungs
to attain an inner surface-of about 75.m Noce, pharyngeal -5,.
area, trachea and bronchi4 do not pafticipate in the gas
exchange. They do, however, have the important job of warming
the inspired air to body temperature and to saturate it with
wate r vapour .
The surface of these spaces.are covered with ciliated
epithelium, whereby its cjliae move back and forth-during the
respiratory process. Thanks tho this process foreign bodies
can be removed from the respiratory system. Reflex actions
such as sneezing, coughing, ect. serve the same purpose.
In the respiratory system the separation of aereosois
takes place in the alveolar area essentially by three
processes, i.., diffusign, 'inertial separation (rebound
effect) and sedimentation. Fig. 2 conveys an idea of the
diameter, surface and volume of the respiratory systemfs

~ e n g t i ~surhc. VQIU~~. F":;jC"


[cm] [cm-7 Em**]
8 . Trachea t2 60 24 Coneuctivc
2. Mbin bronchii G . *O 'O zone wilh .
ciih epiih+iivm
3 Lobar bronchii 3 15 5
4. Scgmcntri br. 1 .CJ 100 3
5. Sucsegmcnla~bc 0.5 200 10
4. Terminai br.

7. R.spirdtoy br
8. AIveoirr duct'
g. AIvco1.r racc.

c insoiration condii;on carecied te a iung voiumc or 3000cm~)

Fig. 2 - Mode1 of lungs, by Landahl, supplemented by Jacobi,


during the inspiration phase (Jacobi, 1965)

indiQidual regions (Landahl, 1966) and is based on the


respiratory conditiòns:
1
I minute volume = 15 1. *in-'
respiratory frequency = 15 min -1 .
The main process of heat exchange by respiratory sistem are
convection and mass tranfer from the respiratory airwais.
Convective heat exchange by the lyngs depends both on
the pulmonary ventilation and the temperature difference
'r between expired and ambient air. Pulmonary ventilation is
related to metabolic rate, then usually the following
approximated formula was used according to Hanson, 1974:
+-

. ~n m a n ~ t h eniass-tranfec from airways i s n o t controlled


by thermoregulatory mechanisms. Heat loss from the
respiratory airwais was calculed by formulas proposed by
Mitchell, 1972:

Eres - 14.9 N (5.880 - p,)

or by Snellen, 1966:

Eres - VO2 (1.977 XCOZ R - 1.429 XO2)

Fram our point of view, for our res6arch, it appares


more useful treating the problem by .theoretical
thermodynamics.
The theoretical thermodynamical analysis of convection
is greatly simplified by using non dimensional groups tbat
come from similitary theory.
A body imersed in a fluid loses heat through a
laminar boundary layer o£ uniform thickness, then the heat
losses per unit area can be written as

where K is the thermal conductivity of the fluid; 6 is the


thickness of the boundary layer, is the mean skin
temperature and T, in the ambient temperature.
The same equation can be used in a purely forma1 way
to describe the heat loss by forced or free convection from
any object with a mean surface temperature of TSk surrounded
by flwid at Ta even though the boundary layer is neither
laminar nor uniformly thick. In this case, 6 is the thickness
of an equivalent rather than a rea1 laminar layer. It is
determined by the size and geometry of the surface and by the
way in which fluid circulates over it.
A more useful form of equation can be derived by
substituting a characteristic dimension of the body d for the
equivalent boundary-layer thickness, which cannot be measured
directly, The equation then becomes.

The ratio d/6 is called the Nusselt number after its


first exponent and is often written Nu. Just as the Reynolds'
number is a convenient way o f comparing the forces associated
with geometrically similar.bodies immersed in a moving fluid,
athe ~ u s s d tnumber provldes a basis for comparing rates of
convective heat loss from kimilar bodies of different scale
exposed to different wind-speeds.
In forced convection, the Nusselt number depends on
the rate of heat transfer through a boundary layer from a
surface hotter or cooler than the air passing over it, a
process 'analogous to the transfer of momenturn by skin
friction. The Nusselt number is therefore expected to be -a
function of the Reynolds nuxnber (specifying the boundary
layer thickness for momentum) and the ratio of boundary layer
thicinesses for heat ( t ) and for momentum (tM)
This ratio is a Function of the Prandtl number defined
< b y (v/k), Measurements of heat 'loss by forced convection from
planes, cylinders and spheres can be described by the genera1
relation

. '

where m and n are experimental constants and tM/ti - Prm .


The convective exchange by the lungs is function of
frequency of breathings and of air quantity inspired (see
Tab. 2 ) . Because we have different values of lung ventilation
at different levels of activity, the better way to have the
convective stream is to define an "effettive cylindrical
surfacew of the lungs. Obviously it will depend by the "tidal
volume" of athlete at zest or duriqg exercise. Simple
- lculations show that ef ective surface may range from 0.057
m at,rest, up to 0.103 mf during maximal exercise..
C
3

i l . &41-i4
lor; p. a
ll. pp. 4J-U
104. p. 6J .

. . . , .

9 Nwborn v 34 15 0.5 II?. p. 351: I l S . 1%.


>M:430. P. 50:
$07. p. l034
* I 51l.u*ij.ri- 1.16. p. 13
:O . 2Cb13vk 2.5-1.3
3~ 21 21 DJ I l . P. 42
Il 4.&h O, p.220: Il. p.4:
22 6.6 d 3.1 29 11 0.G

.
i

VI^ in column 2 .rc b d y 4 g h t 1 rrkrabk lo iIH diinrinn quoicd in cilumn 1.f:


aurlwt aru.
.
I m u u y (bruthdmin); V T -6d.11 volumc (ml): 4 - &UU ~ofumc( ~ m i n ~SA
;

Tab. 2 - ~electsdlung ventilation values at different levels


of activity as a function 6f age

The experimental points characterizing heat transfer


lie on a straight line of the well-known "critica1 relation"

Thic experimental form of Nusselt nunìber gives us the final


relation:
where
- n is the breth frequency value: 3 at rest, 4 for light
exercise, 5 for heavy exercise, 10 ior maximal execise ,
- Sp is the effective surface of the lungs,
- Lp*is the mean diameter of the lung,
- T .is the interna1 temperature of the lung equa1 to the
body core temperature,
- Ta is the ambient temperature,
- K, is the thermal conductivity of Che fluid.
flow - fig.3.

Mun
Body Region H a d Chs h& U fiichs
arinr p w~ ain d r~ ~ Le*
(h3
- Rcsting Silling 3.2 25 2.4 4.0 3.3 1.G 28 3.7 3.1

EI :m
Trad~rrill 0.9 m r-L 4.2 3.6 3.2 6.4 6.6 7.2 5.0 10.5 S.3
wc&c 1.8 ms-' , 5.4 4.5 4.3 -8.3 10.8 15.4 '7.7 14.4 8.4
Fre* 7.2 4.8 4.7 G.0 11.2 1l.G 5.7 11.3 5.4
walking 3.S 6.7 6.7 17.0 16.3 17.2 12s 17.0IL0
Bicyclc.. GO rpm 4.4' 3.3 3.2 5.3 5.2 4.7 6.7 l . 6.0
- .

Tab.3 - Local convective heat tranfer coefficient ( h e ) , in


W m-2 K-l, during rest and ewer'cisei, in norma1 air
movement ( 0 .l5 - 0 . 2 r n ~ - ~ )

VERTICAL DIRECTION

.WALKING DLRECTION

SHOULDER
.. \ WIP

Fig. 3 - '~elativeamplitudes of hip and shoulder movement in


up-and-down and backwa rd-and-f orward di rection.

Studies using the Schlieren optical system have shown


the air-flow patterns around moving limbs (Clark et al.,
1974). Visualization of the air flows around the legs of a
runnec have ashown that the "pendulum effectw produces .
conpletely different flow patterns to those found in linear
flows. The flow around a swinging thigh forms a bow wave and
a trailing wake and these are alternately established and
reverscd by each change in direction of the swinging leg
(Clark). The flows around the lower legs and forearms are
similar in %sture, although more complex.
Classica1 fluid dynamics and heat tranfer theories are
inappropriate for these condictions, as the movements of the-
body during walking and running are far more contplicated than
those associated with man-made stuctures on which the teory
- is based. Traslation of the bbdy through the air produces
additional complications; an. unidirectional air flow is
superiposed on the alternating flows produced by the
*pendulum effect" ,
Schlieren visualisation shows similar flows around
swinging and translating heated cylinders, used to simulate
the action of the limbs during the movement.
Measurements of local convective heat loss around the
thighs 05 a runner on a treadmill were made in a climatic
chamber by Clark. The results show that, both in still air
and in the presence of wind, the distibution of a convective
heat loss around the circumference of the thigh is different
from that in an unidirectional airflow.
~ r a ~ h i c a lintegration was used to obtain a value for
the overall heat tranfer coefficient around the thigh. The
coefficent was about twice as high as expected i p a
unidirectional wind equa1 to the mean velocity of the
oscillating leg. A lifi3arqwind, representing the efbect of
p. traslation of the body, further increased the convective heat
loss.
'1n rea1 condictions, during performance in fighting
sports, athletefs movements are also more complicated, this
means we donft know, how much, heat tranfer coefficient for
convection froin the skin is enhanced in this situation.
(Diabatic and irreversible trasformation in complex motion).
On the basis of works of A . V. Nesterenko, who
demonstrated that experimental data of many works fa11 on one
curve if the Gukhmann number is used.
A very important improuvement of heat and mass tranfer
theory with liquid evaporation into a turbolent air stream
was made by Smolsky et a1.(1962), Katto et al. (1975) and
Kumada et al. (1986). In these papers for heat tranfer by
evaporative cooling with heat inputs from surroundigs, it was
obtained and critically analized the following empirical
equation for the treatment of their experimental data.

whsre the number o£ Reynolds is directly proportional to the


fluid air velocity and Gu is the ~ukhmannnumber equa1 to
(T2 - TI)/ T2 ; the important point is: the "heat transfer ---m
coefficient" which £or classlc.al theory of forced convection
was.-indipendent on temperature, for turbolent convection,
with heat inputs, depends not only on air veloclty and
density but also on skin and air temperature.
Considering this experimental equation the'more useful .
approximation foqour conditions, it is possible, making use
of a modified Gukhmann number, to write the new convective
heat exchange equatian as
4.5 - HEAT EXCHANGE BY DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER

Two modes of diffusion are responsible for the


exchange of matter between organisrns and the air surxounding
th'em.
Molecular diffusion operates withig organisms ( e . g . in
the lungs of a man) and in h thin skin of air forming the
boundary layer that surrounds the whole organisn.
In the free' atmosphere, transfer processes are
S

dominated by the effects of turbolent diffusion, although


molecular diffusion continues to operate and is responsible
for the degradation of turbolent energy into heat.
Mass transfer to or from objects suspended in a moving
airsteam is analogous to hcai tranfer by convection and is
conveniently related to a non-dimensional parameter similar
to the Nusselt number of heat transfer theory. This is the
Sherwood number Sh defined by the equation

where
-
- F rnass fiux of a gas per unit surface area (g m-2 s-l) ,
- x,, x = mean concentration of gas at the surface and in the
-
atmoaphere ( g m-2 s - 1~,
- D molecular diffusivity of the gas in air ( m2 s-l).
As
F
Sh i -----e---------

D (X, - X) / d

the Sherwood number can be defined as the ratio of actual


mass transfer F to the rate of transfer that would occur if
the same concentration-difference were established across a
layer of still air of thickness d.
Just as the Nusselt number £or forced convection is a
function of Vd/v (ReynolAs number) and v/k (Prandtl number), '
the Sherwood number is the same function of Vd/v and .the
ratio v/D which is known as the Schmidt number, abbreviated
t0 Cc.
Diffusion and mass transfer are the main phenomena
related to sweating. Sweating glands exist in abundance in
the outer layers of the skin. They are stimulated by
colinergic. sympathetic nerves and secrete a hypotonic watery
i
solution onto the surfacd of the skin.
This represents a large potential source o f cooling if
the sweat can be evaporated*, because each liter of sweat
evaporated from the skin surface represents a loss of about
2426 kJ of heat to the environment. Large losses of water by
sweating can also pdse a potential threat to successful
thermoregulation because a progressive. depletion of body
water occurs if the fluid lost is not replaced. Dehydration
affects thermoregulation significantly and contributes to a
rise in core temperature.
The difference in water vapor pressure on sweat-wetted
skin surface and the air layer next to the skin controls the
rate of sweat evaporation, as does the speed of air movement
over the skin.
As a consequence hot environments with high humidity
limit the amount of sweat that can evaporate. Sweat not
evaporated drips or flows from the skin and does not result
in . any heat loss from the body. This can be deleterius,
because it still represents a significant loss of watsr and
salt from thecbody.
Sodium chioride and potassium are very important
costituents of sweat. The efficiency of cooling by sweat
- depends on the rate of evaparation E, which is determined .by
the gradient between the vapor pressure of the wetted skin
(esk) and the partial pressure (vapor pressure) of water
vapor in the ambient air (e,), multiplied by a root function
of effective air velocity at the skin surface (V) and the
fraction of body surface that is wettsd.
When the heat production of the body is increased by
exercise, skin temperature (Tsk) rises above that observed
under less humid conditions at the same air temperature. When
this occurs, more sweat glands are activated, thereby
increasing the fraction of wetted body surface.
At higher levels of e, or lower air velocities, the
fraction of the body surface that is wetted increases unti1 .
the body'is completely wetted. Any further increase in sweat
production does not contribute to cooling because the liquid
perspiration drips off the body and is wasted as a coolant.
The passage from "insensible perspiration" to the -
"sensibler one may be ipotized between 29 O C and 30 O C as
mean skin temperature. In our thermodynarnic equation the
term convection, which shares in eva oration, must be
multiplied therefore by a factor a = ( eT-38
The well-known analogy between heat and mass tranfer
allows u s writing the corresponding Sherwood number for vapor
tranfer in turb8lent .air stream as

To calculate the Gukhmann number,.it is convenient to


replace the weighted difference between the skin surface and
air temperature (TSI( - Ta) / T, by the difference of virtual'
temperagure.
Ìf esk and ea are vapour pres,sure at the skin surface
and in the air and,p is.air pressure, the gradient of virtual
temperature is

The importance of vapor pressure term, when Tsk is close to


Ta can be illustrated for the case of a man covered with
sweat at 3 3 O C, and surrounded by still air at 3 0 ° C. and 20%
relative umidity.
The size of the Gukhmann r&rtber allowing for the
difference in vapor pressure is -2.5 times the number
calculated from the temperature alone; thè corresponding
er or in calculating the Sherwood number (proportional to
Gu602) is about 20%.
Now we can write the evaporation cooling equation; on
the basis of experimental relation by Smolsky and Katto.
Considering the mass flow ond substitutjng the
atmospheric 'pressure'with the ratio between molecular weight
gas constant, and temperature it is possible to write:

This term accounts the corresponding flux of latent


heat which comes from evaporation of sensible pe,rspiration,
, But not al1 the sweat produced is evaporated, From studies
performed by Kobayashi et al. 1980, about percentage of sweat
evaporated and dripped, it is possible to introduce a new
term which take in account that the percentage of evaporated'
sweat from the skin, in uprigth position, may rise from 63 to
65%.
On this basis the terms of convective and diffusive
heat loss, which account for evaporative coolinq, should be
multiplied by the factor:

which accounts us not only for the percentage of drops fallen


down, but also for the problem that it is not possible to
sweat much more that 1/10 of the whole physiological water
without rehydration.
At the end, on the basis of prcvio;s thermodynamic
approach, the heat-rate output will take the form of the
equation given in the following page:
m

r 1 'I
I I I
l 2165 DS, A( esk-ea 1R, l I
+ IC3 ---------- -----------------v---
- TV,) 1.2 i 1
O. 2 (Tvsk
I La Tsik Tva l. l
I l I
L J I
- 5 - 0 APPENDIX: A COMPUTER CODE FOR THE ENERGY EQUATION

A semplified schema of the program for simulation of


energy consuniption by. an athlete is given in Fig. A. The
variations of skin .temperature, due to sweat, are also
computed. The steps below explain the program.

1) Genera1 variables and constants' are definited in the first


phase, M'

2) The second step is the read in of the files related to the


mean human body temperature, the environmental temperature,
the enetgy consumption ( 5 s computed from oxygen intake) and
mean gray leve1 of the body (as a result of the processing of
the images taken by the IR thermocamera).

3) Section 3 is the setting.of environmental parameters:


opening of the above listed files, opening of output file,
copying of input files in the working area and sequence of
periods (rest, light work, heavy work, maxinal work) with the
number of samplings £or each of them,

4) The phace 4 consists in the computing o£ the external


sùrface of the body.

For each period of work or rest and for every sampling in the
period, the skin and environmental temperature (Kelvin
degree) and atmospheric pressure are evaluated. On these basis
the energies are computed. - i

5) The computing of the radiating energy according to the


previous formula is the fifth phase.

6) Section six computes the energy exchange due to the


respiratory system. Into this phase a choosing of pulmonary
surface and equivalent number of b'reaths is done due to the
kind of work carried out by athlete; also the interna1
temperature of the body is evaluated.
-v

7) The seventh section computes the heat losses due to


convection; it takes into account the threshold temperature
of 30 O C (303.16 O K ) over which the beginnning of sweat is
assumed. In this phase the thermic conductivity Q £ the air on
DERNITION OF
VARIABLES AND
- CONSTANTS

v
2
READ IN O F
RELATED FILES
- 3
SETiING OF
ENVIRONMENTAL
4
COMPUTING OF
EXTERNAL BODY
PARAMETERS SURFACE

SAMPLINQ ?
NO
MORE
SAMPLING

v
5 6 7
COMPUTING OF THE
COMPUl'iNG OF THE ENERGY WCHANGE -.-). HEAT LDSSES DUE T 0
RADIATING ENERGY DUE T 0 THE CONVECtlON
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

8
* 9
I

COMPUTINO OF
ENERGY ASSOCIATED
T 0 MASS TRANSFER
EVALUATION OF
TOTAL LOST ENERGY '
1O
COMPUTINO OF THE
E V A P O R A ~ ~ VFACTOR
E
Z
,n I

11 12 13
COMPUTING OF STEPS EVALUATION OF TOTAL COMPUTING OF
7 AND 8 TAKING INTO 'LOST ENERGY WlTH T H E 4 SWEAT PROOUCED
.
T
ACCOUNTTHE
EVAPORATIVF FACTOR
EVAPORATIVE FACTOR ANO EVAPORATE0
I

.COMPUTlNG OF
TEMPERATURE
VARIATIONS

Fig. A
40

the boundary layer of the skin surface is also computed.

8 ) . The computing of the energy associated to the mass


transfer occours in the phase 8. At this point the molecular
diffusion coefficient of air and ths saturation vapour
pressure on the' boundary layer of the skin surface ' are
needed. The virtual temperature of air and the virtual skin
surface temperature are also computed.

9) This step, the nineth, is the evaluation of the total


energy lost by athlete if the sweat ic not present (sum of
the preceding losses).

10) The latent heat of.vaporioation of water on the skin


surface permits' the .computing of the evaporative factor as
tenth step of the program.

11) The section 11 evaluates the energies computed at the


steps 7 and 8 but taking into account tbe evaporation of the
sweat from the skin through the evaporative factor.

12) The sum of the radiating energy, the respiratory system


heat exchange and the energies computed at the step 11 is the
job of this phase. At this point al1 the obtained data are
wtitten on the output file ENERGIE'.DAT.

13) In the section 13 of the program it is computed the mass


of the sweat produced and evaporated according to the energy
exchange by diffusion.
z 1 4 ) The last step of the program consists in the computing of
the temperature increasing (due to the work of the exercise)
and the temperature decreasing (dué to the evaporated s&eat)
of the skin.

~ e l Ò wis thé code of the pragram.


program ver-en
c*************************************************************************
C Prograrn for checking the energy consumption of an athlete in non
C working conditions.
c*************************************************************************

C
C*** 1 ) VAP..TABLES AND CONSTANTS DEFINITIONS
h
C l

char&~rer*l risp,string(l0),termoc*20,tzero*20,ener*2O~tongri*20
character *l0 sequen
integer*2 nimvp(lO),flag,ind,index,indt,idx,negat
integer*4 lung,lungl
real*8 vtermc(500),vtzero(500),vener(500),tonog(500)
real*8 peso,altez,supcor
real*8 pà,ta,tsp,tmb(lO),energt,entev
logica1 ex
rea148 neper
data s t r i n g / ~ 0 ~ , ~ l ~ , ~ 2 ~ , ~ 3 ~ t ~ 4 r , ~ 5 ~ , ~ 6 ~ , ~ 7 ~ , ' 8 ~ ~ ~
data vtermc/500*0.0/vtzero/500*0.0/
data neper/2.71828182845/
real*8 sigma,epsil,irrag,fatf
data sigma/5.6697d-8/epsi1/0.98/fatf/l/

data c1/0.06/lp/0.1.9/re08/4000/pr033/0.89/

data nsp/ 3.000,4.000,5.000,10.000,


1 0.057,0.088,0.100, 0.103/

I . data ka/lO.O ,15.0 ,20.0, 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 45.0,


1 0.0250~0;0253~0~0260,0,0264,0.0267,0,0270~0.0274/

data c2/0.130/la/O. 34/


real*8 pltp2tp.3tp4tp5
real*8 dht,fm,e2,el,tvp,tvatdiffus
real*8 $c033,c3,lambdl
.. data sc033/0.86/c3/0.002/fm/lOOOOOO.O/1ambdl/243O/el/O.89/

data dh/10.0,15.0,20.0,30.0,35.0~C0.0145.0,
1 22.7,23.4,24.9,25.7,26.$,27.2,28.0/
t
data pvsb/l0.0,ll.0,l2.0~13CO~14.0,15.0,16.0,l7.O,l8.O~l9.O~
1 20.0,21.0,22.0,23.0,24.0,25.0,26.0,27,0,28.0,29.0~
1 30.0,31.0,32.0,33.0,34.0,35.0,36.0,37.0,38.0,39.0,
1 40.0,41.0,42.0,43.0,44.0,45.0,
1 1.227,1.312,1.402,1.497,1.598,1.704,1.817,~.937,~
real*8 lambda,clvg(7,2)
real*8 diffev,convev,sudpr,cudev
real*8 enos(10),con(10,2),dffu(l0,2)
real*8 incn(10) ,incp(10),incctlO),tempm(lO) ,dift
real*8' mse, csm
data enos/10*0.0/con/20*0.0/dffu/20*0.0/
data mse/99.7/csm/3.47/
data clva/ 10.0, 15.0,. 20.0, 30,.0, 35.0, 40.0, 45.0,
1 2477.0,2465.0,2442.0,2430.Ò,2418.0,2406.0,2394.0/

2) READ IN OF FILES (ATHLETErE MEAN BODY TEMPERATURE, ENVIRQNMENTAL


TEMPERAWRE, OXYGEN INTAKE, MEAN GRAY LEVEL]

write (6,2)
format(/,3xttNome del file della temperatura delltfatleta
1 (senza estensione DAT)r,/,3xft : I,$)
accept 5,1ungrtermoc
format (q,a)
inquire (file-termoc(l:lung)//~.dat',exist=ex)
if ( &notoex) then
write (6,lO) termoc(l:lung)
format (/,3xtf11 file f,a,r.DAT non esistef)
goto l .
end if
write (6,20)
format(/,3~,~Nomedel file della temperatura ambiente (senza
1 estensione DAT)',/,3xtt : ',$)
accept S,lung,tzero
inquire (file=tzero(l:lung)//'.dat~,exist=ex)
if (.not.ex) then
write (6,lO-) tzero(1:lung)
goto 19 '
end if
write (6,311
format(/,3xt 'Nome del file dell' >energia (senza estensione
1 DAT)tt/t3~,' : , t $ )
accept 5 , lung,ener
inquire (file=ener(l:lung)//'.dat',exist=ex)
if (.not.ex) then
write (6,lO) ener(1:lung)
goto 30
end if
write' (6,41)
format(/,3xf~Nomedel file dei toni di grigio (senza estensione
1 DAT)',/,~X,~ :
accept 5,lungttongri
inquire (file=tongri(l:lung)//'.dat',exist-ex)
if (.not.ex) then
write (6,lO) tongri(1:lung)
goto 40
., end if

C
c*** 3) SETTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL P W E T E R S

C - OPENING OF FILES
open (50tfile=termoc(l:lung)//'.dat',ctatus=told~)
open (5l,file=tzero(l:l~ng)/J'=dat',ctatus=~old~)
open (52,file=ener(l:l~ng)//'.dat~,status=~old~)
open (53,file=tongri(l:l~ng)//'.dat',ctatus=~old~)
C -
OUTPUT FILE
' write (6,100) •
100 format(/,3x,'Tutti i risultati totali e parziali sono riassunti
1 nel file:tt/,23x,t ENERGIE.DATr)
inquire (fi?.e='energie.datf,existlex)
if (.not.ex) goto 150
110 write (6,111)
111 format(/,3~,~11file ENERGIE.DAT esiste giam.t,/t3x,rSi vuole
1 riscrivere o crearne una nuova versione? (r/n) : ',$)
accept 120, risp
120 format(a1
if (ri~p.eq.'n*.or,risp.eq.~N~) goto 150
if (ri~p.eq.~r~.or.risp.eq.~R~) then
open (30tfile=tenergie.dat',status=toldt) .
close ( 3 0 , d i ~ p o s e = ~ d e l e t e ~ )
goto 150
end if
goto 110
150 open (30,file=tenergie.dat',ctatus=tnewr)
write (30,241)
*. 241 format(l3xttVER1FICADEL CONSUMO ENERGETICOr,/,3XttQuando
1 la temperatura corporea ad ambiente ha valore zero indicat
1,/,3Xttun errore.nella digitalizzazione dei dati in ingresso
1 e quindif,/,3Xt~lrtannullamento di tutti i dati di uscita.',
1/,4xftTSP -
1/,3Xt100(~*r)t/r3x,'Legenda
Temperatura della pelle (gradi KelvinTtr
1/,4xttTAMB = Temperatura ambiente (gradi Kelvin)',
1/,4xtf1RR = Energia dissipata per irraggiamento (Watt)',
-
1/,4xttRESP = Energia dissipata con apparato respiratorio (Watt)',
1/,4xttCONV Energia dissipata per convezione (Watt)',
1/,4xfrDIFF = Energia dissipata per diffusione (Watt)',
1/,4x,'TOT = Energia totale = IRR + RES? + CONV + DIFF (Watt)',
1/,4xftE-OS = Energia calcolata dal consumo di ossigeno (Watt)',
1/,4xtrC E = Energia convettiva con evaporazione (Watt)',
~/,~X,~D-= E Energia diifusiva con evaporazione (Watt)',
1 / , 4 x t f ~ - ~ Energia totale = IRR + RESP + C-E + D-E (Watt)',
l/tlOO( 1t / )

C -
COPYING OF INPWT FILES INTO THE WORKING AREA
read (50t*,end=250) (vtermc(ind),ind=1,500)
250 lung = ind-l
read (SI,*) (vtzero(ind),ind=l,lung)
C 1 COMPUTING OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY OYGEN INTAKE
C THE FACTOR 15 TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE SAMPLING RATE
C
do ind -
(15 SECONDS).
1,lung
vener(ind) = vener(ind)*15*4.184*1000.0
write(99,*) vener(ind)
end do

C - WORKING
[OR REST) PERIOD SEQUENCE (BASAL, LIGHT WORK, HEAVY WORK,
C MAXIHAL WORK)
260 write (6,261)
261 format(3xtfIndicare la 'sequenza dei vari periodi di riposo
,

1 e/o lavor0:~~/,3x,~-basale e recupero (B)t,/,3x,t- esercizio


1 leggero (L)r,/,3x,t- esercizio pesante (P)f,/,3x,t- esercizio
1 massimale ( M ) ' , / ~ ~ X ~ ' M ~ S10
S ~caratteri
~O /(esempio: bPbp) : t
l,$)
accept 262,idx,sequen
262' formaf(q,a)
do ind = 1,idx
if (sequen(ind:ind).eq.'b'.or.seq~en(ind:ind).eq.~B~.or.
1 seq~en(ind:ind).eq.~l~.or.sequen(ind:ind).eq.~L~.or.
1 sequen(ind:ind).eq.'p'.or.sequen(ind:ind).eqy1P1.or.
1 sequen(ind:ind).eq.tmt.or.sequen(ind:ind).eq.fM) then
continue .,
else
write (6,265)
265 format(;/,3xftLettera errata nella sequenza1)
goto 260
end if
end do
. E lungl = idx

wrìte (.6,268) lung


268 format (/,3xftCi sono ',i4,' dati nei filet,y)

C*** 4) COMPUTING OP THE E X T E W A L BODY SURFACE


write (6,401)
401 format(/,3xttPer il calcolo della superficie corporea (mq)
1 dellMatleta indi~are:,~,/,3x,~- Peso (in kg) : l , $ )
accept *,peso
405
write (6,405).
format ( 3 x t f -Altezza f i n cm) : l , $ )
.
accept *,alte2
supcor = (peso**0.425)*(a1tez**0.725)*0.007184
write (6,410) supcor
410 format(/,3xttSuperficie corporea (mq) : ',f6.3)
flag=O
450 write (6,451)
451 format (/,3xttE" presente il judogi ? (s/n) : l , $ )

accept 120,risp
if (risp.eq.'n'.or.risp.eq.'N') goto C70
if (risp.eq.'sf.or.risp.eq.'S') then
flag 1
else
goto 450
end if
continue

C*** COVUTING OF THE ENERGIES


indt.= O
do ind L 1,lungl
write (30,485) sequen(ind:ind)
485 format(3xtrPeriododi lavoro : ' , a , / )
write (30,486)
486 . format (t4,rTSP*,t10,tTAMBttl8,tIRRtrt26,fRESPt,t35,tCONVf,

tempo = 0.0
negat = O ,
sudpr = 0.0
sudev = 0.0
incn(ind) = 0.0
incp(ind) = 0.0
incc(ind) = 0.0

tmb(ind) -
enos(ind) = 0.0
tempm(ind) = 0.0
0.0
do index = l,nimvp(ind)
i f (vtermc(indt+index).eq.0.0.O.or.vtzero(indt+index)
.eq.O.O) then
irrag = 0.0
respir = 0.0
convez = 0.0
convev = 0;O
diffus = 0.0,
diffev = 0.0
energt = 0.0
dift = 0.0
negat = negat + 1
goto '950
end if

C - COMPUTING OF SKIN AND E~IRONMENTALTEMPERATURE


tsp = Ytermc(indt+index) + 273.16
ta = vtoero(indt+index) + 273.16
C - COMPUTING OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
pa = 101.325-(ta-273.16)*0,0645

C*** 5) COMPUTING OF RADIATING ENERGY


irrag = 15*supcor*sigma*epsil*fatf*(tsp**4-ta**4)

C*** 6) ENERGY EXCHANGE DUE T0 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


C
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U m
diffi = diffi/5.
diff = diff/5.
nvolt = nprec + diffiiindex
sp = sppre + diff*index
end if
if (index.eq.nimvp(ind)) then
nprec = nvolt
sppre = sp
end if,
else if (seq~en(ind:ind).eq.~m~.or.sequen(ind:ind),eq.~n~)
1 then
if (lind.eq.l).6r.(ind.gt.l.and.index.gt.5))then
nvolt = nsp(4,l)
sp m nsp(4,2)
else
diffi = nsp(4,l) - nprec
diff = nsp(4,2)-
diffi = diffi/5.
sppre
diff = diff/5.
nvolt = nprec + diffi*index
sp = sppre + diff*index
end if
if (index.eq.nimvp(ind)) then
sppre
end if
-
nprec = nvolt
sp
end if

C - COMPUTING OF INTERNAL BODY TEMPERATURE


.- coef = -0.00286*tsp + 1.89164
V tint = tsp*coef .

C - COMPUTING OF THE FNERGY


respir = nvolt*cl*(kat/lp)*sp*re08*pr033*(tint-ta)
f

C*** 7) HEAT LOSSES DUE T0 CONVECTION


C - COMPUTING OF THRESHOLD TEMPERATURE '

if (tsp.ge.303.16) then
tdelt = 303.16
else
tdelt = tsp
end if
C - COMPUTING OF THERMIC CONDUCTIVITY OF AI2 ON SKIN SURFACE
m do idx = 1,6
if((tsp-273.16).eq.ka(idxIl)) then
kat = ka(idx,2)
goto 520
else if((ksp-273.16).eq.ka(idx+lIl)) then
kat = ka(idx+lt2)
goto 520
else if((ttsp-273.16).lt.ka(idx+ltl)) then
kat = (((tsp-273.16)-ka(idx,l))*(ka(idx+l,2)-
l ka(idxt2))/(ka(idx+lIl)-ka(idxtl)))+ka(idxb,2)
goto 520
end if
.
h

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1 3x, variazione di temperatura corrispandente :t
l tf7-2,/)
end if
if (sequen(ind:ind).eq.~bt.or.sequen(ind:ind).q.Bt) then
write (30,1510) tempm(ind),tmb(ind)
1510 format(3xt'temperatura media misurata dai toni di
1 grigio : t,f7.2,/,3x,ttemperatura media della pelle : I,
l f7.2)
end if

indt ='indt + nimvp(ind)


end do !(ind)
C*** 15) THE END
do ind = 1,4
close(49+ind)
end do
do ind -
1,2
.close(29+ind)
end do
3000. continue
en&-
BIBLIOGRAPHY . m

BEJAN A.
"Heat Tranfer-Based,Reconstruction of the Coneepts and
Laws of Classica1 Thermodynamicsu
Journai of Heat. Tranfer vol. 110 (1988)

DAVID R. BASSETT JR., FRANCIS J. NAGLE, SWAPAN MOOKERJEE,


KEVIN C.DARR, ALEXANDER V.NG, STEPHEN G. VOSS, and JEROME P.
NAPP .
'Termoregulatory responses to skin wetting during
prolonged treadmill runniqg"
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Copyright 1987 by American College of Sports Medicine

CAMPBELL G.S., McARTHUR A.J. and MONTEITH J.L.


"Windspeed dependence of heat and mass transfer
through coats and clothing"
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 18 (1980) 485-493

CENA K. and MONTEITH J.L.


Transfer~processes in animai c0atS
-
I o Radiative transferu
IIO - Conduction and convection"
"IIIO - Water vapour diffusion"
Proc. R. SOC. Lond. B. 188,413-423 (1975)

C.K. CHARNY, M.J. HAGMANN, R.L. LEVIN


"A whole body thermal model of man during hyperthemia"
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
~ ~ ~ (1987)
2 3 4

C.K. CHARNY, R.L. LEVIW


"A 'whole' body thermal model of ntan with a realistic
circulatory system"
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
HTD-95 BED-7 (1987)'

CLARK R.P.
wHuman Skin Temperature and Convective Heat Loss"
ELSGOLC
"Calculus of variationsw
1 F Pergarnon Pre'ss N.Y.1961

FOWLEIR
"Statistical mechanics" -
Cambridge 1936

I J.P. F ~ K
"Direct mear;urement of radiative heat-exchange of the
'

human bodyn
NATURE Februa;ry 29,1964

p GRUCZA R.
-
"Body Heat Baiance inSNan Subjected to Endogenous and
Exogenous Heat Loadn
Eur 3 Appl Physiol (1983) 51:419-433

' HAK-SHING TAM, ROBERT C. DARLING, JOHN A. DOWNEY, and


HUK-YUK CHEH
, "Relationship between evaporation rate of sweat and
mean sweating raten
Journal of Applied Phisiology No 5 (1976)

KHINCHIN
"Nathematical fundations of Statistica1 Nechanicsa
Dover N.Y.1949

KURT
wAxiomatics af Statistica1 Nechanicsw.
.r Pergamon Press N.Y. 1960

KENNEY w.L., LEWIS D.A., HYDE D.E.; DIKSTERHOUSE T.s.,


ARMSTRONG C.G., FOWLER S.R., and WILLIAMS D.A.
wPhysiologically derived critica1 evapo rat ive
coefficients £or protective clothing ensemles"
copyright 1987 the American Physiological Society

KATTO Y. and AOKI H.


"Peculiarity of Evaporating Liquid-Surface With
Reference to Rtrbolent Heat Transfer"
Bulletin of JSNE, voi. 12 (1969)
BATTO Y. and KOIZUMI H.
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