Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

cen58933_ch04.

qxd

9/10/2002

9:12 AM

Page 219

219
CHAPTER 4

TABLE 41

TABLE 42

Coefficients used in the one-term approximate solution of transient onedimensional heat conduction in plane walls, cylinders, and spheres (Bi  hL/k
for a plane wall of thickness 2L, and Bi  hro /k for a cylinder or sphere of
radius ro )

The zeroth- and first-order Bessel


functions of the first kind

Bi
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
100.0


Plane Wall
1
A1
0.0998
0.1410
0.1987
0.2425
0.2791
0.3111
0.4328
0.5218
0.5932
0.6533
0.7051
0.7506
0.7910
0.8274
0.8603
1.0769
1.1925
1.2646
1.3138
1.3496
1.3766
1.3978
1.4149
1.4289
1.4961
1.5202
1.5325
1.5400
1.5552
1.5708

1.0017
1.0033
1.0066
1.0098
1.0130
1.0161
1.0311
1.0450
1.0580
1.0701
1.0814
1.0918
1.1016
1.1107
1.1191
1.1785
1.2102
1.2287
1.2403
1.2479
1.2532
1.2570
1.2598
1.2620
1.2699
1.2717
1.2723
1.2727
1.2731
1.2732

Cylinder

Sphere

1

A1

1

A1

0.1412
0.1995
0.2814
0.3438
0.3960
0.4417
0.6170
0.7465
0.8516
0.9408
1.0184
1.0873
1.1490
1.2048
1.2558
1.5995
1.7887
1.9081
1.9898
2.0490
2.0937
2.1286
2.1566
2.1795
2.2880
2.3261
2.3455
2.3572
2.3809
2.4048

1.0025
1.0050
1.0099
1.0148
1.0197
1.0246
1.0483
1.0712
1.0931
1.1143
1.1345
1.1539
1.1724
1.1902
1.2071
1.3384
1.4191
1.4698
1.5029
1.5253
1.5411
1.5526
1.5611
1.5677
1.5919
1.5973
1.5993
1.6002
1.6015
1.6021

0.1730
0.2445
0.3450
0.4217
0.4860
0.5423
0.7593
0.9208
1.0528
1.1656
1.2644
1.3525
1.4320
1.5044
1.5708
2.0288
2.2889
2.4556
2.5704
2.6537
2.7165
2.7654
2.8044
2.8363
2.9857
3.0372
3.0632
3.0788
3.1102
3.1416

1.0030
1.0060
1.0120
1.0179
1.0239
1.0298
1.0592
1.0880
1.1164
1.1441
1.1713
1.1978
1.2236
1.2488
1.2732
1.4793
1.6227
1.7202
1.7870
1.8338
1.8673
1.8920
1.9106
1.9249
1.9781
1.9898
1.9942
1.9962
1.9990
2.0000

Note that the case 1/Bi  k/hL  0 corresponds to h , which corresponds to the case of specified surface temperature T. That is, the case in
which the surfaces of the body are suddenly brought to the temperature T
at t  0 and kept at T at all times can be handled by setting h to infinity
(Fig. 416).
The temperature of the body changes from the initial temperature Ti to the
temperature of the surroundings T at the end of the transient heat conduction
process. Thus, the maximum amount of heat that a body can gain (or lose if
Ti  T) is simply the change in the energy content of the body. That is,
Qmax  mCp(T  Ti )  VCp(T  Ti )

(kJ)

(4-16)

Jo()

J1()

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

1.0000
0.9975
0.9900
0.9776
0.9604

0.0000
0.0499
0.0995
0.1483
0.1960

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.9385
0.9120
0.8812
0.8463
0.8075

0.2423
0.2867
0.3290
0.3688
0.4059

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

0.7652
0.7196
0.6711
0.6201
0.5669

0.4400
0.4709
0.4983
0.5220
0.5419

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

0.5118
0.4554
0.3980
0.3400
0.2818

0.5579
0.5699
0.5778
0.5815
0.5812

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

0.2239
0.1666
0.1104
0.0555
0.0025

0.5767
0.5683
0.5560
0.5399
0.5202

2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2

0.0968
0.1850
0.2601
0.3202

0.4708
0.4097
0.3391
0.2613

cen58933_ch04.qxd

9/10/2002

9:12 AM

Page 220

220
HEAT TRANSFER
To T
Ti T
1.0
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

o =

k
hL = 1
Bi =

0.6
0.4
0.7 0.5
0.3

35

25

30

16

2 1.8
1.6 1.4
1.2

0.05

2.5

0
2

50

40

20

18

0.2

0.1

45

12

10

0.

0.01
0.007
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002

4 6 8 10

14

18

22

26

30 50
= t/L2

70

100

120

150

T
h

(a) Midplane temperature (from M. P. Heisler)

300

Initially
T = Ti
0

T T
To T
x/L = 0.2
1.0

Q
Qmax
1.0

0.9

0.9

0.4

Bi = hL/k

0.4

0.8

50

10

0.5

0.05
0.1
0.2

0.00
5
0.01
0.02

0.3

0.9

0.1
1.0
0
0.01
0.1

0.00
1
0.00
2

0.5

0.2

L
2L

Bi =

0.6

0.5
0.3

T
h

0.7

0.6

0.6
0.4

600 700

0.8

0.8
0.7

400 500

20

0.001

100
80 90
60 70

14
1.0

0.1
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02

Plate

0.2
Plate
1.0

10

100

0.1
0
105

Plate
10 4

103

102

1
k
=
Bi
hL
(b) Temperature distribution (from M. P. Heisler)

101
1
Bi 2 = h2 t/k 2

10

102

103

104

(c) Heat transfer (from H. Grber et al.)

FIGURE 413
Transient temperature and heat transfer charts for a plane wall of thickness 2L initially at a uniform temperature Ti
subjected to convection from both sides to an environment at temperature T with a convection coefficient of h.

where m is the mass, V is the volume,  is the density, and Cp is the specific
heat of the body. Thus, Qmax represents the amount of heat transfer for t .
The amount of heat transfer Q at a finite time t will obviously be less than this

cen58933_ch04.qxd

9/10/2002

9:12 AM

Page 221

221
CHAPTER 4
o =

To T
Ti T

1.0
0.7

Cylinder

0.5
0.4
0.3

0.2

0.1

8
1.

16

90

18
70

14

12

1.6

10

80

60

1.2

50

10

0.8
0.6

8
45

35

30

0.3
0.1

0.5

40

0.4

0.2

0.01
0.007
0.005
0.004
0.003

25

20

1 .4

1.0

0.02

= 1
Bi =

2.
0.1
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.03

hr

0.002
0.001

4 6 8 10

14

18

22
26
= t /ro2

30

50

70

100

120

(a) Centerline temperature (from M. P. Heisler)

140 150

Q
Qmax
1.0

0.9

0.9
0.4

0.4
0.8

50

20

10

0.3
0.2

0.9

0.1
1.0
0
0.1
0.01

0.5

0.4
0.2

0.00
1
0.00
2
0.00
5
0.01
0.02

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.05
0.1
0.2

0.7

0.5
0.3

Bi = hro /k

0.8

0.7
0.6

ro r

Bi =

0.8

350

T Initially T
h
T = Ti h
0

T T
=
To T
1.0 r/ro = 0.2

250

Cylinder
1.0

10

100

1
k
=
Bi
hro
(b) Temperature distribution (from M. P. Heisler)

0.1
0
105

Cylinder
10 4

103

102

101
Bi 2

10

102

103

104

h2 t/k 2

(c) Heat transfer (from H. Grber et al.)

FIGURE 414
Transient temperature and heat transfer charts for a long cylinder of radius ro initially at a uniform temperature Ti
subjected to convection from all sides to an environment at temperature T with a convection coefficient of h.

cen58933_ch04.qxd

9/10/2002

9:12 AM

Page 222

222
HEAT TRANSFER
To T
Ti T

1.0
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

12 14

2.

0.02

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.5

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
20
= t/ro2

30

40

50

100

150

(a) Midpoint temperature (from M. P. Heisler)

T T

T
h

1.0

0.9

0.9
0.4

ro

Bi = hro /k

0.3

0.8

0.3

0.2

0.9

0.2

0.1

1.0
1.0

10

50

20

10

0.1

Sphere
0.1

0.5
1

0.4

0.05
0.1
0.2

0.5

0.4

0.00
1
0.00
2

0.6

0.6

0.00
5
0.01
0.02

0.7

0.5

0
0.01

T
h

0.8

0.7
0.6

Initially
T = Ti

Q
Qmax

To T
r/ro = 0.2
1.0
0.8

250

Bi =

200

0.75

0.5 0.35
0.2 0.1 .05
0
0

0.01
0.007
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002

4
3 .5

2.0
2.2 8 1.6
1.
.2
1.4 1
1.0

6 2.8
2.
4

50
40
45
0
35 3
25 20
18 16

10
9 8
7 6
5

3.0

0.1
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.03

0.001

100
80 90
60 70

Sphere

k
hr = 1
o
Bi =

o =

100

0
105

Sphere
10 4

103

102

1 = k
Bi hro
(b) Temperature distribution (from M. P. Heisler)

101
1
Bi 2 = h2 t/k 2

10

102

103

104

(c) Heat transfer (from H. Grber et al.)

FIGURE 415
Transient temperature and heat transfer charts for a sphere of radius ro initially at a uniform temperature Ti subjected to
convection from all sides to an environment at temperature T with a convection coefficient of h.

maximum. The ratio Q/Qmax is plotted in Figures 413c, 414c, and 415c
against the variables Bi and h2t/k2 for the large plane wall, long cylinder, and