Sei sulla pagina 1di 58

SCRIVERE LA TESI NEL FORMATO DI PUBBLICAZIONE RICHIESTO DALLA AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA)

La tesi va scritta con un software di word processing (Microsoft Word, Microsoft Wordpad o Open Office Writer). Open Office un software gratuito, che pu essere scaricato dal sito http://it.openoffice.org/download/. Questa guida fornisce le indicazioni per impostare correttamente i margini, i titoli, le note e i riferimenti bibliografici. Il formato APA consiste in una serie di convenzioni per la formattazione del testo degli articoli scientifici. Fornisce istruzioni dettagliate per i riferimenti nel testo, le citazioni bibliografiche, l'impaginazione, etc. E' adottato come stile di riferimento non solo dalle riviste di psicologia pi prestigiose, ma anche da quelle di altre discipline (per esempio, medicina e biologia) e la ragione fondamentale che rappresenta un formato di scrittura standard che rende facilmente leggibile il testo, e conseguentemente permette una migliore e pi rapida trasmissione delle informazioni. Il futuro psicologo professionista deve quindi essere in grado di realizzare un elaborato in questo formato. La tesi di laurea necessita ad ogni modo di alcuni adattamenti rispetto al formato APA originale, che verranno indicati nelle pagine che seguono. La prima fondamentale il frontespizio, che per la tesi di laurea nella facolt di Scienze della Formazione dell'Universit di Genova standard e pu essere scaricato dal sito www.sdf.unige.it/documenti/frontespizio.doc.

Per le tesi triennali non previsto il correlatore

IMPOSTARE LA PAGINA

Il testo deve essere scritto in corpo (CPI) 12, con font non particolarmente stravaganti. I classici sono Times New Roman, Arial, Verdana, Tahoma.

Impostare la spaziatura doppia (2) fra le righe

L'inizio di ogni nuovo paragrafo deve essere "indentato. Basta premere TAB ogni volta che si ricomincia a scrivere dopo essere andati a capo (pu anche essere impostato automaticamente)

2,5 cm + 1 cm rilegatura

Impostare i margini della pagina 2,5 cm su tutti i lati. La tesi, poi, va rilegata, quindi impostare a 1cm il margine della rilegatura Numerare tutte le pagine, impostando la giustificazione in basso al centro (per gli articoli scientifici, invece, in alto a destra)

2,5 cm

Per modificare impostazioni della pagina in Word, occorre aprire il menu File Imposta Pagina

Mentre in Open Office Writer occorre aprire il menu Formato Pagina. Impostare il margine sinistro a 3,5 cm per avere un 1 cm in pi per la rilegatura

Per inserire i numeri di pagina in Word aprire il menu Inserisci Numeri di pagina

In Open Office Writer leggermente pi complesso inserire i numeri di pagina. (1) Aprire il menu Inserisci Pie' di pagina Standard.

(2) Verr visualizzato un campo a pie' della pagina. Posizionare il cursore in questo campo.

(3) Aprire il menu Inserisci Controllo di campo Numero di pagina

(4) Centrarlo con il tasto per la giustificazione al centro

I titoli dei capitoli vanno in grassetto e con un numero che li contraddistingua I titoli dei sottocapitoli vanno in corsivo e anch'essi con un numero che indichi il capitolo (primo numero) e il sottocapitolo (secondo numero, dopo il punto). Ulteriori sottocapitoli devono essere numerati di conseguenza, ad esempio: 1.1.1. La sinergetica in Italia

Nel testo deve essere sempre chiaramente indicato a quale testo si sta facendo riferimento. La mancata indicazione del riferimento bibliografico da cui si sta traendo l'informazione implica che l'autore stia esprimendo un suo contenuto originale: se non questo il caso, passibile di accusa di plagio Le IN-TEXT CITATIONS nel formato APA sono di tipo parentetico, per cui quando si parafrasa una fonte non c' bisogno di inserire tutte le informazioni relative ad essa: basta autore(i) e anno della pubblicazione Il numero di pagina per necessario dopo l'anno di pubblicazione quando si proponga una citazione letterale, che a sua volta deve essere inserita fra virgolette

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

Se si fa una parafrasi, citare le fonti inserendo nome(i) (anno) nel testo, oppure tutto fra parentesi alla fine del paragrafo/periodo

Sherrington (1906) aveva osservato che i riflessi semplici sono sempre combinati in armonie unitarie pi grandi, ossia in azioni, la cui continuit temporale costituisce il comportamento dellindividuo. oppure i riflessi semplici sono sempre combinati in armonie unitarie pi grandi, ossia in azioni, la cui continuit temporale costituisce il comportamento dellindividuo (Sherrington, 1906)

Se si fa una citazione letterale, occorre anche la pagina da cui stata tratta Se le pagine della citazione sono pi di una, occorrono 2 lettere "p"

Un sistema pu essere considerato come un qualche oggetto formato da una collezione di elementi, di parti, che concepito come unentit singola (Luccio, 1998, p. 119). oppure Secondo Luccio (1998) un sistema pu essere considerato come un qualche oggetto formato da una collezione di elementi, di parti, che concepito come unentit singola (pp. 119-120).

Se si cita in inglese e si vuole inserire la traduzione, questo pu essere fatto fra parentesi, indicando la fonte della traduzione (libro) oppure segnalando che stata realizzata da chi scrive (con la dicitura "traduzione mia")

Come sostiene Miller (2000), "the central question for an evolutionary personality psychology is: how do psychological differences relate to tness?" (pp. 12-13, "la domanda fondamentale che si pone la psicologia evoluzionistica della personalit : quale relazione esiste fra differenze individuali e adattamento all'ambiente?", traduzione in Rossi, 2003, p. 230) oppure Come sostiene Miller (2000), "the central question for an evolutionary personality psychology is: how do psychological differences relate to tness?" (pp. 12-13, "la domanda fondamentale che si pone la psicologia evoluzionistica della personalit : quale relazione esiste fra differenze individuali e adattamento all'ambiente?", traduzione mia)

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

Se gli autori sono DUE, vanno citati entrambi con la congiunzione "e" fra i nomi. Quando i nomi vengono citati fra parentesi, devono essere separati dalla "e commerciale" &

Patten e Auble (1981) propongono una definizione di sistema come un set parzialmente interconnesso di componenti, rimarcando come la complessit di un sistema derivi da come si configurano le relazioni tra le sue componenti. oppure Un sistema pu essere definito come un set parzialmente interconnesso di componenti (Patten & Auble, 1981)

Se gli autori sono da TRE a CINQUE, vanno indicati tutti la prima volta che vengono citati nel capitolo. Nella parentesi, ci vuole sempre la & prima dell'ultimo nome citato. Dalla seconda volta in avanti dopo il primo nome si pu inserire "et al." (da latino et alii, ossia "e altri)

La prima volta Kelso, Ding e Schner (1992) hanno applicato questo tipo di sistema ai problemi riguardanti la popolazione degli insetti oppure Questo tipo di sistema stato applicato in etologia, nei problemi riguardanti la popolazione degli insetti (Kelso, Ding & Schner, 1992) Dalla seconda volta in avanti Kelso et al. (1992) hanno mostrato la rilevanza teorica del modello animale anche nel caso degli esseri umani oppure La rilevanza teorica del modello animale stata mostrata anche nel caso degli esseri umani (Kelso et al., 1992)

Se gli autori sono SEI o pi, la prima volta vengono citati i primi cinque seguiti da "et al.". Dalla seconda volta si cita come nel caso da 3 a 5 autori

Kelso, Ding, Schner, Stroeber, Stadler, et al. (1992) hanno applicato questo tipo di sistema ai problemi riguardanti la popolazione degli insetti oppure Questo tipo di sistema stato applicato in etologia, nei problemi riguardanti la popolazione degli insetti (Kelso, Ding, Schner, Stroeber, Stadler, et al., 1992)

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

Se l'autore sconosciuto, utilizzare la prima parola pi importante del TITOLO della pubblicazione a cui si far riferimento in bibliografia

Alcuni studi indicano che certi ormoni della carne possono influire sul ciclo mestruale delle donne (Vegetarianism, 2001).

FONTI INDIRETTE Indicare la fonte da cui si tratto quanto riferito nel testo

Barr riferisce che le donne non vegetariane tendono ad avere pi disturbi a livello sub-clinico (citato in Weisenthal, 1995). oppure Barr riferisce che "le donne non vegetariane tendono ad avere pi disturbi a livello sub-clinico" (citato in Weisenthal, 1995, p.57 ).

Per ulteriori casi particolari, vedere le pagine pi avanti

BIBLIOGRAFIA
La spaziatura doppia non necessaria, soprattutto se i riferimenti sono numerosi Per ordinare i riferimenti bbiliografici basta utilizzare la funzione di ordinamento (vedi oltre come si imposta)

Le voci vanno elencate in ordine alfabetico in base al cognome del primo autore. Dopo ogni cognome, ci va la virgola, l'iniziale(i) del nome puntata, virgola, cognome del secondo autore, etc.

L'indicazione "pp." necessaria solo per i capitoli di libri, non per gli articoli

Utilizzare il rientro di 1 cm per le righe dalla seconda in poi (vedi oltre come si imposta)

Gli indirizzi dei siti possono essere molto lunghi, e non stanno tutti su una riga: nel caso, dar un invio dopo una delle slash ("/") per andare alla riga successiva

Per i dettagli di ogni possibile tipo di voce bibliografica si veda pi avanti

BIBLIOGRAFIA
Per ordinare automaticamente i riferimenti bibliografici in Word, selezionare tutto il testo, scritto di seguito e senza alcuna impostazione particolare, e andare su Tabella Ordina:

Selezionare "Ordina per Paragrafi", "Tipo: Testo", e crescente, poi OK

Per indentare le righe successive alla prima di ogni riferimento, sempre dopo aver selezionato tutti riferimenti andare su Formato Paragrafo e nel riquadro RIENTRI selezionare "Speciale: Sporgente" e indicare "Rientra di: 1 cm"

BIBLIOGRAFIA
Per ordinare automaticamente i riferimenti bibliografici in Open Office Writer, selezionare tutto il testo, scritto di seguito e senza alcuna impostazione particolare, e andare su Strumenti Ordina:

Lasciare le impostazioni cos come vengono trovate e dare OK

Per indentare le righe successive alla prima di ogni riferimento, sempre dopo aver selezionato tutti riferimenti andare su Formato Paragrafo, linguetta Paragrafo, e nel riquadro RIENTRO indicare "Prima del testo: 1 cm" e "Prima riga: -1 cm"

FIGURE E TABELLE
Figure e tabelle devono riassumere informazioni che se riportate nel testo richiederebbero una spiegazione verbale lunga e di difficile comprensione. Devono avere un chiaro riferimento nel testo, essere posizionate poco dopo essere state indicate e SOTTO alla figura deve comparire una didascalia che permetta al lettore di comprendere facilmente cosa vi rappresentato. Ad esempio, devono essere esplicitate eventuali abbreviazioni o la fonte da cui stata tratta A livello macroscopico, tuttavia, quando il sistema scivola in un attrattore cambia e diviene relativamente stabile, con propriet definibili. Perch il sistema cada in un attrattore, per, le sue dinamiche devono essere progressive e terminare in un singolo stato (Figura 1.1).

L'analisi della varianza hanno mostrato un effetto significato del tipo di psicoterapia sul numero di attacchi di panico settimanali (F(2, 12) = 12.01, p < .001) (Figura 3.2).
2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 IND GRU Tipo di psicoterapia MX

Fig. 3.2 Attacchi di panico medi per tipo di psicoterapia; IND = individuale; GRU = gruppo, MX = misto

Il numero della figura deve indicare prima del punto il capitolo a cui fa riferimento, e dopo il punto il numero successivo che la identifica (quindi Fig 3.2 = figura 2 del capitolo 3)

N attacchi panico m edi / settim ana

Vedi oltre per le indicazioni su come riportare i dati statistici

FIGURE E TABELLE
Come le figure, le tabelle devono avere un chiaro riferimento nel testo, essere posizionate poco dopo essere state indicate e SOPRA alla tabella deve comparire una didascalia che permetta al lettore di comprendere facilmente cosa vi rappresentato. Eventuali abbreviazioni o la fonte da cui stata tratta, invece, vanno SOTTO alla tabella, in carattere corpo 10. Utilizzare sempre 2 cifre decimali. Il numero intero prima della virgola pu essere omesso se il valore riportato pu essere al massimo 1 (esempio: proporzioni) o compreso fra -1 e 1 (coefficienti di correlazione), mentre deve essere indicato se il valore pu essere maggiore di 1 (ad esempio, deviazioni standard) Le statistiche descrittive degli item sono riportate in Tabella 2.2 Tabella 2.2 Statistiche descrittive degli item del Big Five Inventory
Item item26 item28 item30 item33 item39 item42 item47 N 99 100 99 100 100 100 100 Min 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Max 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 M 1,10 1,84 1,12 1,19 1,43 1,08 0,90 DS 1,01 1,10 1,03 1,00 1,13 0,99 1,20 SK 0,66 0,28 0,61 0,53 0,33 0,79 1,30 KU -0,07 -0,48 -0,49 -0,47 -0,69 0,22 0,83

Nota: N =numero di casi validi; Min = minimo; Max = massimo; M = media; DS = deviazione standard; SK = skewness; KU = curtosi

Il numero della tabella deve indicare prima del punto il capitolo a cui fa riferimento, e dopo il punto il numero successivo che la identifica (quindi Tabella 4.3 = tabella 3 del capitolo 4) I bordi della tabella devono essere nel minor numero possibile, e sostanzialmente devono dividere l'intestazione delle colonne dai dati. Il testo nella riga coi nomi delle colonne va in corsivo Riga intera sopra e sotto le intestazioni delle colonne
Item item26 item28 item30 item33 item39 item42 item47 N 99 100 99 100 100 100 100 Min 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Max 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 M 1,10 1,84 1,12 1,19 1,43 1,08 0,90 DS 1,01 1,10 1,03 1,00 1,13 0,99 1,20 SK 0,66 0,28 0,61 0,53 0,33 0,79 1,30 KU -0,07 -0,48 -0,49 -0,47 -0,69 0,22 0,83

Riga intera sotto all'ultima riga

Douglas College Library


Your research and information source

AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) STYLE FOR REFERENCE CITATIONS AND REFERENCE LISTS
For further explanation of APA practices associated with writing research papers, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Copies are available in the Reference

and Reserve collections, and in the stacks on the second floor at the New Westminster campus and on the lower level at the David Lam campus under the call number BF 76.7 A46 2001.

The Reference List


The reference list documents the essay/paper and provides information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Start the reference list on a new page. Type the word References (Reference, if there is only one), centred, at the top of the page. The reference list is double-spaced, both between and within entries; entries have a hanging indent. For each reference, the first line is typed flush with the left margin, and any additional lines are indented as a group a few spaces to the right of the left margin. This is called a hanging indent. Entries in a reference list should appear in alphabetical order by the authors last name, or by the first significant word in the title, if there is no author. Words such as The, An or A at the beginning of the title should be ignored, but not omitted, when alphabetizing the reference list. Each entry should contain the following information: author, year of publication, title and publishing data. The variety of material available on the Web, and the variety of ways in which it is structured and presented, can present challenges for creating usable and useful references. At a minimum, an entry for a Web source should provide a document title or description, the date of publication or update (when available), the date of retrieval, and the URL that leads to the entry page for the document. Use n.d. (no date) when the publication date is not available.

Basic Formats
Books
Authors surname, followed by initials

Title of book

Publisher

Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer. New York: Atheneum.

Date of publication

Place of publication

Page 2

APA Style Sheet

Journal Articles from a Print Source


Authors names Year of publication Title of article

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

Title of journal

Volume (issue)

Page numbers

If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then change to regular type and give the page range without "pp." If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include "pp." before the page numbers so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination. Use "p." if the source is a page or less long.

Journal Articles from a Fulltext Online Database


The format is as above, with the addition of retrieval information.
March, J. S., & Curry, J. F. (1998). Predicting the outcome of treatment. Journal of

Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(2), 39-45. Retrieved April 15, 2004, from
PsycARTICLES database.
Name of database (not the service provider, like EBSCO, InfoTrack, etc.) Date retrieved from database

More on Authors and Editors

References with a Single Author (with a Subsequent Edition)


Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer. New York: Atheneum. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

C:\Documents and Settings\michelsena\Desktop\APA.doc Revised Nov 05 - sw

APA Style Sheet

Page 3

References with Two to Six Authors


Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. A. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents.

American Psychologist, 55, 1040-1049.

References with More Than Six Authors


When there are more than six authors, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors and shorten any remaining authors to et al.
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psy-

chology, 68, 843-856.

References with No Named Author or Editor (Subsequent Editions)

Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield,


MA: Merriam-Webster.

Statistical power analysis (Rev. ed.). (1979). New York: Academic


Press.

Edited Books (Entire Book)


Hunt, R. R., & Ellis, H. C. (Eds.). (1999). Fundamentals of cognitive

psychology. Toronto: McGraw-Hill College.

Page 4

APA Style Sheet

Chapter or Essay in Edited Books


Gurman, A. S. (1981). Family therapy. In M. N. Blum (Ed.), Handbook of

family therapy (pp. 742-775). New York: Springer.

Articles/Chapters in Edited Books, Reprinted from Another Source


Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piagets theory (G. Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive

development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ:


Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703732, by P.H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley).

In text, use following parenthetical citation: (Piaget, 1970/1988)

Encyclopedia Articles
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia

Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia


Britannica. Cooper, J. E. (1972). Schizophrenia. In H. J. Eysenck, W. Arnold & R. Meili (Eds.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 26, pp. 175-180). New York: Seabury Press.

If an encyclopedia article is unsigned, place the title of the article in the author position.

C:\Documents and Settings\michelsena\Desktop\APA.doc Revised Nov 05 - sw

APA Style Sheet

Page 5

Secondary Sources
To cite a work discussed in a secondary source, give the secondary source in the reference list; in the text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. If Johnsons unpublished manuscript is cited in Beatty, cite Beatty in the reference list.
Beatty, J. (1982). Task-evoked pupillary responses. Psychological

Bulletin, 91. 276-292.


In the text, use the following citation:

Johnsons study (as cited in Beatty, 1982)...

Books in Translation
Buci-Gluckmann, C. (1980). Gramsci and the state (D. Fernbach, Trans.). London: Lawrence and Wishart. (Original work published 1975)

In text, cite the original publication date and the date of the translation:
(Buci-Gluckmann, 1975/1980).

Articles and Abstracts

Journal Articles from a Print Source


Horowitz, L. M., Post, D. L., French, R. S., & Siegel, E. Y. (1981). The prototype as a construct. Journal of Psychology, 90, 575-585.

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

Include the issue number when the journal is paginated by issue.


Paivco, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons. Memory, 3, 635-647.

Page 6

APA Style Sheet

Magazine Articles from a Print Source


Give the date shown on the publication (the month for monthly publications, and the month and day for weekly publications). Also, give the volume number, if there is one.

Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.

Newspaper Articles from a Print Source


Newspaper articles often do not have authors. If this is the case, alphabetize by the title of the article.
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The National Post, p. A12.

Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.

Abstracts
Use this form of reference if only the abstract and not the entire article is used, and the abstract appears in a secondary source.
Misumi, J. (1982). Effects of organizational change in Japan. Japanese

Psychology Journal, 21, 93-111. Abstract obtained from Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68, Abstract No. 11474.

Periodicals Published Annually


Use for a series published annually.
Petty, R. E., & Coro, D. M. (1981). Attitude change. Annual Review of

Psychology, 32, 357-404.

C:\Documents and Settings\michelsena\Desktop\APA.doc Revised Nov 05 - sw

APA Style Sheet

Page 7

Articles from Online Periodical Databases


When referencing material where the full text is obtained by searching a periodical database, follow the format appropriate to the work retrieved and add a retrieval statement that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the specific database. Some databases list only the starting page number and the number of pages, rather than page number ranges. In such cases, use a plus sign (+) after the starting page number when the article is longer than a single page.

Blakeslee, D. J. (1981). The origin and spread of the calumet ceremony. American

Antiquity, 46(4), 759-768. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from JSTOR database.


Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2004, from PsycARTICLES database. March, J. S., & Curry, J. F. (1998). Predicting the outcome of treatment.

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(2), 39+. Retrieved


April 15, 2001, from Expanded Academic ASAP database. Morton, P. (1998, July 24). Border crossing plan repealed. Financial Post (Daily ed.), 5. Retrieved April 15, 2001, from Canadian Newsstand database. Padian, K. (1999). [Review of the book Buffon: A life in natural history].

Bioscience, 48(1), 72+. Retrieved April 15, 2001, from


Academic Search Premier database. Piskurich, G. M. (1999). Leading organizational change. Personnel

Psychology, 52, 206-210. Retrieved April 15, 2001, from


ABI/INFORM Complete database.

Page 8

APA Style Sheet

Taylor, C. (1998). Globalization and the future of Canada. Queens

Quarterly, 105, 330-353. Retrieved April 1, 2004, from


CBCA database.

Abstracts from Online Periodical Databases


Use this form of reference if only the abstract and not the entire article is used as the source.
Haim, P. P. (1998). The communication of aggression in dreams.

Modern Psychoanalysis, 23, 63-70. Abstract retrieved April 15,


2004, from PsycINFO database. Briggs, M., & Dean, K. L. (1998). A qualitative analysis of the nursing documentation of post-operative pain management. Journal of

Clinical Nursing, 7, 155-63. Abstract retrieved April 15, 2001,


from CINAHL database.

Online Journal Articles Based on a Print Source


Most articles retrieved online are exact duplicates of those in their print versions and are unlikely to have additional analyses and data attached. Use the basic primary journal reference, but add [Electronic version] after the article title.
Boos, E. J. (1997). Moving in the direction of justice: College mindscriminal mentalities [Electronic version]. Journal of Criminal

Justice and Popular Culture, 5, 1-20.

Online Magazine Articles Based on a Print Source


Walt, V. (1995, September/October). Womens work [Electronic version].

Mother Jones Magazine, 12-13.

C:\Documents and Settings\michelsena\Desktop\APA.doc Revised Nov 05 - sw

APA Style Sheet

Page 9

Articles in an Internet-only Journal (no print equivalent)


Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 23657. Retrieved November 1, 2001, from http://journals/ apa.org/prevention/volume3/23657.html

Web Sites and Documents


Multi-Page Web Document Created by a Single Organization
At a minimum, a reference of an internet source should provide a document title or description, the date of publication or update (when available), the date of retrieval, and the URL that leads to the entry page for the document. Wherever possible, identify the author(s) of the document.
City of Vancouver. (2003). Graffiti management program. Retrieved March 20, 2003, from http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/engsvcs/streets/graffiti/ Greater Vancouver Regional District, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.)

Who has time for a healthy meal? Retrieved May 25, 2003 from
http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/teen/issues/

A Single Document or Part of a Web Site


Identify the host organization and the relevant department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.
American Psychological Association. (1998). Managing traumatic stress: Tips for

recovering from disaster and other traumatic events. Retrieved April 15, 2001,
from American Psychological Association, Help Center Web site: http://helping.apa.org/family/warning.html Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Homicide victims and suspects, by age and sex. Retrieved April 15, 2001, from http://www.statcan.ca/english/pgdb/State/Justice/lega10a.htm

Page 10

APA Style Sheet

Further Examples
NetLibrary Citations
Megone, C., & Robinson, S. (2005). Case histories in business ethics. London, Eng.: Taylor & Francis. Retrieved March 10, 2005, from Netlibrary database.

Reports & Government Documents


Reports include government publications and studies produced by a university or private organization.
Frenken, H. (1997, January). RRSP withdrawals revisited. Canadian Economic Observer (Cat. No. 11-010-XPB). Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada. Hall, S. P. (1986). How valid are I.Q. scores? (Report No. CSOS-R-292). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED465) Newport, E. L. (1975). Motherese: The speech of mothers to babies (Tech. Rep. No. 52). San Diego: University of California, Center for Human Information Processing. Statistics Canada. (1998). Marketing research handbook (Cat. No. 63-224-XPB). Ottawa, ON: Author.

Reviews
Carmody, T. P. (1982). A new look at medicine [Review of the book Social contexts of

health]. Contemporary Psychology, 27, 208-209.


Sheehan, M. (2004). The hours: The as-if personality and problems of loving [Review of the motion picture The hours]. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(3), 413-20.

If the review is untitled, use the information in the square brackets as the title. Retain the brackets so that this information is not mistaken for the title.

C:\Documents and Settings\michelsena\Desktop\APA.doc Revised Nov 05 - sw

APA Style Sheet

Page 11

Personal Communications and Unpublished Material


Interviews, most e-mail messages, letters, and television and radio broadcasts do not provide recoverable data and are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only, including as exact a date as possible.
B. Mah (personal communication, April 24, 2004) stated that

Some e-mail discussion groups and mailing lists keep archives of messages sent, which may be retrieved online. In such cases, provide the name of the mailing list or discussion group and the address or URL for the archived version of the message.
Simons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New responses for visual cognition [Msg 31]. Message posted to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ visualcognition/messages/31

Brochures
Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and

writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.

Advertisements
Adrenaline: A fragrance for men from Adidas [Advertisement]. (2004, November 8).

Sports Illustrated, 101(18), 2.

Videos
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000).

You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States:


Paramount Pictures.

When a video is of limited circulation, provide the distributor's name and complete address in parentheses at the end of the reference.
Harrison, J. (Producer), & Schmiechen, R. (Director). (1992). Changing

our minds: The story of Evelyn Hooker [Motion picture].


(Available from Changing Our Minds Inc., 170 West End Avenue, Suite 25R, New York, NY 10023).

Page 12

APA Style Sheet

Reference Citations
Document your work throughout the text by citing the works used in your research by author and date. This identifies the source for readers and enables them to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper.

In 2000, Smith compared reaction times ... Smith (2000) compared reaction times... In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 2000)...

Where there are TWO AUTHORS, cite both names each time the reference occurs in text. The most recent study (Smith & Jones, 1983)... When there are THREE TO FIVE AUTHORS, cite all the names the first time. From then on, use only the first name followed by et al. (Latin abbreviation for and others).

First citation: Later citations:

Sokolowski, Smith, Jones and Hajid (1983) discovered that... Sokolowski et al. (1983) also discovered that ...

When there are SIX OR MORE AUTHORS, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for all citations in text.

First citation: Later citations:

Hewitt et al. (2001) demonstrated that as has been shown by Hewitt et al. (2001).

Write out in full the whole name of a GROUP THAT SERVES AS AUTHOR every time, unless the abbreviation is well known. First citation: Second citation: The police report (Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 1979)... The RCMP report (1979) ...

C:\Documents and Settings\michelsena\Desktop\APA.doc Revised Nov 05 - sw

APA Style Sheet

Page 13

Where there is NO AUTHOR, cite the first few words of the title and the date. Put quotation marks around an article title, but italicize the title of a periodical or book. A Time magazine article (Brain Breakthrough, 1988) said that... It states in the Vancouver Social Services Directory (1988)...

Words in the title are capitalized in reference citations, but not in the reference list.

When there are TWO OR MORE AUTHORS WITH THE SAME SURNAME, include initials to avoid confusion. Both G. A. Jones (1984) and B. W. Jones (1986) have studied...

QUOTATIONS
Incorporate a short quotation (fewer than 40 words) into the text of your essay and enclose the quotation in double quotation marks. Miele (1993) found that "the placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when only the first groups behaviors were studied in this manner (p. 255). Display a quotation of 40 or more words in a freestanding block of typewritten lines and omit the quotation marks. Miele (1993) found the following: The placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p.255)

If page numbers are not clearly marked (as in online periodical articles), omit the page location reference.

Basic Rules for formatting citations in your text


The following are some general guidelines for referencing works in the text of your document. The author/s surname and year of publication are used within the text of a document (commonly referred to as in-text citations) when you are quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing someone elses ideas. At the end of the document full details of the in-text citations are given in a reference list. For more information on in-text citations consult the APA manual (pages 207214).

Standard Citation: One author


For example: According to Froggatt (2003) a growing body of research is emerging on palliative care. OR A growing body of research is emerging on palliative care (Froggatt, 2003). NB: If you refer to the same citation a second time within the same paragraph you may omit the year of publication as long as it cannot be confused with other studies cited in that paragraph.

Standard Citation: Two authors


For example: Jowett and Shanley (1993) observed during interviews that patients responded. OR It was observed during the interview that patients responded well to drug therapy (Jowett & Shanley, 1993).

Standard Citation: Three to five authors


The first time the citation is referred to give all the authors surnames: For example: Herth, Korner, and McGee (2004) documented their experiences as patients.. OR Their experiences as patients was well documented (Herth, Korner, & McGee, 2004) NB: In the second example & is placed before the last author. Subsequently, only the surname of the first listed author is used followed by et al. and the year of publication. For example: Herth et al. (2004) stated that..

Standard Citation: Six or more authors


When a citation has six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication, for the first and subsequent citations. For example: Benzein et al. (2001) conducted narrative interviews. OR Narrative interviews were conducted over two weeks (Benzein et al., 2001).

Standard Citation: No author


When a work has no author, cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year. For an article or chapter title use double quotation marks around the title. For a book, periodical/journal, brochure, or report, italicize the title. For example: In the chapter Thoughts on integrated care (1999) it discusses

OR it was discussed (Thoughts on integrated care, 1999). In the book Social learning theory (1980) evidence is OR the evidence was presented (Social learning theory, 1980).
NB: When a works author is designated as Anonymous cit in the text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. In the reference list, an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous.

Groups as authors
Group authors (e.g. corporations, associations and government agencies) are normally spelled out every time they appear as an in-text citation. However the names of some group authors are spelled out the first time they are cited and abbreviated thereafter. The general rule in deciding to abbreviate is that you should provide enough information in the in-text citation for the reader to easily locate the entry in the reference list. For example: The Accident Compensation Corporation [ACC] (2003) would not cover injuries . OR There was no compensation for these kinds of injures (Accident Compensation Corporation [ACC], 2003). Subsequently ACC (2003) does not consider injuries of this nature..

Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source


Give the secondary source in the reference list; in-text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example if Bendz, Sjodin, & Aurells work is cited in Olson, Meek, & Lynch and you did not read the work cited, list the Olson, Meek, & Lynch reference in the Reference list. For example: In-text citation Bendz, Sjodin, and Aurells study (1990, as cited in Olson, Meek, & Lynch, 2004) showed OR showed in the study (Bendz, Sjodin, & Aurell, 1990, as cited in Olson, Meek, & Lynch, 2004). In the Reference List

Olson, D. M., Meek, L. G., & Lynch, J. R. (2004). Accurate patient history contributes to differentiating diabetes insipidus: A case study. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 36(4), 228-230. Direct Quote
For example: The author stated, The effect disappeared within minutes (Lopez, 1993, p. 311), but she did not say which effect. OR Lopez (1993) found that the effect disappeared within minutes (p. 311).

NB: Quotations that are 40 words or longer should be placed in a free standing block of type written lines and omit quotation marks. For more information see the APA manual.

Several works by the same first author and with the same publication date:
Within the text the publication date is followed by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year; repeat the year. The suffixes reflect the order in which the references are arranged in the reference list i.e. alphabetically by the title (excluding A and The) that follows the date. For example: Cook (2001a) found that the control of . The roles were reversed (Cook, 2001b).

Several works within the same parentheses:


List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first authors surname. Separate the citations with semicolons

For example: Several trials found inconsistencies in the results (Brown, 2006; Cook, 2007; Wilson, 2000).

Personal Communication
Personal communication may be letters, memos, some electronic communications, personal interviews, telephone conversations and the like. Cite personal communications in the text only, they are not included in the reference list. In the body of your text you need the following: Initials and Surname of communicator, and provide an exact a date as possible.

For example in-text reference would look like this: P. D. Gluckman (personal communication, May 23, 2004) OR (J. Kilpatrick, personal communication, November 7, 2004)

Your Reference List:


Formatting your reference list is covered in Chapter 4 of the APA manual. What follows are some general guidelines for formatting your reference list. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper and should begin on a separate page from the text of the essay under the heading References (centered, at the top of the page and not underlined). The references should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay, and entries should have a hanging indent of 5 spaces (i.e. starting on the 5th space). NB: The School of Nursing accepts 1.5 or double spacing. In this guide I have used 1.5 spacing to save paper!! References cited in the text must appear in the reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. NB: A Reference list cites works that specifically support a particular article whereas a Bibliography cites works for background or for further reading and may include descriptive notes.

10

Abbreviations:
Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts of books and other publications are: chap. ed. rev. ed. 2nd ed. Ed. Eds. et al. chapter edition revised edition second edition Editor Editors and others (from Latin et alii, et aliae) n.d. No. no date Number Vol. vols. Volume (as in Vol. 4) Volumes (as in 4 vols.) p. pp. para. Pt. Suppl. Tech. Rep. Trans. Page Pages paragraph Part Supplement Technical Report Translator(s)

Publishers Locations:
Give the location (city and state for U.S. publishers, city, state or province if applicable, and country for publishers outside of the United States) of the publishers of books, reports, brochures, and other separate, non-periodical publications. If two or more publisher locations are given, give the location listed first in the book or, if specified, the location of the publishers home office. If the publisher is a university, and the name of the state (or province) is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the name in the publisher location. The following locations can be listed without a state abbreviation or country because they are major cites that are well known for publishing. NB: Do not use abbreviations for the name of the Country e.g. use New Zealand not NZ. Baltimore Boston Chicago Los Angeles New York Philadelphia San Francisco Amsterdam Jerusalem London Milan Moscow Paris Rome Stockholm Tokyo Vienna

11

The names of U.S states and territories are abbreviated in the reference list.

Location
Alabama Alaska American Samoa Arizona Arkansas California Canal Zone Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Guam Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi

Abbreviation AL AK AS AZ AR CA CZ CO CT DE DC FL GA GU HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS

Location Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Virgin Islands Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Abbreviation MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA PR RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA VI WA WV WI WY

12

Order of References:
For more detailed information see Section 4.04 pg 219 of the APA manual References are arranged in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author

Several works by the same first author:


Arranged by year of publication, the earliest first For example: Hobson, J. M. (2000). Where to Hobson, J. M. (2004). Maori nursing.

Several works by the same first author and with the same publication date:
Arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A and The) that follows the date. For example: Cook, S. (2001a). The control of . Cook, S. (2001b). Roles of the..

Works by groups (agency, association, or institution):


Alphabetise group authors by the first significant word of the name. Use the full name. For example: American Psychological Association, (not APA) University of Auckland, Department of Medicine,

If there is no author:
The title moves to the author position and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word of the title. For example: Surveillance and control notes. (1997). New Zealand Public Health Report, 4(6), 43-45.

13

How to reference a Periodical/Journal Article


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of article Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of article. (followed by a full stop) 4. Journal title, in italics (followed by a comma) NB: Journal Title must be in full 5. Volume number in italics (followed by a comma if no issue number is given) 6. Issue/part number, in parentheses - only needed if issues are individually paginated (followed by a comma) 7. Page Numbers. of article (followed by a full stop)

Journal article - one author


Neugroschl, J. (2002). Agitation: How to manage behaviour disturbances in the older patient with dementia. Geriatrics, 57(4), 33-37.

Journal article - two author


Hughes, E., & Rodgers, J. (1999). Changing times in diabetes care. Diabetes Primary Care, 1(1), 4.

Journal article - three-six authors


Ilan, D. I., Liporace, F. A., Rosen, J., & Cannavo, D. (2004). Efficacy of rofecoxib for pain control after knee arthroscopy: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Arthroscopy, 20, 813-818.

Journal article - more than six authors


Cohet, C., Cheng, S., MacDonald, C., Baker, M., Foliaki, S., Huntington, N., et al. (2004). Infections, medication use, and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in childhood. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 58, 852-857.

14

Journal supplements
If there is no supplement number, the journal issue number is included in parentheses before Suppl. Roose, S. P. (2000). Considerations for the use of antidepressants in patients with cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal, 140(4 Suppl.), S84-S88. OR if the supplement has a number, the number is included in parentheses after Suppl. Stjernholm, C. (2003). Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery. Acta Radiologica - Supplementum, 44(Suppl. 430), 2-15.

Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source


See page 7 of this guide for details.

Journal article in press


A paper that has been submitted to a journal and accepted for publication but not yet published is considered in press. Do not give a year, vol, or page numbers until the article is published. Add (in press) after the author/s name. For more details see page 241 of the APA manual.

Alonso, S., Geys, H., Molenberghs, G., & Kenward, M. G. (in press). Validation of surrogate markers in multiple randomized clinical trials with repeated measurements. Biometrics.

How to reference a Magazine Article


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of article Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of article. (followed by a full stop) 4. Magazine title, in italics (followed by a comma) NB. Magazine title must be in full 5. Volume number in italics (followed by a comma if no issue number is given) 6. Issue/part number, in parentheses only needed if issues are individually paginated (followed by a comma) 7. Page Number/s. of article (followed by a full stop)

Allan, B. (2004, March). The food fight. Consumer, 438, 8-11. OR Fleming, D. (2004, March 8). Cutting back on obesity. New Zealand Woman's Weekly, 95-96.

15

How to reference a Newspaper Article


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Reporter/s. of article Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year, Month Day. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of article. (followed by a full stop) 4. Newspaper title, in italics (followed by a comma) 5. Section Page Number/s. of article (followed by a full stop)

Brooker, M. (2003, July 14). Meningitis scare swamps hospital. The Press, p. A1. NB: If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g. pp. B1, B3, B5-B7.) If there is no reporter the work goes under the Title of the article.

How to reference a Book


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name/s. of author(s), editor(s) Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Edition. (in parentheses) if other than the first (followed by a full stop) (edition always abbreviated to ed.) 5. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 6. Publisher. (followed by a full stop)

Single author
Durie, M. (2001). Mauri ora: The dynamics of Maori health. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press.

Single editor
Perl, A. (Ed.). (2004). Autoimmunity: Methods and protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Two authors
Polit-O'Hara, D., & Hungler, B. P. (1999). Nursing research: Principles and methods (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

NB: For books that have 3 to 5 authors see in-text citation information on page 6.

16

For books that have six or more authors, follow the rule for journals (see example on Page 12) and abbreviate remaining authors as et al. (not italicized and with a full stop after al). For intext citation information see page 6.

Corporate Author
New Zealand Occupational Safety & Health Service. (1996). Approved code of practice for the management of noise in the workplace. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Labour, Occupational Safety & Health Service.

Author/Publisher are Identical


When the author and the publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

New Zealand Ministry of Health. (2004). Guideline for specialist health services for older people. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

No author/editor
Australian medicines handbook: AMH. (2004). Adelaide, South Australia: Australian Medicines Handbook.

How to reference a Brochure/Pamphlet


Format references to brochures/pamphlets in the same way as those to entire books (see page 15). In brackets, identify the publication as a brochure. Diabetes New Zealand. (2003). Cardiovascular risk and diabetes [Brochure]. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

17

How to reference a Book Chapter


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name/s. of author(s) of chapter Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Chapter title. (followed by a full stop) 4. Editor/s of book preceded by In. 5. Title. of book in italics. (followed by a full stop). NB: For a chapter in a book that is not edited, include the word In before the book title 6. Page Numbers. of chapter in parentheses (followed by a full stop) NB: If there is an edition, volume number or report number this information precedes the page numbers within the parentheses and is followed by a comma. 7. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 8. Publisher. (followed by a full stop)

Chapter in an edited book


Brown, S. A., Aarons, G. A., & Abrantes, A. M. (2001). Adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. In C. E. Walker & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child psychology (3rd ed., pp. 757-775). New York: Wiley.

Chapter in an unedited book


For a chapter in a book where the author has written the whole book, include the word In before the book title. Cook, S. (2007). Palliative care of the elderly. In Palliative care (pp. 23-45). New York: Blackwell.

Entry in Encyclopaedia/Dictionary
Follow the format for book chapters (see above). Note if an entry has no author, place the entry title in the author position Hordeolum. (2002). In D. M. Anderson (Ed.), Mosby's medical, nursing, & allied health dictionary (p. 826). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Entry in an online Encyclopaedia/Dictionary


See page ?? for details.

Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source See page 7 for details.

18

How to reference Technical Reports


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name/s. of author(s), editor(s) Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Report No. (in parentheses, followed by a full stop) (edition always abbreviated to ed.) 5. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 6. Publisher. (followed by a full stop)

Eagle, L., Bulmer, S., & Hawkins, J. (2003). The 'obesity epidemic': Complex causes, controversial cures: Implications for marketing communication (Tech. Rep. No. 03.03.). Auckland, New Zealand: Massey University at Albany, Department of Commerce. NB: If there is no report number treat the item as a book and reference as such (see pg 14). If using EndNote and you have selected Reference type - Report, the following fields need to be filled in - Author, Year, Title, Type, Report No., City, Institution (for publishers name).

How to reference a Conference Proceeding


NB: Treat regularly published Conference Proceedings as journals (see pg 12). Conference Proceedings that are published in any form (e.g. in a journal, as a chapter in an edited book, or as contribution to a symposium) should be treated in the same way as a chapter in a book (see pg 16). The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name/s. of author(s), editor(s) Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a comma) and Month. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Name of Conference, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Name of Conference Paper presented at the 5. Place of conference. (followed by a full stop)

For an unpublished paper Bonita, R. (2000, May 8-10). World Health Organisation mandate for women and heart diseases. Paper presented at the International Conference on Women, Heart Diseases and Stroke, Victoria, Canada.

19

Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses How to reference a Thesis


NB: The American equivalent of a masters thesis is a doctoral dissertation The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name/s. of author(s), editor(s) Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Name of University, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Name of University Unpublished masters thesis OR if from an American University - Unpublished doctoral dissertation 5. City, (followed by a comma) State, (followed by a comma) Country. (followed by a full stop)

Unpublished Thesis Grayson, S. J. (2001). Nursing management of the rheumatic fever secondary prophylaxis programme. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. OR Spernak, S. M. (2001). The impact of constructive thinking and doctor-patient relations on cardiac patient adherence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC. NB: If you are using EndNote select the Reference type Thesis. You will need to type the following text into the Thesis Type field - either masters thesis or doctoral dissertation.

How to reference a Personal Communication


Personal communications are not included in the reference list. See page 8 for in-text citation details.

20

How to reference Lecture Notes


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name. of lecturer(s). - Surname, (comma) Initial(s). (full stop) 2. Year, Month Day. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of lecture. (followed by a full stop) 4. Insert the following text after the title Unpublished lecture notes, (followed by a comma) 5. Name of University, (followed by a comma) 6. City, (followed by a comma) Country. (followed by a full stop) Sheridan, N. (2007, February 27). Primary health care patterns in New Zealand. Unpublished lecture notes, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. NB: If the lecture does not have a title, provide a brief description of the lecture material within square brackets (not in italics).

How to reference Video Recording, Motion Pictures and Television Series


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Producer/s. of video Surname, (comma) Initial(s). (full stop) Insert the following text after producers name (Producer), followed by a comma and then an ampersand & 2. Director/s. of video Surname, (comma) Initial(s). (full stop) Insert the following text after directors name (Director). (followed by a full stop) 3. (Year). of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 4. Title. of video in italics Insert the following text after Title of video [Motion picture]. NB. Use square brackets (followed by a full stop) 7. Country of origin: (followed by a colon) 8. Studio or distributor. (followed by a full stop)

Video or motion picture with international or national availability


Roston, J. (Producer), & Haberman, I. (Director). (1987). Physical examination of the musculoskeletal system: Program 2: Foot and ankle [Motion picture]. Park Ridge, Ill: The Academy. NB: If video recording or movie is not available for wide distribution, provide the distributors name and complete address in parentheses at the end of the reference.

21

Video or motion picture or with limited availability


Roberts, H. (Producer). (1993). Breast examination [Motion picture]. (Available from University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand).

Motion picture (movie/film) with international or national availability


Shadyac, T. & M. G. Williams (Producers), & Shadyac, T. (Director). (1998). Patch Adams [Motion picture]. Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures. NB: If video recording or movie is not available for wide distribution, provide the distributors name and complete address in parentheses at the end of the reference.

Television broadcast
Mori Television (Producer). (2006, September 1). Te kea: News [Television broadcast]. Auckland, New Zealand: Mori Television.

Television series
Bennett, S. (Producer). (1992). Shortland Street [Television series]. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures.

Single episode from a television series


Booton, L. (Writer), & Bennett, S. (Director). (2007). Episode 16.101 [Television series episode]. In S. Bennett (Producer), Shortland Street. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. OR Crichton, M. & Maser, K. (Writers), & Innes, L. (Director). (2006). Tell me no secrets [Television series episode]. In M. Crichton & J. Wells (Producers), ER. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Television.

22

Electronic Media
NB: There are new rules just released which have not been implemented into this section please check the APA style guide to electronic references by doing a title search in Voyager
There is a variety of material available on the web and this can present challenges when referencing these sources. Two key guidelines to follow when referencing electronic media are: 1. Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited whenever possible reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages 2. Provide addresses (URL) that actually work

How to reference a Web Page


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of web page Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of web page in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Date Retrieved Month Day, (followed by a comma) Year, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month - Retrieved 5. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL from (dependent on type of webpage)

Stand alone Webpage (no author, no date)


Te Kaunihera O Nga Neehi Maori O Aotearoa [National Council of Maori Nurses]. (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006, from http://www.healthsite.co.nz/hauora_maori/ncmn/in dex.html

How to reference part/section of a Web Page


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of section of web page Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of section of web page. (followed by a full stop) 4. Title. Of web page in italics. (followed by a full stop) Insert the following text before Title - In 5. Date Retrieved Month Day, (followed by a comma) Year, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month - Retrieved 6. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL from (dependent on type of webpage)

23

Part/section of a webpage
Schrader, B. (n.d.). Building families. In We call it home: A history of state housing in New Zealand. Retrieved June 24, 2004, from http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/Gallery/housing/ family.html

How to reference an Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation (Intranet not Internet)


Note: The Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation example below has been provided by Philson Library Staff, following APA principles, as APA 5th ed. does not provide any exact examples for this type of publication. Also, the MS Word formatting adds a carriage return before the URL whereas APA have a simple space. The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of electronic publication Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Date Retrieved - Month Day, (followed by a comma) Year, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month Retrieved 5. (Location of Publication) In parentheses insert Available from the (host organisation and the relevant programme or department)- followed by the web address (url) 6. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL Web site: (dependent on type of webpage)

Auckland District Health Board. (2002, September) Cytotoxic therapy administration. Retrieved May 1, 2007 (Available from the Auckland District Health Board, Polices and Procedures Web site: http://adhbintranet/ADHB%5FPolicies%5Fand%5FProcedures/Clin ical/ADHB_Board/cytotoxic_therapy_administration.htm)

How to reference an Electronic Journal article


The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of article Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of article. (followed by a full stop) 4. Journal title, in italics (followed by a comma) NB. Journal Title must be in full 5. Volume number, in italics (followed by a comma if no issue number is given)

24

6. Issue/part number, in parentheses only needed if issues are individually paginated (followed by a comma) 7. Page Numbers of article (followed by a full stop) NB: If no page numbers given disregard 8. Date Retrieved Month Day, (followed by a comma) Year, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month - Retrieved 9. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL from

Electronic journal Internet Only


Klenk, K., Snow, J., Morgan, K., Bowen, R., Stephens, M., Foster, F., et al. (2004, December). Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12). Retrieved November 25, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/04-0264.htm

NB: For an Internet article based on a print source see APA Manual pg 271

How to reference a Cochrane Review


Note: The Cochrane examples below have been provided by Philson Library Staff, following APA principles, as APA 5th ed. does not provide any exact examples for Cochrane Databases. The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Author/s. of article Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Updated Date. of review in parentheses. Month Day, (comma) Year. (followed by a full stop) Insert the following text before Month Updated. NB: Use Date of Most Recent Update from the review. 3. Title. of article. 4. Type. of article in square brackets. (followed by a full stop) NB: Insert the following text [Cochrane Review] or [Cochrane Protocol]. 5. Database name, in italics (followed by a comma) NB. Insert following text - In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6. Year of database (followed by a space) 7. Issue/volume. in parentheses (followed by a full stop). 8. Date Retrieved - Month Day, (followed by a comma) Year, (followed by a comma), Insert the following text before Month Retrieved 9. Software Provider. (followed by a full stop). NB: Insert following text from Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. OR from The Cochrane Library, Wiley Interscience.

25

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid version)


Sultana, A., Reilly, J., & Fenton, M. (Updated February 25, 2003). Thioridazine for schizophrenia. [Cochrane Review]. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2004 (4). Retrieved February 5, 2005, from Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

The Cochrane Library, Wiley Interscience


Bunn, F., Byrne, G., & Kendall, S. (Updated March 22, 2004). Telephone consultation and triage: effects on health care use and patient satisfaction. [Cochrane Review]. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005 (1). Retrieved February 11, 2005, from The Cochrane Library, Wiley Interscience.

How to reference an electronic book retrieved from a database e.g. Books@Ovid, Ebrary, netLibrary
The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Name/s. of author(s), editor(s) Surname,(comma) Initial(s).(full stop) 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) 3. Title. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 4. Edition. (in parentheses) if other than the first edition (followed by a full stop) NB: edition always abbreviated to ed. 5. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 6. Publisher. (followed by a full stop) 7. Date Retrieved, Month Day, (followed by a comma) Year, (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before month Retrieved 8. Software Provider. (followed by a full stop) NB: Insert the following text from Books@Ovid database OR from netLibrary database OR from Ebrary database.

Electronic book retrieved from a database


Morris, P. J., & Wood, W. C. (2000). Oxford Textbook of Surgery (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 1, 2004, from Books@Ovid database.

Electronic book retrieved from a library catalogue


Shaw, K. M., & Cummings, M. H. (Eds.), (2006). Diabetes: Chronic complications (2nd ed.). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved March 1, 2007, from University of Auckland Library Catalogue, Wiley Interscience: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/cgi-bin/bookhome/112510904?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

26

Legal Material How to reference an Act


The following are some general guidelines for referencing acts both in the text of your document and in your reference list. The details needed to reference an Act will vary according to the country from where the Act originates. Consult with your subject librarian. Note: According to the APA manual p. 403 you do not need to italicize the name of the Act in either the reference list or in text.

In text
According to the Misuse of Drugs Act of 1975 it was. OR .. particular class of specified drug offence (Misuse of Drugs Act, 1975).

Reference
Basic Details required are: 1. Title of the Act,(followed by a comma) 2. Volume (followed by a space) NB: Number assigned to the Act 3. Source. (full stop) (followed by a space) NB: Abbreviate source, normally includes the country where the Act originates from 4. number (followed by a space) NB: You will need to copy and paste the section number symbol from the Character Map (this is located under your Accessories Menu). NB: The number is only required when you are not referencing the whole act. 5. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop)

Whole Act Misuse of Drugs Act, 116 Stat. N.Z. (1975). OR Human Rights Act, c.42 U.K. (1998). OR Section of an Act Crimes Act, 43 Stat. N.Z. 267 (1961). Other Country Codes: Australia Austl. England Eng. Great Britain Gr. Brit. United Kingdom U.K. United States of America U.S. For states within Australia and the U.S. consult your subject librarian for the abbreviated code.

27

Quick Guide to APA Referencing


TYPE Journal Articles
One Author Two Authors Three Six Authors Neugroschl, J. (2002). Agitation: How to manage behaviour disturbances in the older patient with p. 14 dementia. Geriatrics, 57(4), 33-37. Hughes, E., & Rodgers, J. (1999). Changing times in diabetes care. Diabetes Primary Care, 1(1), 4. knee arthroscopy: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Arthroscopy, 20, 813818. More than Six Authors Cohet, C., Cheng, S., MacDonald, C., Baker, M., Foliaki, S., Huntington, N., et al. (2004). Infections, p. 14 medication use, and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in childhood. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 58, 852-857 Journal supplements Roose, S. P. (2000). Considerations for the use of antidepressants in patients with cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal, 140(4 Suppl.), S84-S88. OR Stjernholm, C. (2003). Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery. Acta Radiologica - Supplementum, 44(Suppl. 430), 2-15. Journal article in press Alonso, S., Geys, H., Molenberghs, G., & Kenward, M. G. (in press). Validation of surrogate markers in p. 15 multiple randomized clinical trials with repeated measurements. Biometrics. p. 15 p. 14 Ilan, D. I., Liporace, F. A., Rosen, J., & Cannavo, D. (2004). Efficacy of rofecoxib for pain control after p. 14

EXAMPLE

FOR MORE DETAILS SEE

Magazine Article

Allan, B. (2004, March). The food fight. Consumer, 438, 8-11. OR Fleming, D. (2004, March 8). Cutting back on obesity. New Zealand Woman's Weekly, 95-96. Brooker, M. (2003, July 14). Meningitis scare swamps hospital. The Press, p. A1.

p. 15

Newspaper Article Books


Single author Single editor Two authors Corporate Author

p. 16

Durie, M. (2001). Mauri ora: The dynamics of Maori health. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University p. 16 Press. Perl, A. (Ed.). (2004). Autoimmunity: Methods and protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. Philadelphia: Lippincott. New Zealand Occupational Safety & Health Service. (1996). Approved code of practice for the p. 17 management of noise in the workplace. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Labour, Occupational Safety & Health Service. p. 16 Polit-O'Hara, D., & Hungler, B. P. (1999). Nursing research: Principles and methods (6th ed.). p. 16

Author/Publisher are Identical No author/editor

New Zealand Ministry of Health. (2004). Guideline for specialist health services for older people. p. 17 Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Australian medicines handbook: AMH. (2004). Adelaide, South Australia: Australian Medicines p. 17 Handbook. Diabetes New Zealand. (2003). Cardiovascular risk and diabetes [Brochure]. Wellington, New Zealand: p. 17 Author.

Brochure

Book Chapter
Chapter in an edited book Walker & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child psychology (3rd ed., pp. 757-775). New York: Wiley. Chapter in an unedited book Cook, S. (2007). Palliative care of the elderly. In Palliative care (pp. 23-45). New York: Blackwell. 826). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

p. 18 Brown, S. A., Aarons, G. A., & Abrantes, A. M. (2001). Adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. In C. E. p. 187

p. 18

Entry in Encyclopaedia/Dictionary Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source Technical Reports

Hordeolum. (2002). In D. M. Anderson (Ed.), Mosby's medical, nursing, & allied health dictionary (p. p. 18 p. 7 Eagle, L., Bulmer, S., & Hawkins, J. (2003). The 'obesity epidemic': Complex causes, controversial cures: p. 19 Implications for marketing communication (Tech. Rep. No. 03.03.). Auckland, New Zealand: Massey University at Albany, Department of Commerce. Bonita, R. (2000, May 8-10). World Health Organisation mandate for women and heart diseases. Paper p. 19 presented at the International Conference on Women, Heart Diseases and Stroke, Victoria, Canada. Grayson, S. J. (2001). Nursing management of the rheumatic fever secondary prophylaxis programme. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. OR Spernak, S. M. (2001). The impact of constructive thinking and doctor-patient relations on cardiac patient adherence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC. p. 8 p. 20

Conference Proceeding Thesis

Personal Communication

Lecture Notes Video Recording, Motion Pictures and Television


Video or motion picture with international or national availability Video or motion picture with limited availability Motion picture (movie/film) with international or nation availability Television broadcast Television series Single episode from a television series

Sheridan, N. (2007, February 27). Primary health care patterns in New Zealand. Unpublished lecture notes, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

p. 21 pp. 21-22

Roston, J. (Producer), & Haberman, I. (Director). (1987). Physical examination of the musculoskeletal system: Program 2: Foot and ankle [Motion picture]. Park Ridge, Ill: The Academy. Roberts, H. (Producer). (1993). Breast examination [Motion picture]. (Available from University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand). Shadyac, T. & M. G. Williams (Producers), & Shadyac, T. (Director). (1998). Patch Adams [Motion picture]. Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures. Mori Television (Producer). (2006, September 1). Te kea: News [Television broadcast]. Auckland, New Zealand: Mori Television. Bennett, S. (Producer). (1992). Shortland Street [Television series]. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. Booton, L. (Writer), & Bennett, S. (Director). (2007). Episode 16.101 [Television series episode]. In S. Bennett (Producer), Shortland Street. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. OR Crichton, M. & Maser, K. (Writers), & Innes, L. (Director). (2006). Tell me no secrets [Television series episode]. In M. Crichton & J. Wells (Producers), ER. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Television.

p. 21

p. 22 p. 22 p. 22 p. 22 p. 22

Electronic Media Webpages


Stand alone Webpage (no author, no date) Part/section of a webpage Te Kaunihera O Nga Neehi Maori O Aotearoa [National Council of Maori Nurses]. (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006, from http://www.healthsite.co.nz/hauora_maori/ncmn/index.html Schrader, B. (n.d.). Building families. In We call it home: A history of state housing in New Zealand. Retrieved June 24, 2004, from http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/Gallery/housing/family.html Auckland District Health Board. (2002, September) Cytotoxic therapy administration. Retrieved May 1, 2007 (Available from the Auckland District Health Board, Polices and Procedures Web site: http://adhbintranet/ADHB%5FPolicies%5Fand%5FProcedures/Clinical/ADHB_Board/cytotoxic_th erapy_administration.htm) Klenk, K., Snow, J., Morgan, K., Bowen, R., Stephens, M., Foster, F., et al. (2004, December). Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(12). Retrieved November 25, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/04-0264.htm

pp. 23-26 pp. 23-24 p. 23 pp. 23-24 p. 24

Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation (Intranet not Internet)

Electronic journal Internet Only

p. 24-25

Cochrane Review
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid version) Sultana, A., Reilly, J., & Fenton, M. (Updated February 25, 2003). Thioridazine for schizophrenia. [Cochrane Review]. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2004 (4). Retrieved February 5, 2005, from Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Library, Wiley Interscience Bunn, F., Byrne, G., & Kendall, S. (Updated March 22, 2004). Telephone consultation and triage: effects on health care use and patient satisfaction. [Cochrane Review]. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005 (1). Retrieved February 11, 2005, from The Cochrane Library, Wiley Interscience.

pp. 25-26 p. 26

p. 26

Electronic Books
Electronic Book retrieved from a database Electronic book retrieved from a library catalogue Morris, P. J., & Wood, W. C. (2000). Oxford Textbook of Surgery (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 1, 2004, from Books@Ovid database. Shaw, K. M., & Cummings, M. H. (Eds.), (2006). Diabetes: Chronic complications (2nd ed.). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved March 1, 2007, from University of Auckland Library Catalogue, Wiley Interscience: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/cgibin/bookhome/112510904?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

p. 26 p. 26 p. 26

Legal Material
Act in text Whole Act Misuse of Drugs Act, 116 Stat. N.Z. (1975). OR Human Rights Act, c.42 U.K. (1998). Section of an Act Crimes Act, 43 Stat. N.Z. 267 (1961).

p. 27 p. 27 p. 27

p. 27

REPORTING STATISTICS APA STYLE Mean and Standard Deviation are most clearly presented in parentheses: The sample as a whole was relatively young (M = 19.22, SD = 3.45). The average age of students was 19.22 years (SD = 3.45). Percentages are also most clearly displayed in parentheses with no decimal places: Nearly half (49%) of the sample was married. Chi-Square statistics are reported with degrees of freedom and sample size in parentheses, the Pearson chi-square value (rounded to two decimal places), and the significance level: The percentage of participants that were married did not differ by gender, 2(1, N = 90) = 0.89, p > .05. T Tests are reported like chi-squares, but only the degrees of freedom are in parentheses. Following that, report the t statistic (rounded to two decimal places) and the significance level. There was a significant effect for gender, t(54) = 5.43, p < .001, with men receiving higher scores than women. ANOVAs (both one-way and two-way) are reported like the t test, but there are two degrees-offreedom numbers to report. First report the between-groups degrees of freedom, then report the within-groups degrees of freedom (separated by a comma). After that report the F statistic (rounded off to two decimal places) and the significance level. There was a significant main effect for treatment, F(1, 145) = 5.43, p < .01, and a significant interaction, F(2, 145) = 3.13, p < .05. Correlations are reported with the degrees of freedom (which is N-2) in parentheses and the significance level: The two variables were strongly correlated, r(55) = .49, p < .01. Regression results are often best presented in a table. APA doesn't say much about how to report regression results in the text, but if you would like to report the regression in the text of your Results section, you should at least present the standardized slope (beta) along with the t-test and the corresponding significance level. (Degrees of freedom for the t-test is N-k-1 where k equals the number of predictor variables.) It is also customary to report the percentage of variance explained along with the corresponding F test. Social support significantly predicted depression scores, = -.34, t(225) = 6.53, p < .01. Social support also explained a significant proportion of variance in depression scores, R2 = .12, F(1, 225) = 42.64, p < .01.

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Psychology Writing Center 3937 15th Avenue NE Box 351525

Phone: 206.685.8278 psywc@u.washington.edu http://depts.washington.edu/psywc/handouts.shtml

Reporting Results of Common Statistical Tests in APA Format


The goal of the results section in an empirical paper is to report the results of the data analysis used to test a hypothesis. The results section should be in condensed format and lacking interpretation. Avoid discussing why or how the experiment was performed or alluding to whether your results are good or bad, expected or unexpected, interesting or uninteresting. This document is specifically about how to report statistical results. Refer to our handout, Writing an APA Style Empirical Paper, for details on writing a results section (http://depts.washington.edu/psywc/handouts/pdf/APApaper.pdf) Every statistical test that you report should relate directly to a hypothesis. Begin the results section by restating each hypothesis, then state whether your results supported it, then give the data and statistics that allowed you to draw this conclusion. If you have multiple numerical results to report, its often a good idea to present them in a figure (graph) or a table (see APA Table Guidelines. http://depts.washington.edu/psywc/handouts/pdf/tables.pdf). In reporting the results of statistical tests, report the descriptive statistics, such as means and standard deviations, as well as the test statistic, degrees of freedom, obtained value of the test, and the probability of the result occurring by chance (p value). Test statistics and p values should be rounded to two decimal places. All statistical symbols that are not Greek letters should be italicized (M, SD, t, p, etc.). When reporting a significant difference between two conditions, indicate the direction of this difference, i.e. which condition was more/less/higher/lower than the other condition(s). Assume that your audience has a professional knowledge of statistics. Dont explain how or why you used a certain test unless it is unusual. p values There are two ways to report p values. One way is to use the alpha level (the a priori criterion for the probablility of falsely rejecting your null hypothesis), which is typically .05 or .01. Example: F(1, 24) = 44.4, p < .01. You may also report the exact p value (the a posteriori probability that the result that you obtained, or one more extreme, occurred by chance). Example: t(33) = 2.10, p = .03. If your exact p value is less than .001, it is conventional to state merely p<.001. If you report exact p values, state early in the results section the alpha level used as a significance criterion for your tests. Example: We used an alpha level of .05 for all statistical tests. EXAMPLES Reporting a significant single sample t-test ( 0): Students taking statistics courses in psychology at the University of Washington reported studying more hours for tests (M = 121, SD = 14.2) than did UW college students in in general, t(33) = 2.10, p = .034. Reporting a significant t-test for dependent groups (1 2): Results indicate a significant preference for pecan pie (M = 3.45, SD = 1.11) over cherry pie (M = 3.00, SD = .80), t(15) = 4.00, p = .001. Reporting a significant t-test for independent groups (1 2): UW students taking statistics courses in Psychology had higher IQ scores (M = 121, SD = 14.2) than did those
Copyright 1997-2005 University of Washington 4/6/05 stats.pdf

taking statistics courses in Statistics (M = 117, SD = 10.3), t(44) = 1.23, p = .09. Over a two-day period, participants drank significantly fewer drinks in the experimental group (M= 0.667, SD = 1.15) than did those in the wait-list control group (M= 8.00, SD= 2.00), t(4) = -5.51, p=.005. Reporting a significant omnibus F test for a one-way ANOVA: An analysis of variance showed that the effect of noise was significant, F(3,27) = 5.94, p = .007. Post hoc analyses using the Scheff post hoc criterion for significance indicated that the average number of errors was significantly lower in the white noise condition (M = 12.4, SD = 2.26) than in the other two noise conditions (traffic and industrial) combined (M = 13.62, SD = 5.56), F(3, 27) = 7.77, p = .042. Reporting tests of a priori hypotheses in a multi-group study: Tests of the four a priori hypotheses were conducted using Bonferroni adjusted alpha levels of .0125 per test (.05/4). Results indicated that the average number of errors was significantly lower in the silence condition (M = 8.11, SD = 4.32) than were those in both the white noise condition (M = 12.4, SD = 2.26), F(1, 27) = 8.90, p = .011 and in the industrial noise condition (M = 15.28, SD = 3.30), F (1, 27) = 10.22, p = .007. The pairwise comparison of the traffic noise condition with the silence condition was non-significant. The average number of errors in all noise conditions combined (M = 15.2, SD = 6.32) was significantly higher than those in the silence condition (M = 8.11, SD = 3.30), F(1, 27) = 8.66, p = .009. Reporting results of major tests in factorial ANOVA; non-significant interaction: Attitude change scores were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance having two levels of message discrepancy (small, large) and two levels of source expertise (high, low). All effects were statistically significant at the .05 significance level. The main effect of message discrepancy yielded an F ratio of F(1, 24) = 44.4, p < .001, indicating that the mean change score was significantly greater for large-discrepancy messages (M = 4.78, SD = 1.99) than for smalldiscrepancy messages (M = 2.17, SD = 1.25). The main effect of source expertise yielded an F ratio of F(1, 24) = 25.4, p < .01, indicating that the mean change score was significantly higher in the high-expertise message source (M = 5.49, SD = 2.25) than in the low-expertise message source (M = 0.88, SD = 1.21). The interaction effect was non-significant, F(1, 24) = 1.22, p > .05. Reporting results of major tests in factorial ANOVA; non-significant interaction: A two-way analysis of variance yielded a main effect for the diners gender, F(1,108) = 3.93, p < .05, such that the average tip was significantly higher for men (M = 15.3%, SD = 4.44) than for women (M = 12.6%, SD = 6.18). The main effect of touch was non-significant, F(1, 108) = 2.24, p > .05. However, the interaction effect was significant, F(1, 108) = 5.55, p < .05, indicating that the gender effect was greater in the touch condition than in the non-touch condition. Reporting the results of a chi-square test of independence: A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the relation between religion and college interest. The relation between these variables was significant, X2 (2, N = 170) = 14.14, p <.01. Catholic teens were less likely to show an interest in attending college than were Protestant teens. Reporting the results of a chi-square test of goodness of fit: A chi-square test of goodness-of-fit was performed to determine whether the three sodas were equally preferred. Preference for the three sodas was not equally distributed in the population, X2 (2, N = 55) = 4.53, p < .05. Thanks to Laura Little, Ph.D., UW Department of Psychology, for providing the examples reported here.

4/6/05

stats.pdf