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The Gases and Their

. Navi trasportatori di gas
 Gas Carriers carry gas in liquefatto trasporto in liquidi
a liquefied form. This is
the liquid state of forma Questo è stato liquido di
substances that under sostanze che, ai sensi 'normale'
'normal' conditions would condizioni sarebbe gassosi. La
be gaseous. Most
liquefied gases are maggior parte dei gas liquefatti
hydrocarbons, which is sono idrocarburi, che è il nome
the collective name for a collettivo di un gruppo di
group of organic
substances that are sostanze organiche che sono
made up of molecules of costituiti da molecole di
hydrogen and carbon.
idrogeno e carbonio
 Understanding the nature
and behaviour of
hydrocarbons, both in
liquid and gaseous form, Comprensione della natura e
is critical to their safe del comportamento degli
carriage. This idrocarburi, sia in liquidi e
presentation will describe gassosi forma, è fondamentale
the important per il loro trasporto sicuro.
characteristics and their Questo presentazione descrive
implications. le caratteristiche e le loro
The International Maritime  L'Organizzazione
Organization (IMO), for the marittima internazionale
purposes of its Gas Carrier (IMO), in sua Gasiera
Codes, defines liquefied Codici, IGC definisce gas
gases carried at sea as: liquefatto trasportato in
'Liquids with a vapour mare come:
pressure exceeding 2.8 'Liquidi con una
bar absolute at a pressione di vapore
temperature of 37.8°C” superiore a 2,8 bar
assoluto ad una
temperatura di 37,8 ° C
Liquefied gases are Gas liquefatti sono divisi
divided into three in tre categorie:
categories:  GPL - o gas di
 LPG - or Liquefied petrolio liquefatto
Petroleum Gases  GNL - o di gas
 LNG - or Liquefied naturale liquefatto
Natural Gases  LCG- o gas chimica
 LCG Chemical Gases liquefatto
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)/
Gas di petrolio liquefatto (GPL)
LPG covers GPL copre
 propane,  propano,
 butane or  butano o
 butane/ propane  butano / propano
mixtures miscele
 The two main sources  Le due principali fonti
of LPG are: di GPL sono:

1. From processing the 1. La trasformazione

wet natural gas that is da bagnato gas
retrieved from gas or naturale che viene
oil fields. recuperato da gas o
petrolio campi
2. By fractionation of  2. Di frazionamento del
crude oil at petroleum petrolio a raffinerie .
refineries. LPG is one GPL è uno dei
of the by-products of sottoprodotti del
the crude oil distillation petrolio processo di
process. Before distillazione. Prima di
shipping, LPG must be spedire, il GPL deve
purified by removing essere purificato,
any sour sulphur eliminando qualsiasi
compounds and then zolfo e quindi di
drying the gas. essiccazione del gas.
Liquefied Natural Gas
 LNG is a naturally occurring mixture of
hydrocarbons that are liquefied under high
pressure and at a low temperature. Its
composition is between 80% to 99% methane
and 1% to 17% ethane, the balance comprising
a mixture of propane, butane, pentane and
Liquefied Chemical
 discuss chemical gases that possess similar
physical properties to LPG and that are
transported in bulk by gas carriers.
 The most important of these "chemical"
products are anhydrous ammonia, ethylene,
vinyl chloride and butadiene.
Chemical Properties of the Gases
 Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon
and hydrogen and are amongst the most
important organic compounds
 All hydrocarbons contain a carbon
'backbone', which may be straight, branched
or even form a ring. The hydrogen atoms
are attached to that backbone in varying
 Many chemical compounds, and especially
hydrocarbons, can exist in different
geometric configurations. Some compounds
can have the same molecular formula but be
linked together in different ways. A structural
formula allows us to show the arrangements
of atoms in a way that a chemical formula
Structural Formulae
 An important concept before we begin to
look at the structure is the 'valence', also
known as valency or valency number,
which is a measure of the number of
chemical bonds (arms) formed by the atoms
of an element.

 Methane is the first member of the series of
hydrocarbon compounds where all valencies
(arms) are used to the greatest combining power.
Each of these compounds is said to be saturated
and they are known as Alkanes.
 They are sometimes given the alternative name of

 Alkanes generally show a lower reactivity because
their C-H and C-C bonds are relatively stable and
cannot be easily broken. Alkanes are both
important raw materials of the chemical industry
and also the most important fuels of the world
 The general molecular formula of an Alkane is:
 CnH(2n+2)
 (where 'n; is the number of atoms).
State of alkanes
 Methane  CH4 Gas
 Ethane  C2H6 Gas
 Propane  C3H8 Gas
 Butane  C4H10 Gas
 Pentanes  C5H12 Liquid
 Hexanes  C6H14 Liquid
 The atoms in alkanes with four or more
carbon atoms can be arranged in multiple
ways to form different isomers, which are
molecules that contain the same number
and kind of atoms but have a different
structure. "Normal" alkanes have a linear,

Butane isomers
 Methane and ethane are the main
components of natural gas; they are normally
stored as gases under pressure. However, it
is easier to transport them as liquids,
although this requires both compression and
cooling of the gas. Propane and butane can
be liquefied at fairly low pressures, and are
well known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
 All of the gases are flammable and will burn
in air and/or oxygen to produce heat, carbon
dioxide and water vapors Because they are
relatively non-reactive they do not present
chemical compatibility problems with the
materials commonly used in handling
although, in the presence of moisture, the
saturated hydrocarbons may form hydrates.
 Because saturated hydrocarbons are
colourless and odourless in their natural
state, a harmless, non-toxic chemical called
a mercaptan is added to make it easier to
detect. Mercaptans contain sulphur and in a
concentrated form the smell is almost
unbearable. It takes only a few parts per
million to give natural gas a smell and the
process is referred to as "stenching".
Alkenes and Alkynes
 Structure wich double bonds occur between
2 carbon atoms, such as in the ethene
(ethytene) example, and where triple bonds
occur, such as in ethyne (acetylene), the
carbon is called "unsaturated". These
structures belong to hydrocarbon alkene
and alkyne groups.

 Alkenes are sometimes referred to as

 The general formula for alkenes is CnH2n.
 The first stable member of the series is
ethylene or ethene {C2H4).
 The physical properties of alkenes are comparable
with alkanes. The physical state depends on
molecular mass and the simplest alkenes, such as
ethylene, propylene and butylenes, are gases at
normal temperature.
 Linear alkenes of approximately five to sixteen
carbons are liquids, and higher alkenes are waxy
 Alkenes are relatively stable compounds, but are
more reactive than alkanes.
 The alkynes are traditionally known as acetylenes,
although the name acetylene is also used to refer
to the simplest member of the series, known
officially as ethyne.
 The general formula for alkynes is CnHn.
 Unlike alkanes, alkynes are unstable and very
reactive. This gives rise to the intense heat
(>3000°C) of the acetylene flame in conjunction
with oxygen as oxyacetylene, which is used for
cutting steel.
Physical Properties of the
Physical Properties of the Gases
Liquefied Gas Boiling Point Critical Cntical Condensing Liquid Relative STP Vapour
(C) Tempratu Pressure Ratio Density Relative
re (kg/cm p) (H20=1) Density
(Air = 1)

Methane -161.5 -82.5 45.6 0.804 0.474 0.554

Ethane -88.6 32.1 49.8 2.453 0.548 1.048
Propane -42.3 96.8 43.4 3.38 0.583 1.55
n-Butane -0.5 153 38.8 4.32 0.603 2.09
i-Butane -11.7 133.7 38.9 4.36 0.596 2.07
Ethylene -103.9 9.90 51.5 2.20 0.570 0.975
Propylene -47.7 92.1 46.5 3.08 0.613 1.48
a-Butylene -6.1 146.4 39.7 4.01 0.624 1.94
-y-Butylene -6.9 144.7 39.5 4.00 0.627 1.94
Butadiene -5.0 161.8 44.0 3.81 0.647 1.88
VCM -13.8 158.4 53.9 2.87 0.965 2.15
Ethylene Oxide 10.73 195.7 75.8 2.13 0.896 1.52
Propylene Oxide 34.2 209.1 48.6 0.830 2.00

Ammonia -33.4 132.4 115.2 1.12 0.683 0.597

Chlorine -34 144 78.6 2.03 1.56 2.49
States of Matter
 To understand how the gases become
liquefied and the impact of this on
containment and handling, we need to go
back to some basic definitions and
 A change of state from liquid to vapour at
constant temperature also requires the input
of energy, called the latent heat of
vapourisation (or standard enthalpy
change of vapourisation). This implies that
while a liquid undergoes a change to the
vapour state at the normal boiling point, the
temperature of the liquid will not rise
Gases - Properties and
Gas has three quantities –
1. volume, V
2. Temperature T
3. pressure, P
all of which may change
Boyles Law

 The relationship
between volume and
pressure at constant
pV = constant
In other words, as the
pressure increases,
the volume decreases
Charles' Law
 Says that for a fixed
amount of gas (fixed
number of moles) at a
fixed pressure, the
volume is proportional to
the temperature.
 V/T = constant
 In other words, as the
temperature increases,
the volume increases.
(When you heat a balloon
the volume of the balloon
goes up.)
Gay-Lussac's Law
 Gay-Lussac's Law
says that for a fixed
amount of gas (fixed
number of moles) at a
fixed volume, the
pressure is
proportional to the
 p/T = constant
Some definitions of terms
 Absolute temperature
 is the fundamental temperature scale used in
theoretical physics and chemistry and in certain
engineering calculations. Absolute temperatures
are expressed either in degrees Kelvin or degrees
Rankine corresponding respectively to the Celsius
and Fahrenheit temperature scales. To convert a
Celsius temperature, if above 0°C, to Kelvin add
273; if below 0°C subtract the Celsius temperature
from 273. Similarly to convert a Fahrenheit
temperature to Rankine add or subtract 460 as
 Absolute zero
 is the temperature at which the volume of a gas
theoretically becomes zero and all thermal motion
ceases. Generally accepted as being -273.16°C or
 Boiling point
 is the temperature of a liquid at which its vapour
pressure is equal to or very slightly greater than
the atmospheric pressure of the environment. For
water at sea level it is 100°C.
 Bubble point
 of a liquid mixture at a given pressure is defined
as that temperature at which the liquid will begin to
boil on rising temperature
 Dew point
 of a vapour mixture at a given pressure is defined
as the temperature at which the vapour begins to
condense as the temperature decreases. For a
liquid mixture in equilibrium with its vapour, the
bubble point and the dew point are at different
 Boil Off
 is the vapour produced above a cargo liquid
surface due to evaporation caused by the
heat flow through the cargo tank insulation.
 Reliquefaction
 Converting cargo boil-off vapour back into a
liquid by increasing the pressure or reducing
the temperature and/or both (e.g. steam
 Viscosity
 The viscosity of an oil is its resistance to
flow. High viscosity oils flow with difficulty
whilst those with low viscosity are highly
mobile. Viscosities decrease with increasing
temperature and so seawater temperature
and absorption of heat from the sun are
important considerations