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n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t

ng
Li ta
in nng l loi hnh nng lng ph bin nht trong
mi hot ng ca i sng v cng nghip ngy nay.
C rt nhiu dng v ngun in nng khc nhau nh:
- Li in xoay chiu
- My pht in xoay chiu.
- My pht in mt chiu.
- Ngun in mt chiu chnh lu t ngun xoay chiu.
- Ngun in mt chiu t acquy.
Cc ngun in trn c th thay th v b xung cho
nhau. Tuy nhin trong mt s trng hp th bt buc
phi dng ngun in trc tip hay thay th t acquy
nh:
Trong bnh vin vic cung cp in cho nhiu cng
vic khm cha bnh phi m bo lin tc , khng c
php mt in d ch l 1 vi giy nh trong chiu sng
phu thut, cc my th , chy thn, lc mu nhn
to.v.v..
Ngoi ra, ngun in t acquy l ti u cp in
cho nhng ni khng th ni vi ngun in li nh ti cc
gin khoan ngoi bin , cc loi tu bin, cc n tn
hiu ngoi khi.
Trn cc phng tin vn ti nh t, my bay ,xe my.
acquy cng l ngun d tr in nng cho iu khin ,
chiu sng.
Trong h thng thng tin lin lc xa li in, h
thng i hi phi c tin cy cao trong mt s trng
hp nht nh
Cp ngun in iu khin cho cc trm in , nh
my in m bo ngun in iu khin l lin
tc, khng ph thuc vo in li.
Chnh v vy vic nghin cu ch to acquy v ngun
np cho acquy l ht sc cn thit. N nh hng rt ln ti
dung lng v bn ca acquy, cng nh an ton ca
ngun cung cp c bit l i vi nhng cng vic
ht sc quan trng lin quan trc tip ti sc kho v tnh
mng ca con ngi.
Di y em xin trnh by ton b ni dung ca ca
n tt nghip
Thit k b ngun np acquy t ng cho bnh
vin Bch Mai do thy gio TS Trn Vn Thnh hng
dn .
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
1
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Mc d trong thi gian qua em ht sc c gng
tm hiu thc t , nghin cu ti liu thc hin
n. Nhng khng th trnh khi sai st, em mong tip tc
nhn c s ng gp v ch bo ca cc thy.
Em xin by t lng bit n ti s gip nhit tnh
ca thy Trn Vn Thnh , ngi trc tip hng dn em
v ton b cc thy trong b mn Thit b in- in T
ch bo v dy d em trong nhiu nm qua.
H Ni,Ngy 17 thng 5 nm
2004
Hong vn Hin
CHng I
Gii thiu v acquy
v cch np acquy
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
2
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
I.1 Mc ch s dng ca c qui.
I.1.1 Mc ch s dng chung
Ac qui l ngun cung in mt chiu cho cc thit b
in trong cng nghip cng nh trong i sng hng
ngy.
- Cung cp ngun in (mt chiu) cho nhng ni cha
c ngun in li nh cho chiu sng, cho tivi, cho thit
b thng tin lin lc, iu khin, o lng.
- Cung cp nng lng cho cc thit b trn gin khoan
ngoi bin, n ch dn ng v cnh bo trn sng
v bin, tn hiu n ng ray xa li in.
- Cp ngun in iu khin cho cc trm in, nh
my pht in.
- Cp in cho cc thit b giao thng m khng th
trc tip nhn nng lng t li in nh cc dng c
cm tay, my mc thng xuyn phi thay i v tr
nh xe p in, ngun in khi ng, chiu sng
trn xe my, t, tu .v.v.
- Lm ngun d tr nng lng (mt chiu) cung cp
in khi ngun in li mt hoc khng n nh.
I.1.2 Mc ch s dng c qui ti bnh vin Bch
Mai
Vic cung cp in trong y t l cc k quan trng v
n lin quan n sc kho v tnh mng con ngi. Trong
vic khm cha bnh nhiu khi khng c php xy ra
mt in d ch l vi giy, m bo iu ny ng-
i ta phi cp in t ngun in c qui cho cc cng
vic sau:
- Ciu sng cho phu thut.
- Cung cp cho cc my h tr phu thut.
- Cung cp cho mt s loi my chiu chp.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
3
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
- My chy thn nhn to, th my, lc mu.
I.2 Cc chng loi acquy
I.2.1 Cc loi acquy
C cc loi acquy sau:
-Acquy kim (km bc)
-Acquy axt cn gi l acquy ch c dung dch in
phn l dung dch axt sunfuaric 4 2
SO H
v phn
thnh 2 loi:
+Acquy st kn
+Acquy caimi kn
- V mt s loi acquy khc, tuy nhin trong thc t cuc
sng Acquy kim v acquy axt c s dng nhiu
hn c.
I.2.2 Kiu acquy
Trong tng loi acquy ,cn c vo ng dng v dung lng
khc nhau ta chia thnh cc kiu sau.
a/ Kiu c nh
Acquy c nh c lp t trong nh thng c dung l-
ng ln, s dng c lu.
b/ Kiu di ng
c dng thp sng v khi ng ng c trn xe
hi, my bay, xe tng, tu thu, t my pht in di
ng.v.v..v vy phi p ng c nhng yu cu c
bn sau:
Th tch, trng lng nh, dng in phng nht thi ln
v dung dch khng b ng c.
c/ Kiu mang xch
c dng cho cc i v tuyn in di ng, in thoi,
in bo nh.v.v.. v vy phi c trng lng nh , cu
to chc chn.
acquy lu ng thng l acquy caimi-kn.
d/ Acquy cao p
c ghp t nhiu ngn acquy cng loi theo li ghp ni
tip to nn acquy c hiu in th cao. Acquy cao
p thng l acquy ch hay acquy kim loi km hay
caimi-kn ghp li.
I.3 Cc tham s k thut ca acquy
I.3.1 Sc in ng E, n v l Vn
Sc in ng ph thuc vo bn cht ca bn cc
v dung dch in phn. T trng ca dung dch in
phn cng ln th sc in ng ca acquy cng ln ( tuy
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
4
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
nhin t trng ca dung dch khng c cao qu quy
nh).
Mi ngn acquy kim c sc in ng trung bnh l
1,25V
Mi ngn acquy axt c sc in ng trung bnh l
2V
Vi acquy axt sc in ng c tnh bng biu thc:
E 0,85 + ( V )
trong : E - sc in ng tnh ca c qui ( V )
- nng dung dch in phn 15 C
( g/cm
3
)
Ngoi ra c mt s thng s lin quan ti sc in
ng, l in p. in p ca acquy l hiu in th
gia bn cc dng v bn cc m trong trng thi kn
mch ngoi khi acquy c ti.
Sc in ng ca acquy ph thuc vo t trng v
nhit ca dung dch in phn, cn in p ca
acquy ph thuc vo sc in ng , cng dng in
phng np ph thuc vo in tr ti.
Trong qu trnh phng in , in p acquy nh hn
sc in ng ca n mt i lng bng st p trn ni
tr acquy Io*Ro.
Trong qu trnh np in , in p acquy ln hn sc
in ng ca n mt i lng bng st p trn ni tr
acquy Io*Ro.
I.3.2 Ni tr Ro, n v l m ( )
Ni tr l in tr trong ca acquy
Ni tr ca acquy ph thuc vo t trng, bn cc ln
hay nh, tnh cht tm cch in, khong cch gia hai
bn ccv.v
Dung lng cng ln, ni tr cng nh. Nhit , t trng
cng tng ni tr cng nh v vy nn khi np in ni tr
gim theo t trng v nhit tng. Khi phng in ni
tr tng v t trng v nhit gim.
Mi ngn acquy kim c Ro=0,05-1
Mi ngn acquy axt c Ro=0,001-0,0015 khi np y v
Ro=0,02 khi phng in n in p ngng phng
in ca acquy .
Di y l ni tr ca mt s bnh acquy axt c
dung lng khc nhau:
Dung lng(Ah)
Ni tr Ro ()
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
5
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
1-2
10
50
100
1000
5000
10000
15000
0,01-0,04
0,005-0,01
0,025-0,008
0,001-0,0065
0,0002-0,0007
0,00006-0,00002
0,000035-0,0008
0,000001-0,00003
I.3.3 Dung lng
Dung lng l kh nng tch lu nng lng ca acquy , k hiu
l Q n v o l Ah.
C hai loi dung lng:
- Dung lng l thuyt l l lng in nng m acquy
phng in cho ti khi in p bng khng;
- Dung lng s dng l lng in nng m acquy phng
in cho ti in p ngng phng in quy nh.
Dung lng s dng gi l dung lng nh mc ca acquy .
Khi acquy phng vi dng in c nh th dung lng
bng tch s ca dng in phng v thi gian phng.
) Ah ( t . I Q
f f

trong : f
I
l dng in phng: A .
f
t
l thi gian phng :h
Nu dng in phng khng c nh th dung lng
tnh theo cng thc:

t
0
f f
dt . I Q
Dung lng ca acquy dph thuc ch yu vo bn cht,
kch thc v s lng cht tc dng trong bn cc ca
acquy .
I.3.4 Hiu sut
Acquy khng th phng ra ton b in nng hp th
c v c nhng tn tht di y:
- Do tc dng ca in phn thi k cui khi np
in, nc bin thnh xy v hir si bt, tn hao
mt phn in nng.
- Tn hao mt phn in nng v d in v phng
in ni b.
- Khi np in acquy c ni tr nn tiu hao ht mt
phn nng lng .
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
6
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hiu sut ca acquy l t s gia ton b in nng
phng v ton b in nng np. C 2 loi hiu sut;
- Hiu sut dung lng( hiu sut Ampe-gi)
% 100 .
Q
Q
% 100 .
t I
t I
n
f
n n
f f
Ah

acquy axit c =75-80%
acquy kim c =50-60%
- Hiu sut in nng(hiu sut ot)
% 100 .
U
U
% 100 .
U t I
U t I
ntb
ftb
Ah
ntb n n
ftb f f
w

Trong :
f
I
- dng in phng
f
t
- thi gian phng
ftb
U
- in p phng trung bnh
n
I
- dng in np
n
t
- thi gian np
ntb
U
- in p np trung bnh
I.4 cc loi acquy c bn
Thng thng c 2 loi acquy c s dng ph bin
trong thc t l acquy axit v acquy kim c bn cc c
lm bng cc kim loi v hp kim sau:
Axt Kim
Ch Niken-st Bc- Km
Niken-
Caimi
Ant Pb Fe Zn Cd
Catt Pb,PbO2 C,NiOOH Ag,Ag2O2 C,NiOOH
S..{V} 2,0 1,36 1,6 1,3
I.4.1. c im cu to ca acquy axt
Cu trc ca mt c qui n gm c phn cc dng,
phn khi bn cc m, cc tm ngn. Phn khi bn cc
do cc bn cc cng tn ghp li vi nhau.
A/ V
V ca acquy lm bng vt liu cch in, chu c
axit nh cao su luyn, ebnt, g bc tr, thu tinh hoc
cc loi nha ho hc khc.
Trn mt ngn acquy thng c l dung dch, tr cc,
cu ni, mi bnh gm t mt n nhiu ngn.
in p mi ngn acquy axit l 2,0-2,2 V
B/ Bn cc
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
7
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Cu to ca mt bn cc trong c qui gm c phn
khung xng v cht tc dng trt ln n .
C/ Khung xng :
Khung xng ca bn cc m v bn cc dng c cu
to ging nhau, chng c c t ch v c pha thm 5 8
% ng ti moang ( Sb ) v to hnh mt li . Ph gia Sb thm
vo ch s lm tng dn in v ci thin tnh c.
90-92% l ch nguyn cht
8-5% l ng ti moan tng cng
D/ Cht tc dng
Cht tc dng ca bn cc dng trt PbO
2
c mu nu
sm.
Cht tc dng ca bn cc dng trt Pb

c mu nu
xm.
Trong thnh phn cht tc dng cn c thm khong 3
% cht n ( cc mui hu c ) tng xp, bn ca
lp cht tc dng. Nh tng xp m ci thin c
thm su ca cht dung dch in phn vo trong lng
bn cc, ng thi din tch thc t tham gia phn ng
ho hc ca cc bn cc cng c tng thm .
Din tch tip xc gia cc bn cc v dung dch
in phn cng ln cng tt, cng ln dung lng acquy cng
cao.
E/ Nhm bn cc:
S lng cc bn cc trong mi c qui ph thuc vo
in p nh mc v cht liu lm bn cc, b dy tm
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
8
2
3
1. Vu bn cc
2. Cht tc dng
3. Ct bn cc
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
bn cc dng ca c qui thng t 1,2 n 1,5 mm , bn
cc m thng mng hn 0,2 0,3 mm .
i vi c qui cn thit k c in p nh mc 110 V
th s lng bn cc cn l: 50 bn vi c qui dng Pb
90 bn vi c qui dng NiCd
tng dung lng v gim ni tr trong mt bnh
acquy thng c nhiu bn cc dng v m xen k vi nhau.
Phn u ca mi bn cc c vu, cc bn cc dng
ca mi c qui n c hn vi nhau to thnh khi bn
cc dng, cc bn cc m c hn vi nhau thnh khi bn
cc m.
Trong phn ng ho hc nu ch mt bn l cc dng
tham ra th cc l cc mau b hng, v vy cc l cc d-
ng bao gi cng c t gia cc l cc m cho nn s
bn cc m trong c qui thng nhiu hn s bn cc m
mt bn.
G/ Tm ngn:
Tm ngn c b tr gia cc bn cc m v dng c
tc dng ngn cch v trnh va p gia cc bn cc. Tm
ngn c lm bng vt liu poly-vinyl-clo ,g hoc cao su
b dy 0,8 1,2 v c dng ln sng , trn b mt tm
ngn c cc l cho pho dung dch in phn thng qua.
H/ Dung dch in phn
Nhit
15C 20C 25C 30C 35C 40C
Dung dch pha ban
u
1,23
7
1,234 1,23
0
1,22
6
1,21
9
1,21
2
Dung dch ngng
s dng
1,18
7
1,183 1,18
0
1,17
7
1,17
0
1,16
4
I.5 Qu trnh bin i nng lng trong c qui axit .
Acquy l ngun nng lng c tnh cht thun nghch :
n tch tr nng lng di dng ho nng v gii phng nng l-
ng di dng in nng. Qu trnh acquy cp in cho
mch ngoi c gi l qu trnh phng in, qu trnh
acquy d tr nng lng c gi l qu trnh np in.
K hiu ho hc biu din acquy axit c dung dch
in phn l axit H2SO4 nng d 1,1 1,3 % bn cc
m l Pb v bn cc dng l PbO2 c dng :
(- ) Pb |Pb SO
4
|H
2
SO
4
(d 30%)| Pb SO
4
| PbO
2
|
Pb ( + )
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
9
phn
g
Np
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Phng trnh ho hc biu din qu trnh phng np ca
c qui axit :
Ti bn cc dng din ra qu trnh xi ho:
O H PbSO 2 e 4 H 4 SO 2 PbO 2
2 4
nap
phong
2
4 2
+


+ + +
+
Ti bn cc m din ra qu trnh kh :
e 4 PbSO 2 SO 2 Pb 2
4
nap
phong
2
4
+


+ +



PbO
2
+ 2H
2
SO
4
+ Pb 2PbSO
4
+ 2H
2
O

Th in ng e 2V.
Nhc im chnh ca c qui ch l dung lng in
qui v n v khi lng nh, thi gian s dng khng di
do s sunft ho dn cc in cc (s chuyn ho khng
hon ton ca PbSO
4
thnh Pb v PbO
2
trong qu trnh
tch in).
Ngoi phn ng ca qu trnh phng in v tch
in trn cn c nhng phn ng ph do s t phng
in ca c qui gy ra.
Ti bn cc dng din ra qu trnh xi ho:
2 2 4
2
4 2
O
2
1
O H PbSO H 2 SO PbO + + + +
+
Ti bn cc m din ra qu trnh kh :
2 4
2
4
2 H PbSO H SO Pb + + +
+
I.5.1. Cc c tnh c bn ca c qui .
Sc in ng ca c qui ch v c qui axit ph
thuc vo nng dung dch in phn. Ngi ta thng
s dng cng thc kinh nghim
Eo 0,85 + ( V )
trong : Eo - sc in ng tnh ca c qui ( V )
- nng dung dch in phn 15 C
( g/cm
3
)
Trong qu trnh phng in sc in ng ca c qui -
c tnh theo cng thc:
Ep Up + Ip.r
b

trong : Ep - sc in ng ca c qui khi phng in (
V )
Ip - dng in phng ( A )
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
10
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Up - in p o trn cc cc ca c qui khi
phng in (V)
r
b
- in tr trong ca c qui khi phng in (
)
Trong qu trnh np sc in ng En ca c qui c
tnh theo cng thc :
En Un - In.r
b
trong : En - sc in ng ca c qui khi np in ( V
)
In - dng in np ( A )
Un - in p o trn cc cc ca c qui khi np
in ( V )
r
b
- in tr trong ca c qui khi np in (
)
Dung lng phng ca c qui l i lng nh gi kh
nng cung cp nng lng ca c qui cho ph ti, v c
tnh theo cng thc :
Qp Ip.tp
trong : Qp - dung lng thu c trong qu trnh phng
( Ah )
Ip - dng in phng n nh trong thi gian
phng in
tp ( A )
tp - thi gian phng in ( h ).
Dung lng np ca c qui l i lng nh gi kh nng
tch tr nng lng ca c qui v c tnh theo cng thc :
Qn In.tn
trong :
Qn - dung lng thu c trong qu trnh np ( Ah )
In - dng in np n nh trong thi gian np tn
( A )
tn - thi gian np in ( h ).
A/ c tnh phng ca c qui.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
11
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng


c tnh phng ca acquy l th biu din quan
h ph thuc ca sc in ng, in p acquy v nng
dung dch in phn theo thi gian phng khi dng
in phng khng thay i .
T c tnh phng ca acquy nh trn hnh v ta c
nhn xt sau:
- Trong khong thi gian phng t tp 0 n tp tgh, sc
in ng
in p, nng dung dch in phn gim dn, tuy
nhin trong khong thi gian ny dc ca cc th
khng ln, ta gi l giai on phng n nh hay thi
gian phng in cho php tng ng vi mi ch phng
in ca acquy ( dng in phng ).
- T thi gian tgh tr i dc ca th thay i t
ngt .Nu ta
tip tc cho c qui phng in sau tgh th sc in ng
,in p ca c qui s gim rt nhanh .Mt khc cc tinh
th sun pht ch (PbSO
4
) to thnh trong phn ng s c
dng th rn rt kh ho tan ( bin i ho hc) trong qu
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
12
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
trnh np in tr li cho c qui sau ny. Thi im tgh
gi l gii hn phng in cho php ca c qui, cc gi tr
Ep, Up, ti tgh c gi l cc gi tr gii hn phng in ca
c qui. acquy khng c phng in khi dung lng cn
khong 80%.
- Sau khi ngt mch phng mt khong thi gian no
, cc gi tr sc in ng, in p ca c qui, nng
dung dch in phn li tng ln, ta gi y l thi
gian hi phc hay khong ngh ca c qui. Thi gian hi
phc ny ph thuc vo ch phng in ca acquy
( dng in phng v thi gian phng ).
I.5.2. Np ca acquy axit .
A/ Np thng thng
Np in thng cho acquy axit trong cc trng hp sau :
- Khi in p trong acquy cn 1,7-1,8 V
- Khi acquy d tr trong kho qu mt thng.
- Khi acquy phng in lin tc qu mt tun.
Cch np :
Mun np c th phi c dng in chy qua acquy
bng cch iu chnh in p ngun cao hn in p
ca nhm acquy t nht t 1-2V. nu khng m bo iu
kin ny th ng cu dao np , ngun np s tr thnh
ph ti ca acquy gy ra chy my.
- Dng in np tiu chun l 0,25 C10 .
- Thi gian np t 12-13 gi.
c tnh np ca acquy axit :
c tnh np ca c qui l th biu din quan h
ph thuc gia sc in ng , in p v nng dung
dch in phn theo thi gian np khi tr s dng in
np khng thay i .
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
13
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng

T th c tnh np ta c cc nhn xt sau :
- Trong khong thi gian u , sc in ng, in
p , nng dung dch in phn tng nhanh t 1,8 ln
2V . T 2V tng rt chm ti 2,4 V .
c th gii thch hin tng ny nh sau :
Khi np thi k u tin in p tng nhanh v bn
cc khi phc li thnh ch xt PbO2 v Pb trong cc l
nh , axit khng kp khuych tn nn in p tng cao
ng thi st p trn ni tr ca acquy ln nn in p tng
cng nhanh.
- n thi k gia v nng axit trong cc l nh
ca bn cc c tng nhng khuych tn u nn in p
tng dn dn.
- Ti thi im ts trn b mt cc bn cc m xut
hin cc bt kh (cn gi l hin tng" si " ) do mt phn
nc trong dung dch in phn bin thnh hiro v
xy, cc m lc ny bt kh thot ra nhiu khng kp t
thnh bt v ni ln mt nc cho nn bao bc xung quanh
cc m. Hir l cht dn in km nn ni tr tng ,
ng thi cc dng b xy bao bc , bn cc b xi ho
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
14
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
qu mc nn in p thi k ny tng nhanh ln 2,7 V v
gi nguyn. Thi gian ny gi l thi gian np no, n c tc
dng cho phn cc cht tc dng su trong lng cc bn
cc c bin i tun hon, nh s lm tng thm
dung lng phng in ca acquy.
- Trong s dng thi gian np no cho acquy ko di t 2
3 h trong sut thi gian hiu in th trn cc bn cc
ca acquy v nng dung dch in phn khng thay
i . Nh vy dung lng thu c khi acquy phngin lun
nh hn dung lng cn thit np no acquy.
- n thi im 12 h (vi np n dng) th cht tc dng
hon ton c phc hi li , nc cng gn nh bo ho nn
dung dch si v in p hu nh khng tng.
- Sau khi ngt mch np, in p, sc in ng ca
acquy, nng dung dch in phn gim xung v n
nh. Thi gian ny cng gi l khong ngh ca acquy
sau khi np.
Nhng du hiu cho thy acquy y in :
- Hin tng si bt rt mnh xy ra xung quanh cc m v
cc dng.
- T trng t 1,12-1,22 i vi acquy c nh v 1,25-
1,30 i vi acquy di ng.
- Hiu in th t 2,7-2,8V v n nh trong sut 3 h
- Dung lng np vo gp 1,2-1,3 ln dung lng nh mc.
Tr s dng in np nh hng rt ln n cht lng
v tui th ca acquy. Dng in np nh mc i vi
acquy l In 0,1Q
10
.
Trong Q
10
l dung lng ca acquy m vi ch np vi
dng in nh mc l In 0,1Q
10
th sau 10 gi acquy s
y.
V d vi acquy Q 200 Ah th nu ta np n dng vi
dng in bng 10% dung lng ( tc In 20 A ) th sau 10
gi acquy s y.
Cui thi gian np c th np vi dng in nh In=
0.05 Q
10
gim bt hin tng si bt v trnh lm hng
bn cc.
B/ Np qu lng
Np qu lng m bo cho acquy c y khi b
sun ft ho cc bn cc, phc hi c dung lng cho
acquy .
Np in qu lng trong cc trng hp sau :
+ Thay dung dch in phn
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
15
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
+ Acquy c dng thng xuyn trong vng 2- 3 thng
hoc phng, np t 10-20 ln.
+ Acquy phng vi dng in qu ln hoc acquy
phng qu mc in p quy nh.
Cch np :
- Np vi dng tiu chun 0,1 Q
10
cho n khi y in.
- Ngh 1 h ri li np tip 2 h na vi dng in bng 0.05
Q
10
.
- Lp li quy trnh ny nhiu ln cho nkhi ng in
np th lp tc dung dch cc ngn si bt mnh l c.
C/ Np ln u
Vi acquy axit mi cn kh hay sau khi thay bn cc mi trc
khi s dng phi tin hnh np in cho acquy .
Np ln u mu cht quyt nh n tui th v hiu
sut ca acquy v vy cn c coi trng v chun b
np in ln u cho tt.
Np in ln u c tin hnh nh sau :
- Rt t t dung dch in phn pha c t trng ng
qui nh vo bnh. Nhit dung dch khi vo phi
nh hn 25 C. Dung dch phi cao hn bn cc 1-1,5
cm v ch 4-6 h cho dung dch ngm u vo bn cc v
tm cch in.
- Khi nhit dung dch di 30 c th tin hnh np c.
- Dng in np tt nht theo qui nh ca nh ch
to. trong trng hp khng c qui nh th np vi dng In =
1/14 Q
10
hoc 1/12 Q
10
vi acquy c dung lng >70 Ah . Np
in lin tc trong 60-70 h cho ti khi y in.
- Cho ngh 15-24h cho acquy ngui v in p gim
xung n nh mc 2,1-2,3 V ri cho phng vi Ip =0,1
Q
10
n in p ngng phng l 1,7-1,8 V.
- Np li chu k phng np ny 3 ln l c.
I.6 Acquy kim
Hin nay dng hai loi acquy kim chnh : acquy st-kn
v acquy caimi-kn. Hai loi ny c nguyn l lm vic v
c im s dng gn ging nhau.
I.6.1 Cu to
A/V acquy
V c th ni trc tip vi cc m hoc cc dng
hoc hon ton cch in vi chng. Nu v ni trc tip
vi cc m th v acquy c lm bng st m kn, nu v
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
16
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
cch in vi cc m hoc cc dng th v c lm bng
st thp hay tn.
V acquy caimi kn bao gi cng c lm t st m
kn mc d v c ni vi cc m hoc cc dng.
B/ Bn cc
Bn cc ca acquy kim l nhng tm st li c hp
hnh vung cha trong y cht tc dng.
C/ Cc m
Acquy st kn th trong ti li cha y bt st
Acquy caimi kn th trong ti li cha y bt Cd
D/ Cc dng
Ti li st bao gi cng m kn , trong cha y hn hp :
75% bt hyrxit niken(Ni(OH)3)
23% Bt than grapht
2% vy Niken(vy kn)
Bt than v vy kn lm tng dn in ca bn cc.
tng dung lng v gim ni tr ca acquy cn tng din
tch tip xc ca bn cc vi dung dch bng cch t bn
cc dng, m xen k vi nhau thnh nhm bn cc, gia
cc bn cc dng v m c ngn cch bng tm nha ho
hc.
E/ Dung dch in phn
Dung dch in phn ca acquy kim gm c NaOH
hoc KOH pha vi nc ct. Tu theo nhit mi trng m
dng mt trong hai loi trn cho ph hp.
Khi nhit mi trng ln hn 10 C th dng NaOH
Khi nhit mi trng nh hn 10 C th dng KOH
Vi nc ta hu ht cc vng u c nhit trung bnh
trn 10C nn ta dng NaOH l thch hp.
I.6.2. Qu trnh bin i nng lng trong c qui
kim.
K hiu ho hc biu din c qui kim c dung dich
in phn l KOH nng d 20 % . c qui kim ph
bn nht l c qui NiKen-Caimi c s :
( - ) Cd |Cd(OH)
2
KOHNiOOH Ni(OH)
2
| Ni ( + )
Ti cc dng Ni 2 mc xi ho II v III , kim loi Ni ch lm
nhin v thu np dng in :
phng
NiOOH +e + H
2
O Ni(OH)
2
+OH
np
Ti cc m: phng
Cd + 2 OH Cd(OH)
2
+2e
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
17
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
np
Phng trnh ho hc biu din qu trnh phng np ca
acquy kim :

phng
Cd + 2 NiOOH+ 2H
2
O Cd(OH)
2
+
2Ni(OH)
2

np
Th in ng e 1,3 V.
Nhn xt : T nhng iu trnh by trn ta
nhn thy trong qu trnh phng np nng dung dch
in phn l thay i. Khi acquy phng in nng
dung dch in phn gim dn. Khi c qui np in nng
dung dch in phn tng dn. Do ta c th cn
c vo nng dung dch in phn nh gi trng
thi tch in ca acquy.
I. 6.3. c tnh np ca acquy kim .
A/ Np thng thng
Cc trng hp sau y phi tin hnh np in thng
thng cho acquy
- Khi acquy phng ht dung lng s dng, in p mt
ngn cn 1V.
- Acquy phng chacquy ht dung lng s dng nhng thi
gian phng in lin tc qu mt tun.
- Acquy d tr trong kho qu mt thng.
c tnh np ca c qui l th biu din quan h ph
thuc gia sc in ng , in p v nng dung
dch in phn theo thi gian np khi tr s dng in
np khng thay i c dng tng t nh ca acquy axit.
Cch np :
Mun np c th phi c dng in chy qua acquy
bng cch iu chnh in p ngun cao hn in p
ca nhm acquy t nht t 1-2V. nu khng m bo iu
kin ny th ng cu dao np , ngun np s tr thnh
ph ti ca acquy gy ra chy my.
- Dng in np tiu chun l 0,25 C10 .
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
18
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
- Thi gian np t 6-7 gi.
- Trong qu trnh np phi thng xuyn theo di nhit
ca dung dch acquy . Nu nhit ca dung dch ln
hn 45 C (Vi dung dch c pha thm LiOH ) v ln hn 35
C( vi dung dch khng pha thm LiOH) th phi gim dng
np. Nu gim dng np ri m nhit dung dch vn
tng qu gii hn trn th phi tm thi ngng np cho ti khi
nhit tr v mc t 15-30C li tip tc np.
- Ch l phi np lin tc nu v mt l do no m
phi tm thi ngng np th phi tng thi gian np m
bo c t 6-7 h.

Khi np :
- Trong khong thi gian u th sc in ng, in
p , nng dung dch in phn tng nhanh t 1,1 ln
1,4V . T 1,4 V tng rt chm ti 1,5 V v gi trong
mt khong thi gian di. Cui qu trnh np in p tng
n khong 1,7-1,8 V v gi cho ti khi np xong.
- Trong s dng thi gian np no cho acquy ko di t 2
3 h trong sut thi gian hiu in th trn cc bn cc
ca acquy v nng dung dch in phn khng thay
i . Nh vy dung lng thu c khi acquy phng in lun
nh hn dung lng cn thit np no acquy.
- n thi im 12 h th cht tc dng hon ton c
phc hi li , nc cng gn nh bo ho nn dung dch si v
in p hu nh khng tng.
- Sau khi ngt mch np, in p, sc in ng ca
acquy, nng dung dch in phn gim xung v n
nh. Thi gian ny cng gi l khong ngh ca acquy
sau khi np.
Nhng du hiu cho thy acquy y in :
- Hin tng si tm u nh si.
- Hiu in th t 1,7-1,8V v n nh trong sut 3 h
- Trc khi np phi m ht nt acquy . sau khi np phi
t 5-10 h cho acquy ngui mi y nt v lau chi quanh v
bnh cho sch s.
Tr s dng in np nh hng rt ln n cht lng v
tui th ca c qui. Dng in np nh mc i vi c
qui l In 0,25Q
10
.
Trong Q
10
l dung lng ca c qui m vi ch np vi
dng in nh mc l In 0,25Q
10
th sau 6-7 gi acquy
s y.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
19
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
B/ Np qu lng
Np qu lng m bo cho acquy c y khi b
sun ft ho cc bn cc, phc hi c dung lng cho
acquy .
Np in qu lng trong cc trng hp sau :
+ Thay dung dch in phn
+ Acquy c dng thng xuyn phng, np t 10-12
ln.
+ Acquy khng c np in thng xuyn.
+ Trc khi em s dng acquy ang c bo qun
trong kho.
Cch np :
Np vi dng tiu chun 0,25Q
10
trong vng 6 h. Np
thm 6 h na vi dng 0,1Q
10
l t yu cu.
Vi acquy kim trong trng hp cn thit c th np
in nhanh.
c/Np in nhanh
Np in nhanh l np vi dng tng i ln trong
thi gian ngn.
d/ Np ln u
Vi acquy axit mi cn kh hay sau khi thay bn cc mi
trc khi s dng phi tin hnh np in cho acquy .
Np ln u mu cht quyt nh n tui th v hiu
sut ca acquy v vy cn c coi trng v chun b
np in ln u cho tt.
Np in ln u c tin hnh nh sau :
- Rt t t dung dch in phn pha c t trng ng
qui nh vo bnh. Nhit dung dch khi vo phi
nh hn 25C. Dung dch phi cao hn bn cc 1-1,5 cm
v ch 4-6 h cho dung dch ngm u vo bn cc v tm
cch in. o mi ngn c in p t 1-1,1V l acquy bnh
thng v
c th tin hnh np c.
- Dng in np tt nht theo qui nh ca nh ch
to. trong trng hp khng c qui nh th np vi dng In =
1/4 C
10
lin tc trong 6 h . Sau np tip vi dng In=1/8
Q
10
trong 6 h na.
- Cho phng in trong 4 h vi dng in Ip=1/8 Q
10
- Np li chu k phng np ny 2-3 ln l c.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
20
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
- Ch khi acquy no th in p trn mi ngn phi t
1,7-1,8 V
I.7. S khc nhau gia acquy kim v acquy axit .
C hai loi acquy ny u c mt c im chung
l tnh cht ti thuc loi dung khng v sc phn in
ng. Nhng chng cn c mt s c im khc bit sau
:

on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
21
Acquy axit Acquy kim
- Kh nng qu ti khng cao, dng - Kh nng qu ti rt
ln
np ln nht t c khi qu ti dng in np ln
nht khi
l Inmax 20%Q
10
c th t ti
50%Q
10
- Hin tng t phng ln, acquy - Hin tng t phng
nh
nhanh ht in ngay c khi khng
s dng.
- S dng rng ri trong i sng - Vi nhng kh
nng trn
cng nghip, nhng ni c nhit th acquy kim
thng s
cao va p ln nhng i hi nhng ni yu cu
cng
cng sut v qu ti va phi. cao qu ti thng
xuyn v
s dng vi cc thit
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
I.8 Cc phng php np c qui t ng.
C ba phng php np c qui l :
+ Phng php dng in.
+ Phng php in p.
+ Phng php dng p.
I.7.1. Phng php np acquy vi dng in khng
i.
y l phng php np cho php chn c dng np
thch hp vi mi loi acquy, bo m cho acquy c no.
y l phng php s dng trong cc xng bo dng sa
cha np in cho acquy hoc np s cha cho cc
c qui b Sunfat ho. Vi phng php ny acquy c mc
ni tip nhau v phi tho mn iu kin :
Un 2,7.Naq
Trong : Un - in p np
Naq - s ngn acquy n mc trong mch.
Trong qu trnh np sc in ng ca acquy tng dn
ln, duy tr dng in np khng i ta phi b tr
trong mch np bin tr R. Tr s gii hn ca bin tr c
xc nh theo cng thc :

n
aq n
I
N U
R
0 , 2

u im:
m bo dng in np cho c qui lun n nh ,
cht lng np tt , m bo dung lng c qui l nh mc,
khng gy ra hin tng no gi.
Khng gy ra qu dng khi bt u np nu hiu
in th c qui thp hn nhiu so vi hiu in th np
t vo s ph hng acquy, lm cho acquy tr nn km
bn.
Nhc im:
Nhc im ca phng php np vi dng in khng
i l thi gian np ko di v yu cu cc acquy a vo
np c cng dung lng nh mc. khc phc nhc im
thi gian np ko di, ngi ta s dng phng php np vi
dng in np thay i hai hay nhiu nc. Trong trng
hp hai nc, dng in np nc th nht chn bng ( 0,3
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
22
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
0,6 )Q
10
tc l np cng bc v kt thc nc mt khi
acquy bt u si. Dng in np nc th hai l 0,1Q
10
Vic ly tn hiu dng phn hi iu khin gc m
ca van kh hn, h iu khin tr nn phc tp hn.
I.5.2Phng php np vi in p khng i.
Phng php ny yu cu cc acquy c mc song
song vi ngun np. Hiu in th ca ngun np khng
i v c tnh bng ( 2,3 2,5 ) V cho mi ngn n.
Phng php np vi in p khng i c thi gian np
ngn, dng np t ng gim theo thi gian.Tuy nhin dng
phng php ny acquy khng c np no. V vy np vi
in p khng i ch l phng php np b xung cho
acquy trong qu trnh s dng.
u im:
H np n gin v ta d ly tn hiu phn hi in p
t acquy v iu khin gc m, nn c th t ng
ho qu trnh np mt cch d dng.
Nhc im:
- Nu ngun np b mt in lu, trong khi acquy vn
tip tc c s dng. Khi c in tr li chnh p gia
ngun cp v c qui ln dn n dng in np ln , ph
hng acquy, gy ra hin tng no gi lm gim dung lng.
I.5.3 Phng php np dng p.
y l phng php tng hp ca hai phng php trn. N
tn dng c nhng u im ca mi phng php.
i vi yu cu ca bi l np acquy t ng tc l
trong qu trnh np mi qu trnh bin i v chuyn
ho c t ng din ra theo mt trnh t t sn
th ta chn phng n np acquy l phng php dng p.
- i vi acquy axit: bo m thi gian np cng nh
hiu sut np th trong khon thi gian tn 8h tng ng
vi 75 80 % dung lng acquy ta np vi dng in khng
i l In 0,1Q
10
. V theo c tnh np ca c qui trong
on np chnh th khi dng in khng i th in
p, sc in ng ti t thay i, do bo m tnh
ng u v ti cho thit b np. Sau thi gian 8 h c qui
bt u si lc ta chuyn sang np ch n p.
Khi thi gian np c 10 h th c qui bt u no, ta np
b xung thm 2 3 h.
- i vi c qui kim : Trnh t np cng ging nh c qui
axit nhng do kh nng qu ti ca c qui kim ln nn lc
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
23
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
n dng ta c th np vi dng np In 0,25 Q
10
hoc np
cng bc tit kim thi gian vi dng np In 0,5Q
10
.
Cc qu trnh np c qui t ng kt thc khi b ct
ngun np hoc khi np n p vi in p bng in p
trn 2 cc ca acquy, lc dng np s t t gim v
khng.
Kt lun :
- V acquy l ti c tnh cht dung khng km theo sc
phn in ng cho nn khi acquy i m ta np theo ph-
ng php in p th dng in trong acquy s t ng
dng nn khng kim sot c s lm si acquy dn n
hng hc nhanh chng. V vy trong vng np chnh ta phi
tm cch n nh dng np cho acquy.
Khi dung lng ca acquy dng ln n 80% lc nu
ta c tip tc gi n nh dng np th acquy s si v
lm cn nc. Do n giai on ny ta li phi chuyn
ch np acquy sang ch n p. Ch n p c
gi cho n khi acquy thc s no. Khi in p trn cc
bn cc cu acquy bng vi in p np th lc dng
np s t ng gim v khng, kt thc qu trnh np.
- Tu theo loi acquy m ta np vi cc dng in np khc
nhau
+ acquy axit : dng np In 0,1Q
10
; np cng bc vi
dng
in np In 0,2Q
10
.
+ acquy kim : dng np In 0,25Q
10
; np cng bc
vi
dng in np In 0,5Q
10
.
- T cc phn tch trn ta rt ra cc s liu sau:
+ Dng np ln nht Inmax Idmax 100 A
+ in p Udmax 125 V
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
24
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chng II
Gii thiu cc ngun
cp 1 chiu np c
qui
II.1 Gii thiu chung :
cp ngun cho ti mt chiu, chng ta cn thit k
cc b chnh lu vi mc ch bin i nng lng in
xoay chiu thnh mt chiu. Cc loi b bin i ny c
th l chnh lu khng iu khin v chnh lu c iu
khin. Vi mc ch gim cng sut v cng, ngi ta thng
mc song song ngc vi ti mt chiu mt diod (loi s
ny c gi l s c diod ngc). Trong cc s chnh
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
25
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
lu c diod ngc, khi c v khng c iu khin, nng lng
c truyn t pha li xoay chiu sang mt chiu, ngha l
cc loi chnh lu ch c th lm vic ch chnh
lu. Cc b chnh lu c iu khin, khng diod ngc c th
trao i nng lng theo c hai chiu. Khi nng lng truyn
t li xoay chiu sang ti mt chiu, b ngun lm vic
ch chnh lu, khi nng lng truyn theo chiu ngc li
(ngha l t pha ti mt chiu v li xoay chiu) th b
ngun lm vic ch nghch lu tr nng lng v li.
Theo dng ngun cp xoay chiu, chng ta c th chia
chnh lu thnh mt hay ba pha. Cc thng s quan trng
ca s chnh lu l: dng in v in p ti; dng
in chy trong cun dy th cp bin p; s ln p
mch trong mt chu k. Dng in chy trong cun dy
th cp bin p c th l mt chiu, hay xoay chiu, c
th phn loi thnh s c dng in bin p mt
chiu hay, xoay chiu. S ln p mch trong mt chu k
l quan h ca tn s sng hi thp nht ca in p
chnh lu vi tn s in p xoay chiu.
Theo hnh dng cc s chnh lu, vi chuyn mch t
nhin chng ta c th phn loi chnh lu thnh cc loi s
sau.
II.2 Chnh lu mt na chu k.
II.2.1 Nguyn l
Hnh 1.1. S chnh lu mt na chu k.
s chnh lu mt na chu k hnh 1.1 sng in
p ra mt chiu s b gin on trong mt na chu k khi
in p anod ca van bn dn m, do vy khi s dng s
chnh lu mt na chu k, chng ta c cht lng in p
xu, tr s in p ti trung bnh ln nht c tnh:
U
do
= 0,45.U
2
Vi cht lng in p rt xu v cng cho ta h s s
dng bin p xu: S
ba
= 3,09.U
d
.I
d
.
II.2.1 u nhc im:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
26
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
U2
R
L
T
U1
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
nh gi chung v loi chnh lu ny chng ta c th nhn
thy, y l loi chnh lu c bn, s nguyn l mch
n gin. Tuy vy cc cht lng k thut nh: cht lng in
p mt chiu; hiu sut s dng bin p qu xu. Do loi
chnh lu ny t c ng dng trong thc t.
Khi cn cht lng in p kh hn, ngi ta thng s
dng s chnh lu c chu k theo cc phng n sau.
II.3 Chnh lu c chu k vi bin p c trung tnh.
II.3.1 Nguyn l
Hnh 1.2. S chnh lu c chu k vi bin p c
trung tnh.
Theo hnh dng s , th bin p phi c hai cun
dy th cp vi thng s ging ht nhau, mi na chu
k c mt van dn cho dng in chy qua. Cho nn
c hai na chu k sng in p ti trng vi in p
cun dy c van dn. Trong s ny in p ti
p mch trong c hai na chu k, vi tn s p mch
bng hai ln tn s in p xoay chiu. Hnh dng cc
ng cong in p, dng in ti (Ud, Id), dng in
cc van bn dn I1, I2 v in p ca van T1 m t trn
hnh 1.3a khi ti thun tr v trn hnh 1.3b khi ti
in cm ln.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
27
T2
U1
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
U2
U2
T1
L
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
U
d
I
d
I
1
I
2
t
t
t
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
U
d
I
d
I
1
I
2
t
t
t
t
b
p
1
p
2
p
3
UT
1
UT
1
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hnh 1.3. Cc ng cong in p, dng in ti,
dng in cc
van v in p ca Tiristor T1
in p trung bnh trn ti, khi ti thun tr dng
in gin on c tnh:
U
d
= U
do
.(1+cos)/2.
vi: - U
do
: in p chnh lu khi khng iu khin v
bng U
do
= 0,9.U
2
- : Gc m ca cc Tiristor.
Khi ti in cm ln dng in, in p ti lin tc,
lc ny in p mt chiu c tnh:
U
d
= U
do
.cos
Trong cc s chnh lu th loi s ny c in
p ngc ca van phi chu l ln nht
Mi van dn thng trong mt na chu k, do vy dng
in m van bn dn phi chu ti a bng 1/2 dng
in ti , tr hiu dng ca dng in chy qua van I
hd
= 0,71.I
d
.
II.3.2 u nhc im
So vi chnh lu na chu k, th loi chnh lu ny c
cht lng in p tt hn. Dng in chy qua van
khng qu ln, tng in p ri trn van nh. i vi
chnh lu c iu khin, th s hnh 1.2 ni chung
v vic iu khin cc van bn dn y tng i
n gin. Tuy vy vic ch to bin p c hai cun
dy th cp ging nhau, m mi cun ch lm vic c
mt na chu k, lm cho vic ch to bin p phc tp
hn v hiu sut s dng bin p xu hn, mt khc
in p ngc ca cc van bn dn phi chu c tr s ln
nht.
II.4 Chnh lu cu mt pha.
II.4.1 Nguyn l


on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
28
2 nv
U 2 2 U
T4 T1
U2
T3
L
T2
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
dieu khien
Mach
T1 (T3)
T2 (T4)
D
D
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hnh 1.4. S chnh lu cu mt pha iu khin i
xng.
Hot ng ca s ny khi qut c th m t nh sau.
Trong na bn k in p anod ca Tiristor T1 dng (+)
(lc catod T2 m (-)), nu c xung iu khin cho c
hai van T1,T2 ng thi, th cc van ny s c m thng
t in p li ln ti, in p ti mt chiu cn bng
in p xoay chiu chng no cc Tiristor cn dn (khong
dn ca cc Tiristor ph thuc vo tnh cht ca ti). n
na bn k sau, in p i du, anod ca Tiristor T3 d-
ng (+) (catod T4 m (-)), nu c xung iu khin cho c
hai van T3,T4 ng thi, th cc van ny s c m thng,
t in p li ln ti, vi in p mt chiu trn ti
c chiu trng vi na bn k trc.
Chnh lu cu mt pha hnh 1.4 c cht lng in p ra
hon ton ging nh chnh lu c chu k vi bin p c trung
tnh, nh s hnh 1.2. Hnh dng cc ng cong in
p, dng in ti, dng in cc van bn dn v in p
ca mt van tiu biu gn tng t nh trn hnh 1.3a.b.
Trong s ny dng in chy qua van ging nh s
hnh 1.2, nhng in p ngc van phi chu nh hn U
nv
=
2.U
2
.
Vic iu khin ng thi cc Tiristor T1,T2 v T3,T4
c th thc hin bng nhiu cch, mt trong nhng cch
n gin nht l s dng bin p xung c hai cun th cp
nh hnh 1.5
Hinh 1.5. Phng n cp xung chnh lu cu mt pha
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
29
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
iu khin cc Tiristor trong s hnh 1.4, nhiu khi
gp kh khn cho trong khi m cc van iu khin, nht l
khi cng sut xung khng ln. trnh vic m ng
thi cc van nh trn, m cht lng in p chng mc no
vn c th p ng c, ngi ta c th s dng chnh
lu cu mt pha iu khin khng i xng.
Chnh lu cu mt pha iu khin khng i xng c
th thc hin bng hai phng n khc nhau nh hnh 1.6.
Ging nhau hai s ny l: chng u c hai Tiristor
v hai Diod; mi ln cp xung iu khin ch cn mt
xung; in p mt chiu trn ti c hnh dng ( xem hnh
1.7a,b) v tr s ging nhau; ng cong in p ti ch c
phn in p dng nn s khng lm vic vi ti c
nghch lu tr nng lng v li. S khc nhau gia hai s
trn c th hin r rt khi lm vic vi ti in cm ln,
lc ny dng in chy qua cc van iu khin v khng
iu khin s khac nhau.
Trn s hnh1.6a (vi minh ho bng cc ng
cong hnh 1.7a) khi in p anod T1 dng v catod D1
m c dng in ti chy qua T1, D1 n khi in p
i du (vi anod T2 dng) m cha c xung m T2, nng l-
ng ca cun dy ti L c x ra qua D2, T1. Nh vy vic
chuyn mch ca cc van khng iu khin D1, D2 xy ra
khi in p bt u i du. Tiristor T1 s b kho khi c
xung m T2, kt qu l chuyn mch cc van c iu
khin c thc hin bng vic m van k tip. T nhng
gii thch trn chng ta thy rng, cc van bn dn c dn
thng trong mt na chu k (cc diod dn t u n cui
bn k in p m catod, cn cc Tiristor c dn thng ti
thi im c xung m v b kho bi vic m Tiristor
na chu k k tip). V tr s, th dng in trung bnh
chy qua van bng I
tb
= (1/2 ) I
d
, dng in hiu dng ca
van I
hd
= O,71. Id.
a. b
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
30
U
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
T1
T2
L
D2
D1 D1 D2
T2 T1
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
L
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hnh 1.6. S chnh lu cu mt pha iu khin
khng i xng.
Theo s hnh 1.6 b (vi minh ho bng cc ng
cong hnh 1.7b), khi in p li t vo anod v catod
ca cc van bn dn thun chiu v c xung iu khin,
th vic dn thng cc van hon ton ging nh s
hnh 1.6a. Khi in p i du nng lng ca cun dy L
c x ra qua cc Diod D1, D2, cc van ny ng vai tr
ca Diod ngc. Chnh do m cc Tiristor s t ng kho
khi in p i du. T ng cong dng in cc van
trn hnh 1.7b c th thy rng, s ny dng in
qua Tiristor nh hn dng in qua cc Diod.
Hnh 1.7. Gin cc ng cong in p, dng in
ti (Ud, Id), dng in cc van bn dn
ca cc s a- hnh 1.6a; b- hnh 1.6b.
II.4.2 u nhc im
Nhn chung cc loi chnh lu cu mt pha c cht lng
in p tng ng nh chnh lu c chu k vi bin p c
trung tnh, cht lng in mt chiu nh nhau, dng in
lm vic ca van bng nhau, nn vic ng dng chng cng
tng ng nhau. Mc d vy chnh lu cu mt pha c u
im hn ch: in p ngc trn van b hn; bin p d
ch to v c hiu sut cao hn. Th nhng chnh lu cu
mt pha c s lng van nhiu gp hai ln, lm gi thanh cao
hn, st p trn van ln gp hai ln, chnh lu cu iu
khin i xng th vic iu khin phc tp hn.
Cc s chnh lu mt pha cho ta in p vi cht lng cha
cao, bin p mch in p qu ln, thnh phn hi bc
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
31
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
U
d
I
d
IT
1
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
U
d
I
d
t
IT
2
ID
1
ID
2
IT
1
IT
2
ID
1
ID
2
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t
t
t
a.
b
.
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
cao ln iu ny khng p ng c cho nhiu loi ti.
Mun c cht lng in p tt hn chng ta phi s dng
cc s c s pha nhiu hn.
II.5 Chnh lu tia ba pha.
II.5.1 Nguyn l


Hnh 1.8. Chnh lu tia ba pha
a.
b. S ng lc; b- Gin ng cc cong khi
gc m = 30
0
ti
c. thun tr; c- Gin cc ng cong khi = 60
0
cc ng cong gin on.
Khi bin p c ba pha u sao ( ) trn mi pha A,B,C ta
ni mt van nh hnh 1.8a, ba catod u chung cho ta
in p dng ca ti, cn trung tnh bin p s l in p
m. Ba pha in p A,B,C dch pha nhau mt gc l 120
0
theo cc ng cong in p pha, chng ta c in p ca
mt pha dng hn in p ca hai pha kia trong khong
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
32
T1
B
T2
C
T3
A
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
L
Ud
Id
UT1
t1 t2 t3 t4
I1
I2
I3
Ud
t
Id
t1 t2
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
I3
I2
I1
t4
t3 t
t
t
t t
t
t
t t
t
b.
0
c.
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
thi gian 1/3 chu k ( 120
0
). T thy rng, ti mi thi
im ch c in p ca mt pha dng hn hai pha kia.
Nguyn tc m thng v iu khin cc van y l
khi anod ca van no dng hn van mi c kch m.
Thi im hai in p ca hai pha giao nhau c coi l
gc thng t nhin ca cc van bn dn. Cc Tiristior ch -
c m thng vi gc m nh nht ti thi im gc thng t
nhin (nh vy trong chnh lu ba pha, gc m nh nht =
0
0
s dch pha so vi in p pha mt gc l 30
0
).
Theo hnh 1.8b,c ti mi thi im no ch c mt
van dn, nh vy mi van dn thng trong 1/3 chu k nu
in p ti lin tc ( ng cong I1,I1,I3 trn hnh 1.8b),
cn nu in p ti gin on th thi gian dn thng ca
cc van nh hn. Tuy nhin trong c hai trng hp dng
in trung bnh ca cc van u bng 1/3.Id. Trong
khong thi gian van dn dng in ca van bng dng
in ti, trong khong van kho dng in van bng 0.
in p ca van phi chu bng in dy gia pha c van
kho vi pha c van ang dn. V d trong khong t2 t3
van T1 kho cn T2 dn do van T1 phi chu mt in
p dy U
AB
, n khong t3 t4 cc van T1, T2 kho, cn T3
dn lc ny T1 chu in p dy U
AC
.
Khi ti thun tr dng in v in p ti lin tc hay
gin on ph thuc gc m ca cc Tiristor. Nu gc m
Tiristor nh hn 30
0
, cc ng cong Ud, Id lin tc, khi
gc m ln hn > 30
0
in p v dng in ti gin on
(ng cong Ud, Id trn hnh 1.8c).
Hnh 1.9. ng cong in p ti khi gc m 60
0

vi a.- ti thun tr, b.- ti in cm.
Khi ti in cm (nht l in cm ln) dng in,
in p ti l cc ng cong lin tc, nh nng lng d tr
trong cun dy ln duy tr dng in khi in p
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
33
t t
a.
b.
A B C A A B C A
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
i du, nh ng cong nt m trn hnh 1.9b (tng t
nh vy l ng cong Ud trn hnh 1.8b). Trn hnh 1.9 m
t mt v d so snh cc ng cong in p ti khi gc m
60
0
ti thun tr hnh 1.9a v ti in cm hnh 1.9b
Tr s in p trung bnh ca ti s c tnh nh cng
thc (1 - 4) nu in p ti lin tc, khi in p ti gin
on (in hnh khi ti thun tr v gc m ln) in p
ti c tnh:
Trong ; U
do
= 1,17.U
2f
. in p chnh lu tia ba pha
khi van la diod.
U
2f
- in p pha th cp bin p.
II.5.2 u nhc im:
So vi chnh lu mt pha, th chnh lu tia ba pha c
cht lng in mt chiu tt hn, bin in p p
mch thp hn, thnh phn sng hi bc cao b hn, vic
iu khin cc van bn dn trong trng hp ny cng tng
i n gin. Vi vic dng in mi cun dy th cp l
dng mt chiu, nh c bin p ba pha ba tr m t thng
li thp bin p l t thng xoay chiu khng i xng lm
cho cng sut bin p phi ln (xem h s cng sut bng
2), nu y bin p c ch to t ba bin p mt pha
th cng sut cc bin p cn ln hn nhiu. Khi ch to
bin p ng lc cc cun dy th cp phi c u vi
dy trung tnh phi ln hn dy pha v theo s hnh
1.8a th dy trung tnh chu dng in ti.
II.6 Chnh lu tia su pha:
II.6.1 Nguyn l
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
34
) 5 1 (
3
sin 1
3
Udo
Ud
1
]
1

,
_

+
A
*
*
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
L
*
T1
B
T2
C
T3
T4
A*
T5
B*
T6
C*
t
A B C A* B* C*
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hnh 1.10. Chnh lu tia su pha.
a.- S ng lc; b.- ng cong in p ti.
S chnh lu tia ba pha trn c cht lng in p
ti cha tht tt lm. Khi cn cht lng in p tt hn
chng ta s dng s nhiu pha hn. Mt trong nhng
s l chnh lu tia su pha. S ng lc m t
trn hnh 1.10a.
S chnh lu tia su pha c cu to bi su van bn
dn ni ti bin p ba pha vi su cun dy th cp, trn mi
tr bin p c hai cun ging nhau v ngc pha. in p cc
pha dch nhau mt gc l 60
0
nh m t trn hnh 1.10b.
Dng sng in p ti y l phn dng hn ca cc
in p pha vi p mch bc su.
II.6.2 u nhc im:
Vi dng sng in p nh trn, ta thy cht lng in p
mt chiu c coi l tt nht.
Theo dng sng in p ra (phn nt m trn gin
hnh 1.10b) chng ta thy rng mi van bn dn dn thng
trong khong 1/6 chu k. So vi cc s khc, th
chnh lu tia su pha dng in chy qua van bn dn b
nht. Do s chnh lu tia su pha rt c ngha khi
dng ti ln. Trong trng hp chng ta ch cn c van
nh c th ch to b ngun vi dng ti ln.
II.7 Chnh lu cu ba pha.
II.7.1 Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin i xng.
A/ Nguyn l:
S chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin i xng hnh
1.11a c th coi nh hai s chnh lu tia ba pha mc ng-
c chiu nhau, ba Tiristor T1,T3,T5 to thnh mt chnh lu
tia ba pha cho in p (+) to thnh nhm anod, cn
T2,T4,T6 l mt chnh lu tia cho ta in p m to thnh
nhm catod, hai chnh lu ny ghp li thnh cu ba pha.
Theo hot ng ca chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin
i xng, dng in chy qua ti l dng in chy t pha
ny v pha kia, do ti mi thi im cn m Tiristor
chng ta cn cp hai xung iu khin ng thi (mt
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
35
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
xung nhm anod (+), mt xung nhm catod (-)). V d
ti thi im t1 trn hnh 1.11b cn m Tiristor T1 ca pha
A pha anod, chng ta cp xung X1, ng thi ti chng
ta cp thm xung X4 cho Tiristor T4 ca pha B pha catod
cc thi im tip theo cng tng t. Cn ch rng th
t cp xung iu khin cng cn tun th theo ng th
t pha.
Khi chng ta cp ng cc xung iu khin, dng in
s c chy t pha c in p dng hn v pha c in p
m hn. V d trong khong t1 t2 pha A c in p d-
ng hn, pha B c in p m hn, vi vic m thng T1,
T4 dng in dc chy t A v B.
Khi gc m van nh hoc in cm ln, trong mi
khong dn ca mt van ca nhm ny (anod hay catod)
th s c hai van ca nhm kia i ch cho nhau. iu ny
c th thy r trong khong t1 t3 nh trn hnh 1.11b
Tiristor T1 nhm anod dn, nhng trong nhm catod T4 dn
trong khong t1 t2 cn T6 dn tip trong khong t2 t3.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
36
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
T1
T3
T5
L
T6
T4
T2
Ud
Uf
A B C A
Ud
Uf
A B C A
A B C A
X
1
X
2
X
3
X
4
X
5
X
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
6
t
7
U
d
Uf
I1
I3
I5
I2
I4
I6
0
UT
1
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hnh 1.11. Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin i xng.
a- s ng lc, b- gin cc ng cong c bn,
c, d - in p ti khi gc m = 60
0
= 60
0
.
in p ngc cc van phi chu chnh lu cu ba pha s
bng 0 khi van dn v bng in p dy khi van kho. Ta
c th ly v d cho van T1 (ng cong cui cng ca hnh
1.11b) trong khong t1 t3 van T1 dn in p bng 0,
trong khong t3 t5 van T3 dn lc ny T1 chu in p
ngc U
BA
, n khong t5 t7 van T5 dn T1 s chu in p
ngc U
CA
.
Khi in p ti lin tc, nh ng cong Ud trn hnh
1.11b tr s in p ti c tnh theo cng thc (1-4).
Khi gc m cc Tiristor ln ln ti gc > 60
0
v thnh
phn in cm ca ti qu nh, in p ti s b gin
on nh cc ng nt m trn hnh 1.11d (khi gc m
cc Tiristor =90
0
vi ti thun tr). Trong cc trng hp ny
dng in chy t pha ny v pha kia, l do cc van bn
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
37
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
dn c phn cc thun theo in p dy t ln chng
(cc ng nt mnh trn gin Ud ca cc hnh v
1.11b, c, d), cho ti khi in p dy i du, cc van bn
dn s c phn cc ngc nn chng t kho.
S phc tp ca chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin i
xng nh ni trn l cn phi m ng thi hai van theo
ng th t pha, do gy khng t kh khn khi ch to
vn hnh v sa cha. n gin hn ngi ta c th s
dng iu khin khng i xng.
B/ u nhc im:
Cht lng in p u ra tt nht trong cc phng php
chnh lu dng c cho c ti c x nng lng v li.
S iu khin phc tp , s van s dng nhiu.
II.7.2 Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin khng i
xng.
A/ Nguyn l:
Loi chnh lu ny c cu to t mt nhm (anod hoc
catod) iu khin v mt nhm khng iu khin nh m
t trn hnh 1.12a. Trn hnh 1.12b m t gin nguyn
l to in p chnh lu (ng cong trn cng), sng in
p ti Ud (ng cong nt m th hai trn hnh1.12b),
khong dn cc van bn dn T1,T2,T3,D1,D2,D3. Cc Tiristor
c dn thng t thi im c xung m cho n khi m
Tiristor ca pha k tip. V d T1 m thng t t1 (thi
im pht xung m T1) ti t3 (thi im pht xung m T2).
Trong trng hp in p ti gin on Tiristor c dn t
thi im c xung m cho n khi in p dy i du.
Cc diod t ng dn thng khi in p t ln chng
thun chiu. V d D1 phn cc thun trong khong t4 t6
v n s m cho dng in chy t pha B v pha A trong
khong t4 t5 v t pha C v pha A trong khong t5 t6.
Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin khng i xng c
dng in v in p ti lin tc khi gc m cc van bn
dn nh hn 60
0
, khi gc m tng ln v thnh phn in
cm ca ti nh, dng in v in p s gin on.
Theo dng sng in p ti trn tr s in p trung
bnh trn ti bng 0 khi gc m t ti 180
0
. Ngi ta c th
coi in p trung bnh trn ti l kt qu ca tng hai
in p chnh lu tia ba pha
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
38
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Vic kch m cc van iu khin trong chnh lu cu ba
pha c iu khin d dng hn, nhng cc iu ho bc
cao ca ti v ca ngun ln hn.So vi chnh lu cu ba pha
iu khin i xng, th trong s ny vic iu
khin cc van bn dn c thc hin n gin hn. Ta c
th coi mch iu khin ca b chnh lu ny nh iu
khin mt chnh lu tia ba pha.
Hnh 1.12. Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin khng i
xng
a- s ng lc, b- gin cc ng cong
B/ u nhc im:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
39
D1
D2
D3
T1
T2
T3
L
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R
A?
L-DOC
A B C A
X1
X2
X3
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7
Ud
Uf
T1
T2
T3
D1
D2
D3
0
( ) ( ) +

cos 1 (max) Uday


2
3
cos 1 (max) Uf
2
3 3
Utb
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chnh lu cu ba pha khng i xng cng l s c
cht lng in p tt nht, hiu sut s dng bin p tt
nht. Tuy vy khng th s dng s ny vi cc ti c
tr nng lng v li.
i vi np c qui khng c s tr nng lng v li, ta c
th s dng s trn.
II.8. Nguyn l thit k mach iu khin.
iu khin Tiristor trong s chnh lu hin nay thng
gp l iu khin theo nguyn tc thng ng tuyn
tnh. Ni dung ca nguyn tc ny c th m t theo gin
hnh 1.14 nh sau.
Khi in p xoay chiu hnh sin t vo anod ca
Tiristor, c th iu khin c gc m ca Tiristor
trong vng in p + anod, ta cn to mt in p ta
dng tam gic, ta thng gi l in p ta l in p rng
ca Urc. Nh vy in p ta cn c trong vng in p dng
anod.
Dng mt in p mt chiu Uk so snh vi in p
ta. Ti thi im (t1,t4) in p ta bng in p iu
khin (Urc = Uk), trong vng in p dng anod th pht
xung iu khin Xk. Tiristor c m t thi im c
xung iu khin (t1,t4) cho ti cui bn k (hoc ti khi
dng in bng 0)
Hnh 1.14. Nguyn l iu khin chnh lu.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
40
Udf
Urc
Udk
Ud
Xdk
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
S khi mch iu khin.
thc hin c nu trong phn nguyn l
iu khin trn, mch iu khin bao gm ba khu c
bn trn hnh 1.15.
Hnh 1.15. S khi mch iu khin
Vi s khi ny nhim v ca cc khu nh sau:
Khu ng pha c nhim v to in p ta Urc (thng
gp l in p dng rng ca tuyn tnh) trng pha vi in
p anod ca Tiristor
Khu so snh c nhim v so snh gia in p ta vi
in p iu khin Uk, tm thi im hai in p ny
bng nhau (Uk = Urc). Ti thi im hai in p ny bng
nhau, th pht xung u ra gi sang tng khuych
i.
Khu to xung c nhim v to xung ph hp m
Tirisor. Xung m Tirstor c yu cu: sn trc dc thng
ng, m bo yu cu Tiristor m tc thi khi c
xung iu khin (thng gp loi xung ny l xung kim
hoc xung ch nht); rng vi rng xung ln
hn thi gian m ca Tiristor; cng sut; cch ly gia
mch iu khin vi mch ng lc (nu in p ng lc
qu ln)
Vi nhim v ca cc khu nh vy tin hnh thit k,
tnh chn cc khu c bn ca ba khi trn. Chi tit v cc
mch ny s gii thiu chi tit phn sau.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
41
T
Dong pha So sanh Khuyech dai
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chng II
La chn v tnh
ton mch ng lc
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
42
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
IIi.1 La chn s chnh lu cho mch np c qui
np c qui ta c th s dng mch chnh lu mt
pha hoc ba pha u c. Tuy nhin trong v c qui cn
np c dung lng ln 200 Ah, m li in cung cp l li 3 pha
nn ta chn phng n dng chnh lu 3 pha.
Dng chnh lu 1 pha ,vi ti c cng sut ln c th lm
mt cn bng pha ca ngun in cung cp , iu ny
khng tt cho mng in ca bnh vin.
Vi s tia 6 pha hoc cu 3 pha i xng c in
p tt nhng vic cp xung m i hi phi cp ng thi
cho 2 van theo ng th t pha nn phc tp hn.
ng thi cn ti 6 Tiristor v 6 knh iu khin do
tn nhiu linh kin cho c mch iu khin v mch ng
lc nn khng kinh t.
Ngun cp in cho acquy khng c hin tng tr
nng lng v li do ta chn s chnh lu cu khng
i xng.
S ny cng c cht lng in p u ra l tt nht
ch cn 3 Tiristor , 3Diode v 3 knh iu khin.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
43
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
II.1.1S nguyn l
Trong s ny s dng 3 Tiristor nhm Katot chung
v 3 Diot nhm Anot chung.
Gi tr trung bnh ca in p trn ti

2 d 1 d d
U U U
Trong : Ud1 l thnh phn in p do nhm Katot
chung to nn
Ud2 l thnh phn in p do nhm Anot chung
to nn

2
U 6 3
d sin U 2
2
3
U
cos
2
U 6 3
d sin U 2
2
3
U
2
6
11
6
7
2 2 d
2
6
5
6
2 1 d
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
44
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Vy
) cos 1 (
2
U 6 3
U
2
d
+

Ta nhn thy
max d d
U U khi cos = 1
khi ta c
6 3
U
U
max d
2

Gi tr trung bnh ca dng chy trong Tiristor v Diot


A 67 , 6
3
I
I I
max d
max diot max TBV

Gi tr hiu dng ca dng chy trong Tiristor v Diot
A 55 , 11
3
I
I I
max d
max hddiot max hdV

Gi tr dng in ngc ln nht
V 131 125 . 05 , 1 U 05 , 1 U
3
U 6 U
max d max d 2 max ng


IIi.1.2. ng c tnh biu din
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
45
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
46
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
IIi.2 Tnh chn van ng lc:
in p ngc ca van
U
lv
= k
nv
.U
2
vi U
2
= U

/

k
U
; cho s chnh lu cu 3 pha k
nv
=
6
; k
U
=

6 3
thay vo ta c:

131 125 .
3 k
U
. k U
U
d
nv lv


V
Dng in lm vic ca van c chn theo dng
in hiu dng ca s chn (I
lv
= I
hd
). Dng in
hiu dng c tnh:
A 55 , 11
3
I
I I
max d
max hddiot max hdV

Vi cc thng s lm vic trn v chn iu kin
lm vic ca van l c cnh to nhit vi y din tch
to nhit, khng qut i lu khng kh (iu kin lm
vic ca van do ngi thit k t chn).
Thng s cn c ca van ng lc l:
U
nv
= k
dtU
. U
lv
= 2 . 131 = 262 V (chn k
dtU
= 1.6 2)
I
mv
= k
i
. I
lv
= 4 . 11,55 = 46,2 A (vi iu kin lm
vic trn I
lv
= (10 30) % I
mv
y chn I
lv
= 25% I
mv
)
c th chn c van cho lm vic vi cc thng s
nh mc c bn trn, chng ta tra bng thng s cc van
( diod, tiristor) chn cc van c thng s in p ngc (U
nv
),
dng in nh mc(I
mv
) ln hn gn nht vi thng s
tnh c trn.
Theo cch y chng ta c th chn v d (tra
t bng 4,5):
Diod loi HT5006S vi cc thng s nh
mc :
Dng in nh mc ca van I
mv
= 50 A,
in p ngc cc i ca van U
nv
= 500 V,
st p trn van U = 1,0 V,
Dng in d I
r
=250 A,
Dng in xung I
pik
=500 A,
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
47
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Nhit lm vic cho php T
cp
=175C
Chn tiristor loi 50RIF60W20 c cc thng
s nh mc:
Dng in nh mc ca van I
mv
=50 A,
in p ngc cc i ca van U
nv
= 600 V,
st p trn van U = 2,0 V,
Dng in d I
r
= 15 mA,
in p iu khin U
k
= 2,5 V,
Dng in iu khin I
k
= 0,15 A.
Dng in nh xung I
pik
=1000 A,
Nhit lm vic cho php T
cp
=125C
Tc bin thin in p dU/dt =500 V/s
II.3. Tnh ton my bin p
II.3.1.Cc i lng ban u:
in p chnh lu khng ti
U
do
Cos10 = U
d
+ U
v
+ U
ba
+ U
dn
Trong : U
d
- in p chnh lu;
Cos10- gc d tr khi in p li
b st
U
v
= U
t
+ Ud

st p trn cc van ;
U
ba
= U
r
+ U
l
- st p bn trong
bin p khi c ti
;
chn s b vo khong (5 10)%
,ta chn 8 %
U
dn
- st p trn dy ni =
0;
U
do
Cos10 = U
d
+ U
v
+ U
ba
+ U
dn
U
do
Cos10 = 125 + 2,0 + 1 +10 = 138.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
48
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
) V ( 140
10 Cos
138
U
0
do

Xc nh cng sut ti a ca ti v d vi ti
chnh lu xc nh
P
dmax
= U
do
. I
d
= 140.20 = 2800 (W)
Cng sut bin p ngun cp c tnh
S
ba
= k
s
. P
dmax
=1,05.2800

= 2940

(W)
Trong : S
ba
- cng sut biu kin
ca bin p [W];
k
s
=1,05 - h s cng sut theo s
mch ng lc
P
dmax
- cng sut cc i ca ti [W].
III.3.2.Tnh ton s b mch t
Tit din tr Q
Fe
ca li thp bin p c tnh t
cng sut:


Trong :
S
ba
- cng sut bin p tnh
bng [W];
k
Q
- h s ph thuc phng
thc lm mt;
k
Q
= 6 nu l bin p kh;
m - s tr ca my bin
p( c m=3)
f - tn s ngun in xoay
chiu f=50 Hz.
III.3.3 Tnh ton cc thng s in p v dng
in ca cc cun dy.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
49
2 2 ba
Q Fe
cm 27 chn ) cm ( 56 , 26
50 . 3
2940
. 6
f . m
S
k Q
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
in p ca cc cun dy.
in p cun dy th cp c tnh:

U
d
k
U
U
0
2

) V ( 8 , 59
34 , 2
140


Trong : U
d0
- tnh t trn.
k
U
- tra t h s in p chnh lu
bng1= 1,17.
in p cun dy s cp U
1
bng in p ngun cp
= 380 (V).
Dng in ca cc cun dy c th c tnh bng.
. Gi tr hiu dng dng in chy trong mi pha th
cp MBA
I
2
) A ( 39 , 16
8 , 59 . 3
2940
U . m
S
fa 2
ba


Gi tr hiu dng dng in chy trong mi pha s
cp MBA
I
1
) A ( 45 , 4
220 . 3
2940
U . m
S
fa 1
ba 1

Trong :
ba
S - Cng sut my bin p chnh lu
m S pha ca my bin p
S vng dy ca cun s cp c tnh

635
1 . 27 . 50 . 44 , 4
10 . 380
B . Q . f . 44 , 4
10 . U
W
4
Fe
4
1

(vng)
Trong : W
1
- s vng dy ca cun dy s
cp cn tnh
U - in p ca cun dy cn tnh
[V];
B - t cm (chn =1 T).
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
50
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Q
Fe
- tit din li thp [cm
2
].
S vng dy ca cun th cp c tnh

100 625 .
380
8 , 59
w .
U
U
W
1
1
2
2

(vng)
Tnh tit din dy dn:

J
I
S
Cu

(mm
2
)
Trong : I - dng in chy qua
cun dy [A];
J - mt dng in trong
MBA chn 2,75 [A/mm
2
] vi dy dn bng Cu v my bin
p kh.
Tnh tit din dy dn cun th cp:

) mm ( 0 , 6
75 , 2
39 , 16
J
I
S
2 1
1 Cu

Theo bng s liu ta chn dy dn hnh ch nht,
cch in cp B c
chiu dy: a = 1,12
(mm);
chiu rng: b = 5,6
(mm).
Tit din ng S = 6,057 mm
2
Tnh li mt dng in cun th cp :

) mm ( 70 , 2
057 , 6
39 , 16
S
I
J
2
1 Cu
1

Tnh tit din dy dn cun s cp:
) mm ( 62 , 1
75 , 2
45 , 4
J
I
S
2 2
2 Cu

on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
51
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Theo bng s liu ta chn dy dn hnh ch
nht
c chiu dy: a =
0,9 (mm);
c chiu rng: b =2,0
(mm)
Tit din ng S = 1,626
mm
2
Tnh li mt dng in cun th cp :

) mm ( 74 , 2
636 , 1
45 , 4
S
I
J
2
2 Cu
1

III.3.4 Tnh kch thc mch t
Chn s b cc kch thc c bn ca mch t
Chn hnh dng ca tr l hnh ch nht
Tit din ca tr Q
Fe
= axb trong a-b rng , b-
b dy tr
Chn l thp: c dy 0,5 mm
Din tch ca s cn c:
Q
cs
= Q
cs1
+ Q
cs2

Q
cs1
=k.W
1
.S
Cu1
= 3.535.1,626 =2610 (mm
2
).
Q
cs2
=k.W
2
.S
Cu2
= 3.100.6,057 = 1817 (mm
2
)
Q
cs
= 2610 + 1817 = 4427 (mm
2
)
Trong :
Q
cs
,- din tch ca s [mm
2
];
Q
cs1
,Q
cs2
- cun s cp v th cp chim
ch [mm
2
];
W
1
, W
2
- s vng dy s, th cp;
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
52
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
S
Cu1
, S
Cu2
- tit din dy qun s,
th cp[mm
2
];
k - s pha my bin p = 3
Chn kch thc ca s:
Khi c din tch ca s Qcs, cn chn cc kch thc
c bn (chiu cao h v chiu rng c vi Qcs = c.h) ca ca
s mch t. Cc kch thc c bn ny do ngi thit k t
chn da vo cc h s ph m=h/a; n = c/a; l = b/a. Kinh
nghim cho thy i vi li thp hnh III th : m = 2,5; n
= 1; l = 1; l ti u hn c.
Chiu rng ton b mch t C = 2c + x.a =2c +3a (x
= 3 l bin p ba pha), chiu cao mch t H = h + z.a = h
+2a (z = 2 nu l bin p ba pha)
Ta c: Q
Fe
= a.b = 27 ( cm
2
) =a
2
.
a ) cm ( 2 , 5 27 ; h =2,5.a
Chn:
Chiu rng ca tr: a=52 (mm)
Chiu cao ca tr: h=150(mm)
Chiu rng ca s: c = 50 (mm)
Chiu dy tr: b = 52 (mm)
C = 2.50 + 3.52 = 256 (mm)
H = 150 + 2.52 = 254 (mm)
Hnh dng kt cu mch t :
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
53
b
h H
c
C
a c
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chn loi thp 330, cc l thp c dy 0,5 mm
S l thp cn dng
) l ( 104
5 , 0
52
5 , 0
b
n
lt

H s lp y ca s mch t:
6 , 0
150 . 50
4427
h . c
Q
k
cs
ld

Mt t cm trong gng;
Mt t cm trong gng bng mt t cm trong tr
v ta chn kch thc my bin p c a = b nn tit din
gng v tr bng nhau.
III.3.5 Kt cu dy qun:
Dy qun c b tr theo chiu dc tr vi mi cun
dy c cun thnh nhiu lp dy, mi lp dy c
qun lin tc cc vng dy st nhau. Cc lp dy cch
in vi nhau bng cc ba cch in. Cch tnh cc
thng s ny nh sau:
Khi dy qun ch nht c tnh:

n
g
l
b
h h
W

1
W
il
:S vng dy trn
mi lp
Trong : b
n
- chu rng ca dy qun ch nht k
c cch in.
h
g
- khong cch cch in, chn trong
khong 6 mm.
Dy qun s cp:
73
0 , 2
6 150
b
h h
W
n
g
1 l

(vng)
Dy qun th cp:
26
60 , 5
6 150
b
h h
W
n
g
2 l

(vng)
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
54
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
S lp dy trong ca s c tnh bng t s W - S
vng dy ca cun dy W
1
hoc W
2
cn tnh trn s vng
dy trn mt lpW
1l
Dy qun s cp:
7 , 8
73
635
W
W
S
1 l
1
1 ld

9 (lp)
Dy qun th cp:
8 , 3
26
100
W
W
S
2 l
2
2 ld

4 (lp)
B dy ca mi cun dy bng tng b dy ca cc lp
dy a. s
ld
cng cch in cc lp dy trong cun dy cn
tnh lp cd.s
ld
.
Bd
ct
= a. s
ld
+ cd.s
ld
Trong :
Bd
ct
- b dy ca cun dy
cn tnh,
cd - b dy ca ba cch
in.
Ba cch in c cc
dy: 0,1mm.
Cun dy s cp rng Bd
1
= 9.0,9 + 9.0,1 = 9 ( mm).
Cun dy th cp rng Bd
2
= 4.2,025 + 4.0,1 =8,5 ( mm).
Tng b dy cc cun dy Bd
Bd = Bd
1
+ Bd
2
+ cd
1
+ cd
2
= 9 + 8,5
+1+1=19,5 (mm)


Trong :
Bd
1
, Bd
2
- b dy cun dy s v th
cp;
cd
1
, cd
2
- b dy cch in trong
cng v ngoi cng.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
55
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Kch thc hp l gia cun dy v tr c = c - 2.Bd vi
bin p ba pha trong khong (0,5 - 2)cm.
c = c - 2.Bd = 0,5 2(cm).
Do ta chn c = 50(mm). Suy ra c = 5-2.1,95
=1,1(cm)
III.3.6 Khi lng st v ng s dng:
Khi lng st bng tch ca th tch tr v gng V
Fe
nhn vi trng lng ring ca st m
Fe
:
M
Fe
= V
Fe
.m
Fe
(kg)
Trong : V
Fe
- th tch khi st
[dm
3
];
V
Fe
= 3a.b.h + 2C.a.b = Q
Fe
.(3h + 2C)- nu l
bin p ba pha;
V
Fe
= Q
Fe
.(3h + 2C) = 52
2
.(3.150 +2.256) = 2601248m
m
3
=2.6(dm
3
)
M
Fe
= V
Fe
.m
Fe
= 2,6.7,85 =20,41 (kg).
Khi lng ng bng tch ca th tch cun dy
ng V
Cu
cn tnh vi trng lng ring ca ng m
Cu
:
M
Cu
= V
Cu
.m
Cu
(kg)
Trong :
V
Cu
- th tch khi ng ca cc cun dy v -
c tnh [dm
3
];
V
Cu
= S
Cu
.l
Trong : S
Cu
- tit din dy dn [dm
2
];
l - chiu di ca cc vng dy [dm];
m
Cu
= 8,9kg/dm
3
Cc vng trong cun dy c chu vi khc nhau cho nn
chng ta hay ly chu vi trung bnh tnh.:
L = W.4. D
tb
D
tb
- ng knh trung bnh ca cun dy
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
56
D
tb
a
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
ng knh trung bnh ca cun dy th cp c tnh:

2 d 1 2 tb
B .
2
1
cd a D + +
cd
t
- cch in trong cng vi li.
B
d2
-b rng cun dy th cp.

25 , 57 2 / 5 , 8 . 1 52 D
2 tb
+ +
V
Cu2
= W
2
.4.D
tb2
.S
dq2
=100.4.57,25.6,057 =139000
mm
3
= 0,139 (dm
3
)
ng knh trung bnh ca cun dy trong cng s
cp c tnh:

1 d 1 2 d 1 1 tb
B .
2
1
cd B cd a D + + + +
cd
2
- cch in ngoi cng vi li.
B
d2
-b rng cun dy th cp.
B
d1
-b rng cun dy th cp.

67 9 .
2
1
1 5 , 8 1 52 D
1 tb
+ + + +
V
Cu1
= W
1
.4.D
tb1
.S
dq1
=635.4.67.1,626 ==
0,277(dm
3
)
Th tch ng ca MBA l:
V
cu
=3.(V
cu1
+ V
cu2
)=3.(0,139+0,277)=1,248(dm
3
)
Khi lng ng ca MBA l:
M
Cu
= V
Cu
.m
Cu
= 1,248.8,9=11,1(kg).
Khi lng ca MBA l:
M
MBA
= M
Cu
+ M
Fe
=11,1 + 20,41 31,51(kg).
III.3.7 Tnh ton kim nghim
A/Tnh tng st p bn trong bin p.
in p ri trn in tr:
Trong :
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
57
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
R
1
, R
2
- in tr thun ca cc cun dy
s v th cp :
R = .l/S
Vi: = 0. 02133 m - in tr sut ca
ng 75C;
l, S - chiu di v tit din ca dy
dn [mm];
I
d
- dng in ti mt chiu [A].
R= .
S
1
. W . D . 4 .
tb
S
l

().
R
2
= .
094 , 0
057 , 6
100 . 67 . 4
10 . 02133 , 0
S
l
3
2
2


().
R
1
= .
9 , 1
626 , 1
635 . 25 , 57 . 4
10 . 02133 , 0
S
1 l
3
1


().

) V ( 8 , 2 20 .
635
100
9 , 1 094 . 0 I
W
W
R R U
2
d
2
1
2
1 2 r

1
]
1

,
_

+
1
1
]
1

,
_

+

in p ri trn in khng
Ux = m
f
. X.I
d
/
Ux = 3. 0,20.20/3,14=3,82(v)
Trong :
m
f
- s pha bin p

Trong :
W
2
- S vng dy th cp bin p.
R
bk
- Bn knh trong cun dy th cp.
h - Chiu cao ca s li thp [m].
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
58
7 bk 2
2
2
n
10
3
2 Bd 1 Bd
cd
h
R
W 8 X

1
]
1

+
+

,
_


) .( 20 , 0 10 . 314 10 .
3
9 5 , 8
10 . 1 , 0
15 , 0
026 . 0
100 8 X
7 3 3 2 2
n

1
]
1

+
+

,
_



n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
cd - B dy cc cch in cc cun
dy vi nhau
Bd1, Bd2 - B dy cun dy s v th cp
[m].
= 314 rad.
Tng st p trn my bin p:
) V ( 74 , 4 82 , 3 8 , 2 U U U
2 2 2
x
2
r ba
+ +
B/ Tnh gi tr cc i v kim tra tc bin thin
ca dng in
in tr ngn mch my bin p
Tng tr ngn mch my bin p:
in p ;dng in ngn mch phn trm ca my bin
p:
Dng in ngn mch tc thi cc i:
A 388 e 1 . 249 . 2 e 1 I . 2 I
82 , 3
8 , 2 .
nx
u
nr
u
max 2 max

,
_

+
,
_

+

Dng
A 388 I
max

nh hn dng nh xung m cc van


chu c l 800 A vi Tiristor v 500A vi Diode chn.
Kim tra my bin p chn c kh nng hn ch tc
bin thin ca dng chuyn mch.
Gi s chuyn mch t T1 sang T3 ta c phng trnh
) s / A ( 114986
314 / 2 , 0 . 2
8 , 59 . 6
L . 2
U 6
(max)
dt
di
) ( Sin U 6 U U
dt
di
. L . 2
ba
2 c
2 c 2 23
c
ba


on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
59
) ( 14 , 0 9 , 1
635
100
094 , 0 r *
w
w
r r
2
1
2
1
2
2 nm

,
_

,
_

+
) ( 24 , 0 2 , 0 14 , 0 x r z
2 2
2
nm
2
nm nm
+ +
% 1 , 8 100 .
8 , 59
24 , 0 . 20
U
0
0
nm

) A ( 249
24 , 0
8 , 59
Z
U
I
nm
dm 2
nm

n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Ta thy gi tr ny nh hn gi tr cho php l 100A/s
do my bin p thit k s dng tt.
III.4 Tnh ton cun khng lc dng in p mch.
S p mch ca in p chnh lu lm cho dng in
ti cng p mch theo, lm xu i cht lng dng in
mt chiu, lm tng pht nng ca ti.
Thng thng chng ta nh gi nh hng ca p mch
dng in theo tr hiu dng ca sng hi bc nht, bi
v sng hi bc nht chim mt t l vo khong (2 5)%
dng in nh mc ca ti. Thnh phn hi bc nht ny
ln hay nh ph thuc nhiu vo cng sut ti P
d
, phm vi
iu chnh in p chnh lu...
III.4.1 Xc nh gi tr in cm ca cun khng.
Khi tnh in cm cun khng lc dng in p
mch, cn phi cn c vo mc cho php ca p mch
dng in chnh lu i vi ti tr s in p nh mc
v in p cc tiu.
Trong cc s chnh lu c iu khin, khi gc m
van bn dn cng tng bin sng hi cng cao. Do vy
khi tnh in cm v xc nh bin in p sng hi
chng ta thng tnh cho trng hp gc m van ln nht
max
.
i vi np acquy in p t vo nh nht c th
np c phi ln hn sc in ng ca acquy .
Vi acquy axt sc in ng thp nht ca mi ngn
khi ht in l 1,8 V.
Acquy c dung lng 200Ah th s ngn l 50. Do sc
in ng ca acquy l E = 50.1,8 =90 V
Ta phi t in p np nh nht c gi tr 90 V
Khi gc m ln nht th in p trn ti l nh nht
max do min d
Cos U U
=90 V
Do :
2
min d
do
min d
max
U
U
cos ar
U
U
cos ar
o
max max
50
140
90
cos ar
Trong s chnh lu cu v tia ba pha, thnh phn
sng hi bc nht (K=1) c bin ln nht. Bin sng
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
60
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
hi bc cng cao s cng gim, tc dng ca cun khng lc
vi cc thnh phn hi bc cao ny cng c hiu qu hn.
V vy tnh in cm ca cun khng i vi cc s
chnh lu ch cn tnh theo thnh phn sng hi bc nht
l .
Quan h gia t l ca bin sng hi theo tr trung
bnh in p chnh lu
0 d
max . dn
U
U
vi gc m van bn dn ca
cc s chnh lu cu v tia ba pha xy dng theo cng
thc (1-38) m t trn hnh 1-20.
Hnh 1-20 Quan h gia bin sng bc nht
vi gc m van bn dn
Cc ng cong 1,2 trn hnh 1-20 m t quan h
0 d
max . dn
U
U

= f() vi K=1 cho cc s cu ba pha iu khin i
xng v tia ba pha.
i vi s chnh lu iu khin khng i xng, khi
gc iu khin nh, thnh phn sng hi vi K = 2 v
K.m = 6 (ng 4 trn hnh 1-20), cn khi gc iu khin
bt u t = 25
0
thnh phn hi bc nht K = 1 (ng 3
trn hnh 1-20) c bin ln hn.
i vi gc m ln nht trong thit k l 50 ta ch xt s
p mch ca sng hi bc 1.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
61
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 d
Udnmax
Udo
1
3
2
4
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Tra ng 3 ta c
0 d
max . dn
U
U
= 0,3
) V ( 42 140 . 3 , 0 U
max dn

Tr s in cm ca cun khng lc thnh phn dng
in p mch c tnh theo biu thc:
(
1-37)
Trong :
L
L
- tr s in cm lc p mch cn thit
[Henry];
I
d.m
- dng in nh mc ca b chnh lu [A];
= 314 - tn s gc [1/s];
K = 1,2,3... - bi s sng hi;
m =6 s ln p mch trong mt chu k;
U
d.max
- bin thnh phn sng hi ca in p
chnh lu [V];
I
1
*% - tr hiu dng ca dng in sng hi c
bn ly t s theo dng in nh mc ca chnh lu. Tr
s ny cho php I
1
*% < 10%.
Thay s vo ta c:
) mH ( 88 , 7
20 . 10 . 314 . 6 . 1 . 2
100 . 42
L
L

Tr s in cm ca cun khng lc L
ckL
cn mc thm
lc thnh phn dng in p mch c tnh theo
cng thc:
L
ckL
= L
L
- 2L
BA
. (1-
39)
Trong :
L
ckL
- in cm cun khng lc cn mc thm;
L
L
- in cm cn thit lc thnh phn
sng hi dng in I
1
*% < 10%;
LBA - in cm ca my bin p.
L
ckL
= 7,88 0,64 = 7,24 (mH)
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
62
ddm
*
1
max .. dn
L
I %. I . . m . K . 2
100 . U
L

n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t


ng
L do khng xt n in dung ca acquy
Ta c th b qua in dung ca acquy khi gi tr ca
chu k phng np do t in to ra nh hn chu k p
mch ca dng in
6
T
C . R T
a a a
<
Trong :
R
a
=0,001.50=0.05 - in tr ca 50 ngn
acquy
C
a
=0.01/50=0,0002 F in dung ca 50 ngn
acquy
T = 0.02 chu k ca in li
T
a
= 0,05.2.
10
10

<< 0,02/6 =0.0033 nn ta c th b


qua in dung ca acquy
III.4.2 Thit k cun khng lc dng in p mch.
Cc thng s cn thit cho thit k:
-in cm ca cun khng lc L
ckL
=7,24 mH
-Dng in nh mc chy qua cun khng Im =20 A
-Thnh phn dng in xoay chiu cho php ca sng
hi bc nht I
~(1)
= 10%.I
m
= 2 A
Thng thng dy qun cun khng loi ny c tit din
kh ln, do vy in tr thun ca cun khng nh c th
b qua. V vy
Z
CKL
= X
CKL
= . L
CKL
= 2f.m.L
CKL
= 314.6.7,24 .
3
10

= 13,6
()
Trong :
f - tn s in p ngun cp f = 50 Hz;
m=6 - s ln p mch ca s chnh lu.
1. Tnh in p ri trn cun khng:
U
CKL
= Z
CKL
. I
~(1)
. =
) V ( 3 , 19
2
2
. 6 , 13
2
I
. Z
dm 1
CKL


2. Tnh cng sut cun khng lc:
P
CKL
= U
CKL
. I
~(1)
=
) VA ( 3 , 27
2
2
. 3 , 19
2
I
. U
dm 1
CKL


3. Tnh ton li thp cun khng lc.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
63
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Tit din li thp cun khng lc:
) cm ( 80 , 1
50 . 6
3 , 27
. 6
' f
P
. k Q
2 CKL
Fe
chun ho bng 2,04
cm2 theo chun c sn.
Trong :
Q
Fe
- tit din li thp [cm
2
];
P
CKL
- cng sut cun khng [W];
f` = f.m .
k = 5 6 thng cun khng loi ny hay ch to
bng cun khng kh.
Cc kch thc c bn ca li thp c chn nh chn
kch thc li thp bin p kh c kch thc chun nh.sau
Chn tm thp 330 dy 0,35 mm
a = 24 mm , b = 24 mm, h= 60 mm, c =24 mm, L=92
mm, H= 84 mm
4. Tnh ton dy qun cun khng:
Khi c thnh phn dng in xoay chiu bc nht I
~(1)
chy qua cun khng lc th trong cun khng xut hin
mt sc in ng t cm, tr s sc in ng ny c
tnh:
E
CKL
= 4,44.k
dq
.W.f. .
= 4,44.k
dq
.W.f.B.Q
Fe
.
(1-45)
Trong :
k
dq
- h s dy qun, c th chn k
dq
= 1,1
W - s vng dy cun khng lc;
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
64
b
h H
c
L
a c
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
f` - tn s dng in sau chnh lu f` = 50.m;
B - mt t cm ca li thp, vi B = 0,8;
Q`
Fe
- tit din hiu qu li thp.
Vi gi thit, b qua st p trn in tr, sc in
ng E
CKL
xp x st p trn cun khng U
CKL
tnh
trn (E
CKL
= U
CKL
). T c th tnh c s vng dy W
ca cun khng lc:
81
04 , 2 . 8 , 0 . 50 . 6 . 1 , 1 . 44 , 4
10 . 3 , 19
' Q . B '. f . k . 44 , 4
U
W
4
Fe dq
CKL

(vng)
Dng in chy qua cun khng:
+ cos I I ) t ( i
m d
dng in hiu dng chy qua cun khng:
) A ( 05 , 20
2
2
20
2
I
I I
2
2
2
m 1 2
d k

,
_

,
_

+
Dy qun cun khng c tit din:
T tit din S
Cu
tra bng kch thc dy qun chn c
dy qun tit din hnh ch nht c kch thc a x b =
1,00 x 8,00 mm k c cch in. C tit din khng k
cch in S = 7,79 mm2
Din tch phn dy ng chim ch trong ca
s mch t
) cm ( 45 , 6 10 . 00 , 8 . 81 wS Q
2 2
k csCu


Din tch ca s mch t ) cm ( 4 , 14 10 . 60 . 24 Q
2 2
cs


H s lp y
45 , 0
4 , 14
45 , 6
k
ld

Chn khong cch t gng ti cun dy hg = 2 mm
S vng dy trn mt lp
7
8
2 . 2 60
b
h 2 h
W
n
g
l

(vng)
S lp dy
12
7
81
w
w
n
1

(lp)
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
65
) mm ( 3 , 7
75 , 2
05 , 20
J
I
S
2 k
Cu

n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chn khong cch cch in gia dy qun vi tr :
ac = 3 mm
gia cc lp cd = 0,1 mm
B dy cun dy :
) mm ( 2 , 13 12 ). 1 , 0 00 , 1 ( n ). cd a ( B
d
+ +
Tng b dy cun dy :
) mm ( 2 , 16 3 2 , 13 a B B
c d d
+ +

Chiu di ca vng dy trong cng:


) mm ( 4 , 96 ) 1 , 0 . 2 24 24 .( 2 ) a 2 b a .( 2 l
c 1
+ + + +
Chiu di ca vng dy ngoi cng:
) mm ( 8 , 160 ) 2 , 16 . 2 24 24 .( 2 ) B . 2 b a .( 2 l
d 1
+ + + +

chiu di trung bnh ca 1 vng dy:
) mm ( 6 , 128
2
8 , 160 4 , 96
2
l l
l
2 1
tb

+

in tr ca dy qun 75C
028 , 0
79 , 7
10 . 81 . 6 , 128
. 02133 , 0
S
w . l
. R
3
k
tb
75

()
St p trn cun khng
U = R.I = 0.028.20,05 =0,57 (V)
Th tch st:
) dm ( 131 . 0 10 ). 108 60 . 2 ( 10 . 24 . 24 ) L h . 2 ( b . a L . b .
2
a
2 h . b . a 2 V
3 2 4
Fe
+ + +

Khi lng st:
) kg ( 03 , 1 85 , 7 . 131 , 0 m . V M
Fe Fe Fe

Khi lng ng:
) kg ( 722 , 0 10 . 9 , 8 . 81 . 6 , 128 . 79 , 7 m . w . l . S m . V M
6
Cu tb k Cu Cu Cu


III.5 Tnh ton cc thit b bo v mch ng lc:
III.5.1S mch ng lc c cc thit b bo v
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
66
A
B C
CD
AP
a
b
c
1CC 1CC
1CC
R
C
2C
R
C
2CC
R
C
2CC
R
C
2CC
T1
R
C
2CC
T3
R
C
2CC
T5
3CC
L
ACQUY
3CC
D2
D4
D6
Ti
K5
K
3
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
II.4.2 Chn bo v
A/ Bo v qu p cho van:
bo v xung in p trong qu trnh ng ct cc
van chng ta mc song song vi van bn dn mt mch
R-C . Khi c s chuyn mch cc in tch tch t trong
van bn dn phng ra ngoi to ra dng in ngc trong
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
67
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
khong thi gian ngn , s bin thin nhanh chng ca
dng in ngc gy ra sc in ng cm ng rt ln
trong cc in cm lm cho qu trnh qu in p gia
Anod v Catod ca Tiristor . Khi c mch R-C mc song
song vi Tiristor to ra mch vng phng tch trong qu
trnh chuyn mch nn Tiristor khng b qu p .
Chn R=10;C=0,2
F
.
Vic chn C v R phi m bo sao cho thi gian phng
np T=R.C nh c th chn c xung in p ,
ng thi nu C ln th in lng tch t cng s ln v khi
phng kt hp vi dng dn s nh thng van.
B/ Bo v xung in p t li in
Ta mc mch R-C nh hnh v di , nh c mch lc ny m
nh xung gn nh nm hon ton trn in tr ng
dy.
Chn R = 10 , C= 2 F
C/ Bo v ngn mch v qu ti v dng in:
Ngn mch c th xy ra do nh thng Van, ngn mch
u ra b bin i, ngn mch th cp my bin p.
Chn 1 p t mt c
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
68
a
b
c
R2
C2
R2
C2
R2
C2
D2
2C
C
R
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
) A ( 5 , 8 45 , 4 . 3 . 1 , 1 I . 3 . 1 , 1 I
ba 1 ap

) V ( 380 U
ap

C 3 tip im chnh , ng ngt bng tay hay t ng


bng nam chm in.
Chnh nh dng ngn mch :
) A ( 5 , 19 45 , 4 . 3 . 5 , 2 I . 3 . 5 , 2 I
ba 1 nm

Dng qu ti :
) A ( 6 , 11 45 , 4 . 3 . 5 , 1 I . 3 . 5 , 1 I
ba 1 qt

Chn cu dao c dng nh mc:
) A ( 5 , 8 45 , 4 . 3 . 5 , 1 I . 3 . 1 , 1 I
ba 1 cd

Ta chn cu ch bo v ngn mch.
Nhm cu ch 1CC dy chy c dng nh mc:
) A ( 5 , 18 39 , 16 . 1 , 1 I . 1 , 1 I
ba 2 cc 1

Nhm cu ch 2CC dy chy c dng nh mc:
) A ( 7 , 12 55 , 11 . 1 , 1 I . 1 , 1 I
hd cc 2

Nhm cu ch 3CC dy chy c dng nh mc:
) A ( 22 20 . 1 , 1 I . 1 , 1 I
d cc 3

Vy ta chn cu ch :
Nhm 1CC loi 20 A
Nhm 1CC loi 15 A
Nhm 1CC loi 25 A
D/ Bo v qu nhit
Khi lm vic vi dng in chy qua van c st p, do
c tn hao cng sut P , tn hao ny lm nng van bn
dn. Mt khc van bn dn ch c php lm vic vi
nhit di mc cho php Tcp , nu cao hn th van s b
ph hng . van lm vic an ton, khng b chc thng
bi nhit, ta phi chn v tht k b tn nhit hp l.
Tn tht cng sut nhit trn Tiristor ln hn trn Diod v
st p trn Tiristor l 2V cn vi Diode ch l 1V , cho
cng vic ch to cnh tn nhit phc tp ta chn cch
tn nhit cho Diod cng bng cnh tn nhit cho Tiristor.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
69
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Tn tht cng sut trn Tiristor:
P = U.
) W ( 1 , 23 55 , 11 . 2 I
lv

Din tch to nhit c tnh:
2
4
m
m
cm 718
10 . 40 . 8
1 , 23
. k
P
S


S
m
:din tch b mt to nhit.
P: tn hao cng sut(w).
T: chnh nhit so vi mi trng.
Chn nhit mi trng Tm =40C, Nhit lm vic cho
php ca Tiristor l Tcp =125C. Chn nhit trn cnh
tn nhit Tlv = 80C
T = Tlv Tm = 80 - 40 = 40C
Km : H s to nhit bng i lu . Chn Km =8 . C . m / W
2

Chn 9 cnh tn nhit kch thc: a x b = 10 x 10 cm


on b ct D = 5 cm 3 cnh
Vi cnh to nhit ta chn c thng s trn din tch to
nhit thc l:
2
thc
cm 750 5 . 10 . 3 9 . 10 . 10 S
.Vy cnh to nhit tho mn
iu kin to nhit
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
70
Cnh to nhit ca
Tristor
100mm
100mm
50mm
7m
m
100m
m
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chng IV
Tnh ton mch
iu khin
IV.1 Nguyn l thit k mach iu khin.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
71
T
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
iu khin Tiristor trong s chnh lu hin nay th-
ng gp l iu khin theo nguyn tc thng ng
tuyn tnh. Ni dung ca nguyn tc ny c th m t
theo gin hnh 3.1 nh sau.
Khi in p xoay chiu hnh sin t vo anod ca
Tiristor, c th iu khin c gc m ca Tiristor
trong vng in p (+) anod, ta cn to mt in p ta
dng tam gic, ta thng gi l in p ta l in p rng
ca Urc. Nh vy in p ta cn c trong vng in p dng
anod.
Dng mt in p mt chiu Uk so snh vi in p
ta. Ti thi im (t1,t4) in p ta bng in p iu
khin (Urc = Uk), trong vng in p dng anod th pht
xung iu khin Xk. Tiristor c m t thi im c
xung iu khin (t1,t4) cho ti cui bn k (hoc ti khi
dng in bng 0)

Hnh 3.1: Nguyn l iu khin chnh lu.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
72
T
Udf
Ur
c
Ud
k
Ud
Xdk
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
t
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
IV.2 S khi mch iu khin.
thc hin c nu trong phn nguyn l
iu khin trn, mch iu khin bao gm ba khu c
bn sau:

S khi mch iu khin
Vi s khi ny nhim v ca cc khu nh sau:
Khu ng pha c nhim v to in p ta Urc (th-
ng gp l in p dng rng ca tuyn tnh) trng pha vi
in p anod ca Tiristor.
Khu so snh c nhim v so snh gia in p ta
vi in p iu khin Uk, tm thi im hai in p
ny bng nhau (Uk = Urc). Ti thi im hai in p ny
bng nhau, th pht xung u ra gi sang tng
khuych i.
Khu to xung c nhim v to xung ph hp m
Tirisor. Xung m Tirstor c yu cu: sn trc dc thng
ng, m bo yu cu Tiristor m tc thi khi c
xung iu khin (thng gp loi xung ny l xung kim
hoc xung ch nht); rng vi rng xung ln
hn thi gian m ca Tiristor; cng sut; cch ly gia
mch iu khin vi mch ng lc (nu in p ng lc
qu ln).
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
73
T
ng
pha
So
snh
Khuch
i
dk
U
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Vi nhim v ca cc khu nh vy tin hnh thit k,
tnh chn cc khu c bn ca ba khi trn.
IV.3 Gii thiu v linh kin iu khin.
IV.3.1 To xung rng ca
S 1:Dng diode v t (Ta m phng dng in p ta
trn phn mm Electronic WorkBench 6.2)
Nguyn l to xung rng ca:
Khi A
+
th D
1
thng suy ra
B
(th im B)
0
;
B
dng hn
C
suy ra D
2
thng do
C
=
B
=
0.
Khi A
-
th D
1
v D
2
kho t np.
Qua thi gian
1

BC
m hn
B
D2 thun t bt
u x theo hng 0ABC n khi U
rc
= 0 v gi
nguyn n 2
y l s n gin, d thc hin, vi s linh kin
t nhng cht lng in p ta khng tt. di ca phn
bin thin tuyn tnh ca in p ta khng ph ht 180
0
.
Do vy, gc m van ln nht b gii hn. Hay ni cch khc,
nu theo s ny in p ti khng iu khin c t
0 ti cc i m t mt tr s no n cc i.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
74
0
U
a
R
1
A
-E
R
2
D2
D1
B
U
rc
C
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
S 2:Dng Transistor v t
Nguyn l to xung rng ca:
Khi th im A dng hn th im B (
A
>
B
)
th Transistor kho v t C np vi hng s thi gian T=R
2
.C;
khi (
B
>
A
) Transistor dn suy ra t x theo hngTransistor
cho ti U
rc
=0.
khc phc nhc im v di iu chnh s
1 ngi ta s dng s tao in p ta bng s 2
Theo s ny, in p ta c phn bin thin tuyn
tnh ph ht na chu k in p. Do vy khi cn iu
khin in p t 0 ti cc i l hon ton c th p ng
c.
S 3:Dng b ghp
quang
Nguyn l to xung rng ca:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
75
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
A
R1
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R2
-E
U2 U1
C
D
Tr
Ura
B
A
Urc
GHEP
QUANG
C
R
2
R
1
D
+E
Uv
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Khi A
-
m hn B diode (D) m diode quang tt
khoTransistor ( b ghp quang kho) lm t np n gi
tr U
rc
.
Khi A
+
dng hn B diode (D) kho diode quang sng m
Transistor ( b ghp quang dn lm t x qua diode quang
n khi U
rc
= 0.
u im ca s ny ch khng cn bin p
ng pha , do c th n gin hn trong vic ch to
v lp t.
S 4:Dng khuch i thut ton
Nguyn l to xung rng ca:
Khi
A
dng qua khuch i thut ton hn
B
m
lm cho Transistor kho ng thi diode D
1
dn khi hai to
thnh mt mch tch phn khi t C
1
np n in p
U
rc
. Khi
A
m th
B
dng D
1
kho Transistor dn t x
qua Transistor n khi U
rc
= 0.
IV.3.2 Chn khu ng pha
Cc s (1 3) u c chung nhc im l vic
m, kho cc Tranzitor trong vng in p ln cn 0 l
thiu chnh xc lm cho vic np, x t trong vng in p
li gn 0 khng c nh mun.
Ngy nay cc vi mch c ch to ngy cng nhiu,
cht lng ngy cng cao, kch thc ngy cng gn, ng dng
cc vi mch vo thit k mch ng pha c th cho ta cht
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
76
A1 A2
R1
A
R2
U
rc
R3
C1
C
D1
B
Tr
U1
U
df
U
rc
U
B
t
t
t
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
lng in p ta tt. Do ta quyt nh cho khu ng
pha dng khuch i thut ton.
IV.3.3 Chn khu so snh
xc nh c thi im cn m Tiristor chng ta
cn so snh hai tn hiu Uk v Urc. Vic so snh cc tn
hiu c th c thc hin bng Tranzitor v khuch
I thut ton. Ti thi im Uk = Urc, u u ra ca
b so snh lt trng thi.
So snh dng Transitor
Ti thi im Uk = Urc, u vo Tr lt trng thi t
kho sang m (hay ngc li t m sang kho), lm cho in
p ra cng b lt trng thi, ti chng ta nh du c
thi im cn m Tiristor.
Vi mc m bo ho ca Tr ph thuc vo hiu Uk
t Urc = Ub, hiu ny c mt vng in p nh hng mV,
lm cho Tr khng lm vic ch ng ct nh ta mong
mun, do nhiu khi lm thi im m Tiristor b lch
kh xa so vi im cn m ti Uk = Urc.
So snh dung khuch i thut ton

on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
77
U
ra

1
0
U
rc
U
dk
R1
Urc
R2
Udk
-E
R3
Tr
Ura
A3
Ura
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R2
Udk
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
R1
Urc
b.
U
rc
U
dk
U
ra
0

1

2

n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t


ng
KTT c h s khuych i v cng ln, ch cn mt
tn hiu rt nh (c V) u vo, u ra c in p
ngun nui, nn vic ng dng KTT lm khu so snh l
hp l. Cc s so snh dng KTT rt thng gp trong
cc s mch hin nay. u im hn hn ca cc s
ny l c th pht xung iu khin chnh xc ti Uk
= Urc. l l do ta chn KTT so snh.
IV.3.4 Khu to xung khuch i
S dng tranzitor cng sut
Vi nhim v to xung ph hp m Tiristor nh nu
trn, tng khuych i cui cng thng c thit k bng
Tranzitor cng sut, nh trn hnh a. c xung dng kim
gi ti Tiristor, ta dng bin p xung (BAX), c th
khuych i cng sut ta dng Tr, diode D bo v Tr v
cun dy s cp bin p xung khi Tr kho t ngt. Mc
d vi u im n gin, nhng s ny c dng khng
rng ri, bi l h s khuych i ca tranzitor loi ny
nhiu khi khng ln, khuych i c tn hiu t
khu so snh a sang.
S dng darlington
Tng khuych i cui cng
bng s darlington nh trn
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
78
R
Uv
Tr
BAX
+
E
D
Tr1
R
Uv
Tr
BAX
+
E
D

1

2

3
i
B
i
C
i
X
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
hnh bn thng hay c dng
trong thc t. s ny
hon ton c th p ng c
yu cu v khuych i cng
sut, khi h s khuych i c
nhn ln theo thng s ca cc
tranzitor.
S c t ni
tng
Trong thc t xung iu
khin ch cn c rng b
(c khong (10 200) s), m
thi gian m thng cc tranzitor
cng sut di (ti a ti mt na
chu k - 0.01s), lm cho cng
sut to nhit d ca Tr qu ln
v kch thc dy qun s cp
bin p d ln. gim nh cng
sut to
nhit Tr v kch thc dy s cp BAX chng ta c th thm
t ni tng . Theo s ny, Tr ch m cho dng in
chy qua trong khong thi gian np t, nn dng hiu dng
ca chng b hn nhiu ln.
T phn gii thiu trn ta chn c s iu
khin trang bn:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
79
R
Uv
Tr
BAX
+
E
D
Tr
1 C
D
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
80
S mt knh iu khin tristor
T
RE
Tr
2
Tr
1
R4
U
dk
A1 A2
R1
A
R2
Ur
R3
C1
C
D1
B
U
1
D2
A
3
t
2
R6
C3
R5
Uv
BAX
+
E
D3
UA
Urc
Udk
UB
U
A3
t
t
t
t
Ud
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
t
t
Xdk Xdk
30
Ua
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Hot ng ca mch iu khin c gii thch theo
gin cc ng cong trn nh sau:
in p vo ti im A (UA) c dng hnh sin, trng
pha vi in p anod ca Tiristor T, qua khuych i thut
ton (KTT) A1 cho ta chui xung ch nht i xng UB.
Khi (U
A
) dng qua khuch i thut ton (U
B
) Phn p d-
ng ca in p ch nht UB qua diod D1 ti A2 tch phn
thnh in p ta Urc. Khi (U
A
) m in p m ca in
p UB lm m thng tranzitor Tr1, kt qa l A2 b ngn
mch (vi Urc = 0) trong vng UB m. Trn u ra ca A2
chng ta c chui in p rng ca Urc gin on.
in p Urc c so snh vi in p iu khin Uk
ti u vo ca A3. Tng i s Urc + Uk quyt nh du
in p u ra ca KTT A3. Trong khong 0 t1 vi Uk >
Urc in p U
D
c in p m. Trong khong t1 t2 in
p Uk v U rc i ngc li, lm cho U
D
lt ln dng.
in p dng U
D
qua Transistor cng sut n my
bin p xung tao ra xung p iu kin m Tristor.
in p Ud s xut hin trn ti t thi im c xung
iu khin u tin, ti cc thi im t2, t4 trong chui
xung iu khin, ca mi chu k in p ngun cp, cho
ti cui bn k in p dng anod.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
81
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Kt qu m phng bng phn mm Electronic
Workbenchs 6.2 :
in p ng pha ti u vo ca KTT A1: :
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
82
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
in p ti B: :
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
83
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
in p ta ti C v in p iu khin: ::
in p ra sau khi so snh
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
84
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
in p chnh lu ca 1 pha sau khi qua Tiristor: :
III.4 Tnh ton cc thng s ca s mch iu
khin.
Cc thng s c bn tnh mch iu khin c:
- in p iu khin Tiristor U
k
=2,5(V).
- Dng in iu khin I
k
= 150(mA).
- Thi gian m : t
m
= 15 (s)
- rng xung iu khin t
x
= 45 (s)
- Mc st bin xung S
x
=0,30
- mt i xng cho php .
- in p ngun nui mch iu khin U = t 12(V).
IV.4.1.Tnh bin p xung
- Chn vt liu lm li l st Ferit HM c thng s sau:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
85
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
B = 0,3(T); H = 30(A/m)
Chn t s my bin p xung: m=3
- in p th cp MBAX: U
2
=U
k
=2,5(V)
- Dng in th cp MBAX: I
2
=I
k
= 150(mA)
- in p s cp MBAX: U
1
=m.U
k
=7,5(V)
- Dng in s cp MBAX: I
1
=I
k
/m=50(mA)
- Chn li st dng hnh xuyn, th tch li thp cn
c:

) cm ( 563 , 0
3 , 0
10 . 05 . 0 . 5 , 7 . 3 , 0 10 . 45 . 10 . 25 , 1 . 10 . 8
B
I . U . s . t . .
l . Q V
3
2
6 6 6 3
2
1 x x 0 tb




Trong :
tb
- t thm trung bnh.
3
6
0
tb
10 . 8
30 . 10 . 25 , 1
3 , 0
H .
B





o
= 1,25 . 10
-6
(H/m);
Q - tit din li st;
l - chiu di trung bnh ng sc t;
T th tch li st, tra bng chn c li MBAX c cc
kch thc.
Tra sch k thut bin i in nng
ta c thng s ca MBAX
d = 20 mm; D= 25 mm, a = 2,5 mm
Q = 0,125 cm2, V = 0,888 cm3,
Q
cs
= 3,14 cm2.
- Tnh thng s dy qun bin p xung:
S vng dy qun s cp
90
3 , 0 . 10 . 125 , 0
10 . 45 . 5 , 7
B . Q
t . U
W
4
6
x
1

(vng)
S vng dy qun th cp
30
3
90
3
W
W
1
2
(vng)
- Tit din dy qun c tnh
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
86
) 39 1 (
25m
m
20m
m
5m
m
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
i vi cc loi bin p xung iu khin Tiristor, v
rng xung in p hp nn chng ta c th chn mt
dng in J kh ln bng 6 v 4.

) mm ( 218 , 0 d mm 0375 , 0
4
15 , 0
J
I
S
) mm ( 103 , 0
S . 4
d mm 0083 , 0
6
05 , 0
J
I
S
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
i
1


Chn dy dn s cp c ng knh 0,11 mm
Chn dy qun th cp c ng knh 0,23 mm
Kim tra h s lp y:
0067 , 0
d
w . d w . d
4
d
w . S w . S
k
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
2
1 1 1 1
ld

+

,
_

+
+

Nh vy ca s mch t din tch cn thit.


IV.4.2.Tnh tng khuych i cui cng.
Sau khi la chn xong cc linh kin ca tng khuych
i cui cng chng ta c cc thng s c bn ca mch:
- in p ngun nui xung: E
cc
=+12(V);
chn in tr R
E
phn p cho BAX

). ( 90
05 , 0
5 , 7 12
I
U E
R
1
1
E

Ta chn
) ( 82 R
E

- Chn khuch i Tr
2
loi 2SC911 c thng s sau:
U
ce
=40(V); U
be0
=4(V); I
cmax
=500(mA); P
c
=1,7(W); T
0
=175
0
;
=50.
Dng lm vic colect: I
C2
= 50(mA)
Dng lm vic baz: I
B2
= 50/50 =1(mA).
Chn tt c cc Diod trong mch iu khin loi 1N4009
c cc tham s:
- Dng in nh mc : I
dm
= 10 (mA)
- in p ngc ln nht: U
N
= 25 (V)
- in p m thng cho Diod : U
m
= 1(V)
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
87
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
- in tr vo tn khuch i:

) k ( 12
10 . 1
12
I
U
R
3
2 B
v
6


Trong : U
v
- in p vo c ly t tng so snh a
sang;
I
B2
- dng in baz ca Tranzitor khuych
i
Chn t C
3
: C
3
.R
6
= t
x
=45.10
-6
(s)
C
3
=

3
6
6
x
10 . 12
10 . 45
R
t
3,75(nF)
Chn theo gi tr quy chun C
3
= 3,9 nF
IV.4.3 Tnh chn tng so snh.
- Khuch i thut ton TL084
Chn
) k ( 12
10 . 1
12
I
U
R R
3
v
v
5 4
>

Chn theo gi tr quy chun R
4
= R
5
= 15 k
Trong ngun nui V
CC
= t 12 V Th in p vo A
3

12 V
Dng in vo c hn ch I
v
< 1mA
IV.4.4 Tnh cc thng s ca khu ng pha.
Trong s ng pha, vic to in p ta c tin
hnh bng cch np t theo mch R - C. m bo in
p ta c trong mt na chu k in p li l tuyn tnh
th hng s thi gian t np c tnh theo
T
rc
= R
2
.C
Trong : R
2
,C - cc thng s in tr v t in trong
mch np t
Chn: T
rc
=0,01; chn t: C
1
=0,1(F)
R
2
=100(k).
Chn Transistor T
1
loi: A564 pnp c cc thng s:
U
bc0
=25V; U
BE0
=7V; I
cmax
=100mA;
T
0
=150
0
c; =250
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
88
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Dng cc i ca Baz :
) mA ( 4 , 0
250
100 I
I
max C
max B

hn ch dng vo cc Baz
.Chn R
2
:
) k ( 30
10 . 4 , 0
12
I
U
R
3
B
max N
2


Chn R
2
= 30 k
Chn in p ng pha : U
A
= 9 V
in tr hn ch dng i vo khuych i thut
ton A
1
, ta chn R
1
sao cho dng i vo khuych i thut
ton I
v
< 1 mA. Ta c
) k ( 9
10 . 1
9
I
U
R
3
v
A
1


Chn R
1
= 10 k
-Xc nh bin in p ta U
rc1max
theo cng thc vit
cho mch tch phn
)) 0 .( u ) t .( u (
1
dt u
1
u
1 rc 1 rc
t
0
b 1 rc


in p u
b
= 12 V , t = 0,01 s , = 0,01 s
U
rc1max
= 0,01.12/0,01 = 12 V
IV.4.5 My bin p ng pha v ngun nui
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
89
D
2
D
4
D
6
D
1
D
3
D
5
A
B
C
BAN
LM 7912
LM 7812
C4 C5
C6 C7
+12V
0V
-12V
Dong pha
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Dng bin p 3 pha , 3 tr , ni Y-Y, th cp u 2
cun dy: Mt cun cho khu ng pha, Ta to ngun
nui in p Vcc = t 12 V cp cho cc thit b sau: 03
My bin p xung, 07 IC loi TL084 c KTT, 03 Rle
trung gian.
Dng mch chnh lu cu 3 pha vi 6 Diod, Ta to in
p th cp my bin p ngun nui l U
2ba
= 9 V a vo
mch chnh lu cu v mch ng pha.
in p sau b chnh lu cu ;
U
do
= 2,34.U
2ba
= 2,34.9 = 21,06 V
Ngun nui IC cn in p t vo t 7-35 V do ta
t vo 21,06 V l tho mn. Khi in p u ra l t
12 V.
U
ra
= 12 V vi IC 7812
U
ra
= -12 V vi IC 7912
Dng in u ra : I
ra
= 0 - 1 A
T in C4, C5, C6, C7 dng lc thnh phn sng hi
bc cao.
Chn C4 = C5 = C6 = C7 = 470 F.
Dng in cp cho ng pha Idf = 1mA, vy cng sut
cp cho ng pha:
Pdf = 3. Udf. Idf = 3.0,001 =0,003 (W)
Cng sut ngun nui BAX
PBAX =

bax 1 bax 1
I . U . 3
3.(7,5.0,05) = 1,125 (W)
Cng sut ngun nui 7IC TL084 lm khuych i thut
ton vi mi IC tiu th PIC = 0,68 W
P7IC =7. PIC =7.0,68 = 4,76 (W)
Cng sut ngun ng pha cho 3 r le trung gian vi mi
rle c cng sut 0,72 W
P3r =

r
P . 3
3.0,72 = 2,16 (W)
Cng sut tng ca my bin p k c tn tht 10%
trong my bin p l:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
90
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
S

= 1,1(PBAX + P7IC+ P3r +Pdp + Pdf) =1,1.(1,125 + 4,76 +
2,16 + 0,003 ) = 8,85(W)
1-Tit din tr Q
Fe
ca li thp bin p c tnh t
cng sut:


Trong :
S
ba
- cng sut bin p tnh
bng [W];
k
Q
- h s ph thuc phng
thc lm mt;
k
Q
= 6 nu l bin p kh;
m - s tr ca my bin
p( c m=3)
f - tn s ngun in xoay
chiu f=50 Hz. Chn theo chun trong bng Q = 1,63 cm2
my bin p c cc thng s sau:
a b c h H Q
fe
12m
m
16m
m
12m
m
30m
m
42m
m
1,63cm
2
L thp dy 0,2 mm ,s lng l 68
. Gi tr dng in chy trong mi pha th cp MBA
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
91
) cm ( 46 , 1
50 . 3
85 , 8
. 6
f . m
S
k Q
2 ba
Q Fe

b
h H
c
C
a c
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
I
2
) A ( 33 , 0
9 . 3
85 , 8
U . m
S
2
ba


Gi tr dng in chy trong mi pha s cp MBA
I
1
) A ( 0134 , 0
220 .. 3
85 , 8
U . m
S
1
ba

S vng dy ca cun s cp c tnh

6080
1 . 63 , 1 . 50 . 44 , 4
10 . 220
B . Q . f . 44 , 4
10 . U
W
4
Fe
4
1

(vng)
S vng dy ca cun th cp c tnh

249 6080 .
220
9
w .
U
U
W
1
1
2
2

(vng)
Tnh tit din dy dn cun s cp:
) mm ( 0049 , 0
75 , 2
0134 , 0
J
I
S
2 1
1 Cu

Chn dy c ng knh d = 0,10 mm c tit din S =
0,00785 mm2 m bo bn c.
Tnh tit din dy dn cun th cp:

) mm ( 12 , 0
75 , 2
33 , 0
J
I
S
2
2
2 Cu

Chn dy c ng knh d = 0,41 mm c tit din ng S
= 0,132 mm2
Din tch ng trong ca s:
Q
cu1
=
2 2
cd 1 1
10 , 0 . 6080 .
4
d w
4

=47,73 (mm
2
).
Q
cu2
=
2 2
cd 2 2
41 , 0 . 249 .
4
d w
4

= 32,85 (mm
2
)
Q
cu
= 2(47,73 + 2. 32,8 )= 226,9 (mm
2
)
Kch thc ca s:
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
92
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Q
cs
= c.h = 12x30=360 ( mm
2
).
Vy bin p vi kch thc chn l hon tn tho mn.
Tnh chn Diod cho b chnh lu ngun nui
- Dng in hiu dng qua Diod:
) ( 233 , 0
2
33 , 0
2
2
.
A
I
I
D HD

- in p ngc ln nht m Diod phi chu:
) V ( 22 9 . 6 U . 6 U
2 max N

- Chn Diod c dng nh mc :
) A ( 33 , 2 233 , 0 . 10 I . k I
D . HD i dm
>
- Chn Diod c in p ngc:

) V ( 44 22 . 2 U . k U
max N u n
>
Chn Diod loi K208A c cc thn s:
- Dng in nh mc: I
dm
= 5 A
- in p ngc cc i: U
N
= 100 V
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
93
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Chng IV
Xy dng v tnh
ton mch iu
khin t ng
IV.1 Yu cu mch iu khin v cc phng n iu
khin.
IV.1.1 Yu cu iu khin
1.Vic np acquy cn phi c tin hnh mt cch t
ng m bo yu cu cung cp in c lin tc
cho ti.
1. Phi m bo yu cu t ng ng ngun np khi
acquy gn ht nng lng
2. Ct ngun np khi acquy no.
3. Ct acquy khi ti nu in p acquy nh hn gi tr
cho trc
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
94
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
4. ng thi dng np phi c khng ch khng c ln
qu gi tr cho php.
Ta c th thc hin vic np acquy t ng theo 2 nguyn
tc sau:
IV.1.2 Cc phng php iu khin t ng.
1. Nguyn tc n dng:
Ban u b chnh lu chy khng ti vi in p khng
ti U
0
. Khi ni ti dng in qua ti qu tng dn ti gi
tr n nh. Ti y b bin i thc hin qu trnh
n dng nh sau:
a) n dng theo sn trc:
Nguyn tc iu khin U
k
= U
d
+ U
f
_Ban u in p ra ca b chnh lu l in p khng ti
U
d
= U
0
, I
d
= 0 khi ni ti vo dng in I
d
tng dn ko
theo in p phn hi U
f
tng. Do U
k
= U
f
+ U
d
Nn U
k
tng dn ti in p ra ca b chnh lu gim dn. Do U
d
gim dn lm tc tng dng in gim cho ti khi I
d
=
I
d
. Ti gi tr nh I
d0
in p b chnh lu l U
0
_Nu v mt l d no dng in tng hn I
0
U
f
tng U
k
tng lm in p u ra b chnh lu gim
xung U
d
< U
0
. Chnh v iu ny lm dng in chnh
lu gim dn vi tc n nh.
_Ngc li nu I
d
gim ( I
d
< I
0d
) dng in s t ng tng ti
gi tr n nh.
b) Theo sn sau:
_Ban u in p b chnh lu l U
d
= U
0
, I
d
= 0
_ Ni ti dng in tng dn U
f
tng dn U
k
tng lm
in p ra gim.
_Dng in chnh lu ang duy tr n nh. V mt l
do no dng in tng dn n U
f
tng lm U
k
gim
lm gc m tng U
d
gim nh hn U
0d
dng in s gim
dn ti gi tr n nh.
Tng t nh vy nu dng in gim.
Kt lun:
Nh vy nu thu hin n dng ta phi:
_Phn hi m dng in nu iu khin theo sn
sau.
_Phn hi dng dng in nu iu khin theo sn
trc.
2. Nguyn tc n p:
Ban u b chnh lu chy khng ti vi in p khng
ti U
0
. Khi ni ti dng in qua ti qu tng dn ti gi
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
95
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
tr n nh. Ti y b bin i thc hin qu trnh
n p nh sau:
a) n p theo sn trc:
Nguyn tc iu khin U
k
= U
d
+ U
f
_Ban u in p ra ca b chnh lu l in p khng ti
U
d
= U
0
, I
d
= 0 khi ni ti vo dng in I
d
tng dn ko
theo in p phn hi U
f
tng. Do U
k
= U
f
+ U
d
Nn U
k
tng dn ti in p ra ca b chnh lu gim dn. Do U
d
gim dn ti U


_Nu v mt l d no in p tng hn U

U
f
tng
U
k
tng lm in p u ra b chnh lu gim xung U
d
= U

.
_Ngc li nu U
d
gim in p s t ng tng ti gi tr n
nh.
b) Theo sn sau:
_Ban u in p b chnh lu l U
d
= U
0
, I
d
= 0
_ Ni ti in p tng dn U
f
tng dn U
k
tng lm in
p ra gim.
_in p chnh lu ang duy tr n nh. V mt l do
no in p tng dn n U
f
tng lm U
k
gim lm
gc m tng U
d
gim dn ti gi tr n nh. Tng t
nh vy nu dng in gim.
Kt lun:
Nh vy nu thu hin n p ta phi:
_Phn hi m in p nu iu khin theo sn sau.
_Phn hi dng in p nu iu khin theo sn tr-
c.
IV.2 La chn phng n iu khin
IV.2.1 Dng phn hi m dng in c ngt
hn ch dng in .
Qua phn tch u nhc im ca tng phng php ta
thy rng vi ti acquy ta chn phng php n dng bng
mch phn hi m dng in c ngt l thch hp bi n
p ng c yu cu ca np acquy :
1- Acquy sau khi np no , khng gy ra hin tng no
gi do dng np qu ln.
2- Dng np c khng ch , khng vt qu gi tr cho
php lm hng bn cc. c bit l trong np t
ng, nu khi cn np m ngun cp in cho
ngun np b mt, trong khi acquy vn phi cp
in cho ti. Khi c in tr li do s chnh in p
giacquy u ra ca ngun np vi in p acquy qu
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
96
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
ln , dn ti dng chy qua acquy rt ln lm hng cc
bn cc.
3- Phn hi dng in ch hot ng trong thi gian
u ng mch np , sau khi in p ca acquy tng
ln th chnh p giacquy v in p chnh lu
gim dn , dng in s gim dn v khng , khi
dng in gim th khng nguy him cho acquy do
ta khng cn phn hi dng trong thi gian ny.
IV.2.2 xy dng mch iu khin nh dng.
A/ S khi
B/ S nguyn l.

C
a
b
B
A
c
A
O
R1
R2
C1
Tr1
D1
R3
R4
R5
C3
R6
D2
D3
R7
RV1
R8
RV2
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R0
C0
D0
A
B
12V
A4
A5
A1
A2
A3
12V
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
97
Ud
WBBD ACQUY
Wphi
Uphi
Ud In
S khi mch phn hi dng in
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
C/ Nguyn l hot ng ca mch
Qua bin dng v khu chnh lu ta c in p mt
chiu U
0d
. T C
0
lc cc thnh phn sng hi bc cao sau
chnh lu . in p phn hi dng U
1
c ly trn VR
1
,
in p ngng U
2
ly trn VR
2
, a gi tr in p chnh
lch gia in p phn hi v in p ngng (U
1
- U
2
) vo
khuych thut ton to in p phn hi dng U
phi
= U
A
= K
phi
. (U
1
- U
2
) . H s phn hi chnh bng h s khuych
i ca khuych thut ton.
Gi tr in p t U

to ra gc m ban u
sao cho in p ban u t vo acquy gi tr sao cho
dng np l nh mc.
Khi dng in np bng dng nh mc th (U
1
- U
2
)
= 0 nn U
A
= 0.
Ta chn b cng o sau c h s khuych i bng 1 .
Do in p iu khin U
B
= U
t
+ U
A
khng i , gc
m van khng i , in p ra sau chnh lu t vo
acquy khng i , do dng np gim gi nguyn gi tr
t.
Khi dng in np ln hn dng nh mc th (U
1
-
U
2
) < 0 nn U
A
> 0.
Do in p iu khin U
B
= U
t
+ U
A
tng , gc m
van tng lm cho in p ra sau chnh lu t vo acquy
gim , do dng np gim v gi tr t.
Khi dng in np nh hn dng nh mc th (U
1
-
U
2
) > 0 nn U
A
< 0.
Do in p iu khin U
B
= U
t
+ U
A
gim , gc m
van gim lm cho in p ra sau chnh lu t vo acquy
tng , do dng np tng v gi tr t.
Khi in p acquy tng n gi tr ln nht mch np
t ng ngt nh r le in p c thit k phn sau.
D/ Tnh chn cc thng s ca mch phn hi
1. Chn bin dng loi 20/5.
H s bin dng P = 1/4
in tr th cp R
0
= 0,4
Khi dng np gi tr nh mc I
N
= 20 A th dng in
ti th cp my bin p chnh lu : I
1
= 16,39 A
in p th cp my bin dng:
U
BI
= R
0
. I
2
= R
0
.P. I
1
= 0,4.16,39.0,25= 1,639 (V)
in p sau khu chnh lu:
U
0d
= -k. U
BI
= -k.R
0
.P. I
1
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
98
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
k =2,34: H s chnh lu cu
thay s ta c :
U
0d
= -2,34.0,4.0,25.16,39 =-3,84 (V)
Ly in p ra t bin tr VR1 l U
1
=-2 V ng vi dng np
nh mc.
Ly in p t t bin tr VR2 l U
2
= 2V.
2, Tnh chn Diod cho b chnh lu
Chn RV1= 1 k
- Dng in hiu dng qua Diod:
) A ( 0027 , 0
2 . 1000
84 , 3
2 . 1 RV
U
I
0
D . HD

- in p ngc ln nht m Diod phi chu:
) V ( 4 , 9 84 , 3 . 6 U . 6 U
2 max N

- Chn Diod c dng nh mc :
) A ( 027 , 0 0027 , 0 . 10 I . k I
D . HD i dm
>
- Chn Diod c in p ngc:

) V ( 8 , 18 4 , 9 . 2 U . k U
max N u n
>
Chn Diod loi 1N4007 c cc thng s:
- Dng in nh mc: I
dm
= 1A
- in p ngc cc i: U
N
= 100 V
Chn t C =0,1 F
3, H s phn hi dng in :
Chn K
phi
= R
10
/ R
9
= 100
Chn R
9
= R
8
=10 K m bo dng in vo KTT nh
hn 1mA
Chn R
10
= 1000 k
4, Xc nh in p t v gc m ban u .
in p acquy khi bt u np : UA = 110 V
Dng in np: I
N
= 20 A
in tr trong acquy : R
A
= 50.0,001 = 0,05
St p trn van : U
v
= 3,5 V
St p trn bin p: U
ba
= 5 V
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
99
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
in p chnh lu cn thit:
U
d
= UA + I
N
. R
A
+U
v
+ U
ba
= 110 + 20.0,05 +3,5 +5
= 119,5 (V)
Gc m ban u l:
0
d
45 707 , 0 cos ar
707 , 0 cos
5 , 119 ) cos . 5 , 0 5 , 0 .( 140 U


+
Gi tr in p t tng ng:
U
t
=
3
180
45 . 12
180
45 .
max

U
(V)
Chn R
11
= R
12
= R
13
= 12 k
IV.3 Thit k tnh ton mch ng ngun np khi
in p acquy nh hn 110 V , ngt ngun np khi
ln hn 125 V v mch bo v khi nh hn 98 V.
IV.3.1S nguyn l.
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
100

VR1
VR2
R3
R4
Tr5
K1
12V
12V
N
D5
M
N
K1
K2
N
VR1
M
12V
12V
VR21
VR11
R6
K3
K3
K3
M
R7
R8
R9
Tr6
K2
VR31
VR4
VR41
D6
A B C
CD
AP
K3 K3
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
2. IV.3.2 Hot ng:
Dng VR1 ly in p phn hi t acquy ,
Dng KTT lt ngng khi in p acquy t ti ngng
t.
Ngng 125V:
Khi in p acquy t 125 V th in p ly ra trn VR11
t 9 V .Bng vi in p ly ra trn VR21 t cc m
ca KTT, in p ra KTT lt ln mc dng 12V bng vi
in p ngun cp.
Cc in tr R3, R4, R6 dng hn ch dng in vo
KTT v cc Base ca Tranzito.
Ngng 110V:
Khi in p acquy t 110 V th in p ly ra trn VR31
t 9 V .Bng vi in p ly ra trn VR41 t cc m
ca KTT, in p ra KTT lt ln mc dng 12V bng vi
in p ngun cp.
Ngng 98V:
Khi in p acquy t 98 V th in p ly ra trn VR41
t 9 V .Bng vi in p ly ra trn VR61 t cc m
ca KTT, in p ra KTT lt ln mc dng 12V bng vi
in p ngun cp.
Thit b ng ngt.
K1, K2, K4 l cc r le 1 chiu dng in p 12 V cp t
ngun nui
K3 l rle 1 chiu dng in p 110 V cp t acquy
K5 l r le 1 chiu dng in p 100 V cp t acquy
Hot ng:
Khi in p acquy nh hn 110 V th in p t
vo cc dng ca KTT ngng 110 V nh hn in p t
vo cc m ca n l 9V, do in p ra l -12 V, qua
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
101
N
VR1
M
12V
N
12V
M
VR51
VR6
VR61
R10
R11
R12 K4
K4
K5
K5
i T
L
D7 Tr7
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
diod b chn li nn in p t vo cc B ca Tr6 bng
0V.
Tranzito kho do ngt dng in vo cun ht ca K2,
tip im thng ng ca K2 ng .
ng thi khi in p trn acquy nh hn 110 V th
in p trn cc dng ca KTT ly ngng 125 V cng nh
hn 9V.
Tng t nh trn, tip im thng ng ca K1 ng .
Nh vy cun ht ca K3 s c cp in v tip im
thng m ca K3 ng li cp in cho mch np.
Khi in p acquy ln hn 110 V th tip im thng
ng ca K2 m ra nhng v Tip im ca K3 mc song
song vi n vn ng nn cun ht ca K3 vn c cp
in v tip im thng m ca n vn ng do
acquy vn tip tc np in ( y K3 c tc dng duy
tr cp in khi in acquy ln hn 110V)
Khi in p acquy ln hn 125V th in p trn cc
dng ca KTT ngng 125 V ln hn in p trn cc m
ca n l 9 V do in p u ra s l 12V lm cho Tr5
thng ,cp in cho cun ht K1, lm cho tip im th-
ng ng ca K1 m ra, ngt ngun cp cho cun ht ca
K3, tip im thng m ca K3 m ra , ngt ngun np
acquy .
Nu in p acquy nh hn 98 V m chacquy c np
in , trnh lm hng cc bn cc khi phng in di
98 V ta dng ngng ngt 98 V.
Khi in p acquy nh hn 98 V , in p u ra ca
KTT ngng 98 V s lt xung mc 12 V, in p t trn B
ca Tr7 bng 0 , Tr7 kho , ngt in vo cun ht K4,
tip im thng m ca K4 m , ngt in vo cun ht
ca K5, m tip im thng m ca K5, ngt ti ra khi
acquy .
IV.3.3 Tnh ton cc thng s ca mch ng ngt
ngun np
A/ Chn thng s ca mch ngt ngng 125 V
Chn VR
1
= 50 k , dng in ln nht chy trn in tr
l:
) A ( 10 . 5 , 2
10 . 50
125
VR
U
I
3
3
1
max ac
max


Tn hao cng sut trn in tr VR l:
) W ( 313 , 0 10 . 50 . 10 . 5 , 2 VR . I P
3 6 2
1
2
max VR


on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
102
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Tn hao ny mc cho php, nn gi tr VR chn l ph hp
in p ly ra R
4
l 9 V khi in p acquy l 125 V
in tr tng ng l :
) k ( 6 , 3 50 .
125
9
VR .
U
9
VR
1
max ac
11

hn ch dng in vo KDTT di 1 mA ta chn :
) k ( 9
10 . 1
9
R
3
4


Chn ngng t in p R
3
l 9 V .
in tr R
4
= R
3
= 10 k
in tr VR
2
= 12 k
Chn tranzito Tr
3
c thng s :
Dng I
cmax
= 2 A, h s khuych i dng = 50
Chn rle K1 loi YL-221-SDC c thng s:
U = 12V , in tr cun dy R = 200
Cng sut lm vic P = 0,72 W
Dng in cc i chy trong cun ht :
) A ( 06 , 0
200
12
R
U
I
r

Gi tr ny nh hn dng cc i ca Tranzito.Nn ta khng
cn in tr R
5

Gi tr in tr R
6
cn thit hn ch dng in vo
cc Base ca Tr:
I
Bmax
= I
cmax
/ = 2/50 = 0,4 (A)
B/ Chn thng s ca mch ngt ngng 98 V
Vn ly in p phn hi trn VR1
in tr VR31 ly ra in p 9V khi in p acquy
110 V l:
) k ( 6 , 4 50 .
98
9
VR .
U
9
VR
1
ac
31

Cc gi tr in tr , cc thng s D7, Tr7, K4 ly ng
bng gi tr tng ng trn mch ngng 125 V.
Chn Rle K3 loi 1 chiu , c thng s:
U = 110 V
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
103
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
Mc lc:
Chng I: Gii thiu v acquy v cch np acquy
I.1 Mc ch s dng ca c qui.2
I.1.1 Mc ch s dng chung .2
I.1.2 Mc ch s dng c qui ti bnh vin Bch Mai.3
I.2 Cc chng loi acquy.3
I.2.1 Cc loi acquy.3
I.2.2 Kiu acquy .3
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
104
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
I.3 Cc tham s k thut ca acquy
I.3.1 Sc in ng E, n v l Vn
I.3.2 Ni tr Ro, n v l m ( )
I.3.3 Dung lng
I.3.4 Hiu sut
I.4 Cc loi acquy c bn
I.4.1 Qu trnh bin i nng lng trong c qui axit .
I.4.2 c im cu to ca acquy
I.5.1. Cc c tnh c bn ca c qui .
I.5.2. Np ca acquy axit .
I.6 Acquy kim14
I.6.1 Cu to14
I.6.2. Qu trnh bin i nng lng trong c qui kim.15
I. 6.3. c tnh np ca acquy kim .15
I.7. S khc nhau gia acquy kim v acquy axit .17
I.8 Cc phng php np c qui t ng.18
I.8.1. Phng php np acquy vi dng in khng i.18
I.8.2 Phng php np vi in p khng i.19
I.8.3 Phng php np dng p.20
Chng II: Gii thiu cc s chnh lu np acquy.21
II.1 Gii thiu chung :22
II.2 Chnh lu mt na chu k. 22
II.2.1 Nguyn l 22
II.2.1 u nhc im: 23
II.3 Chnh lu c chu k vi bin p c trung tnh. 23
II.3.1 Nguyn l. 23
II.3.2 u nhc im .24
II.4 Chnh lu cu mt pha.24
II.4.1 Nguyn l. 24
II.4.2 u nhc im .27
II.5 Chnh lu tia ba pha.27
II.5.1 Nguyn l27
II.5.2 u nhc im. 29
II.6 Chnh lu tia su pha. 29
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
105
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
II.6.1 Nguyn l. 29
II.6.2 u nhc im. 30
II.7 Chnh lu cu ba pha.30
II.7.1 Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin i xng. 30
II.7.2 Chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin khng i xng.33
II.8. Nguyn l thit k mach iu khin.34
Chng III : La chn v tnh ton mch ng lc
IIi.1 La chn s chnh lu cho mch np c qui 37
II.1.1S nguyn l 37
III.1.2. ng c tnh biu din38
III.2 Tnh chn van ng lc:40
II.3.Tnh ton my bin p. 42
II.3.1.Cc i lng ban u. 42
III.3.2.Tnh ton s b mch t. 42
III.3.3 Tnh ton cc thng s in p v dng in ca
cc cun dy.4 3
III.3.4 Tnh kch thc mch t. 45
III.3.5 Kt cu dy qun. 47
III.3.6 Khi lng st v ng s dng. 48
III.3.7 Tnh ton kim nghim. 50
III.4 Tnh ton cun khng lc dng in p mch. 52
III.4.1 Xc nh gi tr in cm ca cun khng. 52
III.4.2 Thit k cun khng lc dng in p mch. 55
III.5 Tnh ton cc thit b bo v mch ng lc. 59
III.5.1S mch ng lc c cc thit b bo v. 59
III.5.2 Chn bo v. 60
Chng IV: Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin

IV.1 Nguyn l thit k mach iu khin.64
IV.2 S khi mch iu khin. 65
IV.3 Gii thiu v linh kin iu khin. 65
IV.3.1 To xung rng ca. 65
IV.3.2 Chn khu ng pha. 68
IV.3.4 Khu to xung khuch i. 69
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
106
n in t cng sut Ngun np c qui t
ng
IV.3.5 S mt knh iu khin .70
IV.3.6 Kt qu m phng bng phn mm Electronic
Workbenchs 6.2. 72
III.4 Tnh ton cc thng s ca s mch iu khin.
76
IV.4.1.Tnh bin p xung. 76
IV.4.2.Tnh tng khuych i cui cng. 77
IV.4.3 Tnh chn tng so snh.78
IV.4.4 Tnh cc thng s ca khu ng pha.78
IV.4.5 My bin p ng pha v ngun nui.79
Chng V: Xy dng v tnh ton mch iu khin t
ng
V.1 Yu cu mch iu khin v cc phng n iu khin.
85
V.1.1 Yu cu iu khin. 85
V.1.2 Cc phng php iu khin t ng. 85
V.2 La chn phng n iu khin. 86
V.2.1 Dng phn hi m dng in c ngt hn ch
dng in . 87
V.2.2 Xy dng mch iu khin nh dng. 87
V.3 Thit k tnh ton mch ng ngun np khi in p
acquy nh hn 110 V , ngt ngun np khi ln hn 125 V v
mch bo v khi nh hn 98 V. 90
V.3.1 S nguyn l. 90
V.3.2 Tnh ton cc thng s ca mch ng ngt ngun
np. 91
on Khnh Ton TB_T3-K49
107