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Resilience of art cities to flooding:

Success and failure of the Italian experience

Resilienza delle città d’arte alle catastrofi idrogeologiche:

successi e insuccessi dell’esperienza italiana
(Rome, November 4-5, 2014)

Poster contributions


ROMA 2016
Antica Tipografia dal 1876 S.r.l. - PIAZZA DELLE CINQUE LUNE, 113 - 00186 ROMA BARDI EDIZIONI
Azienda con Sistema Qualità certificato ISO 9001 - 14001 EDITORE COMMERCIALE
Nicola Santopuoli(a), Enzo Lucchi(b)



1. Cusercoli castle and the territory geology

In the course of its history(1), Cusercoli castle developed a close rela-

tionship with the territory and its geological features: directly with Ghiag-
giolo shire, to which it belonged, and, more generally, with Romagna, be-
cause of Malatesti and Guidi di Bagno events. The buttress on which the
medieval village stands, with its shape and rock hardness, shut up the road
towards Tuscany, forcing the river to divert its path in a loop: some histo-
rians think this is the origin of the name “Cusercoli” which refers to the
expression Cos (or Clusum) Herculis (Chiusa di Ercole)(2). The territory and
geology knowledge is a necessary condition for the soil conservation, pro-
tection and valorization in the planning and territorial programming, espe-
cially in a context with cultural and natural peculiarity but also hydrogeolo-
gical risks.

  Dipartimento di Storia, Disegno e Restauro dell’Architettura, “Sapienza” - Università di
  Freelancer geologist, Forlì.
 N. Graziani, La chiusa d’Ercole, Forlì 1979; A. Alvisi, Dal restauro del monumento
alla valorizzazione del suo contesto attraverso una rifunzionalizzazione consapevole: il Castello
di Cusercoli, Museo dell’Anatomia dell’Architettura in “La cultura del restauro e della valoriz-
zazione. Temi e problemi per un percorso internazionale di conoscenza”, Atti del 2° convegno
internazionale sulla Documentazione, conservazione e recupero del patrimonio architettonico e
sulla tutela paesaggistica, Firenze 6-8 novembre 2014, vol. 2, pp. 999-1006.
 A. Alvisi, Il Castello di Cusercoli: progetto di restauro, rifunzionalizzazione e valorizza-
zione di un complesso monumentale dell’Alta Romagna, specialization thesis at Scuola di Specia-
lizzazione in Beni Architettonici e del Paesaggio, “Sapienza” Università di Roma, a.a. 2007/08,
supervisors: prof. N. Santopuoli, prof. S. A. Curuni; B. Tetti, Il Castello di Cusercoli: progetto
di restauro, messa in sicurezza e consolidamento di un complesso monumentale dell’Alta Roma-
gna, specialization thesis at Scuola di Specializzazione in Beni Architettonici e del Paesaggio,
“Sapienza” Università di Roma, a.a. 2007/08, supervisors: prof. N. Santopuoli, prof. S. A. Cu-
runi, prof. F. De Cesaris.
— 70 —

In the Romagna hills, a dense system of fortresses, archaeological sites

and other historical and artistic interest artifacts is intertwined with the pre-
sence of natural and environmental values, like Parco nazionale delle Fore-
ste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna, Meandri del Fiume Ronco,
Riserva Naturale regionale Bosco di Scardavilla and Tevere spring. Civi-
tella di Romagna council, of which Cusercoli is a part, includes a rather
extensive area (117,8 km) with various castles and forts.
Cusercoli castle is part of this fortresses system for which Comunità
montana dell’Appennino forlivese studied paths called “Circuito castelli e
rocche”: these tours start at Forlì and reach the twenty most important forti-
fied sites in the territory.
The castle is built on a rock located in the valley of a hills surrounded
area which is characterized by sandstone-conglomeratic and clay-marly
outcrops. The average rainfall of Bidentina valley makes the water coming
from upstream flow along the south-north direction. The buttress where the
castle is located is affected by intense rainfall episodes that cause infiltra-
tions in the “oriented fractures”: these cross the rock, reaching the under-
As already mentioned, Cusercoli outcrops are mainly sandstone-conglo-
meratic and clay-marly: from a geological point of view, two homogeneous
areas can be identified:
- surrounding outcrops areas characterized by conglomerates inserted in
predominantly clay lithotypes with geomorphological evolution, typical of
sloping clay and clay-marly soils. Often these areas show very pronounced
erosion which evolve in badlands with small gullies on a gray-marl layer.
The rainwater, first free to flow out on the land, is now unevenly contained
in natural and/or artificial ditch down to the valley. Upstream of the castle
the drainage system is insufficient, when not completely absent:
- conglomeratic outcrops areas and neighboring with a typically hilly
geomorphological evolution, in which the emerging conglomeratic rocks are
in evidence on the surrounding more erodible clays.
Cusercoli rocky buttress is close to Bidente river on the east side: the
water flows in it throughout the year, with a limited flow in summer. Sand
deposits from Appennino, sometimes with large sandstone blocks and more
or less rounded limestone-quartzite pebbles, scattered everywhere along the
waterway, are frequent in the riverbed.
The castle architectural structure uniqueness and complexity, conside-
red in the unique and particularly “sensitive” geological context, make ne-
cessary specific geological studies, to evaluate the most appropriate consoli-
dation and interventions to make the building safe, respecting its history and
material consistency.
— 71 —

2. Romagna hills and Bidente river

Bidente river originates from Monte Falterona, on Appennino tosco-

romagnolo ridge; its hydrographic basin develops in Forlì-Cesena and Ra-
venna provinces with a river path that winds over 80 km from the source to
the mouth. In the first part, the river is composed of three different branches:
Bidente di Corniolo, Bidente di Ridracoli and Bidente di Pietrapazza, which
merge near Santa Sofia. Long one river branch there is Ridracoli dam, in a
marly-arenaceous context. The river cross the whole valley and, near Cuser-
coli, it licks the conglomeratic rocky buttress on which the castle and the
medieval village were built. The town developed along the river banks, with
the historic center and the castle on the left hydrographic side and the twen-
tieth century expansion close to the banks.
At the buttress, the riverbed has changed its course over the centuries,
probably creating a loop that has eroded the rocky wall, then collapsed in
1937, causing some houses ruin and 21 people death.
Further downstream, just come in plain, Bidente river bathes Meldola:
from this point it changes the name in Ronco. Before reaching Forlì, the
river cross Selbagnone, Magliano and «Meandri del Fiume Ronco», a Com-
munity importance natural area(3) extended for more than 200 hectares. Rea-
ching Forlì, the river takes on the name of Ronco district and bathes the
city, first on the east side, then along the south side; it continues its run fully
ducted, along Ravegnana road, arriving on the south side of Ravenna, where
it unites with Montone river, creating Fiumi Uniti. On the mountain and in
the valley, the river seems to be well regimented: in one of the so-called
“rami di monte”, near Ridracoli, a dam was built. Taking its name from the
place, the dam is an important drinking water source, has hydroelectric uses
and has also a key function in regulating the water intake in the river from
upstream; it allows, therefore, to mitigate inflows in the full season and to
maintain the flows vital during other periods.
The dam construction has produced clear benefits also for the down-
stream part of the river: known and recurring hydraulic risk past situations
have undoubtedly been mitigated and a monitoring has been activated along
the riverbed. The care and attention used for the part of the river in this ter-
ritory is not the same for the other parts.
The recent intense and definitely exceptional rainfall events caused da-
mages in many Romagna middle hills towns.

 The Community importance sites (SIC) are recognized by European Union, under the
directive “Habitat” for natural environment protection and most vulnerable and continental rel-
evant species safeguard.
— 72 —

Recently, the river overflows in the Cusercoli territory, flooding base-

ments and lower floors of some buildings located near the riverbed. These
recurring flooding causes are the inadequate side drainage system and the
lack of attention during the urban planning phase, which allowed building
in floodable areas. Cyclic flooding could be much more serious if there was
no upstream flow control by Ridracoli dam, whose action certainly limits
downstream damage.
Bidentina valley shows the same characteristics and aspects of the
other Romagna valleys in which watercourses with a predominantly tor-
rential undergo major changes in flow during the year. Just for this pecu-
liarity, they could be subject to periodic critical in the parts not controlled
through hydrogeological prevention and floodable areas have been urbani-
zed. For the territory management, Bidente is an example river with oppo-
sing aspects: the upstream is carefully managed(4), while the downstream
part is administrated by various public institutions in an uncoordinated way.
Drawbacks and problems about riverbed and surrounding land are regularly
reported; landslide risk areas close to the river, like Cusercoli, in which ur-
ban expansion was granted, are subject to periodic flooding.

3. Parco nazionale delle foreste Casentinesi and Ridracoli dam

“Ente Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e

Campigna”, established in 1993, largely coincides with the mountain ter-
ritory on Appennino tosco-romagnolo ridge between Forlì-Cesena, Arezzo
and Firenze provinces. Inside the park, there are Bidente spring and Ridra-
coli dam. The park was born from the union of existing protected areas
comprised between Monte Falterona and Passo dei Madrioli and is now one
of the most important national forests. During the Middle Age, these an-
cient forests were managed by monastic orders who built Camaldoli, San
Romualdo and Verna complex.
All the rivers that run through Foreste Casentinesi, from Tuscany to Ro-
magna, flow from Appennino western slopes.
Most of the park is wooded and the protected area is one of the most
valuable Europe forests. Its heart consists of state Foreste Casentinesi, in
which there is Riserva naturale di Sasso Frattino, first established in Italy
in 1959.

  In the mountain section above Ridracoli dam, the river management is held by “Parco
Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi”; the Ridracoli dam, the local context surrounding and a
large stretch of the river are administrated by “Romagna Acque SpA-Società delle Fonti”.
— 73 —

The Ridracoli dam construction dates back to the 80s, in the context of
Romagna aqueduct project, designed to improve drinking water availability
in the whole territory and, especially, along the Adriatic coast.
With the Adriatic coast tourist development, in the 60s and 70s, drink-
ing water demand began to increase, while water supply catchment works
were inadequate, causing strategic resources depletion and triggering sub-
sidence, phenomenon already quite evident in the coastal resorts.
The water supply catchment works were mainly based on groundwater
pumping from deep wells, insufficient and characterized by drinking water
poor quality(5). In this context, the idea of creating a large dam to allow
significant energy savings has been developed to produce energy from re-
newable sources, both for the own use and for the community. The dam
construction was particularly challenging and has initially aroused strong
opposition from the community for some critical of the local context. Be-
fore the realization, Ridracoli context has been subjected to extensive geo-
logical and geotechnical studies. Critical issues regarding the stability of the
slopes, where consolidations were carried out, emerged, showing a variable
consistency with faults and fractures.

4. Laboratorio di Archeoingegneria and University research

activity for the site safeguard

Inside Cusercoli ancient fortress, in 2006, Laboratorio di ArcheoInge-

gneria was established; since 2007, a research project, aimed at monument
restoration and reuse, in particular focusing on castle’s room and S. Bonifa-
cio church, was developed in collaboration with Scuola di Specializzazione
in Beni Architettonici e del Paesaggio, Laboratorio “Progetto Restauro”, Sa-
pienza Università di Roma, and the council administration.
The primary project purposes were:
- the elaboration of a restoration, reuse and valorization project about
the monumental complex;
- the study and research development, also through survey innovative
techniques and methodology and material for restoration experimentation;

 The dam is monitored through survey automatic stations, employees on site technical
supervision and specific technicians periodic inspections. The high variability, that is occurring in
the recent years in most of the Italian rivers hydrological cycles, partly caused inconvenience and
damage also in Emilia Romagna. The recent weather anomalies, that alternate long dry periods
in sometimes very violent rainfall, can be attenuated in the effects only by resorting to hydraulic
maintenance works, able to normalize the natural water flows in the local hydrographic system.
— 74 —

- the training of architects and engineers who operate in the conserva-

tion and restoration field.
During the project development, didactic building-site were organized
and studies, surveys, material and methodologies experimentation about
conservative interventions were made. Teachers, experts and students were
involved and various degree and specialization thesis were carried out, de-
veloping also depth research.
At present, an exhibition about research activities, survey results and
studies about the castle and other national and international topics is set in
the Laboratiorio di ArcheoIngegneria’s rooms. In the exhibition space, stu-
dies and surveys applied to architectural and archaeological heritage main
results are illustrated:
- in Romagna: Ravenna mosaics, Fornò sanctuary, San Tommaso
Apostolo in San Tomè church, Madonna delle Grazie di Casticciano san-
ctuary, Miracolo church, Santa Maria in Acquedotto parish, Bidentina valley
fortified settlements and San Marco sacristy of Santa Casa di Loreto basi-
- in Rome: Domus Aurea, Colosseo and Coppedè district;
- in Pompeii: via dell’Abbondanza ancient stores, Centenario house,
Casti Amanti house and Giulia Felice house;
- in Middle East: Natività basilica in Bethlehem and Harim castle in
An agreement for books and photographs donation to Laboratorio di
ArcheoIngegneria is being defined; it will serve for the realization of:
- a library with books related to cultural heritage conservation and
- a photo digital documentation archive, also about Forlì historic cul-
tural heritage.

5. The interventions to bring the castle up to the safety level

required and the firefighters corps collaboration

Because of various cracks and static instability, the architectural com-

plex conservation was one of the most discussed and analyzed topics by
students and architects specializing in restoration: they carried out a com-
plete survey of the numerous injuries and fractures identified in the castle,
assuming the kinematic in progress, their causes and elaborating a diagnosis
on the conservation state of the complex each part.
From a structural point of view, the most dramatic situation regards the
connecting building situated on the castle south-west side. It shows serious
— 75 —

and deep lesions, both on floor and along the barrel vault, generated or oth-
erwise aided, by the horizontal push that the baronial palace barrel vaults
generate on it. The construction systems and the materials, with which this
fabric was built on the rocky outcrop edge cantilevered over other build-
ings of the complex, were partly responsible for the serious situation, which
should be put rapid action.
In 2009, after completing surveys and studies, the University reported
to the municipal administration the growing alarm situation, due to the ap-
parent deterioration of jutting fabric static condition; on this issue, the Uni-
versity involved the firefighters corps.
Since 2009, the close collaboration between University and Comando
dei VV.F. Forlì-Cesena led to the definition of “Protocollo d’Intesa” on
25/01/2010, authorized by Dipartimento dei VV.F., del Soccorso Pubblico
e Difesa Civile (prot. n. 4732 del 20/11/2009): it involves the firefighters
corps, Laboratorio di Archeoingegneria, Facoltà di ingegneria, Laboratorio
“Progetto Restauro” and Scuola di Specializzazione in Beni Architettonici
e del Paesaggio. A program based on this protocol was elaborated about
activities considered necessary to stop the progressive monumental complex
decay and allow its reuse.
Under Dr. Enzo Lucchi coordination, in 2013 the University carried out
investigations on the rocky buttress geological context, defining a proposal
for geological and geophysical-geognostic study, necessary for the defini-
tion of provisional measures to make the site safe. Some geoelectric tests
took place on the soils that surrounds the monument, allowing to acquire in-
formation useful to understand the substrate characteristics. They consisted
of electrical tomography and vertical electrical soundings.
The program of “Messa in sicurezza e recupero di fruibilità” proposed
by Comando provinciale dei Vigili del Fuoco di Forlì-Cesena(6) expected a
geological evaluation realized for progressive steps, avoiding expensive and
impacting mechanical interventions, like excavations and deep core drill-
ing surveys. Geophysical nondestructive interventions in the ground floor,
basements and foundations, were preferred in order to appreciate changes
of areal surface or sub-surface reachable within the equipment, except a few
specific deep actions.
Before designing structures consolidation, it is essential to check the
possible relationship between geomorphology, local tectonic (faults) and the
overall fabric injuries situation.

  On June 25th, 2014, with prot. n. 2227 (attachment n. 1) the note “Messa in sicurezza
e recupero di fruibilità del complesso monumentale Castello di Cusercoli” was broadcast by the
firefighters provincial commander: it reports the general program with the time schedule of the
activities necessary to stop the castle progressive decay and to reuse it.
— 76 —

6. The castle valorization: the Museum-didactic laboratory

Cusercoli castle born in early Middle Age as military defense and then
was transformed into a mansion, becoming a real baronial palace with buil-
dings with specific functions, as church and rectory, that remained unchan-
ged for over a century. Later, the castle was abandoned, to be used after the
war as refuge for local families.
In the 70s, Civitella di Romagna council bought the monumental com-
plex and made roof extraordinary maintenance works and rocky buttress
consolidation. University studies and researches made possible the monu-
mental complex complete comprehension, identifying values and vocations
for its valorization.
Cusercoli castle is a rare case of presence of different historical periods
construction techniques, whose anatomy is easy to read and to understand
because of the current fabric conservation state.
Just because of this characteristic, the monument qualifies to become an
ancient techniques museum and to organize didactic building-site about tra-
ditional architecture knowledge in relation to what the complex has to tell,
as a significant example of traditional local architecture.
The museum, proposed to Civitella di Romagna council administration
and supported by the local Soprintendenza(7), suggested a castle tour inside
the ancient buildings, where architectural elements, materials and decora-
tions are still visible.
For example, the masonry and intern horizontals show fractures and
rips that allow traditional construction systems view and comprehension.
These are precious witnesses of a material culture in great danger.
The ultimate aim is to make the castle a museum-didactic laboratory
to start researches, deepen material and techniques knowledge, required to
transmit building practices to the future. Didactic laboratories for students
and craft apprentices could be periodically organized: through direct con-
tact with the material, they could acquire the “practical knowledge” and the
right approach to restoration, both from a theoretical point of view and from

  During an inspection carried out inside the castle on June 13, 2012, the superintendent
arch. Antonella Ranaldi called for the creation of the Museum-didactic laboratory, with the inten-
tion to subscribe an agreement protocol between Soprintendenza per I Beni Architettonici e Pa-
esaggistici di Ravenna, Direzione Regionale per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici dell’Emilia Ro-
magna, the Universities, Civitella di Romagna council, the firefighters corps, Fondazione Cassa
dei Risparmi di Forlì and Associazione Proloco di Cusercoli. The superintendent arch. Antonella
Ranaldi, with the Forlì area functionary arch. Luciano Marni were present; also the Universities,
Comando provinciale dei Vigili del Fuoco di Forlì-Cesena and Proloco di Cusercoli representa-
tive participated, with the mayor and the UTC technical.
— 77 —

the practical one, a mode which could have significant repercussions on the
educational, pedagogical and cultural.
After the interventions to bring the critical parts up to the safety level
required, didactic tours could be organized into the castle’s rooms to illu-
strate the castle materials, constructive and decorative techniques, typical of
the high Bidentina valley: masonry, arches, vaults, horizontals, roofs, floors,
plastering, paintings, decorations, etc. Physical models realization, structu-
res and surfaces diagnostics static instability examples, monitoring devices
and advanced methods for restoration are also provided.
The didactic tour intends to propose different paths for different public
possible: simple visitors, nursery and primary school children, high school
and university students. For the latter, it would be very useful to organize
practical reading of historical buildings characters, laser scanner survey ac-
tivities and didactic building-site in the castle. Ultimately, because of its
articulated and exceptional characteristics, Cusercoli castle lends itself ef-
fectively to assume the function of Museum-didactic laboratory aimed at
Bidentina valley constructive tradition communication, conservation, valori-
zation and at advanced methods for survey, diagnostics and restoration ex-

7. Conclusions

On the basis of the information in the Fire Department report and of

the investigations results, carried out by University at the castle up to this
moment, it can be stated that the monumental complex is characterized by a
progressive decay process which affects most of its structures, masonry and
foundation substrate.
Cusercoli is located in a context characterized by lithological strati-
graphic discontinuities and by faults and fractures passage (one is known
as Forlì line). By a careful evaluation of structural problems which affect
the architectural complex (especially the connection fabric between the rec-
tory and the baronial palace), the start of the program “Messa in sicurezza e
recupero di fruibilità” proposed by the Fire Department is considered very
The monumental complex shows structural and surfaces decay pro-
blems that represent a real danger to public safety; the interventions to bring
it up to the safety level required could make possible the site valorization
and could figure like an example of a correct way to combine the culture of
prevention with cultural heritage conservation.
Recently, restoration works have been undertaken by the municipality
on S. Bonifacio church intern surfaces and the interventions to make the ca-
— 78 —

stle safe were, instead, postponed. These would represent the first essential
step for the Museo laboratorio dell’anatomia dell’architettura realization
by Rome and Bologna Universities. It would propose a didactic building-
site activation inside the church for restorers and architect specialized in
restoration, involving universities and higher education schools.
Considering the continuing and frequent disasters repetitions in various
Italian regions, due to prevention absence and to geological risk underesti-
mation, a preservation, protection and enhancement path should be underta-
ken in the Cusercoli territory. New or variant planning instruments should
be adopted and hydraulic or geomorphological hazard levels should be iden-
tify through studies about hydrogeological problems and hydraulic, geologi-
cal and geotechnical compatibility. Castle interventions should be preceded
by a careful architectural-structural evaluation and an organic design phase,
in which intervention priorities should be established by a logic aimed at
the whole complex conservation and valorization, for progressive steps, in
relation to the budget.


M. Fantuzzi, Monumenti ravennati dei secoli di mezzo per la maggior parte inediti,
Venezia 1801-4.
P. Litta, Famiglie celebri italiane, Milano 1819-23.
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vegno Nazionale del Metano, Taormina, 192-195, 1952.
N. Graziani, Dopo la frana di Cusercoli. Un castello che muore, in “Corriere pada-
no”, Ferrara 29 dicembre 1937.
C. Marabini, Nel secolare castello di Cusercoli: da una scura parete i romani ci
guardano, in “Il Resto del Carlino”, Bologna 20 novembre 1959.
C. Marabini, Dopo la visita al castello di Cusercoli. Le antiche famiglie romane
sostituivano la burocrazia dello Stato, in “Il Resto del Carlino”, Bologna 6
gennaio 1960.
G. Cremonini, E. Farabegoli, Litostratigrafia della Formazione a Colombacci in
Giornale di Geologia, 42: 61-82, Bologna, 1977.
M.L. Colalongo, G. Cremonini, E. Farabegoli, R. Sartori, R. Tampieri & L. Toma-
din, Palaeoenvironmental study of the “Colombacci” formation in Romagna
(Italy): the Cella section. Mem. Soc. Geol., Roma, 1978.
N. Graziani, La chiusa d’Ercole, Forlì 1979.
G. Cremonini, S, Marabini, La Formazione a Colombacci nell’Appennino Roma-
gnolo (Italia). In (G. Cremonini e F. Ricci Lucchi, Eds.): Guida alla Geologia
del margine appenninico padano. Guide Geol. Reg., S.G.I.: 167-169, Bologna
G. Carbonara, Trattato di restauro architettonico, Torino 1996-2011.
— 79 —

Atti del Convegno “Il rischio idrogeologico e la difesa del suolo”, Roma, (1-2 ot-
tobre 1998), Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Roma 1999.
Atti del convegno “Conservazione dell’ambiente e rischio idrogeologico. Naziona-
le”. Assisi, Sacro Convento di San Francesco11-12 dicembre 2002, Istituto di
ricerca per la protezione idrogeologica, Istituto nazionale per la ricerca scienti-
fica e tecnologica sulla montagna, Perugia 2003.
A. Gallo Curcio, Sul consolidamento degli edifici storici: le logiche costruttive tra-
dizionali, rivisitate nell’attualità tecnica, per un corretto intervento di consoli-
damento, Roma 2007.
Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali, Linee guida per la valutazione e riduzio-
ne del rischio sismico del patrimonio culturale, Roma 2007.
M. G. Marziliano; P. Secondini, Reti idrografiche e strutture urbane. I bacini flu-
viali della Romagna nel sistema insediativo: contributi e linee di indagine del-
le dinamiche evolutive, Firenze 2008.
— 80 —

Fig. 1 – Cusercoli castle and the borough seen from east.

Fig. 2 – Cusercoli castle and the borough seen from north-west.

— 81 —

Fig. 3 – Bidente river near Santa Sofia (v. Parco fluviale area), Bidente river near Cu-
sercoli (v. “Briglia” fluviale area).

Fig. 4 – Cusercoli, November 2013: borough flooding images (photo from http://www. 1196054/
— 82 —

Fig. 5 – Two images explain the situation immediately after the 1937 collapse. From
top: the rocky buttress collapsed on the houses below; above it, the castle, which will
be severed the prow termination for safety reasons. Under the huge boulders, broken
away from the rocky ridge, the bodies of twenty people were lying.
— 83 —

Fig. 6 – Castle panoramic views from south (the concrete buttresses aim to strengthen
the wall caved in 1937).
— 84 —

Fig. 7 – Conglomeratic outcrop located at the base of the castle south side.

Fig. 8 – Big landslide located just north of the town.

— 85 —

Fig. 9 – Extract from Carta geologica della Regione Emilia Romagna, detail
(original scale 1.10.000).

Fig. 10 – Extract from Carta geologica della Regione Emilia Romagna (original scale
1.10.000). Carta geologica della Regione Emilia Romagna, detail (original scale 1.10.000).
AES7 = Sintema Emiliano-Romagolo Sup. (Terreni di copertura- v. Sub-Sint. di Villa
AES8 = Sintema Emiliano-Romagnolo Sup.(Terreni di copertura- v. Sub-Sint. di Ra-
AES8a = Sintema Emiliano-Romagnolo Sup. (Terreni di copertura- Unità di Modena)
FCO = Formazione “a Colombacci”, a1b = Depositi di Frana Attiva x scivolamento
a1g = Depositi di Frana Attiva complessa; a2b = Depositi di Frana Quiescente x
a2g = Depositi di Frana Quiescente complessa; a3 = Depositi di versante s.l.; b1 =
Alluvioni fluviali recenti (in evoluzione)
— 86 —

Fig. 11 – Extract from Carta del dissesto della Regione Emilia Romagna
(original scale 1.10.000).

Fig. 12 – Cusercoli castle: southeast front, longitudinal section with interior photo-
plans application and first level plan (A. Alvisi, B. Tetti).
— 87 —

Fig. 13 – Cusercoli castle: didactic building-site phases, conferences, 3D laser scanner

survey and practical activities aimed at studying and experimenting with traditional ma-
terials and techniques.

Fig. 14 – Cusercoli castle: rooms subject of a didactic tour, photo A. Alvisi, B. Tetti 2009.

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