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A
*.

SUPPLEMENT,
OR, w -

ONLY TRUE KEY . . . .. .


to the us R AND construction of THE *. * - o

Celestial #lants pit creş,


FOR WORKING NATIVITIES

AND RESOLVING ASTRONOMICAL PROBLEMS BY THE


* SCALE AND COMPASSES; ..

w IT h th E DESCRIPTION OF SOME. OTHRR,

NEW AND IMPROVED INSTRUMENTS,


PRODUCING THE MOST WONDERFUL EXACTNESS AND ASTONISHING
EXPEDITION, AND FOR THESE PURPOSES VERY FAR
SURPASSING ALL OTHER INVENTIONS ;

Also EASY RULEs FoR FINDING ALL THE ARCs or DIRECTIONS IN NATIVITIES (oN
THE CELESTIAL PLAN is PHEREs); AND A WAR IETY OF INTERESTING
MATTERs on THEs E suBJECTs, HIT H E R To UNKNowN. To THE
Mos'T CE LEBRATED ARTISTS AND PROFESSORS :

THE WHOLE RENDERED PERFECTLY EASY TO THE MOST


HUMBLE CAPACITY.

ILLUSTRATED BY THREE NEW AND ADDITIONAL COPPERPLATES;


WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED ADDITIONAL LINES ON THE
ORIGINAL PLATES.

"
**

By THOMAS OXLEY, -- - - -
-.

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LECTURER on Ast RoNoMY AND Ast Rology, PR of EssoR of
THE CELESTIAL scIENCES AND THE MATHE MAT1cs, IN LoN pon.

SCIENTIFIC PRESS :

9Iontion;
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR,
BY DAVIS & DICKSON,
Astrolo ical, Mathematical, Philosophical, and General Booksellers and
Publishers, No. 17, Saint Martin's-le-Grand, Newgate Street; and may be .
had of all other respectable Booksellers in Town and Country.
* -

1833.
-

TO THE READER.

IN the following pages the Author has entirely laid


aside all rhetorical flourishes, and every attempt at what is
called fine writing; his object being, to make every thing
herein described perfectly easy and attainable even to the
most humble admirers of the Celestial Sciences, which will,
he trusts, be a sufficient apology for the tautologies and
repetitions that may be met with in this Work, and render
any criticism thereon quite superfluous.
The Appendix, mentioned in page 56, refers to the Third
Part of this Book; because originally it was intended to
consist of only Parts I and II. -

The Author of this Work recommends the adoption of


these astronomical characters; viz.
* Semi-sextile.
c Semi-quartile.
Dr Sesquiquadrate.
e Quintile.
B Bi-quintile.
The Author will furnish any or all of the Improved
Instruments mentioned in this Key, on having the amount
forwarded to him (postage paid), directed to the care of his
Publishers, Davis and Dickson, 17, St. Martin's-le-Grand,
opposite the General Post Office, London.
Besides the Instruments described in this KEY, Mr.
Ox LEY also makes a very superior Scale of Declinations,
which enables the Student to set off a planet's declination
to the nearest minute of a degree. Terms may be known
by application to the Author for the same. -

Such persons as have purchased the Author's Work


on the Celestial Planispheres (and such persons only),
and who have, through accident or mismanagement, unfor
tunately spoiled any of the set of Copperplates, are
respectfully informed, that they may have an entire new set
of Ten Plates (of the Author himself) for 12s., upon con
dition that they return to him the entire set now in their
2

possession, enclosing in the same parcel the money for the


new set; as the plates cannot be sold to those who have
not purchased the book, on account of the vast expenditure
of cash and labor in bringing forward the work. The
parcel must be carriage paid, and directed for the Author,
to the care of the Publishers.

- RECOMMENDATIONS.
SIR,—I have had the pleasure of seeing and examining Mr. OXLEY’s grand Work
on the Celestial Planispheres, or a New and Easy Mode of performing all the Calcula
tions applicable to the Astral Sciences, and of which I most highly approve, as being
superior to every thing I have ever seen, and as such I most strongly recommend this
work to all who are lovers of those Sciences, as Witness my hand,
* * * - JOHN WATSON.
To the Printer, & c. January 2d, 1830.

Mr. THOMAS OXLEY having submitted to my inspection a Manuscript and a


number of Astronomical and Astrological Charts; having been a searcher in the Celestial
Science for some years, I have no hesitation in pronouncing the whole Work a most
£" invention ; and as such I most earnestly recommend it to all the real lovers of
rania. -

The Work will facilitate Astronomical Pursuits; therefore will be a most valuable ac
quisition to the Student in that Science, and to those who may wish to study Astrology
as a rational amusement: they will find every thing necessary to make them adepts in so
pleasing a Science. -

P.S.–Please to put my name as a Subscriber on the list; and I heartily wish it may be
followed by numbers, as it must have been a most laborious undertaking; as Witness my
hand. THOMAS WILLIAMS.
* Monday, January 4th, 1830. * * *

Hood-street, Corner of St. John's Lane, Liverpool.

Mr. OXLEY having submitted to my examination, when in Manuscript, his New and
Extraordinary Treatise and Astronomical Charts, I have no hesitation in pronouncing the
whole performance a Mathematical Work of great merit, and equally adapted to the use
of the Ladies as of the Gentlemen, and as such I most strongly recommend this Work to
all who are admirers of the Astronomical Sciences; as Witness my hand,
Jan. 15th, 1830. JAMES FLANAGAN,
Virgil-st. Liverpool. Professor of Nautical Astronomy, &c.

To Mr. OXLEY, -

SIR,-Having been favored by a sight of the proofs of your forthcoming Work on


Astronomical Planispheres, I beg to express my approbation of the great ingenuity dis
-played throughout the whole book. From my knowledge of Astronomy, Navigation,
and Astrology, the former of which I have professionally studied above twenty-four years,
and the latter art for my amusement during more than seven years, I have no hesitation
in saying, that the principle of your inventions and discoveries, now published, may be
applied with infinite advantage by all persons who practise either one or other of the above
arts. To Astrologers your Planispheres and Tables will be invaluable; and by removing
the obstacles to the study of Planetary influence, occasioned by the extensive computa
tion hitherto necessary, your exertions will go farther than those of any individual since
the days of Placidus de Titus, to serve the sacred cause of Philosophical Truth. I wish
•you every success. Your obedient servant,
- R. J. MORRISON,
Liverpool, 28th Oct. 1830. . . , - LIEUT. Roy AL NAVY.

MANCHESTER, 14th FEBRUARY, 1831. . .


| WE, the undersigned, purchasers of Mr. Oxley's excellent new work, “THE cBLEs
TIAI, PLAN is PHEREs,” do heartily recommend it to all who are curious in the Astrono
mical and Astrological Sciences: we firmly believe that there is not an Astrologer in the
United Kingdom, nor elsewhere, that would remain a single day without this clever work,
if he did but know of it.—WILLIAM SMITH, --JAMEs HUNTING Ton,--THoMA's
KERSHAw,-Students and Admirers of the Celestial Sciences.
ADDITIONS, IMPROVEMENTS, AND
DISCOVERIES.

CHAPTER I.

Further Instructions for fitting up the Celestial


Planispheres.
PLEASE to notice, that this KEY is to be considered as a continua
tion of the Original Work.
In addition to mentioning the things that should be done, it is
sometimes necessary to mention what ought not to be done: this
rule shall now be £ in regard to these additional Instruc
tions for fitting up the Celestial Planispheres for use.
1st. The Pasteboard on which you intend pasting the plani
spheres must not be too strong; for if it is too strong, it will be
impossible to cut them out correctly to the extreme outline; the
proper thickness for the pasteboard is that of a common playing
card; but the strongest kind of drawing paper, called lino paper,
is best of all; for, being of one substance, it will not split or
blister, as pasteboard is apt to do when you paste the plani
spheres upon it.
2d. Of making the Paste.—As flour and water boiled toge
ther are not sufficiently adhesive, it is recommended, that, to eight
ounces of the best wheaten flour you add one ounce of good glue,
the glue to be dissolved by itself in a small quantity of water;
the flour and water to have one boil up by themselves, then,
while boiling, add the dissolved glue; stir the whole together,
and let it boil well: this kind of paste should be used when mo
derately warm. To prevent the paste being lumpy, the flour
should first be well mixed with a small quantity of cold water,
and a little more water, and still a little more added, until a suf
ficient quantity be mixed with it; then set the mixture on the
fire, and keep stirring continually till it boils: add the glue as
aforesaid. The paste should be of a moderate consistency, so
that it may spread both easily and equally upon the paper; but
not so thin as to run off, for if it be made too thin and watery, it
will not be sufficiently binding. -

3d. You must not paste the Planispheres on canvass, nor


upon any kind of cloth, as it would shrink or contract unequally,
and thereby spoil them.
4th. You must not paste the Planispheres
•". A.
on different kinds of
-
4

substances; that is to say, do not paste some of the plates on


boards of wood, others on pasteboard, and others on paper; for
if you do, the copper-plate impressions will not shrink or con
tract equally, which would cause them not to correspond in
length and breadth, whereby they would be spoiled.
N.B. From what has just been stated, you cannot expect those
Planispheres which have not been pasted upon any substance of
pasteboard, &c. to correspond in length and breadth with those
that have been pasted.
5th. Previous to glazing the Patterns of Curves contained in
plates No. 7 and No. 8, let each pattern, after being pasted on
pasteboard and dried, be marked and numbered on the back or
pasteboard side, with the same latitudes as upon the printed
sides, to prevent mistakes in using them, as each pattern consists
of two different latitudes. Observe, that upon each pattern is
marked E. E. and the dots shew the place of the Equator. With a
needle or fine pointrel pierce through each pair of dots; then with
your steel drawing-pen and ink, make a fine line on the back of
the pattern, through these two points, and it will shew you the
place of the Equator; because in using these patterns it is neces
sary to turn them over, and still know that you are using the
proper curve: for this reason : must be marked upon the
back in the same manner as upon the printed side.
I have been informed by a subscriber, a cabinet-maker, that
very thin glue, that is to say, glue with about twice the quan
tity of water in it that is usually put by joiners and cabinet
makers, and spread while warm quickly over the back of the
copper-plates, with a varnishing brush three or four inches
broad, and also over the pasteboard, will make them adhere to
gether so firmly that they will never rise in blisters nor separate,
especially if put under a press as soon as glued together, and
permitted to dry slowly in the air, as they should not be brought
before a fire. Indeed, the Planispheres fitted up in this manner
were the best and truest of any that I had seen.
Before concluding these instructions and remarks about fitting
up, I shall once more repeat, that much depends upon the man
ner in which the Celestial Planispheres are fitted up for use; for
although the copper-plate engravings were all set off with the
same openings of the compasses, and all engraved with the utmost
exactness by the same mathematical dividing engine, and there
fore are all exactly of the same dimensions, and consequently, if
properly managed, will give the truest results that could possibly
be desired of mathematical instruments of this nature, yet, if mis
managed in the fitting up, the planisphere of the zodiac would
be made to differ three or four degrees in length, when compared
with the planisphere of the Nativity of the Emperor Napoleon,
and with plates No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, &c. -
5

A similar difference would result from one Planisphere being


printed on one kind of paper, and the other Planispheres upon
a different kind; but in order that the purchasers of this work
may be enabled to derive every reasonable pleasure and satis
faction in using these planispheres, the end of the third chapter
will contain some instructions for obviating the aforesaid dif
ference in the length of the Zodiacal Planisphere, should it,
through any cause whatever, be found to occur.

Of Gumming and Varnishing, &c.


After the Planispheres have all, except Plate No. 10, been
'' and dried, or glued upon thin pasteboard or on strong
ino paper, as before directed, and have been also dried and
pressed as aforesaid, the next thing to be done is, to gum them
or glaze them lightly over, on both sides, with gum Arabic wa
ter, or with isinglass dissolved in water; but '' is still much
cheaper, and will answer the purpose equally well, is the white
size made use of by carvers, gilders, and picture-frame makers,
for glazing of prints, previous to their being varnished. This
size must #. warmed a little when used, and spread lightly and
' over the Planispheres by means of a broad varnishing
brush, as before stated. Three or four pennyworth of this size
will be sufficient for all the nine plates of the Planispheres.
When dried in the air for two or three days, you may then pro
ceed to varnish them equally on both sides, as mentioned in page
299, with some proper white transparent varnish. The reason
why they should be varnished on both sides is, to prevent warp
ing; for if varnished only on one side, the varnish would draw
them hollow on that side; but when equally varnished on both
sides, they will remain even and flat, and more ready for use.
N.B. Plates No. 7 & 8, and the Plate of the Zodiac, must
not be cut out until after the aforesaid processes of pasting
and drying, glazing and drying, and varnishing and drying af
terwards, have been done respectively: also remember, that after
these plates have been cut to the outlines ready for use, they
must be kept dry; it would then be highly improper to wet
them, as by wetting they would lose their proper mathematical
curvature, and thereby be spoiled. Previous to glazing the
Patterns of Curves contained in Plates No. 7 and No. 8, I would
recommend that the pasteboard or lino paper, and also the cop
perplates that are to be pasted, be all of them made of the same
dampness, such as printers damp their paper for printing on (but
by no means must they be any damper); for, being pasted in this
damp state, the copper-plates, and what they are pasted on, will
not wrinkle nor blister, and both of them will dry uniformly,
and preserve the true proportions engraved upon the copper.
6

I damped mine by immersing them in a large tub of clean water,


one by one, instantly drawing each out of the water, and laying
them smooth on a flat board, lino paper and copper-plates one
upon another, slanting the board a little for the superfluous water
to drain off; and so left them about six hours, previous to pasting
them. Be sure to make plenty of paste or glue, that you may
paste the nine plates at one time, and with a material of the
same uniform quality and consistence; as it would be almost im
possible to use two different boilings of glue or of paste ex
actly alike: this injunction must be strictly observed, if you
would wish the planispheres to retain their exact relative pro
portions one with : and when the two pasted surfaces
have been brought together, lay a smooth sheet of clean dry pa
per over the printed side of the copper-plate; then with a soft
linen or silk handkerchief, folded up, pass several times over the
surface of the sheet of paper, until all the creases and wrinkles
that may be in the copper-plate have been made to disappear, and
its whole surface shall be smooth and even. It is best to begin
about the middle of the plate, and pass the handkerchief over
both ways to the end, the plate being covered all the time with a
sheet of paper, as aforesaid, to prevent injury to the copper
plate.

CHAPTER II.

Introductory Instructions, with Observations on the most


proper Instruments to be used in projecting the Ce
lestial Planispheres.
To those persons who are really desirous of attaining perfec
tion in projecting the Celestial Planispheres, it is believed that
it will be very acceptable to shew, in the most familiar and easy
manner, how to perform this; and also to point out to them
what instruments are most proper for these purposes: and as
this work on the Celestial Planispheres has already fallen into the
hands of many persons who have never before handled either a
pair of compasses or any other mathematical instrument, the
author is extremely desirous that all such persons may be enabled,
as they certainly will by carefully following these easy instruc
tions, in a short time, to construct the Plamispheres with great
exactness; and therefore the mathematicians who are expert in
the use of mathematical instruments will be pleased to excuse the
author for giving such ample directions for the use of instruments
with which they themselves are already familiar.
Of Instruments.
1st. The Parallel Ruler. This being an instrument so well
known and so easily procured, I shall only remark, that it ought
to be, at least, 12inches long, though 15 inches long is still better:
the price of such a ruler is from three to four shillings.
2d. The common Pair of Compasses are well known to every
man, though he may never have used a pair in his life. The com
passes ought to have each leg at least ten inches in length, so
as to be able to take an extent of half the length of the
Planisphere at one opening. But I do not approve of the
use of the common compasses in these projections, except for
measuring off the directions, as they are not sufficiently exact
where much accuracy is required; and will therefore proceed to
describe,
3d. The Steel Beam Spring adjusting Compasses. (See
Plate 11, Figure 1.) The *: of this instrument is made of the
best steel: £ bow B is a very strong steel spring, and spring
tempered, and is of one piece with the leg L and the leg H; A
is the adjusting screw, and N the mut-screw that works upon it;
M M is the beam or bar; S is the sliding leg, and P its thumb
screw, by which it is made tight upon the bar: the leg L admits
of an adjustment backwards and forwards of about an inch.—
Use: These compasses are to be used when the extent is greater
than can be taken with the screw and spring divider compasses.
(Fig 2, in Plate No. 11). When you would use these beam spring
adjusting compasses, slacken the screw P of the sliding leg S,
until that leg is quite loose, and will easily slide backwards and
forwards upon the beam: this being done, slide the leg S back
wards or forwards, until the distance between the point of the
leg L and the point of the leg S is nearly the distance you desire;
then tighten the screw P, so that the leg S may be quite firm
upon the beam, and by turning the adjusting nut Neither back
wards or forwards, as occasion may require, you will be enabled
to measure or set off any distance you desire with very great ex
actness, even to the ten-thousandth part of an inch, provided
each leg of the compasses be finely pointed. Thus, for example,
If it were required to set off the distance of 180 degrees of right
ascension upon the Planisphere of any nativity you were about
to calculate, proceed in this manner:—Slacken the screw P,
then slide the leg S backwards or forwards until the distance be
tween the two points of the compasses be about half a degree
more or half a degree less than 180 degrees; tighten the screw
P, which fastens the leg S; next turn the adjusting nut Neither
backwards or forwards, as occasion requires, until you have taken
in the exact distance desired. - -
8

It may be well to observe, that, previous to using these beam


compasses, the leg L should be made firm and tight, by turning
the nut N until the leg L is brought about half an inch nearer to
the leg H than it is when slack; when thus fixed, the adjustment
can be made either backward or forward with great exactness,
and the compasses will remain firm and true for setting off or
marking the distance required. After having thus adjusted the
compasses, be careful not to touch or handle the nut N nor the
screw P, and rather prefer holding these compasses by the legs:
but by no means press down upon the beam when you mark off
any distance. Always prefer a small dot or fine mark with the
point of the compasses to a coarse one; keep one foot of the
compasses steadily fixed as a centre, and press lightly and per
pendicularly upon the other in marking any required distance.
I will further remark, that where exactness is required, as in the
projecting of the Celestial Planispheres, the fewer measurements
used whereby you would set off £ whole length of the said pro
jection or £ so much the better; thus, after the me
ridian or line of the tenth house has been marked upon the line
of the equator, the next thing to be done is to mark or set off
by the compasses 180 degrees exactly, both to the right and to
the left hand side of the meridian line; and this gives the com
plete length of the planispheric projection. But it would be
nearly impossible to have done it with the same exactness if the
180 degrees had been set off by several times turning over the
compasses; for example, if 30 degrees were the distance taken
in the compasses, and turned six times over from the meridian,
you would perhaps say that would give 180 degrees. I beg leave
to observe, that it might give 180 degrees; but it is far more
likely it would not give this distance; for if in fixing your com
passes to take the 30 degrees you took only five minutes of a
degree more or less than the 30 degrees (and five minntes is,
indeed, but a very short distance, for one degree is only the
14th part of an inch), then, admitting that the £ was only
five minutes more or less than 30 degrees, this extent, turned six
times over, would cause an error of no less than half a degree in
the place of the line for the fourth house or lower meridian; the
same error both to the right and to the left of the projection, and
therefore the planisphere would be no less than one entire degree
either too long or too short, and consequently would be inaccu
rate in all the directions; for let it be remembered, that it is
only by laying down the proportions of the different houses and
poles of the planets correctly that you can reasonably expect to
obtain correct results in the arcs of direction. And I will
further add, that the steel beam spring adjusting compasses, just
described, are a very important acquisition in constructing the
Celestial Planispheres, for several reasons, as will plainly appear
9

by considering, 1st, That the heam compasses are lighter than


any pair of common compasses, yet sufficiently strong and firm
to take in an equal space; 2dly, That the points of these beam
compasses being always perpendicular, or very nearly so, they
will mark the distance by a smaller dot or finer stroke than the
common compasses, because the common compasses, when opened
widely, will mark with the inside of each leg instead of marking
with their points; 3dly, The legs of these beam compasses being
not more than about one-fifth part the length of the legs of com
mon compasses, will consequently not bend, spring, or give way
as the others do when you press upon them to mark off any dis
tance; 4thly, There being only one adjustment, and that a sim
ple one, these beam. compasses will remain exactly true to the
distance you fix them, on account of the principles of their con
struction, and the material of which they are made being all of
the best steel: they are so far superior to the beam compasses
manufactured by the mathematical instrument makers, that I
would not use the last mentioned if they would make me a pre
sent of the best they manufacture; as such cannot be depended
on, because both the legs of theirs slide upon the beam or bar;
and after you have set them as true as you can to any required
distance, they will be made untrue, by tightening the screw to
make the adjusting leg fast on the bar; and this I have many
times proved by experiment, and have no hesitation in affirming,
that the beam compasses made by the mathematical instrument
makers cannot be depended on for uses wherein great exactness
is required. In the steel beam spring adjusting compasses
which are constantly used by me in projecting my planispheres,
the bar is fifteen inches long, and the width between the legs
L and H one inch; so that these compasses will take any extent,
as far as sixteen inches, with the greatest exactness: they are
light and commodious for use, their weight being only five ounces,
or not half so heavy as a pair of common compasses capable of
taking off the same distance. These beam compasses cost me
twelve shillings; but the beam compasses of the same size, made
by the mathematical instrument makers, would cost one guinea
or upwards.
4th. The Screw and Spring Divider Compasses, or, as they
are commonly called, the Spring Dividers.—After the plani
sphere has had the lines of the Equator and of the Tropics of
Cancer and Capricorn described, and 180 degrees marked upon
them to the right and left of the meridian line, and each of these
lines again divided into two parts of exactly 90 degrees each,
then will the spring dividers be found of most excellent service
for accurately £ the lines and marking the places where
the poles of the twelve houses, and also where the poles of the
Semiquartiles, Sesquiquadrates, and Circles of the Quintiles
10

should be placed upon the planispheres. The opening of the


spring dividers, as may be seen by Figure 2, Plate 11, is regu
lated by a nut and screw, and therefore enables the person using
them, if careful, to set off the divisions upon the planisphere
with very great accuracy: the pair which I generally use is
about 63 inches long, from each point to the top of the bow, and
the legs will be tight and firm, so as to take any distance cor
rectlv to the extent of four inches".
The T Square, when correctly made, is a very useful instru
ment for drawing perpendiculars £ upon any mathe
matical projection. It is generally made of some very hard
wood, such as rose-wood or lignum vitae; and if the paper for
the planisphere be properly fixed upon the drawing board, to
draw a perpendicular by the T square, nothing more would be
required than to place the cross C C of the T ' firmly
against the straight edge of the drawing board; then will the
blade B of the T square be perpendicular upon the paper, whereby
you can instantly draw the perpendicular required. (See Fig. 3,
Plate 11).
Planisphere Drawing Board. (See Fig. 7, Plate 11.) - Al
though some persons, through parsimonious economy, do without a
drawing board, it is nevertheless quite indispensable for project
ing the Celestial Planispheres in a neat and accurate style. This
drawing board is very easily made, and should be eleven inches
broad, thirty-three £ long, and an inch in thickness. It may
be of mahogany, of good dry oak, or any other hard and firm
wood, not liable to warp. Deal board is quite unfit for this pur
pose, because it is so soft that the points of the compasses, by
their weight only, would sink into it, and make large holes in the
paper. The board must be perfectly straight on both the edges:
it should also be straight ' square at both ends, and near each
end must be a square groove g, g, running perpendicularly across
the whole width of the board: each groove should be about one
third of an inch deep, and half an inch wide; and the clear dis
tance between the two grooves thirty inches. Each groove must
have a ' flat bar of wood, about ten inches and a half long,
so as to fit easily in, and just a little thinner than the depth of the
£ that, when the paper is fastened down, the bars shall not
e above the level of the drawing board. A single board of this
kind may be had for about four shillings. -

* With the exception of beam compasses, there are no compasses


that ought to be opened wider than to an angle of 60 degrees, or the
length of one of their legs; for if opened wider, they are apt to spring
or give way when pressed upon to make a mark, and instead of making
a fine dot or line with their points, they will mark by the inside of the
legs rubbing upon the paper, and therefore cannot be well depended on
for any larger distance than that above mentioned. -
11

Firing the Paper upon the Board.—Your paper should be


about 313 or 32 inches long, and about 10 inches broad, cut
quite straight on one edge; bring the straight side of your paper
close to the edge of your drawing board, true and even there
with ; put each £, upon each end of the paper; press each bar
£ but firmly until the paper be pressed down into the
grooves; and thus will the paper be fixed firmly and smoothly
on the board, and will remain so as long as required.

Preparatory Problems.
As some persons who purchase the Celestial Planispheres
have never handled a pair of compasses, and are therefore unac
quainted with their uses, to such it may be advantageous to shew
How to divide a straight Line into two equal Parts, and erect a
Perpendicular, by the Compasses. -

1st. To divide any given Line AB into two equal Parts.—


From the points A and B as centres, with any distance greater
than half AB, describe arcs cutting each other in C and D.
Through the points where these arcs cross each other, draw
the line CED; and the point E, where it cuts AB, will be the
middle of the line required. (See Fig. 4, Plate 11.)
2d. To erect a Perpendicular. (See Fig. 5, Plate 11.)—Al
though the process just described produced a perpendicular, yet,
whenever a perpendicular is required any where near the middle
of a given line, the following method is generally preferred:–
Upon the line PM to draw a perpendicular to the point E. Thus,
with one foot of your compasses on E as a centre, take any dis
tance EA and mark A and B at equal distances from E; then
take any distance greater than this, and£ the commasses on
A and B respectively as centres, draw short arcs both above and
below the line PM, crossing each other in C and D, next draw
ing a line through the crossings from C to D, will be the perpen
dicular required.

PROBLEM 3d.

To draw a right line, at a given distance from, and parallel to


another given right Line.
ExAMPLE. (See Fig 6, Plate 11.)
Let it be required to draw a line DG parallel to the line AB,
and at the distance of 23° 28' of declimation, distant from the
line AB.
B
12

1. From the line of declinations upon the planisphere of the


zodiac take in your compasses the extent of 23° 28”.
2. From any two points r, s in the line AB, with the given
distance as a radius, describe the arcs n and m.
3. Draw the line DG to touch those arcs without cutting
them, and it will be parallel to the line AB, as was required.
... These three problems being well understood, it is believed that
it will now be perfectly easy to project the Celestial Planispheres
by the rules or processes contained in the next chapter.

CHAPTER III,

Progressive Lessons, or easy Processes in projecting the


Celestial Planispheres.
PRocess 1st. (See Plate 12.)
To draw the Line of the Equator of the Planisphere.
YoUR paper being fixed upon the £board, as before
directed, take in your compasses the extent of about 4% inches;
then, at the distance of about three inches from each groove,
place one foot of the compasses upon the straight edge of your
paper; describe two arcs, as has already been taught in Problem
III; next take your straight edge ruler, and draw a fine line, 30
inches long, so as to touch both those arcs without cutting them;
and this line will represent the equator of your intended projec
tion.
Note.-If this process be properly performed, the line of the
equator will be a true parallel to the edge of the drawing board.
PRocess 2d & 3d.

To draw the Meridian Line, or Line of the Tenth House.


Process.2d. Take a point c on the equator, as near the
middle of it as you can judge; then with one foot of your com
pass on c as a centre, mark on the line two equal distances, ca
and cb; then with a and b as centres, describe two arcs above
and two arcs below the line, as was taught in Problem 2d,
page 11.
Process 3d. Through the points where the arcs d, e, cross
each other, draw a line about 4 inches below and the same. dis
tance above the line of the Equator; and this last drawn line will
be the line of the meridian or tenth house.
* 23°28' being often wanted, this distance is engraved upon the line of
declimations on the ecliptic slider.
13

PRQCEsses 4th & 5th. -

To draw the Tropics, or Parallels of Cancer and Capricorn.


Process 4th. From the line of declinations upon the plani
sphere of the zodiac take in the compasses the extent of 23° 28';
then from any two points upon the equator of your intended
planisphere, each point being about three inches from the end
thereof, describe two arcs above and two arcs below the equator,
as mm and acy. \

Process 5th. With your straight edge ruler draw a line to


touch the arcs nm, and also another line to touch the arcs ary,
but without cutting them, the whole length of the planisphere;
and the upper line nm will be the parallel of Cancer, and the
lower line ay will be the parallel of Capricorn. Both these
lines should be drawn very carefully, so as to be exactly 23°28'
from the equator.
PRocess 6th.

To set off the Line of the Fourth or Lower Meridian.


1st. Take in your compasses at one opening, with great care
and exactness, 180° of right ascension from the line of degrees
engraven upon the straight edge of the ecliptic slider; next set
one point of the compasses, as a centre, very exactly upon that
place where the line of the tenth house cuts the parallel of
Cancer, and with the other foot of the compasses, both to the
right and left upon the parallel of Cancer, make a mark, and in
like manner placing one point of the compasses exactly where the
meridian cuts the parallel of Capricorn, make two other marks,
one to the right and the other to the left, upon the parallel of
Capricorn; draw through these marks two lines perpendicular to
the equator, and these lines at 180° from the tenth will be the
beginning or line of the fourth house, or lower meridian, as
was desired: mark these two lines 4, 4, 4, 4, as in the diagram
of Process the 6th.

PRocess 7th.

To set off the Limits of the Six Houses above and also the Six
Houses below the Horizon.

To render these instructions the more easy and intelligible, we


will shew how to project the planisphere for some particular lati
tude; and, by way of example, let it be for the latitude of Lon
don, or 51% degrees north latitude. -

If the Reader will please to turn back to page 153 of this work,
I4

he will there find a table of the polar elevations of the houses,


from 1 to 60 degrees of latitude inclusively, with the spaces of
three houses and of one house upon the parallels or tropics of
Cancer and Capricorn for each integral degree of latitude; so
that, by making proportion, these numbers may be found for any
intermediate latitudes; remembering, however, that the tenth and
fourth houses never have any polar elevation, and that the first
and seventh houses have always the latitude of the given place
for which you would project the planisphere. But as there are
some other circles besides the twelve houses, accordingly you
will find in page 175, a table of the polar elevations, and of the
spaces to be used in setting off the proportions for the circles of
semiquartiles and sesquiquadrates, and of the quintiles and bi
quintiles aspects, as ' are to be marked upon the tropics or
parallels of Cancer and Capricorn; and as the latitude required
in this example is 51°3, by taking the numbers found opposite to
latitudes 51° and 52°, in the aforesaid tables, and adding each
two numbers together, and then taking half of the sum, we ob
tain those for latitude 51°4, as contained in the little Table here
subjoined.

Table of Proportions of the Planisphere for London.


Spaces upon
the Parallels | Spaces in
Houses, &c. Poles. |Difference of Cancer and Degrees.
Capricorn.
10th & 4th 00 0. 1 House is 410 2.
11th & 3d, 5th & 9th 23 48 230 28' | 2 Houses 82 4
12th & 2d, 6th & 8th 40 53 | 17 5 | 3 Houses | 123 6
1st & 7th 51 30 10 37

Poles. | Spaces.
Semi D & Sesqui- ! 330 14" | 6 || 0 33'
quadrate
Quintile - 10 2 | 16 24

I would recommend those students and artists residing in the


great towns of Leeds, Birmingham, Manchester, &c. to draw
out a Table like this for the latitude of their respective towns, and
always have it by them in readiness: this may easily be done by
help of the Tables given in pages 153 and 175 of this work; as
such a table will not only be useful for laying down the houses,
but will also be very ready for finding the polar elevation of the
£
form the
upon these £ We shall now proceed to per
-
15

7th PRocess (for London).

1st Part. Take 90 degrees of right ascension in your com


passes, and set off this distance upon the Equator, both to the right
and left of the meridian: be very careful that this point be ex
actly at half the distance between the lines of the 10th and 4th,
both to east and west of your projection.
2dly. Take in your compasses the space of three houses, or
123°6'; that is 123°1-10th. Upon the parallel of Cancer, exactly
where it is intersected by the line of the 10th, place one point of
your compasses, and with the other point make a fine mark or
dot to the right and left upon this said parallel of Cancer.
[A line or measure for the space of three houses is now en
graved upon the ecliptic slider, to be ready for this purpose.]
3dly. With the same distance still in your compasses, and
upon the parallel of Capricorn in both places, exactly where it
is cut by the line of the 4th, place one point of your compasses,
and with the other point of the compasses make a fine dot or
mark upon the parallel of Capricorn: do this both to the right
and left, towards the 10th house.
4thly. Number these points neatly with the numerals 1, 1, 1,
and 7, 7, 7, as shewn by the example, Fig. 7 and Plate 12,
because it is through these points or limits that the line of the
horizon will pass, which constitutes the east and west angles, or
the beginnings of the 1st and 7th houses.

PROCESS 8th.

How to subdivide the Equator and Parallels of Canoer and


Capricorn into twelve Parts.
1st. By the 7th Process the equator was divided into four
' parts or quadrants of 90 degrees each. Divide again each
of these parts into three other equal parts: let this be done with
£ exactness; do not rest satisfied with just taking 30 degrees,
astily from the scale of right ascensions, but by trial ascertain,
by turning your compass very carefully three times over, that
the distance in your compasses is precisely one-third part of each
quadrant, neither more nor less, before you make the marks upon
the equator. - - -

2d. Upon the parallel of Cancer divide the space marked 10


and 1 and 10 and 7 each into three equal parts. For the lati
tude of London the space of one house is 42° 2': this may be
taken either from the line of right ascensions, or from the line
of houses: nor rest satisfied with thus taking this distance in
your compasses, but by repeated trials, should such be needful,
16

get in your compasses exactly one-third of the space 10::1 and


10..7, before you make the marks. Having thus carefully di
vided the parallel of Cancer, • -

3d. Proceed to the parallel of Capricorn. Having still the


aforesaid distance in your compasses, divide each of the spaces
contained between the line of the 4th, both ways, from kr 4... 1
and kf 4. .7, into three equal parts. - - -

4th. Number the different divisional points, by writing the


figures, not upon the very points, but a very little above or be
low them, as is done in the example, see Fig. 8 and Plate 12.

PROCESs 9th. -

To project the Lines of the East and West Angles.


By the former processes the equator and the tropics are £
perly divided and numbered: we must now proceed to introduce
the curve lines; but, as the easiest plan, begin with the horizon.
1st, London being so eminent and populous, I have constructed
a set of planisphere patterns or curves expressly for the latitude
of London; therefore from among the patterns take that for lati
tude 5104.
2d. Place the equator of this pattern exactly to point No. 1 on
the equator of your projection, and bring the north edge of the
pattern to point 1 upon the £ of Cancer, and the south
edge to point 1 upon the parallel of Capricorn: being thus fixed,
try if the point of your steel drawing-pen will touch the three
points, 1, 1, 1, aforesaid: if it will, then draw a fine clear line
from the line 4 to the line 10, and this will be the line of the
eastern horizon. Apply the same pattern or curve to the points
7, 7, 7, and thereby in the same manner draw the curve line,
4, 7, 7, 7, 10, which will be the line of the western horizon or
7th house. See Fig. 9, Plate 12.
N.B. Always remember to keep the north ends of all the curve
patterns uppermost upon the tropic of Cancer.

PROCESs 10th. -

To draw the Poles of the 2d and 12th, 6th and 8th Houses.
Take the pattern marked for 2d and 12th for London; apply
the equator of this pattern to the point 2 on the equator of your
projection, and let the south edge of this curve be brought to the
point 2 upon the parallel of Capricorn; try if the point of your
drawing-pen will pass exactly through these two points: if it
will, the curve is properly fixed; then draw the line 2, 2, and
this line will be the pole of the 2d house. Apply the same
17

curve, in the same manner, to the points marked 12, 12, and
draw the pole of, the 12th house. Apply the same pattern, in
the same way, to the points 6, 6 and 8, 8, and in #. manner
draw the poles of the 6th and 8th houses.

PROCESS 11th.

To draw the Poles of the 11th and 3d, of the 5th and 9th Houses.
Take the pattern for 11th and 3d. Apply this curve (in the
manner taught in Process 10th) to the points marked 11, 11, and
thereby draw the pole of the 11th house. Apply the same
curve, in a similar mode, to the points 3, 3 and 9, 9, and 5, 5,
and thereby draw the poles of the 3d and 9th, and of the 5th
houses; and in this manner will all the twelve houses of the
heavens have been projected upon the planisphere. (See Fig.
11, Plate 12.) -,

PRocess 12th.

To introduce the Supernumerary Circles or Poles of the Semi


quartile, Sesquiquadrate, and Quintile Aspects. -

Observe, 1st, that the circles of the semiquartile and sesqui


quadrate fall exactly half way between the poles of the 2d and
3d, the 11th and 12th, and of the 5th and 6th, and the 8th and
9th houses; and therefore the distance of the semiquartiles and
sesquiquadrates is always 45° upon the line of the equator; but
upon the tropics, the distance is always half the semidiurnal
Arc of the parallel of Cancer from the meridian above the hori
zon; and so also it is always half the seminocturnal Arc of the
parallel of Capricorn below the horizon for each respectivelatitude
of the place of birth.
The circle of the quintiles is one-fifth part of the mundane
space of two houses distant from the lines of the 10th and 4th
houses; and therefore upon the line of the equator its distance is
always 12 degrees; and upon the parallels of Cancer and of Ca
pricorn the distance is one-fifth part of two houses from the 10th
and 4th, be the extent of two houses whatever it may be for the
latitude of birth.
Note. The space of 45 degrees for the semiquartile and ses
quiquadrate, and of twelve degrees upon the equator for the circle
of Quintiles, being the same for all latitudes, is the reason it is
not given in the Table, page 175. -

We now pass from these remarks to perform the


a- - - - --

18

12th PRocEss.

1st. From the 10th and 4th upon the equator set off 45 de
grees both ways; that is, exactly half the distance between the
10th and 1st, and between the 10th and 7th, and also between the
1st and 4th, and the same distance between the 4th and 7th upon
the equator. -

2d. Upon the parallel of Cancer set off exactly half the dis
tance between the 10th and 1st, and between the 10th and 7th.
3d. Upon the parallel of Capricorn mark exactly half the dis
tance between the 4th and 1st, and between the 4th and 7th.
4th. We see, by the little table given in page 14, that the
pole of the semiquartile and sesquiquadrate is 33° 14'. Take
from among the curves the planisphere pattern for 33°, which is
quite exact enough for the purpose; apply the equator of this
pattern (for 33° of latitude) to the equator of #' projection,
and apply the other part of the pattern to each mark upon the
tropics; and with your steel drawing-pen describe the four
curves marked semiquartile and sesquiquadrate, in the manner
already taught for describing the poles of the other circles. (See
Fig. 12, Plate 12.)
Now for the Circle of Quintiles.
1st. Upon the equator mark off 12 degrees from the 10th, both
to the right and left: do the same from the 4th towards the 1st,
and also from the 4th towards the 7th.
2d. By the little Table in page 14, for the latitude of Lon
don, the space of the circle of the quintile is 16°24', or 16°#:
mark this distance upon the parallels of Cancer and of Capricorn,
as explained in the 1st part of this Process. -

3d. Take the curve pattern for the pole or latitude of 10 de


grees, and apply this curve, and '' draw the four lines of
quintiles after the manner taught for drawing the other poles.
See Fig. 12, Plate 12.)
The student will please to observe, that a steel writing-pen, or
a common writing-pen, must not be used for these purposes, as
they would blot the paper and spoil the projection: the only pro
per instrument is the steel drawing pen which is found in cases
of mathematical drawing instruments, but which may be bought
separately.
By attending to the instructions now given, and by attentively
examining the Examples laid down in Plate No. 12, it is believed
every person who desires, however humble his previous acquire
ments may be, will hereby be enabled to perform the projections
of these £ both with great ease and exactness; but to
give further facilities herein, we shall now proceed to offer some
additional instruction to what has already been given in the for
19

mer part of this work, on the manner of finding the circles of


positions of the planets, and of describing their poles upon the
Celestial Planispheres; with some other useful information con
nected with these subjects.

Easy Method of Setting a Figure of the Heavens by the


Celestial Planispheres.
Many persons may not be aware that the Planisphere of the
Zodiac will serve as a perpetual almanack, or calendar of the
Sun's daily motion in longitude, which will be found exact enough
for setting figures for horary questions, or for estimate figures of
nativities.

To find the Sun's Longitude on any given day by the Ecliptic


Slider.

Place the bottom or cross of your T square against the straight


edge of the slider, bring (the edge of) its upright stem to touch
the given day of the month upon the line marked January, Fe
bruary, March, &c., and the same edge of the upright higher up
' shew what degree of the zodiac the Sun is in on the given
ay. -

ExAMPLE.—Let it be required to find the Sun's longitude for


17th of August, 1830?
The upright of the T square being set to 17th August on the
line of months, will point out 24 Q for the Sun's longitude. His
right ascension on the straight edge of the slider is 146 degrees;
and the Sun's right ascension in time upon the line of hours is
equal to 9 hours 44 minutes, as shewn by the same edge of the
upright of the T square.
To set the Figure.—Having found the Sun's longitude, and the
right ascension answering to it, in the manner just taught, you
have only to add the right ascension in time reckoned from the
preceding noon to the right ascension of the Sun... Use the sum
of these two numbers, if less than 24 hours; but if more than 24
hours, reject 24 hours, and the remainder will be the right ascen
sion of the midheaven in time, for the time to which you intend
to set your figure. Set the stem of the T square to this right
ascension, and it will shew the corresponding degree of the zo
diac, which will be on the 10th house: this being known, you
have only to set the same degree of the zodiac of the slider to
correspond to the line of the 10th upon the planisphere of the 12
houses, taking care that the equator of the slider is true with
the equator of the planisphere of the latitude of the place for
which you set the figure. You have then only to observe where
the poles of the houses cut the degree of the zodiac, and you
C
20

will thereby see what degree of the zodiac is upon each house of
the figure, the same as by a Table of Houses.
Instruction for setting a figure is also given in pages 86 and
87, and again in page 167 to 170 of the Treatise on the Celes
tial Planispheres: the student would do well to read attentively,
and most particularly, the N.B. in the latter part of page 170.
Notes and Observations.

1st. How far the poles of the houses ought to be extended


upon the planisphere?
Observe, that in projecting Planispheres for Nativities, it will
never be necessary to extend the breadth of the actual projection
to more than 50 degrees of north and south declination, nor even
so much as this; as it is never necessary to work directions to
any star or planet with more than 9 degrees of latitude, the de
clination of which can never be more than 32°28'; therefore if
the complement of the latitude of birth to 90 degrees does not
exceed 50 degrees, take in your compasses the complement of the
latitude taken upon the scale of declinations, and set it off from
the equator upon both lines of the 4th, both to the north and
south; draw two lines with a black lead pencil through these
points, parallel with the equator, and the two pencil lines will
shew how far the poles of the houses should be extended.
ExAMPLE.—The latitude of London is 513 degrees: this taken
from 90°, leaves the complement 383 degrees; and 38 degrees of
declination set off to the north and south of the equator will be
the limits for drawing the poles of the houses.
Note.—For this and other useful purposes, a line of co-latitudes
is engraved upon the ecliptic slider.
2d. Should any person wish to have every '' of the parallels
of gz and kf subdivided into 12 parts, &c. (See Fig. 9, of Plate
12), he may divide the space 1, 4 and 7, 4, on the parallel of ga,
each into three exact equal parts; as also the space marked 10,
1 and 10, 7, upon the parallel of kf, may be divided each into
three equal parts, corresponding to the poles of the 12 houses;
and further, that each of these spaces, 1, 4 and 7, 4 and 10, 1
and 10, 7 be divided into two equal parts, to correspond with the
poles of the semiquartiles and sesquiquadrates: this will cer
tainly conduce to exactness in the projecting of the planispheres,
provided that you so place the curve pattern to enable you to
draw exactly through the three corresponding points for each
house or division to be described upon the planispheres; for in
this case any curve patte, n will answer very well, which, having
its equator upon the equator of the intended projection, will at
the same time exactly touch the other two points marked upon
the parallels of ga and of kf. It is an axion in mathematics,
21

that any regular curve which will pass through three given
points will either be the exact curve required, or one that
approximates very near to the required curve. It may be well,
in reference to the Quintile, here to remark, that if the proportion
of the Quintile be marked upon any planet's parallel from the
pole of the 12th towards the 1st house, or be set off from the
pole of the 8th towards the 7th upon the same parallel, it will
shew where the planet is in quintile to the 10th. But if the
proportion of the quintile be marked upon any planet's parallel
from the pole of the 11th towards the 10th, or ' the pole of
the 3d towards the 4th house upon the same parallel, it will
shew where the planet comes in quintile to the ascendant.
The proportion of the quintile taken in your compasses,
and the compasses being twice turned over from the pole of the
2d towards the 4th house, or being thus set off from the pole of
the 6th towards the 4th house upon the planet's parallel, will shew
where the planet comes in Bi-quintile to the 10th. But being
set off in this manner from the pole of the 9th towards the 7th,
or from the pole of the 5th towards the 7th house upon any
planet's parallel, will shew where the planet comes in Bi-quintile
to the ascendant.
The new beginner in Genethliacal Astronomy must remember,
that all the planets form their Mundane Aspects to the angles of
the ascendant and midheaven by converse motion upon their
own parallels of declination; that is, by a motion contrary to
the order or succession of the houses; thus they move from the
1st into the 12th; from the 12th into the 11th; and from the
11th into the 10th house, &c. &c. by their mundane motion:
this being well understood, will render all mundane directions
perfectly easy. -

3d. The £ hundred impressions of the zodiac were printed


on fine drawing paper, and all disposed of before it was disco
vered that the zodiacs had, in consequence of being on drawing
paper, contracted in length so as to make them 3 or 4 degrees
shorter than the other plates, and thereby did not agree with
them: this, however, may be easily remedied, by carefully con
structing anew the planispheres for the latitude of London, and
for latitude 534°, &c. by the scales of declination and right as
cension, which are engraved upon the same plate of the zodiac.
when this has been done, you will find that the planisphere of the
zodiac being used with the planispheres of the 12 houses done
by the scales which are upon it, will give the cusps of the houses,
the same as the Tables of houses would do for the same latitudes.
It is very strongly recommended, that each student should do this,
as he will then receive full gratification by the use of these Celes
tial Planispheres, and will remedy or avoid those differences
which are the result of the unavoidable and partial shrinking of
22

the paper on which the copper-plates are printed, which some


times takes place, the paper being always made wet previous to
the process of copper-plate printing.

CHAPTER IV. ,

Instructions relative to finding the Circles of Position


and the Poles of the Planets, &c.
THE manner of finding a planet's circle of position upon the
equator has been taught in the former part of this Treatise; but
it sometimes happens that planets are, by their small declination,
very near the equator, in which case it will be easier to place the
planet's pole correctly by finding its circle of position upon the
parallel of Cancer or Capricorn. It is believed that a single ex
ample will be quite sufficient to make this perfectly easy to the
student.
ExAMPLE.–In the nativity of the Emperor Napoleon, the de
clination of the planet Mars is 7° 56' N.; his semidiurnal arc is
979 and 1-10th degrees, and his distance from the 10th is 50° and
9-10ths degrees; and the semidiurnal arc of the parallel of Cancer
is 1123°. These particulars being known, the circle of position
of Mars upon the parallel of Cancer may be found by this
Analogy.
P. Logarithms
As semidiurnal arc of 3 970 1-10th or 970 6' ...... 2681
Is to distance of 3 from 10th 500 9-10ths or 500 54'.... 5486 &
So is semidiurnal arc (of the par.of ga)=11230 or 1129 45' 2032%
75 18
Subtract . . . 2681

To distance of the circle of position – 590 1-10th = 4837 of


Mars from the 10th house upon the parallel of Cancer"; and
accordingly mark this distance 590 1-10th on the parallel of ge.
Note.—If Mars had had south declimation instead of north,
then it would have been proper to have used 6749, the semidiurnal
arc of the parallel of Capricorn, as the third term in the above
analogy; and the fourth number or answer would have been the
distance from the 10th of Mars' circle of position, to be marked
upon the parallel of Capricorn.
* Those persons who desire great exactness in mundane directions, and
similar calculations, will find an excellent set of tables of these propor
tional logarithms in Cooper's edition of Placidus, published by Davis
and Dickson, 17, St. Martin's-le-grand, London.
23

Observe, If the declination of a planet be less than 10


degrees either north or south, calculate its circle of position's
distance from the 10th upon the parallel of Cancer or Capricorn,
when above the horizon, or from the 4th when below the horizon,
in the manner explained by the previous example. But if the de
clination of a planet be more than 11944, find the distance of
its circle of position upon the line of the equator, in the manner
taught in page 56 and at page 96.

To find the Pole of Mars.


The pole of the 12th house is 319, the pole of the 11th is 17°,
and the difference of polar elevations is 149; and one-third of
Mars’ semi-diurnal arc is 320 22', which, taken from Mars’ dis
tance from the 10th, 500 54', leaves 18932', the distance of Mars
from the pole of the 11th house: these things being known, the
pole of Mars may be found by the following
Analogy.
As one-third semidiurnal arc of 3. . . . . . ... 32° 22'
To the difference of poles of 11th and 12th = 14 0
So is distance of Mars from 11th ........ = 18 32
To the proportional part .................. 8 1
Add Pole of 11th house . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 17 0

Give the pole of 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1


Take the curve for latitude 25 degrees; place the equator of
this curve upon the equator of the planisphere of Napoleon;
bring the edge of the said curve to coincide both with the centre
of 3, and also with the mark for the circle of position of 3 upon
the parallel of Cancer 590 1-10th from the 10th; draw a line to
pass correctly through these two points, and this line will be the
pole of Mars, as was required. (See the Nativity of Napoleon,
Plate No. 6; and by proceeding in this manner, the poles of the
planets may be easily found in any Nativity.)

CHAPTER V.

How to find the oblique Distance of any two Planets


upon the Celestial Planispheres.
| THERE are certain cases in which it is desirable to find the
distance in oblique ascension between two planets, or two given
points of the zodiac; but one of the most useful of these is for
inding the oblique distance between the Sun and Moon, which
distance is to be found in order to find the true mundane place of
24

the part of Fortune. To do this, it is necessary to know how to


keep the curve or planisphere pattern for the latitude of birth
parallel to the horizon of the planisphere of the given Nativity:
which is done in this manner:—Fix the curve pattern for the
latitude of birth upon the line of the eastern horizon, or 1st
house of the planisphere of the nativity, just as you would if you
were going to draw the line of the horizon or first house; observe
where the parallels of Cancer and Capricorn touch the said curve
pattern, and make a mark very exactly at both these places upon
the pattern, and it will then be ready for use. . You have then ,
only to slide the pattern backward or forward upon the plani
sphere, keeping the equator of the pattern true with the equator
of the planisphere, and the aforesaid two marks to correspond
with the lines or parallels of Cancer and £ upon the
planisphere, and the pattern is then parallel to the eastern horizon
or 1st house: a single example will be sufficient to make this
quite easy.
Evample for the Latitude of London.
The curve pattern for the latitude of 519; being marked in the
manner before mentioned; let it be required, upon the Planisphere
(of the 12 houses) for London, to find the oblique distance be
tween 10 St and 10 mg; and let 00 go 0, be upon the mid
heaven 2
Process.—Having the Planisphere for London laid down
smooth and even upon the Board, place the ecliptic slider upon
the same, and bring 00 g.: 0' on the 10th, taking care that the
equator of the slider agrees exactly with the equator of the
planisphere for London; when thus fixed, make a fine dot upon
the planisphere for London, to correspond exactly to 100 Su, and
another fine dot to 100 mg: this done, remove the ecliptic slider.
Next take the curve pattern for the latitude of London, and slide
it along in the parallel manner aforesaid, until it touches the
mark or dot for 10 St. ; then by this curve (with a fine pointed
black lead pencil) draw a fine line to pass through 10 Su from the
£ of go, as far as to the equator of the planisphere. In
ike manner draw another such curve line to pass through the point
at 10 mg. Through each of the said points at 10 Su and 10 mg,
draw a line parallel to the equator of the planisphere, observing
where either of these parallels cuts the two curve lines which
pass through 10 Su and through 10 mg; and I find the distance
in equatorial degrees is 42 degrees and nine-tenths of a degree,
which is the true distance in oblique ascension between 109.
and 10 mg in the latitude of London; and the distance will be
found to be the same, whether measured upon the parallel of 100
of SW, or of 100 of mg, or upon the equator; which proves that
25
the pattern was kept parallel to the curve line of the eastern
horizon or first house.
Remark.—The oblique ascension is the corresponding degree
of the equator, which then ascends with any given point of the
zodiac, or ascends with any planet reckoned from the beginning
of Y', as far as 360 degrees. But it may sometimes be conve
nient, when using the planispheres, to measure our distances
from that point of the equator corresponding in right ascension
to 09 go 0', or 00 = 0', or 00 kf 0': when this occurs it will be
easily seen from a mere inspection of the planisphere. In the
given example, the curve line drawn through the 10th degree of
&l, by means of the curve pattern for latitude 5104, will be found
to cut the line of the equator at the distance of 1897-10ths de
grees from the point of the equator, corresponding in right
ascension with 00 g5 6'; therefore 1897-10ths added to 900, gives
108" 7-10ths degrees, which is the oblique ascension of 10 St.
In the same manner may the oblique ascension of any other de
gree of the zodiac or of a planet be found if required. But in
using these planispheres, if the planets are properly placed, as
taught in the former part of this work, the various directions of
any nativity may be correctly worked, without even knowing
either the right or oblique ascensions of the planets.

To find the true Mundane Position of the part of Fortune in any


- Nativity.
To render the instruction contained in the former part of this
chapter more useful and acceptable to the student, we shall now
proceed to shew how the rule there given is applicable to finding,
by the planispheres, the true mundane position of the part of
Fortune in any nativity.
ExAMPLE.-In the Nativity of the £ Napoleon, let it
be required to find the mundane position of the part of Fortune,
and thereby to place it correctly upon the planisphere of the
nativity?
Observe that the latitude of birth is 419 40 north; therefore
the curve pattern which is nearest to the given latitude is the
pattern for 429, which is sufficiently near; and by placing this
pattern upon the curve line of the 1st housc of the planisphere
of the nativity, and marking this pattern (for 429) exactly where
the parallels of Cancer and Capricorn touch it, the pattern is then
ready for use.
Newt Process.—As before taught, fix the said curve parallel to
the eastern horizon, and draw a line thereby to pass through the
centre of the sun; then slide along the pattern, and in the same
manner draw another such line through the centre of the Moon;
then upon the line or parallel of the Moon's declination, take the
26 w

distance between the Moon's centre to the line marked 41° 40',
which passes through the Sun's centre, and with this distance
in your compasses, set one foot upon the line of the eastern
horizon, where it is cut by the Moon's parallel of declination,
and with the other foot of your compasses make a mark to the
westward upon the Moon's said parallel, and that will be the
true mundane place of the part of Fortune, as is clearly shewn
in the Celestial Planispheres, Plate No. 6, where the aforesaid
two lines drawn through the centres of the Sun and Moon are
each marked 41° 40', both on the upper and lower side of the
planisphere, so that they cannot be mistaken by any person
for the poles of these planets.
The part of Fortune's place being marked upon the plani
sphere in the manner now described, its distance from the 10th
or 4th may thereby be instantly found in any nativity; and
hence the circle of position and the pole of the part of Fortune
may be found by the rules for finding the circles of position and
poles of the planets, given in the former part of this work.

Additional Notes and Observations on finding the Mundane


Place of the Part of Fortune.
In order to know clearly whether the 69 falls above or below
the horizon by the planispheres, -

1st. Let the Sun be placed upon the ascendant or eastern


horizon, and if the (place of the) moon be above the horizon,
in this case the GB will fall in some house above the horizon,
and the oblique distance must be set off upon the planisphere
on the moon’s parallel from the line of the 1st towards the 7th
house. -

2dly. The Sun being placed on the 1st, as aforesaid, if the


Moon be then in the 1st, 2d, or 3d house, the GB will fall on
the 1st, 2d, or 3d house, and the oblique distance (of the Sun
and Moon) must be set off from the line of the 1st towards the
4th house, upon the Moon's parallel.
3dly. The Sun being placed, as aforesaid, upon the line of
the 1st house, if the Moon then be in the 6th, 5th, or 4th
house ; in this case the GB will fall in the 6th, 5th, or 4th
house, and the oblique distance (of the Sun from the Moon)
must be set off upon the planisphere from the line of the 1st
towards the 7th upon the Moon's parallel.
4thly. So far as the Sun is distant in obliqne ascension from
the (line of the) lst house, so far is the GB distant from the
centre of the Moon in the nativity: this distance is always
taken upon the parallel of the Moon's declination, and is
clearly illustrated by the example in the nativity of Napoleon,
27

in Planisphere, Plate No. 6, and in every other nativity where


the GB is calculated according to these principles of Ptolomy.
In the example before us, as well as in a vast number of other
nativities, the mundane place of the GB is found by these
Celestial Planispheres within one-tenth part of a degree, the
same as would be found by spherical trigonometry.
The four preceding Notes include all the possible varieties
belonging to the GB; and, if attentively considered, will enable
any student of moderate capacity to place the part of Fortune -
correctly upon the planisphere of any nativity. But, in order
to render this useful rule so clear and easy that no person can
possibly misunderstand it, we will further observe,
5thly. That if the oblique distance (of the Sun and Moon)
be greater than the whole diurnal arc of the D , then must the
said distance be set off from the 1st house, upon the D's
parallel, towards the 7th, and the 69 will fall in the 6th, 5th,
or 4th house.
6thly. If the oblique distance (of the Sun from the Moon)
be less than the Moon's whole diurnal arc, and the Moon be
to the west of the sun, then must the said oblique distance be
set off upon the D's parallel from the (line of the) 1st towards
the 7th, and the GB will fall above the horizon.
7thly. If the oblique distance (of the Sun from the Moon)
be less than the Moon’s semi-nocturnal arc, the Moon being
then east of the Sun, the oblique distance must be set off from
the (line of the) 1st towards the 4th house, upon the Moon's
parallel, and the 69 will fall in the 1st, 2d, or 3d house.
What is here said in these Notes about the Moon being east
or west of the Sun, refers only to the Moon's relative position
on the planispheres.
N.B. This method of placing the part of Fortune, accord
ing to oblique distance, is so different from the common way,
that the @ will sometimes fall one or two houses different to
what it would by the common method.

CHAPTER VI.

How to project the Orbit of the Moon's Latitude, in a


very easy and correct Manner, upon the Celestial
Planispheres.
As there are many persons who cannot understand a verbal
description, nor any rule, however clear, unless followed by an
example; for their satisfaction, and to oblige many purchasers
of the first edition of the Treatise on the Celestial Planispheres,
I will now present the student with a very easy and accurate
28

method, accompanied with a suitable example, of projecting


the Moon's orbit or path of her latitude upon the Celestial
Planispheres.
Example.
Let it be required to project so much of the Moon's orbit
as would be requisite for directing her to zodiacal aspects
with latitude?
Rule.—From White's, or any other good ephemeris, take
out the Moon's longitude, latitude, and declination, beginning
with the day before birth, to ten or eleven days after the birth,
and arrange these numbers, ready for use, as in the following
table for Napoleon Buonaparte's nativity:

Moon's *s |Moon” Moon's IMoon's IMoon's


1769 Long. *: # 1769 Long. Lat. || Decl.

Aug. 1: 17,3112 N 820s BalAug.205 m29 NBA's N 399


... 15 29 # 4|17 17|b ... 21 |19. 1814, 29.11 41 h.
... 16 |12:12.3 53||13 28 c ... 22 |3 8 163 47|16 8 i
... 17 ||25 124, 318 53 d ... 23 |17 1612 51/19 42 j
... 18 || 8×224 553 56 e | .. 24 || II 201 45.22 9 k
... 19 |2l 48.5 11 N 19 f

Take the ecliptic slider, and place the equator of the slider to
agree exactly with the equator of the planisphere of the nativity,
and bring the degree and fraction of the degree upon the
slider (which belongs to the cusp of the 10th house) to coin
cide with the line 10 upon the planisphere of the nativity: it
is then properly fixed. In Napoleon's nativity, 219 go 15' are
upon the cusp of the 10th house; and having brought 21% go
upon the 10th, in the manner just stated, begin by marking
upon the ecliptic of the planisphere of the nativity the Moon's
longitude 170 kf 11'; next for 290 kf 33’; and thirdly for
129 : 12'; and so on until the Moon's longitude is carefully
marked for all the eleven days contained in the foregoing
table. This being done, remove the ecliptic slider, and next
take the quadrant of latitude, which must be applied in the
following manner:
How to use the Quadrant of Latitude.
1st. For setting off the lines of latitude in the signs kf, :,
and X. Fix that end of the index line marked o to o kf, and
that end of the line of the equinoctial points marked b to o Y
upon the planisphere of the nativity; the quadrant is then
ready for use.
29

By referring to the table of distances given in the 10th


chapter of this Key, that the distance which the straight edge
ruler should be fixed upon the index line is, for 10 kr, equal
to 1190 57', and for 20 kf the distance is equal to 114° 50';
and the difference of these two distances is 50 7"; but we want
to set off the line of north latitude for 179 kf 11"; and by
taking the proportional part 3941', which belongs to 7°11', we
find that the true distance for 17 k” 11, with north latitude,
is 1169 16', which we will call 11604: we therefore set the thin
edge of the straight edge ruler upon the index line IL, IL at
1164 degrees distance from o. We then bring the other end
of the same edge of the ruler to touch 17 k 11, previously
marked upon the line of the ecliptic; and through the point
17 kP 11 draw a line northward, about an inch, and this will
be the true line of the Moon's latitude north. Next refer to
the foregoing table of the Moon's longitude, latitude, and
declination; and we find that to 170 kf 11’ and 298 north
latitude belongs 200 15 of south declination. With a pair of
fine pointed compasses take 204 degrees from the line of
declinations engraved upon the ecliptic slider; next take your
T square, and slide it along your planisphere board until the
blade or upright touches the line of latitude drawn through
17 k? 11. Now plaee one foot of the compasses upon the
equator of the planisphere (of the nativity), and keep the
other foot of the compasses perpendicular to it, which you
can easily do by help of the T square; and thus, with one
foot on the equator and the other foot carried perpendicular
to it until it cuts the line of latitude, there make a dot or
mark, which mark will be the place of the Moon's centre with
298 north latitude and 2004, south declination in 17 k? 11.
In Plate No. 6 this place is indicated by a dot near the
letter a. Proceed in this manner to set off the line of latitude
for 29 ki. 33, for 120: 12', for 25 : 12, for 8 × 22, and
for 210 × 48'. -

2d. Fix the quadrant of latitude for the northern signs by


placing 0 on the index line, to coincide with 00 go 0 upon the
planisphere of the nativity, and taking care that the line of
the equinoctial points touches 00 Y 0': thus fixed, draw in
the lines of latitude for 50 on 29', for 190 Y. 18', for 39 8 16',
for 1798 16', and for 10 II 20'; and after having set off the
Moon's dcclination upon the line of latitude for each re
spective longitude before mentioned, we have then gained
eleven different points in the Moon's orbit: these are indicated
on Plate No. 6 by the letters a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h, i, j, k ; and
by this means, and the following easy process, we are enabled
most correctly to describe upon the planisphere of the nativity
30

as much of the Moon's orbit as will be requisite for the pur


pose of calculating the Nativity.
From among the curve patterns or planispheres take out the
pattern curve for 49 of latitude; place this curve for 49 of
latitude so as to touch, at one and the same time, the three
points a, b, and c; and then draw a line through these points
by means of this pattern: next fix the pattern in such manner
as to touch the three points c, d, and e, and then draw a
line through these three points as far as the point e : this
done, place the pattern so as to touch the three points e, f,
and g, all at one time; draw a line through the points e,f,
and g. Now apply the pattern so as to touch the three points
g, h, and i (all at the same time); draw a line through the
points g, h, i.; lastly, apply the pattern so as at once to touch
the three points i, j, and k; and draw by the pattern a line
passing through these three points i, j, k, and the Moon's
orbit will then be correctly described upon the planisphere
of the Nativity from the 17th degree of War to the 1st degree
of II, which is quite sufficient for all the Zodiacal directions
of the Moon in this nativity. The great utility of delineating
the Moon's orbit upon the planisphere is, that the orbit line
being once drawn, if you desire to direct the Moon to any
aspect in zodiac with latitude, you have only to take the
ecliptic slider, fix it upon the planisphere of the nativity (as
before taught), and with a needle or fine pointrel mark on the
planisphere of the nativity the zodiacal longitude of the
aspect by making a fine dot; draw the line of latitude as
aforesaid through this dot, so as to intersect the Moon's orbit,
and the point of intersection will be the place of the Moon's
centre in the orbit line: them with your parallel ruler draw a
line from this place (where the orbit line is cut by the line of
latitude) to the pole of the Moon, parallel to the equator; and
this last drawn line will be the arc of direction required. And
if the longitude of the aspect be carefully marked upon the
ecliptic, and the line of latitude be drawn according to the
distances given in the Table in 10th chapter of this Key, the
arc of direction will not differ more than the fifth of a degree
from the result obtained by spherical trigonometry, and very
rarely more than the tenth of a degree; for in a vast number
of directions in Zodiac (as well as in mundo) done by the
author of this work, he more frequently found the arcs of
direction as given by his planispheres to come within two or
three minutes of a degree, the same as by spherics, and some
times within a single minute or 60th of a degree, which he
could easily determine by a scale of equatorial degrees on
brass, similar to that given on the quadrant of latitude; and

*
i.
31

not to leave it in the power of any ill-natured person or sceptic


to say that this is only a mere assertion, an example shall now
be immediately given.
ExAMPLE.-(In the Nativity of Napoleon. See Planispheres,
Plate No. 6.)
Let it be required to direct the Moon to the trine of Venus
in the zodiac. Venus is in 70 gr, 1’, therefore her trine falls in
7" X 1", to which place the Moon must be directed in her orbit
in the following easy manner.
X, A, 2, in Zodiac.
Process.—By referring to the Table in Chapter 10th of this
Key, and by making proportion the centre distance for 70 ×,
is equal to 1470 57'; but say 1489, that is quite exact enough.
Having, by help of the ecliptic slider, made a dot at 70 %
upon the ecliptic line of the planisphere (of the nativity), take
the quadrant of latitude, and fix it upon the chart of the nati
vity (as already taught in page 28), then place the thin edge
of the straight edge ruler upon the 148th degree upon the index
line IL, IL, and let the same edge of the ruler at the same
time touch the aforesaid mark at 70 % ; then draw a fine line
through 70 %, so as to cut the Moon's orbit line. Now from
the point where the line of latitude cuts the orbit of the Moon
draw a line to the pole of the Moon, parallel to the equator:
this last drawn line, when measured on the scale of equatorial
degrees, will be found to be 3704 very nearly, which is the arc
of direction required of D, A, Q in Zodiac with latitude.
Note.—By taking very carefully the extent of the above arc
upon the plate of copper, by a pair of very fine pointed com
passes, and applying the same to the aforesaid brass scale,
the arc of direction is found to be 370 27": if calculated by
the Tables, it would be 370 29'; so we find the difference is 2',
or only one-thirtieth of a degree different by the planispheres
to the result which would be given by Tabular calculation.
*** To prevent any person fixing the quadrant of latitude
in a wrong position, the line of the equator has been engraved
upon it, to shew that the equator of the quadrant should be
upon the equator of the planisphere of the nativity: when
properly fixed, the two equators will always correspond or
very nearly, if the projection be carefully performed.
32

- CHAPTER VII.

Special Rules for working Mundane Directions on the


Celestial Planispheres.
CAse THE FIRST.
WHEN the significators (O or D) and the promittors (#,
h, 1, 2, or ; ) are both in the same hemisphere, or when
both of them are above the horizon, or both below the horizon,
when the direction is finished.

For Direct Directions.

Rule 1st.–Observe to what house the significator is nearest.


Then upon the parallel of the promittor take in your
compasses the distance from the pole of that house to where
the pole of the significator intersects, this will be the pro
portional distance of the promittor; and mark this distance
upon the parallel of said promittor, from the given angle or
house to the place where the aspect is formed, and this mark
will shew where the aspect is completed. Then place one foot
of your compass upon this mark, and extend the other foot to
the centre of the planet or promittor; and this extent will be
the arc of direction required. *

Rule 2d.—Upon the parallel of the promittor, take in your


compasses the full extent or space of the aspect required; set
off this extent from the place where the pole of the significator
intersects this parallel upon this said parallel of the promittor,
where make a mark. Place one foot of your compasses on
this mark, and the other foot on the centre of the promittor;
and this last extent will be the arc of direction required.
Note.—Those persons who have attentively read from page
44 to page 51 of the “Celestial Planispheres,” need not be
told that the semiquartile is the space of one mundane house
and a half, and the sextile is the space of two mundane
houses; that the quintile is one-fifth of the sextile more than
the aforesaid sextile; and that the quartile is the space of
three mundane houses; and the trine of four such houses, &c.
ExAMPLE.-In the nativity of the Emperor Napoleon, let it be
required to direct @ to k of k by direct motion in mundo:
By the First Method.—Here we find the nearest cusp to the
Q is the pole of the 11th; therefore upon the parallel of b
place one foot of your compasses on the pole of the 11th, and
extend the other to where the pole of Go intersects the parallel
of b , and this extent marked off from the pole of the 9th
33

towards the west upon the parallel of b, will be the place


where 2 will be when in mundane k to the O. Set one foot
of your compass on this mark, and extend the other to the
centre of h; and the last extent will be about 43%, which is
the arc of direction of G), k, b , M, d, d, and, measured upon
the scale of years, is equal to 48 years of his age.
Q k 2, M, d, d.
By the Second Rule or Method.—Take in your compasses
the extent of two houses upon the parallel of 5 ; set one foot
upon the place intersected by the pole of G), and with the other
foot of your compass on b’s parallel, make a mark towards
the 7th house: this mark will be the place of the aspect.
Then from this mark to the centre of b is 43%, the arc of
direction, as was found by the first method. - ***

CASE THE SEcoMD.


Direct Directions in JMundo.

When one planet is above and another below the horizon


when the direction is finished. . . . . . .
The method to be pursued is the same as in the first case,
only observing in this second case that the proportional dis
tances must be taken upon the contra parallels of the planets
(promittors), instead of upon their own parallels. Thus if
the significators G) or ) be below the horizon, and the pro
mittor (#, 2, 14, 3, 2 or #) above; or if the significator
be above and the promittor below the horizon: where the pole
of the significator intersects the contra parallel of the pro
mittor, here set one foot of your compasses, and extend the
other foot to the pole of the nearest house or angle; this ex
tent will be the proportional distance of the promittors in the
other hemisphere, which extent is to be set off from the (pole
of the) house or angle where the aspect is formed, and marked
upon the promittor's own parallel: then from this mark to the
centre of the promittor will be the arc of direction required.
ExAMPLE.—In Napoleon's nativity, let it be required to di
rect P by direct motion to the & of £ in mundo. | |* :

| Here we find D significator below the horizon in the 4th,


and nearest the cusp of the 4th ; and # the promittor is, in
the opposite hemisphere above the horizon, and in the 10th
house: therefore upon the place where the pole of D inter
sects the contra parallel of #, there place one foot of your
compasses, and extend the other foot to the line of the 4th:
this extent, laid off from the line of the 10th towards the east
upon #’s own parallel, will mark where the aspect is, com
34

pleted; then with one foot of your compasses on this mark,


extend the other foot to the centre of #, which extent will be
894, the arc of direction of D & # mundo by direct motion.

CONVERSE DIRECTIONS IN MUNDO.

CASE FIRST.

When the significators and promittor are both above or both


below the horizon when the direction is completed.
Observation.—In converse directions, the significators (G) or
D) are carried forward to the completing of the aspect by
their own proper motion in the world, and thereby form the
aspects to the promittors (#, b, 21, 3, 9 or #).
Rule First.—Observe to what cusp, pole, or angle, the pro
mittor is nearest; then upon the parallel of the significator,
where the pole of the promittor intersects it, place one foot of
your compasses, and extend the other foot to the nearest pole
of house or angles; and this extent will be the significator's
proportional distance from the pole of the house or angle
where the aspect is formed, and from which it must be set off
and marked upon the significator's own parallel; then with
one foot of your compasses on this mark, extend the other foot
to the centre of the significator, and this last extent will be
the arc of direction required.
Rule Second.—Upon the parallel of the significator, take
in your compasses the full extent of the aspect required.
With this extent in your compasses, set one foot upon the
place where the pole of the promittor (#, b, 2, 3, 2 or # )
intersects the parallel of the significator (G) or D), and with
the other foot make a mark conversely upon the significator's
own parallel; this mark will be the place where the aspect is
completed. Then with one foot of your compasses on this
mark, extend the other foot to the centre of the significator
(Q) or D); and this last extent will be the arc of direction
required. -

ExAMPLE.-In Napoleon's nativity, let it be required to di


rect the Sun to the semiquartile of Mars in mundo by converse
motion.
Here it is evident both planets will be in the same hemi
sphere when the direction is completed.
By the First Rule.—Here we find the nearest pole to the
promittor 3 is the pole of the circle of semiquartiles. Set
one foot of your compasses upon the pole 3, where it inter
sects the parallel of the G), and extend the other foot to the
circle of semiquartile upon the Q's parallel; this extent set
off from the 10th towards the east upon the Q's parallel, will
35
-

mark the place where the aspect is completed. Set one foot
of your compasses on this mark, and extend the other foot to
the centre of the Q; this extent will be nearly 29%, the arc
of direction required of Q to semiquartile of 3 in mundo by
converse motion.—Again,
Q Semiquartile & M, d, C.
By the Second Rule.—Upon the parallel of the significator
Q set one foot of your compasses on the line of the 10th, and
extend the other foot to the line or pole marked S D and SSD ;
next, with this extent in your compasses, set one foot upon the
place where the pole of 3 intersects the parallel of the Q,
and with the other foot make a mark conversely towards the
10th; and from this mark to the centre of the Q will be 2903,
the arc of direction of G) semi U & M, d, C, the same as was
found by the first method. By logarithms the arc is 290 38'.

CONVERSE DIRECTIONS 1N MUNDO.

CASE SEcond.
When the significator and promittor are one above and the
other below the horizon when the direction is finished.
Rule.—Observe to what pole of house or angle the promit
tor is nearest ; then set one foot of your compasses on the
pole of the promittor (#, b, 2, 3, 9 or $ ), where it in
tersects the contra parallel of the significator (G) or D ), and
extend the other foot to the pole of the nearest house or angle
upon the said significator's eontra parallel; and this extent
will be the proportional distance of the significator (in the
opposite hemisphere wherein the direction is finished). Next
set off and mark this distance upon the parallel of the signi
ficator from the proper house or angle where the aspect is
formed; then set one foot of your compasses on this mark,
and extend the other foot to the centre of the significator;
and this last extent will be the arc of direction required.
ExAMPLE.—In the nativity of Napoleon, let it be required
to direct Q, A, 24 in mundo by converse motion.
Here we see that this aspect is formed when the Q is in
proportion to his semidiurnal arc, as far from the 10th towards
the west as it is above the pole of the 2d house towards the
1st in proportion to 2's semi nocturnal arc; and therefore as
T! is here nearest to the pole of the 2d, set one foot of your
compasses on the pole of 14, where it intersects the contra
parallel of the G), and extend the other foot to the pole of the
2d house; and this extent will be the proportional distance of
the Q from the 10th upon his own parallel. Mark off this
E.
36

distance from the 10th conversely upon the Sun's own parallel
towards the west ; set one foot of your compasses upon this.
mark, and extend the other foot to the centre of the Sun; and
this last extent will be 329#, the arc of direction required of
Q, A, it by converse motion*.
Remarks.

The proportional distance of the Sun might have been found


by placing one foot of your compasses upon the pole of 24,
where it intersects the contra parallel of Q, and extending the
other foot of your compasses to the place where the line of the
east angle intersects the contra parallel of the Sun; this extent
set off from the pole of the 9th towards the 10th, would mark
the place of the aspect, and where the direction is completed
exactly the same as by the former method. It may be well to
observe, that in working every mundane direction, we have
always the choice of the poles of two houses from which we
can take the proportional distances; but the arc of direction
will always come out the same, provided the distance be
correctly taken, and be set off from the pole of such a house
or angle as will cause the mark to fall in the proper place
where the aspect is completed: this will be very plain and
easy to those persons who have attentively read from page 40
to 52 of “Oxley's Treatise on the Celestial Planispheres.”

CHAPTER VIII.

General Rules for working Mundane Directions, both


Direct and Converse, by the Celestial Planispheres.
OBSERVE that the Q and D are commonly called Significators,
or planets which signify some event; and #, b, 2, 3, 2,
and # are Promittors, or planets promising the accomplish
ment of the same. Now remember, once for ever, that when
the Q or ) remain in their place, and #, b , T: , 3, 2, or
# move forward to complete the aspect, this is called Direct
Direction in mundo; but when the G) or D is carried on to
complete the aspect, in this latter case it is called Converse
Direction in mundo: and further, remember that the O and D
are sometimes promittors, accordingly as they are directed to
the aspects of each other; or it may be to the aspects of the
ascendant to those of the mid-heaven or of the part of
Fortune.

* By logarithms OAT! in mundo converse is 32° 35', being within


one single minute of a degree of what was found by the planispheres.
37

Rule.—When both planets are posited in the same hemi


sphere when the direction is completed, or when both remain
above or both below the horizon when the direction is finished.
First, observe which planet is to be carried forward to com
plete the aspect; then place one foot of your compasses on the
pole of the other planet, exactly where it intersects the
parallel of the planet that is carried forward, but upon the
contra parallel if it be in a different hemisphere to the planet
carried forward, and extend the other foot of your compasses
upon the same parallel unto the pole of the nearest angle or
house in the order in which the aspect is reckoned; and this
extent in your compasses will be the proportional distance of
the planet to be carried forward, which extent must be marked
upon the same parallel from the pole of that house where the
direction is completed; and this mark will be the place of the
aspect. Then set one foot of your compasses on this mark;
and extend the other foot to the centre of the planet carried
forward; and this last extent will be the arc of direction
required.
Example I, Rule I.
G), 3% , 2, M, d, d.

In the nativity of the Emperor Napoleon, let it be required


to direct the Sun to the sextile of Venus in mundo by direct
direction.
Here we observe that the Sun remains in his position near
the pole of the 11th house, and that Venus moves forward by
her own converse motion to complete the aspect, which she
does by moving onward on her parallel, until she is at the
same proportional distance from the west side of the pole of the
9th that the Sun is distant from the west side of the pole of the
11th, according to his semidiurnal arc.
Process.–Upon the parallel of Venus set one foot of the
compasses on the pole of the 11th, and extend the other foot
to the pole of the Sun: with this distance in your compasses,
set one foot upon the pole of the 9th, and make a mark.
towards the 7th with the other foot of the compasses on the
parallel of Venus; and this mark will be the point where the
sextile is completed. With one foot still on this mark,
extend the other foot to the centre of 2; and this extent,
applied to the scale of degrees, will be found to be 234, the
arc of direction being only four minutes of a degree more
than the result calculated by logarithms.
38

Evample II, Rule I.


G) & D, M., D, C.
In the Nativity of Napoleon, Plate No. 6. -

Let it be required to direct the Sun to the opposition of the


Moon in mundo by converse motion.
Here we observe, that the Moon remains in her position
near the line of the 4th house, and the Sun moves forward by
his own converse motion until he is at the same proportional
distance from the 10th, according to his semidiurnal arc, that
the Moon is distant from the 4th, according to her semi
nocturnal arc.
Process.—Therefore, upon the contra parallel of the Sun,
set one foot of the compasses on the (line of the) 4th, and
extend the other foot to where the contra parallel of the Sun
is cut by the pole of the Moon. With this distance in your
compasses, set one foot on the 10th, upon the Sun's parallel,
and with the other foot make a mark upon the same parallel
towards the Sun (that is, on the east side of the 10th); and
this mark will be the place of the Sun's opposition to the
Moon in mundo. Set one foot of the compasses on this mark,
and extend the other to the centre of the Sun; and this extent,
measured upon the scale of degrees, will be found to be 259,
the arc of direction being only two minutes of a degree dif
ferent to the result given by logarithms.
Second General Rule.

When the planets are posited in different hemispheres, or


one above and the other below the horizon when the direction
is finished.
Observe, as before, which planet is to be carried forward to
the place of the aspect; then place one foot of your com
passes upon the pole of the other planet, exactly where the
said pole intersects the contra parallel of the planet that is
carried forward, and extend the other foot upon the same
contra parallel unto the pole of the nearest angle or house in
the order in which the aspect is reckoned. Now this extent
in your compasses will be the proportional distance in the
other hemisphere of the planet that is carried forward to
complete the aspect, which extent must be marked upon the
planet's own parallel which is carried forward, and set off
from the pole of the house where the aspect is completed;
set one foot of your compasses on this mark, and extend the
other foot to the centre of the planet that is moved forward;
and this last extent will be the arc of direction required.
39

Example to Rule Second.


} A 24, M, D, D.
In the Nativity of Napoleon, Plate No. 6.
Let it be required to direct the Moon to the trine of
Jupiter in mundo by direct direction. -

Here the Moon will remain below, and Jupiter will have
ascended above the horizon when this direction is completed;
for Jupiter will then be the same proportional distance above
the ascendant, according to his semidiurnal arc, that the Moon
is distant from the 5th according to her seminocturnal arc.
Jupiter is the planet which moves forward to complete this
direction.
Process.--Therefore set one foot of your compasses on the
pole of the Moon, where it is intersected by the contra parallel
of Jupiter (c 1); and upon the same contra parallel extend
the other foot of your compasses to the (pole of the) 5th house:
and with this distance in your compasses, set one foot thereof
upon the parallel of Jupiter, at the point where it is cut by
the line of the 1st or eastern horizon, then with the other foot
make a mark towards the 10th, upon the parallel of Jupiter;
and now extend the compasses from this mark to the centre of
Jupiter; and this last extent, measured on the scale of de
grees, will be found to be 54° 1-10th, the arc of direction o
} A 24, M, D, D. - -

Remarks on Directing to the Quintile and Bi-quintile Aspects.


1st. To direct any planet to the quintile.
Having by the former rules made a mark upon the Plani
sphere where the sextile falls, you have only to take in your
compasses the proportion of the quintile from the circles of
the quintile upon the same parallel that the direction falls
upon; add this to the place where the sextile falls; and that
will be the place where the quintile falls.
For the Bi-quintile.
The aforesaid proportion of the quintile being marked and
set off from the place where the trine falls upon any parallel,
by turning the compasses twice over from that place, the last
mark will be the place of the bi-quintile. It is almost need
less to add, that the arcs of directions will be found by
measuring from the marks where quintile and bi-quintile fall
to the centres of the planet carried forward, as before taught.
And that the proportion of the quintile is always found upon
a planet's parallel, by setting one foot of the compasses upon
the line of the 10th or 4th house, and extending the other
foot of the compasses upon the same parallel to where it is
40

cut by the circle or pole of the quintiles. And the student is


requested to bear well in mind what has been stated in the
2d note at the end of the 3d chapter, relative to the quintiles
and bi-quintiles.

Qualities of Aspects and Directions.


These are sufficiently explained in the short note given in
page 287, which the student should read with attention, and
always keep in his memory. I will further remark, that the
student, when he goes to give judgment on any nativity, must
exercise his own good sense in applying the astrological rules,
and not always write down every aspect or effect of directions
literally, as given in this or any other book on the science;
but vary and modify his remarks according to the sex, station,
and circumstances of the person whose nativity he is calcu
lating: he that does not do this, will never give any correct
judgment; for no book could ever be written with rules and
aphorisms to suit every case, unless the student takes pains
to apply them properly. The persons who have their Nativities
calculated ought also to specify their sex, stations, rank,
trade, or professions in life; otherwise the artist, however
clever he may be, cannot be expected to point out with exact
ness the various events of their lives. Let them recollect,
that although misfortunes and preferments are common to all
men, yet there is a great difference between the preferment
which happens to a tradesman, and that which belongs to an
officer, to a clergyman, or to a statesman: the same reasoning
applies to all other events of their lives.

CHAPTER IX.

Of Improved and new Instruments of great Utility in


the Use and Construction of the Celestial Plani
spheres.

As there are some persons who possess skill in the judicial


part of astrology, but who are nevertheless, through a de
ficiency of education, quite incapable of performing the easiest
arithmetical calculations, and may therefore find it difficult
to calculate the circle of position of a planet, even by the
easy rules and examples contained in this Treatise, they will,
no doubt, be gratified to find, that by the help of the new
instruments described in this and the next chapter they will
be enabled to do this correctly, and several other operations
41

on the Celestial Planispheres, without any calculation what


ever.

I have mentioned, at page 187 of the Celestial Planispheres,


that those persons who use Mr. Ranger's Planispheres, employ
brass triangles very nearly in the shape of a roman or rather
italic capital A, divided at the base into thirty parts or de
grees: the legs are about three times the length of the base;
but they have no degrees nor divisions upon them. A string
is stretched from the acute angle, or top of the triangle, to the
base, and by moving the string backwards and forwards they
measure their distances upon the planisphere of the nativity,
and work the proportions of the mundane aspects, &c. by
keeping the base of their triangle as nearly parallel to the
equator as they can judge by their eye, after they had set the
string to the centre of a planet, &c. &c.
After very carefully examining and well considering the
Rangerian triangle aforesaid, and since the first publication of
my book, a number of them has been shewn to me, all of them
similar to the one just mentioned. I was thoroughly convinced
that, however correct in principle, the Rangerian triangle is
extremely deficient in its construction, and in the relative size
and proportion between the legs and the length of the base;
and, having no divisions upon the legs, it depends entirely on
the eye and judgment of the person using it, keeping the base
parallel to the equator, &c., whether the result be correct or
not: I therefore set myself to work, and invented a new in
strument (See Plate 13, and Fig. 1), called the Astrological
Quadrant; because it is used to determine all the proportions
of the semidiurnal and seminocturnal arcs of the planets,
and all the proportions of the aspects and circles of position
of the planets which can be found in the space of three houses,
or one quadrant of the Celestial Planispheres; though other
wise, as the arch n, m, q contains one-sixth part of a circle,
it might, according to its geometrical proportions, have been
styled the Astrological Sextant; and will, if constructed cor
rectly and agreeably to the following directions, be found to
perform, both with ease, certainty, and correctness, a variety
of operations on the Celestial Planispheres.
After the ecliptic slider has been fitted up by being pasted
on pasteboard, &c. and after it has been thoroughly dried, so
that it will not contract any more in length, as explained in
the first Chapter of this Key, it will then be ready for our use
in constructing the Astrological Quadrant. Take a piece of
well-polished sheet brass, about the twentieth of an inch in
thickness; let it be cut in the shape of Fig. 1, Plate 13, and
let the size of it be, from the top T to each extremity n, m,
42

and q, equal to 265 degrees; let it also be from the two corners,
viz. from n to q, equal to 265 degrees: the degrees to be
taken are the equatorial degrees engraved upon the straight
edge of the ecliptic slider. [Near T is a large round hole, to
hang up the Quadrant by when it is not in use..] At an
equal distance from either side, g, h, and at about 38 degrees
from the top T, make a fine dot with the point of your com
passes or pointrel; and let this be the centre from which you
describe the arch n, m, q.
Having a pair of fine pointed compasses, sufficiently large
(the steel beam spring adjusting compasses, mentioned in the
2d Chapter of this Key, are the best), take exactly 210 degrees
in your compasses, and therewith describe an arc the full ex
tent of the brass from i to k; from the centre C to A draw a
perfectly straight line parallel to gi; next upon the point
where the line CA intersects the arc ik, fix one point of your
compasses, and with the extent 210 degrees make a mark at
B, to intersect the arc ik ; then from the point A to B draw
the chord line AB; this being done, draw the line CB very
fine and faint; and we have then approximately defined the
three lines CA, CB, and AB; and at about one-eighth of an
inch inside of these three lines draw another line parallel to
CA, to CB, and to AB; then with a fine cold chisel, or other
proper tool, carefully cut all along the three inside lines last
drawn, until the entire triangular piece drops, or comes out
without straining the three sides of the quadrant. The quad
rant must then be very carefully flattened upon what the
braziers call a flat polished stake, by lightly malleting it with
a very smooth mallet; and when this has been done, set one
point of your compasses on the centre C, and try if the points
A and B are any way altered; because the cutting out of the
inside of the brass is liable to somewhat extend them; and if
any, even the least, alteration has taken place, with the 210
degrees still in your compass, draw the arc ik over again; and
proceed to draw again the line CA with the utmost straight
ness and accuracy. Do the same with regard to the straight
lines AB and CB, so that all the three sides shall each of
them be exactly 210 degrees in length. This being done, the
instrument is ready for being divided. Divide the chord line
AB into 90 equal parts (which we call mundane degrees), and
divide the lines CA and CB each into 210 degrees, to cor
respond exactly with the degrees engraved upon the straight
edge of the ecliptic slider. After all these divisions have
been engraved upon the quadrant, proceed to file away, very
carefully, the superfluous metal, until you come quite close
and true to the lines CA, CB, and AB; only leave about 2
degrees from the centre C, forming a small arc, as there is a
43

small substance of metal must be kept, in order to drill a fine


pin-hole at C, where the thread or index line must be fixed.
At the distance of about one-eighth of an inch above the
‘juadrant, a flat arch of brass n, m, q, should be fixed by three
fine screws at each corner of the quadrant, and by a bit of
brass between the arch and the quadrant. It would be well
that this arch be the tenth or twelfth of an inch thick, so as
to give strength and steadiness to the quadrant. Between the
arch and quadrant an adjusting screw S(with a small nut upon
it) works backward and forward, moderately freely, from
A to B; that is to say, the whole length of the chord line:
the end of the screw nearest the line AB must be flat and
square, to keep it from turning round under the arch n, m, q :
and through this square end a fine pin-hole should be drilled,
through which the index thread, which should be made of fine
catgut, passes under the square end of the said screw, and so
passes under the quadrant, where it goes through the pin-hole
at C. The index-line, or catgut, must be made moderately
tight by turning the nut upon the screw S: the quadrant is
then ready for use".

How to find the Circle of Position of any Planet by the


./1strological Quadrant.
To render this instruction complete, let it be required, in
the nativity of Napoleon, to find the circle of position of 3,
first, upon the parallel of go ; secondly, upon the equator;
and thirdly, upon the parallel of ky.
By referring back to page 22, we there see that the semidiur
nal arc of 3 is 971's degrees, and the semi-diurnal arc of the
parallel of 23 is 1124 degrees; and that the semidiurnal arc
of the parallel of k is 673 degrees. If these things had not
been given, they could have been instantly found by measuring
the semidiurnal arcs by the degrees upon the legs of the
quadrant. -

1. To find the Circle of Position of Mars upon the Parallel


of go, by using the Astrological Quadrant parallelwise.
Upon the parallel of 3 place 97% degrees of one leg of the
quadrant on the line of the 10th; and let the 971's degrees
* The first two astrological quadrants made by the Author were ex
actly 180 degrees upon each limb ; but he has since found that the
instrument would be still more useful if the divisions were extended to
210 degrees. He also made one which was 120 degrees upon each leg,
and the chord line being the same length, was divided into 2 houses, or 60
mundame degrees.
F
44

of the other leg of the quadrant touch the eastern horizon


where it is cut by the parallel of 3. Keep the quadrant
firm in this position, and slide the index string until it comes
exactly over the centre of 3, and there let it (the index string)
remain.
Now observe, that to shorten the description of these pro
cesses, we shall, for the future, call this the setting of the
quadrant (to 112 and 3-4ths, or to any other degree required);
which will be sufficient to imply that both legs of the quad
rant are set to the same degree at the same time, and there
fore the chord line AB of the quadrant will be in true paral
lel to the equator; for the words parallelwise, when applied
to this quadrant, always implies that it is set to the same di
vision on both legs.
Next set the quadrant to 112 and 3-4ths upon the parallel of
g: ; one leg upon the 10th and the other upon the 1st house, as
aforesaid; and observe where the index string crosses the
parallel of go, and there make a dot or mark; and this mark
will be the circle of position of 3 upon the parallel of go, as
was required.

2. For the Circle of Position of 3 on the Equator.


The index string remaining fixed, as aforesaid, you have
nothing more to do than to set the quadrant to 90° parallelwise
upon the equator, one leg on the 10th and the other on the
line of the 1st; and where the index string cuts the equator
will be the circle of position of 8 upon the equator, as was
required.

3. To find the Circle of Position of 8 upon the semidiurnal


Parallel of Vy.
The index-string remaining fixed, as aforesaid, with one leg
upon the line of the 10th and the other leg upon the line of
the 1st, set the quadrant parallel upon the parallel of k? (in
this case the number on each leg will be 673 deg.); and where
the index-string crosses the parallel of k will be the circle of
position of 3 upon the parallel of k?, as was required.

NoTES AND OBSERVATIONs.

1st. If any planet be posited above the horizon, or in the


7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, or 12th house, the chord line AB
(see Fig. 1, Plate 13) of the quadrant must be uppermost, or
above the parallel of go, with one leg (the inside thereof) al
45

ways to touch the 10th, and the other leg to touch the line of
the 1st or 7th when the quadrant is used parallelwise.
2d. If the planet whose circle of position is required be po
sited below the horizon, viz. in the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th or 6th
house, the chord line of the quadrant must be below the pa
rallel of k", with one leg upon the line of the 4th and the other
leg upon the line of the 1st or 7th house, according as the
planet is in the 1st, 2d, or 3d ; or as it is in the 4th, 5th, or 6th
house, when the quadrant is used parallelwise.
3d. There is another method of using this quadrant, which
is called using the quadrant perpendicularly : a single example
will be sufficient to render this method quite clear and easy.
How to use the Quadrant perpendicularly in finding the Circle
of Position of any Planet.
Rule and Evample combined.—Let it be required to find the
circle of position of 3 upon the parallel of go.
Place the chord-line of the quadrant uppermost (above the
parallel of ga); then bring one leg close to the line of the
10th; its whole length, and the other leg, will then pass be
yond the 1st house. Now bring 971's degrees on the leg that
touches the 10th house upon the parallel of 3, because 97,',
degrees is the semidiurnal arc of 3. Let the quadrant re
main firm in this position; and then slide the index-string
until it stands exactly over the centre of 3 ; let the index
string remain thus, and slide the leg of the quadrant (which
is close to the line of the 10th) until 1129 and 3-4ths upon the
same be brought upon the parallel of go ; because 1 129 and
3-4ths is the semidiurnal arc of the parallel of g3. Now, ob
serve where the index-string crosses the parallel of gö ; and
that point will be the circle of position of 3 upon the parallel
of g5, as was required, exactly the same as by the first me
thod. And in the same manner may the circle of position be
found upon the equator, or upon the parallel of kf, according
to the respective semi-arcs of the same parallels.

How to work Mundane Directions by the New Astrological


Quadrant upon the Planisphere of any Nativity.
In the nativity of Napoleon, let it be required to direct @
to the sextile of 2 , M, d, d.
Rule.—Set the quadrant parallelwise upon the parallel of 2,
and the quadrant will then have about 110% degrees, the semi
diurnal arc of b, on each of the legs. Set the index-string to
two houses, or 60 mundane degrees upon the chord line of the
quadrant; keep the same degrees of the quadrant still upon
46

the parallel of h, and in this way slide the quadrant along the
same parallel until the index-string stands exactly over where the
pole of the Q cuts the parallel of b ; then make a mark where
the most distant leg of the quadrant intersects the parallel of b,
and from this mark to the centre of k will be 43% degrees, the
arc of direction required.

ExAMPLE II.

In the nativity of Napoleon, let it be required to direct the Sun


to the quintile of Venus by direct direction in mundo.
G) Quintile Q M, d, d.
Set the quadrant parallelwise upon the parallel of 2, and you
will find 109° the semidiurnal arc of 2, upon both legs of the in
strument. Set the index-string to 720 upon the chord-line of the
quadrant, slide the instrument along the parallel of 2, until the
index-string stand exactly over where the pole of Q intersects
the parallel of 2 (keeping 109° on both legs still on the parallel
of $); make a mark where the farthest leg, passing beyond Q ,
cuts the parallel of 2 ; from this mark to the centre of 2 will
be found to be 374 degrees, the arc of direction required.
Observe, that if the Sun had been directed by converse motion,
the quadrant must then have been set parallel upon the parallel
of the Sun.
The examples here given are sufficient to shew the method of
working directions by the Astrological Quadrant; but for both
accuracy and expedition, I believe the compasses ought to be
preferred, when directions are worked upon these planispheres
according to the instructions contained in the Seventh and Eighth
Chapters of this Key to the Celestial Planispheres.

CHAPTER X.

The Astrological Sectors, and their Uses, &c.


The astrological quadrant described in the last chapter pos
sesses many advantages over the Rangerian triangle, one of which
ought not to be forgotten, viz. that when the quadrant is set with
the chord line parallel to the equator upon the #' of any
planet, the space comprehended between the two legs will always
be equal to the degrees engraved upon the legs of the quadrant;
and therefore the semidiurnal or seminocturnal arc of any planet
is always made known to the operator while using this quadrant;
and the same divisions being engraved upon both legs of this
instrument, makes it very easy to be kept parallel with the equa
47

tor; another very essential advantage which the Rangerian tri


angle does not possess.
Besides the aforesaid quadrant, I have invented, for the use
of astrologers and persons curious in the celestial sciences, two
other instruments, which are the single and compound astrolo
gical sectors.

Of the Single Astrological Seotor.


This instrument consists of two brass rules, each being the
eighth of an inch in thickness, and an inch broad: the inward
edge of each, upon which the divisions are engraved, must be
finely bevelled to a very thin edge, not exceeding £oth of an
inch in thickness; and the divisions on each leg of this sector
must be very accurately set off from the centre of the pin or
pivot of the joint upon which they turn about: the length of each
rule is 230 degrees. As upon the astrological quadrant, every
degree as far as 210 degrees must be engraved upon each leg of
the astrological sector; and the stroke at every 5th and 10th
degree should be drawn something longer than the others, for
the sake of more easily reading off the divisions; but in the en
gravings upon the copper-plates I did not think it necessary to
give myself the trouble of engraving every degree; the principal
divisions only being marked upon the Figures in Plate 13th, was
quite sufficient to explain the construction of these instruments.
The joint of the sector should be very carefully made to work
upon a screw, so that it can always be made moderately tight,
in order that the legs of the sector may remain truly at the distance
that the operator £ necessary to set them.

Of the Compound Astrological Sector.


This is made just in the same manner as the single sector;
only that each leg is about an inch longer, and that it has an ad
ditional rule, which works upon a pin D fixed upon the graduated
edge of the leg AC, exactly at 210 degrees from the centre C.
The divided side of this chord line is also 210 degrees in length;
but must be divided into 90 equal parts, and numbered on every
tenth degree, both ways, from right to left, from 0° to 90°; also
the 72d degree should be numbered both ways, as on the qua
drant; because the quintile aspect consists of 72 degrees. Upon
the edge of the leg BC, at 210 degrees from the centre C, there
is another pin, £ the rule mm always at that distance from
the centre; and another pin at n, so fixed as to permit the rule mm
to slide freely when you have occasion to set the legs of the sector
to any distance or position required. The inside of the legs AC
and BC need not be bevelled farther than 210 degrees from the
#
|
:o
centre. This instrument is very compact, and, when properly

|
made, is even preferable for use to the astrological quadrant.

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48

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49

sides and angles of so many plane triangles, and thence recalcu


lated; and the distances given in this Table were each determined
to the one hundred thousandth part of an inch, by rules which
are most probably unknown to any other astrologer besides the
Author himself.

CAUTION TO ASTROLOGICAL STUDENTS.

To prevent disappointment by a misapplication of this Table,


the Reader is respectfully informed, that the numbers therein
contained will not answer if applied to Ranger's Planispheres,
as they were not calculated for them. The same observation
holds good in regard to the Oxleyan Ecliptic Slider” and the
curve patterns for the different latitudes: they were calculated
and constructed to the line of natural semi-tangents, and to
the true mathematical radius of the Generating Circle, which
is equal in length to 90 degrees of the equator, and which is, upon
the original brass planispheres from which the copper-plates
were engraved, 63 inches, which 6; inches were divided diagonally
into 10,000 equal parts, being thereby reduced to the decimal
notation of the true mathematical radius, which is always equal
to unity. But the Rangerian Planispheres have the curves and
declinations, &c. constructed by a scale which is about 1124
equatorial degrees in length, or 12,500 equal parts; or, in other
words, to 13 the natural radius. Nothing, indeed, could be more
irrational, unmathematical, and absurd than the Rangerian
method of thus constructing planispheres to a fractional radius.
It is only an act of justice due to myself, and to true science, in
this place to prove to an enlightened Public, that my Celestial Pla
mispheres are constructed on true mathematical principles, and
upon the most exact proportions; as I find that a certain evil
minded individual in London, who may perhaps understand as
trology, but who has certainly proved himself quite ignorant of
the mathematics, has found fault with my Planispheres because
they are not (as he is weak enough to think they ought to be) 23#
equatorial degrees between the equator and each of the tropics.
Had he only possessed either honest candour or mathematical
skill, he would have known that the distance between the equator
and the tropics would not be more than about 18+ equatorial
degrees, which, when measured upon the line of semi-tangents,
or true line of declinations, would thereon be found equal to 23#
degrees; and he ought to have known, that it is upon the line of
semi-tangents, whose radius is equal to unity, and upon this
* This instrument, made of brass, has 360 perpendiculars upon it, in
order to determine the true curvature of the line of the ecliptic; and re
quired upwards of a whole month of constant labour to set off and com
plete this line, which was done with the utmost exactness; besides the
time and labour bestowed in constructing the various other lines which
are engraved upon this instrument by the Author.
50

line only, that the declimations of all the planets and the distances
between the equator and tropics must be measured. I regard
not the malice and envy of such an ignorant person, since the
Oxleyan Planispheres are approved of as correct, and patronized
by various learned and distinguished members of the Universities
of both Oxford and Cambridge; besides several hundreds of other
enlightened persons and admirers of the Celestial Sciences in
different parts of this United Kingdom.
The late celebrated astrologer, Raphael, has strongly recom
mended the Oxleyan Planispheres in his Familiar Astrologer.
Raphael was, indeed, so well convinced of their superior accuracy,
that he had engaged the Author of this work, for a large sum of
money, to furnish him with a complete set of brass curves and a
brass planisphere of the zodiac, &c.; but his death happening on
the 26th of February, 1832, prevented this order being exe
cuted.
Having now explained the true mathematical principles upon
which theČ'. ispheres are constructed, we shall proceed
to give some rules for the use of the astrological sectors de
scribed in the beginning of this chapter.

How to find the Circle of Position of any Planet by the


single Sector.
Rule.—If the planet be above the horizon, the inside or gradu
ated edge of one of the legs AC or BC of the Sector must be
brought upon the meridian, perpendicular to the equator; and
the division upon this limb, which answers to the number of de
grees of the planet's semidiurnal arc, must be fixed so as to coin
cide with the parallel (declination) of the planet whose circle of
position is to ' found. Keep this limb of the instrument firm
in this position; move the other leg until its graduated edge
touch the centre of the planet; the sector is then set. Next
slide the other leg up or down upon the meridian line, until the
degree which answers to the semidiurnal arc of the parallel of
go on this leg touches the parallel of g3 ; then observe the leg
which was set to the centre of the planet, where it cuts the pa
rallel of go ; there make a mark, ''this mark will be the planet's
circle of position upon the parallel of gs. Next bring 90° of the
leg on the meridian to coincide with the equator of the planisphere;
make a mark where the inward edge of the other leg touches the
equator; and this mark will be the circle of the planet's position
upon the equator.
If the planet be under the horizon, fix one leg of the sector
upon the line of the 4th house, instead of the 10th; and then pro
ceed in every respect as just explained for a planet above the
horizon. To those who have attentively read the 9th chapter,
this is so plain that it needs no example.
51

How to project the Line of any Planet's Latitude by the


Astrological Sector.
Observe that the index line of the quadrant of latitude is a line
which passes from 00 g, 0, and 00 w$ 0', quite perpendicular to
the line of the equator upon the planisphere of the nativity; and
when you use the Astrological Quadrant, or either of the Astrolo
gical Sectors, a perpendicular should be first drawn thereon from
0 go 0 and 0 w; 0, which may be done in a moment by the T
square. Then use the sector in the following manner:
Referring to the Table of Distances given in this chapter, ac
cording to the zodiacal longitude the planet is in, set one leg of
the sector upon the aforesaid perpendicular, at so many degrees
upon the leg of the sector distant from 00 GB 0 or 0° V 0”; this
distance is reckoned from the ecliptic line (and not from the
equator). One leg of the sector being kept firm in this position,
move the other until its divided edge touches the ecliptic longitude
of the planet; draw a line through this point, either north or
south, as the latitude may be; and this will be the line of the
planet's latitude required. And the point where the line of lati
tude cuts the parallel of the planet's declination will be the true
place of the planet's centre upon the planispheres, both according
to its longitude, latitude, declination, and right ascension.
Observe, That the distances in the Table are correctly set down
for every tenth degree of the zodiac; and the difference of the
distances is also given in the Table between these distances for
every ten degrees of the zodiac. Take the distances corre
' to the nearest whole degree of the zodiac which your
planet may happen to be in: this may be done sufficiently exact
in an instant by estimation, or mere mental proportioning of the
differenees of the distances; and this method will so project the
line of latitude as to give the planet's true place in right ascension
within a single minute of degree on the parallel of its declination,
provided that the longitude of the planet was correctly laid down
' the planisphere by help of the ecliptic slider, as has been
already so clearly taught in this Treatise.
If the astrological quadrant (Fig. 1, Plate 13) be used, then
must the index-string be drawn exactly over the planet's longitude
upon the planisphere, after one leg of the instrument has been
fixed as aforesaid to the proper distance; and where the index
string crosses the parallel of the planet's declination, will be the
true place of the planet's centre according to its right ascension,
&c., as by the former methods. -
52

How Parts
to divide any given Right Line into any number of equal
(not exceeding in number those upon the Chord Line
of the Quadrant).
This being a very useful application of the astrological quad
rant, we will proceed to exemplify it, as it will be found a very
ready and useful instrument for these purposes.
Rule.—Set the chord line of the quadrant parallel to the line
intended to be divided, with one leg of the instrument upon each
end of the line, and keep it firm in this position; then set the
index string to each successive division on the chord line that you
would have upon the line to be divided, and mark each place on
the line as shewn by the index string, until the given line be di
vided into the number of parts required.

Example.
Let it be required to divide a certain right line, which is not
longer than a limb of the quadrant, into 18 equal parts.
Having fixed the instrument parallel upon the given line, hold it
firmly in that position with one hand, and with the other slide the
index string so as exactly to rest upon the 5th degree on the
chord line. Observe where the index string crosses the given
right line, and there make a mark. Next slide the index string,
and let it rest exactly over the 10th degree on the chord line:
observe, as before, where the index string crosses the given line,
and there make another mark; and this will be the second di
vision upon your line. Set the index-string in this manner to
every fifth degree on the chord line, until all the 18 divisions are
marked upon the given line.
I have found this a very ready mode of dividing a page into
any required number of columns for setting down numbers in
tables, &c., By engraving two or three other lines of equal parts
upon that limb of the quadrant which has the chord line upon it,
say one line of 100 equal parts, and another of 144 equal parts,
this quadrant might be made to answer as a universal divider of
straight lines into such numbers of equal parts as are most usually
required. | - -

It is hardly necessary to add, that the compound sector (Fig.


3, Plate 13) may be usefully applied to the same purposes.
We will only add, that, to divide a right line into 10 equal
parts, set the aforesaid index-string to every 9th degree upon the
chord line; to divide a line into 9 equal parts, set the index
string to every 10th degree; to have the line divided into 6 equal
53

parts, set the index to every 15th degree throughout upon the
chord line of the quadrant.
New Rules for Rectifying Nativities.
As some ingenious students may wish to avail themselves of
the new rules £ rectifying nativities; now, in addition to what
is stated in pages 194 and 195 of this Treatise, let the following
notes be considered as a part of the aforesaid rules; viz.
1st. That the right ascension of the M. Celi of the estimate
time may be increased or decreased two, four, six, eight, ten, or
twelve degrees, equal to four, eight, sixteen,£ thirty
two, forty, or forty-eight minutes in time, in assuming a second
position; but always avoid fractions of degrees in what you add
to or subtract from the right ascension of the M. Celi of the
estimate time for this purpose.
2dly. If the D be concerned in this process of rectification,
make a suitable allowance for the increase or decrease of the
Moon's right ascension for the time added to or subtracted from
the estimate time in assuming a second position.
3dly. To avoid trouble of calculation, you may allow one
minute of a degree (which will be near the truth) in the Moon's
right ascension for every two minutes of time, and so in propor
tion: and to this approximate right ascension take the Moon's
distance from a given angle according to it.
4thly. It is generally best to have one arc greater and the
other less than the required arc of direction; the errors will
then be unlike, or of an opposite tendency, and seldom fail, if
applied according to these rules, of cancelling the errors at one
operation, and thereby finding the correct time of birth.
And instead of one or two degrees, let ten or twelve be added
to or subtracted from the right ascension of the M. Celi of the
estimate time, if the error in the arc of direction exceed 0° 10';
and this will generally make the errors unlike, as justmentioned,
and thereby rectify the nativity by one operation. When the
true time has been found, the D’s right ascension and declination
must be calculated to the rectified time, and the aspect directed
again to this rectified time. |

THE AUTHOR'S PREDICTIONS OF KING WILLIAM


THE FOURTH'S CORONATION, &c.
THE remarks on the King's Nativity were written and printed
in July 1830. In predicting the illness which His Majesty had
in the latter part of November and beginning of December 1830
(see page 200), it was there said, that “a direction of an un
pleasant nature is operating not far from this time; namely, the
54

ascendant to semiquartile of 3 arc 609; and which answers to


65 + years nearly.”
PREDICTION of the KING's CoRoNATION | The midheaven to
the trine of D (a primary direction), at 66 years, will be found
to correspond to the time of His Majesty's Coronation, &c. This
is put down in plain words, and was printed 14 months before
the time of the Coronation: the event corresponded to the time
stated in the prediction, within about a fortnight. The author of
this work took the time of the King's Nativity as it had been
given in the Astrologer's Magazine, &c. as being at 6 minutes
before 4 o'clock in the morning, 21st August 1765: so small an
alteration as 10 seconds in this time would have made the direc
tion of M. Celi A D to have pointed out the exact day of the
Coronation. The Author of this work, had he thought proper,
could have predicted many other circumstances from the King's
Nativity: he wishes no offence to any person, illustrious or not
illustrious; but leaves it to those persons who are more ambitious
of fame than he is, to run the risk of being publicly executed for
making treasonable predictions!!
The correctness of Mr. OxLEY’s predictions has excited uni
versal surprise and admiration, and has obtained for him the
approbation of the most exalted characters in the land, to whom
he feels grateful for their kind patronage and preference. At the
same time that he disclaims any ill-will towards any brother stu
dent, or any other person whatever, yet he cannot omit this oppor
tunity to protest against the illiberal conduct of a certain indivi
dual, who not long since commenced being the writer or compiler
of a prophetic annual, in which he says that he predicted the
King's Coronation, which took place, as he says, on 22d April
1831, when King William the Fourth went in state and dissolved
the parliament. And in regard to the splendid coronation which
took place on the 8th of September, 1831, HE styles it a trifling
ceremony of taking the oaths, &c, in Westminster Abbey. He
does this to deprive the author of the Celestial Planispheres of
the honor of having predicted the King's Coromation. See the
said annual for 1832, in page 63; see also pages 44, 45, 50, 51,
54, 55, and 58, nearly filled with extracts (without the slightest
reference or acknowledgment) from “Oxley's Lectures on Astro
nomy and Astrology.” This is well known to all who have
attended my Lectures, as did Raphael and all the London astro
logers. On one of my visits to Raphael, in November 1831, that
£ Artist saluted me by £ “Well, Mr. Oxley,
I see that Mr. ******* has almost filled his annual for 1832 with
extracts from your Lectures on Astronomy and Astrology!!!”
55

CHAPTER XI.

An Essay on the Anticipating and Retarding of the


Effects of Directions in Nativities; and an original
Method of Determining the Duration of the powerful
Effects of Directions.
THE celebrated Placidus, in his “Primum Mobile, or Doctrine
of Nativities,” has very indefinitely given some hints about the
great diameters of the luminaries having an effect upon direc
tions; but this is all, for he has not in his work attempted any
demonstration, nor given any rules for determining how long the
duration may be of the anticipating and retarding of directions.
Indeed, most astrologers who have had experience in the cal
culation of Nativities are aware that there exists an anticipation
and retarding of the effects of directions; but I have not met
with any person, nor any author, who has attempted to investi
gate and determine the quantity of such Retardation and Anticipa
tion of the calculated times of directions. It is generally believed,
and with good reason, that the lunar directions", and also the
secondary directions, if of the same nature as the primary direc
tions, will hasten the effects of the primaries, and cause the events
signified by the primaries to happen earlier than the calculated
times; but if the lunars and secondaries are of a contrary nature
to the Primary directions, they will retard their effects, and delay
the time of an event beyond that calculated. In page 122 of this
work this subject is explained in a more ample manner than it
has hitherto been; and in addition to what is there stated, I have
discovered another circumstance closely connected with this
subject, and which may justly be called

A new Astronomical-Astrological Theorem.


All astrologers admit, that when the centres of the Sun and
Moon are directed to the parallels of declination, or to the other
aspects of H, 2, 14, 3, 2, or #, that the Q and P are under
the powerful influence of the planet to which the luminary is
directed. Since this is the case, it must follow, as a natural con
sequence, that when the north and south limb of either of these
luminaries shall arrive at the parallel declination of any planet,
* The directions or aspects formed by the lunar progressions, explained
in page 131 of the Celestial Planispheres.
+ It is only to the centres of the Sun and Moon that (primary) direc
tions have been hitherto calculated: but this Essay proposes also to calcu
late directions to the east and west, and to the north and south limbs of
each luminary.
56

or to the same declination that their centres will have when


directed in the old method to other aspects, that the effect of the
direction will begin to operate; and £ the effect of such direc
tion will continue in force until the entire diameter of the lumi
nary shall have quitted the parallel declination of the Promittor;
or, until the entire diameter of the luminary shall have passed
through the same declination that its centre would have when
directed in the old method to the aspects of the other planets.
To determine how long the entire diameter of the Sun or Moon
will continue in the parallel declination which it has when it
completes the aspect, according to the old method, as just ex:
plained, must be considered a new Astronomical-Astrological
Problem, which shall be illustrated by suitable examples in this
chanter.
# has often been remarked, that certain persons are very
delicate and sickly during their infancy, or even until 12, 16, or
18 years of age; and that afterwards they have become strong
and healthy; and this could not be accounted for by the Nativity,
according to the usual rules of calculation, as there were no evil
directions, or at most not more than one direction to the hyleg
during the first 16 or 18 years of the native's life. But when
examined by this new rule, I have frequently found the Sun or
Moon's diameter has been immersed in the parallel of declination,
or was continuing in the same declination in which the hyleg
completed, by direction, an evil aspect to some planet. When
the Moon is the planet directed, her declination, &c. must
be determined by a reference to an ephemeris; for thereby the
declination she has both before and after any direction may be
easily found. -

New Problem, &c.


The Q or D being directed either to the parallel declination or
to other aspects of any planet; to find the arc of duration, and
thereby discover how long the effects of such direction will con
tinue in operation.
1st. Observe, if the Q be in go, St., mg, ~, m, f, when he
completes the parallel declimation or the aspect, the South limb
of the luminary will first touch upon the parallel declination, or
upon the declination of the aspect, and the north limb will be the
last in it.
2d. If the Q be in W5, 2:, X, Y, 8, II, when he completes
the aspect, or parallel of declination, in this case the north limb
of the luminary will touch upon the declination of the aspect, or
of the parallel of declination, and the south limb will be the last
immersed in it. -

3d. To and from the degrees and minutes of declination of the


57

given parallel of declination (or of the declination that the Q's


centre will have at the aspect), add or subtract 0° 16', and the
sum or difference will be the declination of the centre of the
luminary when the north or south limb first touches upon the
parallel declination, or the declination of the aspect of any
planet; according as the direction falls under the 1st or 2d case
abovementioned.
This process of adding and subtracting of 0° 16' is also ap
plicable as regards the D, only that the D's declination, &c.
must be found by an ephemeris.
4th. Find the Sun's longitudes answering to the two declina
tions found by Note 3d, in the astronomical tables given in most
astrological books; or otherwise calculate the Q’s longitude by
the following formula; then find their right ascensions, and their
oblique ascensions under the luminaries’ own polar elevation,
and by subtracting from them the Sun's oblique under his own
polar elevation, will give two other new arcs of direction, which
will shew the time that any direction continues in force, &c.
Formula.

As the sine of the Sun's greatest declination 23°28'


Is to the sine of the given declination,
So is radius sine of 90°
To sine of the longitude from Y or *,
Or to cosine of the longitude from go or y5;
accordingly as you would reckon the longitude from the equi
noctial points or or *, or from the tropical points of g or w$:
one example cannot fail of making this easily understood.
Example.
The diagram to illustrate this is Fig. 4, Plate 13, where S
represents the south limb, and N the north limb of the Sun.
In the Nativity of the Emperor Napoleon, 3 is in my 12° 2',
with 0° 58' £ latitude, and the parallel declination of 3 is
7° 56' north. Now, let it be required to find the arc of duration
of the G) in the parallel declination of 3 ; thus,
To the declination of 3. .................... 7° 56'
Add G)'s apparent mean semidiameter ........ 0 16
The sum is the declination of the Sun’s centre .. 8 12
when the Sun's south limb S enters the parallel declimation of 3.
Next
From the declination of 3 .................. 79 56
Subtract the Sun's semidiameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 16

The remainder ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740


58

is the declination of the Sun's centre when the north limb N quits
the parallel declination of 3. Then say,
As sine 230 28' .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6001181
To sine of declination 89 12" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 1542076
So is radius sine of 90° 0' ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0000000

To cosine of longitude 69° 1' ................. 9.5546895


from 00 g. 0', or, in 90 1" of my being the Sun's longitude when
at S. Then say, again,
As sine of 230 28 . . . . . . . • * * * * * * * . 9-6001181
* * * * * * * *

To sine of declination 7° 40' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1251872


So is radius sine of 90° 0' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:0000000

- To cosine of longitude 700 26' . . . . . . . . . . .... 9.5250691


or, in 100 26 of my, being the Sun's longitude when at N, or
when his north limb quits the parallel declination of 3. .

For the Arc of Duration.


From the £ longitude ................... 70° 26'
Subtract the least longitude found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 I
There remains the zodiacal arc of duration . . . . . . . . 1 25
of the Q, moving in the parallel declination of 3 ; or, in other
words, from 90 mg 1 to 100 mg 26 the Sun will be in the parallel
declination of 3. These two longitudes may be turned into
zodiacal directions by directing the Q to them by oblique ascen
sions, under the Sun's own pole of elevation; and finding the
time corresponding to each £ and then subtracting the
least time from the greatest, will shew the whole duration, or time
£" the direction may bc expected to shew its most powerful
effects.
N.B. These Arcs of Duration will be of various lengths in
different signs, but largest of all in II and g3, and in f and kf,
if near to the tropics, so much larger will the arcs of duration be;
in which case the same limb of the luminary that first entered
upon the parallel of declination may be last to leave it. In the
last fifteen degrees of x and mg, and first fifteen degrees of ar.
and *, the Q will have the shortest arcs of duration in the
arallel declination of any planet; and £ in all
parallels of declination, and in all other directions falling near the
equinoctial points, the effects of such directions will be the shortest
time in force; but all parallels of declination, and all other direc
tions in the zodiac near the tropics will continue the longest time
in operation. The shortest arc of duration near the equinoxes will
be about 10 20 of the zodiac; and the longest near the tropics
will be about 170 20 in degrees of the zodiac.
59

In regard to mundane directions, in addition to the old method


of directing only to the centres of the luminaries, 09 16 should
he added to, and also subtracted from the right ascension of each
luminary; and then work with the sum, or remainder, in such
manner as to direct the east and west limbs of each luminary to
£he parallels and to the other aspects in mundo; and by sub
tracting the least arc from the greatest, the duration or space of
fime wherein the effects of any mundane direction may be ex
Pected most powerfully to shew themselves, and hence determine
the probable limits of anticipation and retardation of the effects
of all mundane directions.

Directions to the East and West Limbs of the Luminaries.


See Figure 6, Plate 13.—In this diagram the Sun and Moon
are purposely drawn on a large scale, in order to render the
reason of the anticipating and retarding of the effects of direc
tions visible to the eye. The mean apparent diameters of each
luminary is 0° 32'; we have therefore divided the diameter of
each figure representing the Sun and Moon into 32 parts. To
render this demonstration the more explicit, let the Moon (posited
above the horizon) be directed to the conjunction of the Sun by
converse motion. Let B represent the Sun, E his east and W
his west limb; then will A represent the Moon with her west
limb W coming in contact with E, the Sun's east limb; and C
shews the position of the Moon when her east limb E is just
leaving W, the Sun's west limb. It will appear evident, upon
inspecting this diagram, that the Moon, in completing the con
junction as I have here explained, must pass from the position at A
to that at C, and therefore she will move over the spaces A and
B, which are equal to 64 minutes, or to 194, the sum of the
diameters of both the luminaries.
It should be here observed, that the same reasoning applies to
all other directions of the Sun and Moon directed to each other,
as will be clearly seen by inspecting Figure 5, Plate 13, repre
senting the D # Q in mundo by converse motion. The differ
ence between the arcs of direction calculated in the usual
manner, and of the arcs calculated to the east and west limbs of
each luminary, will shew the actual duration of the one luminary
continuing in the aspect of the other; which will be greater or less
according to the polar elevation under which the luminaries are
directed, if the directions be in the Zodiac; but if in Mundo the
difference will be greater or less according to the semidiurnal or
seminocturnal arcs of each respective luminary.
Observe,—If the luminary to be directed to the aspect be in
the 9th, 8th, or 7th house, 09 16 added to the primary distance
(of its centre) will be the distance of the west limb from the 10th;
H
60 -

but 0° 16' subtracted from the primary distance will be the dis
tance of its east limb from the 10th house. If posited in the
10th, 11th, or 12th, subtract 00 16 from the primary distance:
the remainder is the distance of the west limb from the 10th; but
if added, the sum will be the distance of the east limb from the 10th.
Secondly, if the luminary be in the 6th, 5th, or 4th, add 0° 16"
to the primary distance, the sum is the distance of the west limb;
but, subtracted from the primary distance, gives the distance of
the east limb from the 4th house. If in the 3d, 2d, or 1st house,
0° 16' taken from the primary distance, leaves the distance of the
west limb; but 09 16 added to the primary distance, gives the .
distance of the east limb from the 4th house. Use these dis
tances of the east and west limbs of the luminaries, and work
the stating of the proportions with semidiurnal or seminocturnal
arcs, or i: horary times, as already taught; and then by
comparing the results thus obtained with the directions calcu
£ to the centres, or usual method, will shew how long the
directions may be expected to exhibit their effects before or after
the times calculated for by the old method.
In the Nativity of Napoleon, Q's arc of direction to 8, ),
MC is by accurate calculation, 250 1'; but the arc of direction of
Q's east limb to & of D's east limb is 250 33', and of the Q's
west limb to & D's west limb 249 30', which gives 103 for the
limits within which the effects of G) to & D might be expected
to shew themselves. The Q's & to one limb of D comes up
about 6 months and 6 days sooner; but the Q's & to D's other
limb, 6 months and 12 days later than shewn by the old mode of
calculation.
The semidiurnal arc Q is 1020 47, and seminocturnal arc of D
is 1060 19", and the distances of the centres are, of G) 320 5' from
the 10th, of ) 70 18 from the 4th, from which the distances of the
east and west limbs of each luminary may be found by the addi
tion and subtraction of 0° 16', as explained above.
The apparent diameters of H, b, 2, 3, 2, and # being so
very small, neither of them being quite 00 1", it is not necessary
to regard the difference between their centres and their east and
west limbs: it will be quite sufficient to do this in reference to
the Q or D's east and west limbs when directed to the 6 or
aspects of the other planets.
CHAPTER XII.

Some useful Advice to Persons beginning to use the


- - Celestial Planispheres. -

IN concluding this Treatise, the Author believes he cannot do


better than to submit to those persons who are beginning to use
the Celestial Planispheres a few useful hints and observations for
• 61

their guidance. Having had much experience as a Teacher of


Mathematics and of the Celestial Sciences, he is hereby enabled
to point out to the student some things that may tend greatly to
facilitate his progress, and to caution him against those errors
into which most new beginners are apt to fall.
Many persons on having a new book, instead of commencing
at the beginning and reading slowly and attentively every page
to the end, will dip at once into the middle of the work, or only
read a few chapters in different parts of it. Having by this
means neglected to make themselves acquainted with the first
principles or rules, on which the merits and utility of the book
depends, more especially if it be a book of science, they are, in
consequence, unable to understand it, and look upon a work of
science as being absurd and difficult, instead of blaming them
selves for their own haste and negligence. . .
All those persons who have purchased these Celestial Plani
spheres, and who have £ read over the rules and in
structions given in the work, have found it quite easy and pleasing
to calculate Nativities by means of these astronomical charts;
but there are some few other persons, who have read over the
work in a hasty manner, and, being over anxious to arrive at the
end, have made difficulties for themselves where none reall
existed; for instead of going properly through the book, an
instead of performing the projection and calculation of the
planisphere of Napoleon's Nativity, they have begun to construct
and work the nativities of £ or those of some of their
friends; and having thus neglected to inform themselves of the .
rules and examples, they I' nothing to guide them, and became
!'"
them.
with what would otherwise have been quite easy to
The Author, therefore, feels it a duty that he owes both to him
self and to those ladies and gentlemen who patronise his work,
to earnestly recommend them to read all the rules attentively;
and, above all things, to construct anew the planisphere of the
Nativity of Napoleon; to find the circles of position and polar
elevations of the planets therein once at least; and to work all
the thirty-two examples in the same Nativity two or three times
over; and the Student is, at the same time, strongly recommended
to read with attention the rules for working directions in the 7th
and 8th Chapter of this KEY; and with the compasses in his
hands to keep referring to the planisphere of Napoleon, and ap-.
ply the compasses to it, according to these rules; and in this
way he will combine the theory and practice together in the most
easy and pleasant manner. - -

The Author once more repeats the advice given in the 3d note
at the end of the 3d Chapter of this Key, -for each student to
construct anew the planispheres for latitude 51° and for 53°%
62 -

by means of the scales upon the Ecliptic Slider and the Curve
Patterns belonging to this Work, and *: will be gratified by the
satisfaction and improvement he will thereby receive. -

It may be well to remind the Student, that when the £


of declination of any two planets are very close to each other,
by drawing one line with black and the other with red ink;
will render each parallel as clear and distinct as possible; if two
planets have the same quantity of declination, then will one
parallel line serve for both of them.

GREAT SUPERIORITY OF THE OXLEYAN


PLANISPHERES.

I HAVE already mentioned, in page 50 of this KEY, that the


late Raphael (that is to say, the late Mr. R. C. Smith) was so well
convinced of the great Perfection and Superiority of my Plani
speres over all £ that although he had a Brass Planisphere
of the Zodiac, on Ranger's plan, upwards of four feet long, yet
he gave the preference to mine, which are twenty-six inches in
length. Raphael had only two or three curves, and with these
he projected the line of the East and West Horizons, and the
Poles of the other Houses and of the Planets; and with these he
calculated Nativities for all latitudes whatever.
I have, in the former part of my work, clearly proved the
necessity of having a complete set of curves for every degree,
from the Equator up to sixty degrees of latitude; for without
them it would be impossible to construct the Planisphere with
sufficient accuracy, and consequently without such a complete set
of curves as are given in my Planispheres, the student would
find his Arcs of Directions quite incorrect, and his labor thrown
away. There is another circumstance worthy of remark, which
was noticed by the late Raphael himself-that to project his
Planisphere, which was upwards of four feet long, would take a
sheet of drawing paper, which would cost upwards of three
shillings; but that a piece of paper sufficient for one of the
Oxleyan Planispheres would only cost three pence or four pence,
and would answer every purpose of his large planisphere. He
said, since he had constructed that planisphere, he had been
sorry that he had made it so large, as he found it quite unwieldly,
and very cumbersome to work with. These observations are, in
substance, the very words of the late Raphael, when I visited
and took tea with him on Monday Evening, 5th September, 1831,
agreeably to a polite invitation sent me by post.
63

IMPRovEMENTs AND ADDITIONS UPON THE ORIGINAL


COPPERPLATES. -

BEING desirous of giving every possible satisfaction to the


purchasers of my work, I have engraved, for the London edition,
several hundred additional Lines and Divisions upon the Copper
plates, particularly in Plates No. 1 and 2. On plate No. 3, or
the Plate of the Zodiac, I have added a most : line, of the
space of three houses upon the parallels of Cancer and Capricorn,
for every degree from the equator to Sixty Degrees of latitude:
this line will enable the Student to set off, with the greatest
facility, the limits of the 1st and 7th houses upon the parallels of
go and k?, in so correct a manner as to correspond exactly with a
true Table of Houses, when the same Ecliptic Slider is used which
contains the aforesaid line of the space of three houses.
To find the Pole of any Planet by Plates No. 1 and 2.
The additional lines upon Plates No. 1 and 2 are parallels of
declination, beginning at the 4th and ending at the 44th degree
of declimation north and south: these additional lines, in combi
nation with the other lines first engraved upon these two Plates,
will enable the Student to find the Polar Elevation of a planet by
inspection, or by the following easy methods; thus, Having
marked the circle of the planet's position upon the Equator by
any of the methods taught in this work, the difference between the
distance of the planet's centre from the line of the 10th or 4th
house, and the £ of its circle of position from the same
houses, in degrees and parts of degrees (of the Equator), will be
the ascensional difference of the planet under its own Pole of
elevation.
To find the Pole.
You have only to take the extent of the planet's declination in
our compasses, set one foot of your compasses upon the equator
of Plate No. 1 or 2, so far from the six o'clock point as is equal
to the ascensional difference, and keeping the other foot of your
compasses exactly perpendicular thereto, where this last foot
touches any curve line, the curve line will shew the polar eleva
tion of the planet, and thereby you will instantly know which curve
pattern must be used in describing the pole of the planet upon
the Planisphere of the Nativity, or a scale of declinations agree
ing exactly with the Plates No. 1 and 2, by being slided upon the
equator of either of these two Plates (as occasion may require),
the edge of the scale of declination being brought to the degree,
&c. of the ascensional difference, as aforesaid; the quantity of
the planet's declination upon the same scale, where it touches a
curve line, will shew the pole of a planet as required.
64

Nativity of Napoleon.
In Plate No. 6, or that of Napoleon's Nativity, two new lines
have been added, for finding by the Planispheres the true Mundane
place of the part of Fortune. Also another important line, viz.
a line shewing the projection of the Moon's orbit of latitude in
the most correct and easy manner; and upon the same Plate I
have added a scale of equatorial degrees, whereby the correctness
of the arcs of directions can be instantly proved. , 1 have added
this line for the satisfaction of the candid Student, who has
nothing more to do than to measure the distances carefully upon
this Plate with a pair of fine pointed compasses, and he will find
that the Arcs of Directions agree exactly with astronomical cal
culations. I have thus most triumphantly refuted the false and
malicious assertions of a wretched pretender to science, who had
no other means of bringing himself into fame than by writing a
stupid, false, and malicious libel" to injure the sale of my work,
in which he had the audacity and worthlessness to assert, that the
arcs of directions were from two to three degrees wrong. But
the scientific world will instantly see, by the means I have now
furnished, that my Planispheres seldom differ more than four or
five minutes of a degree, and that more frequently they agree
exactly with the calculations by spherical trigonometry.
Quadrant of Latitude.—Upon this Plate a new line of numbers
has been added; with an engraved explanation of the manner of
placing it, when used upon the Planisphere of any Nativity.
The great encomiums bestowed on these Celestial Planispheres
by eminent professors and learned gentlemen, both in London
and various parts of this United Kingdom; and the evident supe
riority of this Work over every other attempt of the kind, has
secured the approbation of the candid and judicious, from the
most '' ed members of our Universities, even to the ope
ratives in humble life. The Author, as stated in the Preface,
even before the first publication of this Work, naturally expected
the attacks of the ignorant and envious; and accordingly one en
vious and evil-minded person (and only one), alluded to in the
10th Chapter of this KEY, has in a little tract, published anoni
mously, made a base and malicious attack upon the Author of the
Celestial Planispheres, and upon the worthy gentlemen who have
recommended this Work: the libeller-H, in his total disregard to
* The stupid libel is entitled “A Key to Mr. Oxley’s Planispheres, by
Mr. D***n.” This Mr. D***n is totally ignorant of the construction of
my Planispheres. Malicious and ignorant persons always write anoni
mously.
+ Mr. Oxley never said that Napoleon was an amiable man: and in
regard to Napoleon poisoning his own soldiers, &c., it has been many
years well known, that these falsehoods against the French Emperor were
propagated by an English General, who has himself since acknowledged
the falsehood of his former statements.
65

truth, has had the audacity to assert, that Mr. Oxley has arro
gated to himself the honour of being the only inventor of plani
spheres for nativities, although Mr. Oxley has occupied nearly
four pages of this Work in mentioning Mr. Ranger as the inventor
of a planisphere forty years ago. The Author of this Work only
claims the merits of his own inventions and publications; he lays
no claim to Mr. Ranger's performance; and without wishing in
the least to disparage Mr. Ranger's plan, he would be sorry to
bring forward so imperfect an invention. - - -

The aforesaid calumniator, to shew his own littleness of mind,


styles those worthy gentlemen Wiseacres and Simpletons, &c.
who have recommended the Celestial Planispheres; but his ma
lignity has defeated its own purposes, and promoted the sale of
the Work which he intended to destroy; for any sensible person
would, even on a first perusal, see through the baseness of his
motives, and judging, correctly, that it must be a Work of some
merit which could excite the envy of another man so far as to
write a libel against it, several persons, after reading the said
malicious libel, immediately gave orders for “Oxley's Plani
speres.” The libeller abuses the Author for egotism; but he
may rest assured, that Mr. Oxley will neither consult an anonymous
libeller, nor any other person, as to the style in which he may
please to express himself. He will be as egotistic as he thinks
proper: he has certainly a right to speak of his own Discoveries
and Improvements in as plain, direct, and positive a manner as
he thinks fit; for he has every reason to believe that he knows
more respecting planispheres, and all their varieties, both as
regards a diversity of radius, and of length and breadth from
four inches to upwards of eight feet in magnitude; that he has
made greater improvements, and has sunk more money in this
department of science, than all the Astrologers besides in this
United Kingdom, having been, for many years past, incessant in
his endeavours to render these planispheres as perfect as possible.
And now, in conclusion, he takes this opportunity of returning
his most grateful acknowledgements to the Nobility, Gentry, and
Scientific Public who have patronised his WoRK. -

London, Nov. 1832.


66

ADDRESS.

Since it became generally known that Mr. Oxley, by


calculating the Nativity of KING WILLIAM THE Fou RTH,
foretold the indisposition experienced by His Majesty in
November and December, 1830; and also that he made,
Fourteen Months before the event, the wonderfully correct
PREDICTION of the time of the King's Coronation, the
vast number of letters sent to Mr. O. compels him to re
ceive none but what are post paid, and directed “To
Mr. OxLEY, Author of the Celestial Planispheres, to the
care of DAvis and Dickson, No. 17, Saint Martin's-le
Grand, opposite the General Post Office, London.”
N. B. Correspondents residing in Foreign Countries will
please to pay the whole of the Postage, both Foreign and
Inland, or their letters will not be received.

MR. Ox LEY continues to give Private Instruction, to


both Ladies and Gentlemen, in the various departments
of the Mathematics, in Astronomy and Astrology, and in
the Oxleyographic Projection of the Sphere, &c.—Ladies
and Gentlemen (if required) taught to calculate their own
Nativities. Instruction for each Nativity, from One Guinea
to Ten Guineas, and upwards, personally or by letter:
the quantity of labor and time bestowed on each must
depend upon, and is always regulated according to, the
amount of remuneration. All Instruction and Calculation
must always be paid for in advance; and if remitted by
letter, the whole of the postage to be paid; and the
most honourable secrecy is observed by the Professor in all
private correspondence; by which he has obtained the
patronage and confidence of the most distinguished Nobi
lity and Gentry in the United Kingdom. ...
|N. B. A few remarkable events, with their dates, should
always be given, in order to rectify the given time of each
Nativity: personal accidents are best for this purpose.
Davis and Dickson, Printers, St. Martin's-le-Grand, Londom.
--~~~"- =-