Sei sulla pagina 1di 116

murad Sonia

filosofia

`teqnikuri universiteti”@
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti

m. Sonia

filosofia

registrirebulia stu-s
saredaqcio-sagamomcemlo
sabWos mier

Tbilisi
2009
damxmare saxelmZRvaneloSi gadmocemulia sistemuri
filosofiis ZiriTadi da daskvniTi sakiTxebi zogad-
filosofiuri kuTxiT.

damxmare saxelmZRvaneloSi garCeulia filosofiis


iseTi sakvanZo Temebi, rogorebicaa idealuri, realuri,
Semecneba-Sefaseba, ganviTareba da misi kanonebi, kavSiri
da misi formebi, wyviladi kategoriebi, da bolos, fi-
losofia rogorc meTodologia. amasTan TiToeuli maT-
gani moicavs yvela im sakiTxs, rac aucilebelia maTi
SeswavlisaTvis.

damxmare saxelmZRvanelo gamiznulia studentebisa


da profesor-maswavleblebisaTvis, aseve filosofiiT da-
interesebuli nebismieri mkiTxvelisaTvis.

redaqtori profesori v. Wiaureli

recenzenti asocirebeli prof. s. lominaZe

© sagamomcemlo saxli ,,teqnikuri universiteti’’, 2009


ISBN 978-9941-14-560-5
http://www.gtu.ge/publishinghouse/

yvela ufleba daculia. am wignis arc erTi nawili (iqneba es teqsti, foto,
ilustracia Tu sxva) aranairi formiT da saSualebiT (iqneba es eleqtronuli Tu
meqanikuri), ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas gamomcemlis werilobiTi nebarTvis
gareSe.
saavtoro uflebebis darRveva isjeba kanoniT.
sarCevi

winasityvaoba ...................................................... 7

Tavi I. idealuri .................................................. 8


1.idealuris cneba ....................................................... 8
2.idealuris Tvisebebi ............................................. 12
3.idealuris saxeebi ........................................................18
4.idealurisa da realuris urTierTdamoki-
debulebis problema........................................... 24
5. idealuris adgili yofierebaSi .................. 32
6. idealuris filosofiuri moZRvrebis mniSv-
neloba adamianis cxovrebaSi .............................. 37
7. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis `idealuri
(sulieri)~.............................................................................39

Tavi II. realuri ................................................. 43


1. realuris cneba ...................................................... 43
2 . realuris niSan-Tvisebani
(dro-sivrce; moZraoba) ....................................... 45
3 . realuris struqtura (Semadgenloba) ..... 49
4 . zogadad realobis saxeTa Sesaxeb ............ 51
5. materia rogorc realoba ............................... 56
6 . veli rogorc realoba ...................................... 63
7 . praqtika rogorc realoba .............................. 67
8. realuris adgili yofierebaSi .................... 71
9. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis `realuri
(xorcieli)~................................................................. 74

3
Tavi III. Semecneba da Sefaseba ................... 81 6 . dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis
1. s i na m d v il i s a dm i S e m e c n e b i T - S e f a s e b i T i kanoni............................................................................... 145
damokidebuleba. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis 7 . raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis
Teoriebi ......................................................................... 81 urTierTgadasvlis kanoni................................. 147
2 . Se m e c ne b isa da Se fas e b is c neb e b i, m aT i 8. uaryofis uaryofis kanoni ............................ 148
msgavseba-gansxvaveba ............................................ 84
9. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis `ganviTareba
3 . Semecnebis mxareebi, Sefasebis mxareebi.. 86
da misi kanonebi~ ................................................... 150
4 . Semecnebisa da Sefasebis sagnebi, miznebi
da Sedegebi ................................................................ 88
Tavi V. kavSiri da misi formebi.
5. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saxeebi .............. 90
wyviladi kategoriebi ................... 156
6 . Semecnebisa da Sefasebis problemebi...... 95
1. kavSiri da ganviTareba. kavSiris Tvisebebi.
7 . Semecnebisa da Sefasebis safexurebi ..... 99
kavSiris mniSvneloba ........................................ 156
8. codna da faseuloba .......................................... 113
2. kavSiris cneba. samyaros sayovelTao
9 . WeSmaritebis problema ..................................... 116
kavSiri ......................................................................... 158
10. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis roli adamianis
3 . kavSiris saxeebi (formebi) ............................. 160
cxovrebaSi ................................................................. 121
4 . kanoni rogorc kavSiris forma,
11. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis `Semecneba
misi saxeebi ............................................................... 162
da Sefaseba~.................................................................123 5. kavSiris Teoriebi ................................................ 166
6 . wyviladi kategoriebi ...................................... 169
Tavi IV. ganviTareba da misi kanonebi ... 135 61 zogadi da erTeuli ..................................... 170
1. moZraoba da ganviTareba ............................... 135 62 mTeli da nawili ............................................ 173
2 . ganviTarebis cneba .............................................. 138 63 arseba da movlena ............................................ 176
3 . ganviTarebis saxeebi, safexurebi (etapebi); 64 Sinaarsi da forma ......................................... 177
sasruloba................................................................... 139 65 mizezi da Sedegi .............................................. 178
4 . ganviTarebis Teoriebi (ganviTarebis e.w. 66 aucilebloba da SemTxveviToba ............... 182
ori koncefcia)......................................................... 141 67 SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile) . ............... 186
5. ganviTarebis kanonebi
(zogadi daxasiaTeba)............................................ 143

4 5
7. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis `kavSiri da winasityvaoba
misi formebi. wyviladi kategoriebi~............189
winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens damxmare saxelm-
Tavi VI. filosofia rogorc ZRvanelos filosofiaSi saqarTvelos teqnikuri
meTodologia ................................. 198 universitetis bakalavrebisaTvis.
1. s a k i T x i s d a y e n e b a . T e o r i a d a m e T o d i damxmare saxelmZRvaneloSi gadmocemulia sistemuri
zogadad ....................................................................... 198 filosofiis ZiriTadi da daskvniTi nawili da amiT igi
2 . meTodisa da meTodologiis cnebebi ...... 202 gagrZelebaa Cvens mier uwin gamoqveynebuli saxelmZRva-
3 . meTodisa da meTodologiis saxeebi ....... 204 nelosi (ix. filosofiis Sesavali, Tb., 2006).
4 . filos ofia r ogorc Te oria da r ogorc winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSi ganxiluli Temebi
meTodi .......................................................................... 215 mTeli Tavisi sakiTxebiT Seexeba sistemuri filosofiis
5. filosofiis meTodologiuri roli adami- iseT ZiriTad problemebs, rogorebicaa idealurisa da
anis Teoriasa da praqtikaSi ..................... 216 realuris ontologiuri, Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Sesaba-
6 . filosofiis meTodologiuri roli ada- misad gnoseologiuri da aqsiologiuri, ganviTarebisa
mianis cxovrebaSi .............................................. 218 da kavSiris meTodologiuri problemebi, aseve sistemuri
7. TvalsaCino masla TemisaTvis filosofiis erTgvar, daskvniT problemas - Tavad filo-
`filosofia rogorc meTodologia~....... 222 sofiis rogorc universaluri meTodologiis problemas.
saxelmZRvanelos yvela Tavs boloSi Tan axlavs
bolosityvaoba ........................................................... 225 erTgvari TvalsaCino masala, rac, bunebrivia, gauiolebs
saqmes mkiTxvels masalis aTvisebaSi.
ase rom, sistemuri filosofiis es damxmare saxelm-
ZRvanelo garkveul samsaxurs gauwevs student
axalgazrdobas filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobis
CamoyalibebaSi.

avtori
Tbilisi
2009 weli

6 7
Tavi 1 (5). idealuri (sulieri) (primatiT) unda gadawydes, e.i. RirebulebiTi midgomisas
upiratesi mniSvneloba yofierebis or ZiriTad sferos
gegma – idealursa da realurs Soris swored idealurs da
ara realurs unda mieniWos.
1 . idealuris cneba termini (sityva) `idealuri~ nawarmoebia sityvis-
2. idealuris Tvisebebi gan `idea~ da `ideasTan dakavSirebuls~ niSnavs. Tavad
3. idealuris saxeebi `idea~ berZnuli sityvaa da igi sityvasityviT niSnavs
4. idealurisa da realuris urTierTda- `imas, rac Cans~, `saxes~, `xats~, `warmodgenas~, `cnebas~. aq
mokidebulebis problema yvela SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba aranivTieri ram, rac sagnis
5. idealuris adgili yofierebaSi nivTieri, e.i. realuri (materialuri) mxaris miRma arsebobs,
6. idealuri s filosofiuri mo ZRvrebis amitom `idealuri~ filosofiaSi `realuris~ (`materia-
mniSvneloba adamianis cxovrebaSi lurisadmia~) dapirispirebuli. igi `ararealuris~,
`aramaterialuris~ sinonimad (tolmniSvnelovan sityva-
1. idealuris cneba daa) miRebuli, amitomac SemTxveviTi rodia `materializ-
mis~ (`realizmis~) sapirispiro moZRvrebas filosofiaSi
idealuri saerTod yofierebis, universumis erT- swored rom `idealizms~ uwodeben. am SemTxvevaSi idea-
erTi sferoa, yofieris, universaluris erT-erTi Semad- luris Sesaxeb moZRvreba ise faravs realuris (materia-
geneli nawilia, misi iseTi sxva sferos, nawilis gverdiT, luris) Sesaxeb moZRvrebis sapirispiro moZRvrebas, rogo-
rogoricaa realuri. radac Tavad idealuri – realuris (materialuris) sapi-
mokled, idealuri universaluris (yofieris) erT- rispiro sferos (wres) yofierebisas.
erTi saxea. termin `ideasTan~ dakavSirebulia agreTve iseTi
idealuri yofierebis upirvelesi saxea sulierTan mniSvnelovani sityva, rogoricaa `ideali~, rac `yvelaze
SedarebiT, vinaidan filosofiis ZiriTadi sakiTxi – srulyofils~ niSnavs da es garemoeba ki metad mniSvne-
idealurisa da realuris damokidebulebis sakiTxi lovania imis saCveneblad, rom yvelaze `srulyofilad~
swored idealuris realurTan SedarebiT upiratesobiT anu jerovnad miCneulia swored aranivTieri, ararealuri,

8 9
aramaterialuri nimuSi sagnisa. rogorc vxedavT, am vilea, xolo Semecnebis kuTxiT – araempiriuli anu
sityvis (`idealis~) etimologiac (warmomavlobis codnac) zeempiriuli (aragrZnobadi anu zegrZnobadi) sinamdvile.
idealuris realuris winaSe upiratesobas amtkicebs, ras niSnavs yofierebiTi da SemecnebiTi aspeqtebi
vinaidan risime jerovani nimuSis saxed aq miRebulia idealuris cnebis ganmartebaSi?
sagnis swored idealuri da ara realuri (materialuri) yofierebiTi aspeqti idealuris (sulieris) cnebis
mxare, e.i. yovelgvari nimuSis saxed Cven idealuri da ganmartebaSi gulisxmobs idealuris gansazRvrebas
ara materialuri migvaCnia. TavisTavadi kuTxiT, obieqturi ganaseriT, mis daxasiaTebas
termin `idealurs~ qarTulSi `sulieri~ Seesabameba, Semmecneblisagan damoukideblad, xolo SemecnebiTi
iseve rogorc `materialurs~ - `xorcieli~. ase rom, aspeqti – idealuris gansazRvrebas swored Semmecneblis
`idealuri~ igive `sulieri~ anu `araxorcielia~. poziciidan, subieqturi ganaseriT.
mainc rogoria idealuris (sulieris) cnebis yovelive amis Semdeg naTeli da gasagebia is
gansazRvreba? garemoeba, rom idealuri Tavisi yofierebis wesiT univTo,
idealuri (sulieri) aris ararealuri, aramate- aranivTieri, e.i. aranivTTagan Semdgari anu zenivTieri,
rialuri (aranivTieri) da araempiriuli (aragrZnoba- e.i. nivTebze aRmatebuli sferoa sinamdvilisa gansxva-
di) realoba (sinamdvile). sxvanairad, idealuri (sulieri) vebiT realurisagan, romelic swored nivTieri (sxeu-
aris zerealuri, zematerialuri (zenivTieri) da lebrivi), e.i. nivTTagan (sxeulTagan) Semdgari sinamdvilea.
zeempiriuli (zegrZnobadi) realoba (sinamdvile). xolo rac Seexeba idealurs misadmi SemecnebiTi damo-
idealuris (sulieris) cnebis am gansazRvrebaSi, kidebulebis wesiT, maSin igi grZnobadad (SegrZnebis
rogorc vxedavT, gamoyofilia ori – ontologiuri organoebiT) miuwvdomeli, masze aRmatebuli sinamdvilea
(yofierebaTmcodneobrivi) da gnoseologiuri (Semec- gansxvavebiT realurisagan, romelic grZnobadad
nebaTmcodneobrivi) kuTxe (aspeqti). (SegrZnebis organoebiT) misawvdomi sinamdvilea, anu gno-
pirveli aspeqti am gansazRvrebaSi idealurs seologiurad idealuri (sulieri) uxilavi sinamdvilea
(suliers) gansazRvravs yofierebis kuTxiT, xolo meore realurisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic xiluli sinamd-
aspeqti – Semecnebis kuTxiT. vilea.
yofierebis kuTxiT idealuri (sulieri) ararea-
luri ane zerealuri (aranivTieri anu zenivTieri) sinamd-

10 11
2. idealuris Tvisebebi risaTvis), aramed, piriqiT, droisa da sivrcis gareSe imyo-
feba. igi drosa da sivrceSi mocemul sinamdvileze aRma-
`univToba~ da `zegrZnobadoba~ idealuris (su- tebuli sferoa yofierebisa. ase rom, idealuris univToba
lieris) zogadi niSnebia, romlebic ganasxvaveben mas – zegrZnobadobas swored es misi Tvisebani – zedroul-
araidealurisagan anu realurisagan, romelic, sawinaaRm- zevrceuloba ganapirobebs. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, idea-
degod amisa, `nivTierebiTa~ da `grZnobadobiT~ xasiaTdeba. luris (sulieris) univToba-zegrZnobadobis mizezi swo-
aqedan gamomdinare, idealuri, mokled, univTo –zegrZnobadi red misi zedroul-zevrceulobaa: idealuri (sulieri)
sinamdvilea. univTo da zegrZnobadi sinamdvilea swored imitom, rom
esaa idealuris specifika, misi Tavisebureba. es ori igi drosa da sivrceSi ar imyofeba.
niSan-Tviseba idealuris (sulieris) cnebis aucilebeli magram idealuris (sulieris) kerZo, konkretuli
da sakmarisi niSnebia. niSan-Tvisebani amiT rodi amoiwureba. misi sxva kerZo,
magram ismis sakiTxi, Tu ras gulisxmobs Tavad idea- konkretuli niSan-Tvisebania agreTve ukvdaveba da waru-
luris zenivTiereba – zegrZnobadoba, ufro sworad, ra valoba. da marTlac, swored imitom, rom idealuri ukvda-
ganapirobebs idealuris am zogad niSan-Tvisebebs sxvana- via da waruvali, swored amitomacaa igi idealuri da
irad rom vTqvaT, konkretulad ra Tvisebebi ganapirobebs ara realuri (materialuri), vinaidan realuri (materia-
idealuris am zogad specifikas. am sakiTxs ki idealuris luri) swored amisi sapirispiro niSnebiT xasiaTdeba –
kerZo Tvisebebis sakiTxamde mivyavarT. mokvdaobiTa da waruvaloba.
rogorc vxedavT, idealuris Tvisebebi orgvaria: ukvdaveba da waruvaloba rogorc idealuris kerZo,
zogadi da kerZo, abstraqtuli da konkretuli. konkretuli niSan-Tvisebani pirdapir kavSirSia missave
mainc ra aris idealuris, konkretuli niSan-Tvi- sxva kerZo, konkretul niSan-TvisebebTan, rogorebicaa
sebani? zevrceuloba-zedrouloba. kerZod, idealuris iseTi
idealuris (sulieris) kerZo, konkretuli niSan- kerZo niSani, rogoricaa ukvdaveba pirdapir kavSirSia
Tvisebania zedrouloba da zevrceuloba. mis sxva iseT kerZo niSanTan, rogoricaa zevrceuloba,
idealuris (sulieris) zedroul-zevrceuloba xolo waruvaloba, Sesabamisad, - zedroulobasTan. da
gulisxmobs imas, rom igi drosa da sivrceSi ki araa, ro- marTlac, sxvas kidev raRas unda moaswavebdes idealuris
gorc es damaxasiaTebelia realurisTvis (materialu- ukvdaveba, Tu ara mis zevrceulobas, vinaidan is, rac

12 13
sivrceSi araa, is arc kvdeba, e.i. ar iSleba. anda, sxvas ras ar unda eqvemdebarebodes droisa da sivrcis kanonebs,
unda moaswavebdes kidev idealuris waruvaloba, Tu ara vinaidan vrceulsa da drouls xom drosa da sivrceSi
mis zedroulobas, vinaidan is, rac droSi araa, is arc dasawyisi da dasasruli unda hqondes. da Tu es asea, ma-
warvals, arc gardava. xolo sruliad sawinaaRmdego Sin materialuri rogor SeiZleba iyos substancia. marT-
Tvisebebi axlavs Tan realurs, rogorc mokvdavsa da lac, rogor SeiZleba is, rac sivrcesa da droSia, sivrcisa
warmavals, vinaidan mokvdavia, gaqrobadia swored is, rac da drois ganzomilebaSia, is substancia iyos imisi, rac
sivrceSia da warmavali, gardamavali – swored is, rac sivrcisa da drois gareSea, rac sivrcisa da drois ganzo-
droSia. mokvdavi xom swored sivrceSi mokvdaobas milebis gareSea? is, rac sivrceSia, ukvdavi iyos da is,
gulisxmobs, xolo warmavali – droSi warmavals. rac droSi – maradiuli? piriqiT, ufro logikuri ar
is, rom idealuri (sulieri) zedroul-zevrceulia, iqneboda gvefiqra, rom is, rac sivrceSia, swored isaa
filosofiaSi Cveulebriv sakamaTo rodia, magram ase mokvdavi da is, rac droSia, swored is – warmavali? gana
rodia es misi ukvdaveba – warmavlobis sakiTxTan dakav- drosa da sivrceSi sasruli SeiZleba ganmsazRvreli
SirebiT. xandaxan idealuris ukvdaveba-waruvalobas eWv- iyos misi sapirispirosi – usasrulosi? is, rac sivrceSia,
qveS ayeneben, iseve rogorc, piriqiT, realuris (xorcielis) is xom sadRac unda iyos da is, rac droSia, odesRac xom
– mokvdaoba-warmavlobasac. amas filosofiaSi materia- unda iyos, xolo is, rac sadRacaa, is yvelgan ar aris da
listebi akeTebdnen. es gamomdinareobs im materialisturi is, rac odesRacaa, yovelTvis ar aris. substancia ki
Tvalsazrisidan, romlis Tanaxmadac yofierebis sawyisi yvelgan unda iyos da yovelTvis.
(substancia) swored materialuria da Tu es asea, maSin maSasadame, swored imis gamo, rom idealuri (sulieri)
substanciurobis TvisebaTagan gamomdinare am TvisebebiT zevrceul-zedroulia, igi aucileblad ukvdavi da waruva-
swored materialuri da ara idealuri unda xasiaT- lia (maradiulia), radganac zevrceul-zedrouli usasru-
debodes. loa, maSin rodesac realuri (materialuri), piriqiT, -
magram igive materialistebi imas amtkiceben, rom sasrulia.
materialuri drosa da sivrceSi arsebobs, e.i. drosa da rogorc vxedavT, gamoikveTa idealuris kidev erTi
sivrces eqvemdebareba da Tu es asea, maSin rogor SeiZleba, kerZo, konkretuli niSan-Tviseba. esaa misi usasruloba,
rom aseTi ram substanciuri, e.i. ukvdavi da waruvali sapirispirod realurisa (materialurisa), romlis sawi-
(maradiuli) iyos? piriqiT, substanciuri xom sruliad naaRmdego niSan-Tvisebac sasruloba iqneboda. marTlac,

14 15
is rac droisa da sivrcis `artaxebSia~ momwyvdeuli, is realuris `arseba~, xolo realuri – misi `xorcSesxma~
rogor SeiZleba iyos usasrulo? da piriqiT, rac am anu gamovlena araa?
`artaxebisagan~ Tavisufalia, - is, sasruli? idealuris arsebiTobas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba
amas imitomac aRvniSnavT, rom es sakiTxic filo- aqvs filosofiis ZiriTadi sakiTxis (idealurisa da
sofiaSi xandaxan eWvqveSaa dayenebuli imave materia- realuris urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxis) idealis-
listebis mier, magram materialuris usasruloba, rasac tur gadawyvetaSi, imdenad didia idealuris am kerZo,
materialistebi amtkiceben, SeuZlebelia, vinaidan, rogorc konkretuli niSan-Tvisebis mniSvneloba, vinaidan swored
TviT isini amtkiceben, yoveli calkeuli materialuri am niSan-Tvisebis safuZvelze xdeba realuris (materialu-
sasrulia drosa da sivrceSi da sasrulTa jamma ki ro- ris) winaSe idealuris upiratesobis aRiareba. marTlac,
gor SeiZleba saerTod materiis usasruloba mogvces? Tu idealursa da realurs Soris arsebiTi niSan-Tvise-
marTlac, Tu sasrulia yoveli calkeuli materialuri, bisaa mxolod idealuri da ararealuri, maSin swored
maSin SeuZlebelia aseTive sasruli ar iyos saerTod, igi yofila upiratesi mniSvnelobis, vinaidan arseba gan-
zogadad materialuric. maSasadame, usasrulo, Tundac sazRvravs movlenas da ara piriqiT. xolo is, rom idea-
aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba mxolod realuris (materia- lursa da realurs Soris swored idealuria namdvilad
luris) sapirispiro sfero – idealuri iyos. arsebiTi da ara realuri, es isedac naTelia da udavo,
garda aRniSnulisa, SeiZleba gamovyoT idealuris vinaidan arsebiTobis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi (TavisTava-
(sulieris) kidev sxva kerZo, konkretuli niSan-Tvisebani. doba, Sinagnoba, Zireuloba, ganmsazRvreloba) swored rom
ase, magaliTad, misi arsebiToba (realuris araarsebiTo- idealuris damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia realurTan Sedare-
bisagan gansxvavebiT). biT. da garda amisa, Tavad sityva `arsebiToba~, sxva rom
idealuris arsebiToba gulisxmobs mis Sinagno- araferi vTqvaT, ukve TavisTavad gulisxmobs mis `upirate-
basa da ganmsazRvrelobas realurTan (materialurTan) sobas~, vinaidan maSin sxva ra unda iyos upiratesobis
SedarebiT, romelic, sawinaaRmdegod amisa, damokidebelia, mqone, `arsebiTi~ Tu `araarsebiTi~. arsebiTi xom swored
garegani da gansazRvruli, rac movlenis niSnebia, e.i. imitomac aris arsebiTi, rom swored igia mTavari da ara,
idealuri yofierebis arsebiTi mxarea, maSin, rodesac ra Tqma unda, araarsebiTi.
realuri – misi gamovlena. da marTlac, gana idealuri

16 17
3. idealuris saxeebi uqmneli suli. swored amitomacaa RvTaebrivi suli
absoluturi, xolo araRvTaebrivi – relatiuri.
idealuris (sulieris) gasagebad didi mniSvneloba rac Seexeba gansxvavebas imsofliursa da amsof-
aqvs misi ara mxolod zogadi, aramed kerZo saxeebis ana- liursa Tu imqveyniursa da amqveyniur sulTa Soris, am
lizsac, vinaidan idealuri ( realuri), rogorc aseTi, gansxvavebis safuZvelia is, realurTan (xorcielTan, mate-
urTulesi sferoa yofierebisa, romelic danawilebulia rialurTan) uSualod dakavSirebulia Tu ara esa Tu is
konkretul saxeebad da amitomac maTi analizi aucilebe- aRniSnuli suli. xolo amasTan dakavSirebiT unda
lia am movlenis sruli SemecnebisaTvis. aRiniSnos is, rom amsofliuri, amqveyniuri suli uSualod
idealuris dayofa sxvadasxva kuTxiT sxvadasxvanai- dakavSirebulia realur (materialur) anu xorciel
rad SeiZleba. magram upirveles yovlisa Tavisi mniSvne- sferosTan, `Serwymulia~ ra masTan, maSin rodesac
lobiT unda gamoiyos misi iseTi saxeebi, rogorebicaa imsofliuri, imqveyniuri suli gancalkevebulia misgan.
RvTaebrivi da araRvTaebrivi suli. am SemTxvevaSi dayo- imsofliuri anu imqveyniuri suli gansazRvravs
fis principad aRebulia sulis absoluturoba (upirobo- amsofliurs, anu amqveuniurs, iseve rogorc imsofliuri,
ba) Tu relatiuroba (fardobiToba). absoluturi suli imqveyniuri sfero saerTod - amsofliur, amqveyniur sfe-
es RmerTia, ra Tqma unda yovelgvari sxva sulieri – met- ros, magram amsofliur, amqveyniur sulsac SeuZlia gark-
naklebad relatiuri. amasTan, RvTaebrivi suli substan- veuli ukuzegavlena moaxdinos imsofliur, imqveyniur
ciaa, maSin rodesac sxva yovelgvari suli – arasubstan- sulze.
ciuri. sxvagvarad SeuZlebelicaa, radgan rogor SeiZleba idealuris dayofa SeiZleba moxdes agreTve imisda
swored absoluturi suli ar gansazRvravdes yovelgvar mixedviT, Tu vin aris ama Tu im sulis subieqti (matareb-
relatiur suls, umartivesi ar gansazRvravdes umciress eli). am SemTxvevaSi gamoyofen sulis iseT saxeebs, rogo-
da ara piriqiT? rebicaa: 1) mcenareuli suli, 2) cxoveluri suli,
TviT araRvTaebrivi suli iyofa imsofliur da g) adamianuri suli, 4) angelozuri suli, 5) RvTaebrivi
amsofliur anu imqveyniur da amqveyniur sulad. orive suli.
maTgani, gansxvavebiT RvTaebrivi sulisagan qmnilebrivi dalagebis principi (safuZveli) aq, rogorc vxedavT,
(Seqmnili) sulia, maSin rodesac RvTaebrivi suli – dablidan maRlisaken svlis principia. yoveli momdevno
saxe sulisa ufro maRalia, vidre winamavali, yoveli

18 19
winamavali suli – ufro dabali momdevnosTan SedarebiT. am orgvar fsiqikurs Soris adamianSi sinamdvileSi, ra
sulis aRniSnul xuT saxesTan dakavSirebiT SeiZ- Tqma unda, cnobiers unda mieniWos, radgan cnobiereba
leba SevniSnoT is, rom suli SeiZleba gavigoT samgvari (gonebrioba) gamoarCevs adamians swored cxovelisagan.
gagebiT: ufarToesi, farTo da viwro gagebiT, ra SemTxve- adamiani xom `homo sapiensia~ (`gonieri kacia~).
vebidanac suli ufarToesi mniSvnelobiT gagebulia adamianis idealur mxareSi zogjer gamoyofen or
rogorc idealuri, aramaterialuri, ararealuri saerTod kidev sxva mxares: sulsa da guls. amgvar dayofaSi daWe-
da masSi Seva yvela xuTive saxis suli, magram suli rilia adamianis idealuri cxovrebis kidev erTi mniSvne-
farTo mniSvnelobiT moicavs mxolod cxovelur, ada- lovani aspeqti (ganaseri). `suliTa da guliTo~, vityviT
mianur, angelosur da RvTaebriv suls, xolo suli viwro xolme xandaxan da amiT kacis idealuri (sulieri) cxov-
mniSvnelobiT – mxolod adamianur, angelosur da rebis `ufaqizes~ simebs vexebiT. gansakuTrebiT es exeba
RvTaebriv suls. `guls~ `sulTan~ SedarebiT, vinaidan guli (aq fizikur,
rogorc vxedavT, sulis amgvari dayofa moculo- anatomiur gulze ki ara, sulier, uxilav gulzea saubari)
bis princips (safuZvels) emyareba. uintimesi (usaTuToesi) mxarea adamianis zogadsulieri
erTmaneTisgan ganasxvaveben xolme samSvinvelsa da cxovrebisa.
suls. am SemTxvevaSi samSvinvelSi esmiT cxovelisa da adamianis idealur (sulier) cxovrebaSi gamoyofen
adamianis suli (e.w. `fsixe~, `anima~) da sakuTriv suli xolme cnobierebisa da TviTcnobierebis momentebs, ris
(e.w. `pnevma~, `spiritusi~), romelic gaaCnia adamians, ange- gamoc unda aRiniSnos Semdegi: orive maTgani adamianis
lozsa da RmerTs. mSvinvieri da sulieri saerTod idea- cnobierebis mxareebia, ra SemTxvevaSiac cnobiereba farTo
luris mniSvnelovani mxareebia, gansakuTrebiT ki adamianis da viwro mniSvnelobiTaa gagebuli. cnobiereba farTo
mSvinvieri da sulieri, e.i. fsiqikuri da pnevmaturi, igive gagebiT am dros moicavs rogorc cnobierebas viwro
animaluri da spiritualuri mxareebi. gagebiT plus TviTcnobierebas. da, marTlac, rogorc
adamianis idealur (sulier) cxovrebaSi xandaxan cnobiereba viwro mniSvnelobiT, ise TviTcnobierebac
gamoyofen xolme e.w. cnobier fsiqikursa da aracnobier orive cnobierebaa farTo gagebiT, vinaidan orive maTgani
anu qvecnobier fsiqikurs, romelTa rolic adamianis arsebiTad gulisxmobs Segnebis moments, oRond gansxvaveba
cxovrebaSi sxvadasxvanairadaa gagebuli: zogi pirvels maT Soris isaa mxolod, rom cnobiereba viwro azriT
aniWebs upirates rols, zogic – meores. ganmsazRvreli rogorc TviTcnobierebis sapirispiro ram gareT, sxva

20 21
sagnebze mimarTul cnobierebas, xolo TviTcnobiereba bulebas gviqmnian sagnebis mimarT, xolo nebelobiTi
– SigniT, sakuTar Tavze mimarTul cnobierebas gulisx- sulieri movlenebi sakuTari nebiT moqmedebis (aqtivobis)
mobs. da Tu daismis sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogoria unars gvaniWeben. samive jgufi sulieri movlenebisa, ra
Tanafardoba adamianis cnobierebis am or moments Soris, Tqma unda, gacnobierebulia, e.i. gaazrebulia, vinaidan,
maSin upiratesi mniSvneloba TviTcnobierebas unda mie- samiveSive cnobierebaa CarTuli. samive SemTxvevaSi
niWos misi sapirispiros – cnobierebis winaSe, vinaidan adamianma icis, rasac imecnebs, rasac grZnobs da rasac
mizanic adamianis cnobierebis am or moments Soris aris iqms. igi ara marto imecnebs, an grZnobs, an kidev iqms, ara-
ara sxvaTa Semecneba, aramed, piriqiT, swored TviTSemecneba med ufro metic: isic icis, rom imecnebs, an rom grZnobs,
da, maSasadame, TviTcnobiereba da ara sxvaTcnobiereba. anda kidev rom iqms.
sxva, garegan saganTa cnobiereba anu Segneba saSualebaa aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ufro naTeli unda gaxdes
oden sakuTari Tavis, Sinagani cnobierebisTvis. Tumca isic, Tu ra aris adamianis cnobiereba – rom es aris mi-
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom orive momenti aucilebelia si goniereba, Segneba, azrovneba. es aris codnis codnisa
da arcerTi maTganis, maT Soris, sakuTriv cnobierebis anu ormagi codnis unari. es aris Tavad codnis unari,
momentis ugulebelyofac ar egebis. amitom saWiroa orive Tancodnis unari, anu unari, rasac Tan codnac axlavs
maTganis harmonizacia (SeTanxmeba, SeTanawyoba) adamianis da arc axlavs. maSasadame, adamianis cnobiereba es aris
cxovrebaSi. TviTcodnis (Tavad codnis codnis) unari.
dabolos, rac Seexeba adamianis cnobierebas, masSi idealuris yvela saxe qmnis erT mTlian sistemas
gamoyofen sam ZiriTad jgufsac movlenebisas, kerZod ki: (SekavSirebul, mowesrigebul mTels), romlis struq-
1)SemecnebiT, 2) grZnobiT-emociursa da 3) nebelobiT turuli (SemadgenlobiTi) erTeulebis analizic gvaZ-
sulier movlenebs. TiToeuli maTgani kidev, Tavis mxriv, levs suraTs idealuris fenomenisas da amiT gviqmnis
sxvadasxva saxed iyoda, magram yoveli maTganisTvis mainc SesaZleblobas, ukeT SevicnoT idealuris buneba. amaSi
saerToa am movlenaTa gaazrebuloba – Segnebuloba. mdgomareobs idealuris saxeTa analizis mniSvnelobac.
SemecnebiTi sulieri movlenebi: 1) SegrZnebani,
2) aRqmani, 3) warmodgenani, 4) cnebani, 5) msjelobani,
6) daskvnani gvaZleven codnas sagnebis Sesaxeb, maSin, ro-
desac grZnobiT-emociuri sulieri movlenebi damokide-

22 23
4. idealurisa da realuris urTierTdamo- Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac fsiqikuri da fizikuri ubra-
kidebulebis problema lod eTanxmebian erTmaneTs, magram mizez-Sedegobriv
kavSirSi ar imyofebian, saerTod ar exebian, ar gadakveTaven
idealurisa da realuris, sulierisa da xorci- erTmaneTs.
elis urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxi idealuris idealuris (realuris) am idealisturi, realisturi
(sulieris) problemis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi mxarea. da paralelisturi Teoriebidan erTaderTi swori Teo-
ufro metic, idealurisa da realuris urTierTdamoki- riaa misi idealisturi gageba, romlis Tanaxmadac idea-
debulebis sakiTxi saerTod filosofiis ZiriTadi lurs upiratesoba eniWeba realurTan mimarTebaSi, Tumca
sakiTxic kia, vinaidan es sakiTxi gansazRvravs nebismieri es rodi gamoricxavs realuris fardobiT (realatiur)
sxva sakiTxis gadawyvetas masSi. ukuzemoqmedebasac masze. aseTia idealuris realurTan
idealurisa da realuris urTierTdamokidebulebis mimarTebis zomieri idealisturi gageba.
sakiTxi Cven amjerad gvainteresebs ara saerTod rogorc rac Seexeba idealuris realistur da paralelis-
filosofiis ZiriTadi sakiTxi, aramed mxolod idealuris tur Teoriebs, Tu maT zomierad da ara ara ukiduresad
(sulieris) problemis nawili, e.i. mxolod idealuri, gavigebT, maSin garkveul momentebSi orive maTganic
oRond realurTan mis damokidebulebaSi. misaRebia, Tumca ZiriTadad – mainc araswori.
idealuri realurTan damokidebulebaSi SeiZleba rom SevajamoT Tqmuli, idealuri realurTan damoki-
samgvarad warmovidginoT: 1) rogorc realuris ganmsazRv- debulebaSi ZiriTadad ganmsazRvrel zemoqmedebas axdens
reli, 2) rogorc realuriT gansazRvruli da 3) realu- realurze, araZiriTadad ki realurisganac ganicdis
ris paraleluri. pirveli idealuris (realuris) idea- zemoqmedebas da, bolos, garkveul momentebSi erTmaneTi-
listuri gagebaa, meore - realisturi, mesame -`parale- sagan urTierTzemoqmedebis gareSec anu paraleluradac
listuri~ gageba. moqmedeben.
pirveli ori gageba idealurisa imiT gansxvavdeba imis gamo, rom idealuris (sulieris) realurTan
mesamisagan, rom orive isini idealuris realurTan urTi- (xorcielTan) damokidebuleba gansakuTrebiT mniSv-
erTzemoqmedebas aRiarebs, maSin, rodesac mesame maTgani nelovania adamianis idealuri mxaris realurTan damoki-
am zemoqmedebas uaryofs. am ukanasknelis klasikur maga- debulebis aspeqtiT, amitom aucilebelia am sakiTxs ufro
liTs warmoadgens e.w. `fsiqofizikuri paralelizmis~ dawvrilebiT SevexoT.

24 25
adamianis idealuri (sulieri) da realuri (xor- fsiqofizikuris problema adamianSi marqsistuli
cieli) mxareebis urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxi yve- TvalsazrisiT adamianis cnobierebisa da misi Tavis tvi-
laze ufro problemurad (rTulad) adamianis `fsiqikisa~ nis urTierTdamokidebulebis saxiT dgas.
da `fizikis~ urTierTdamokidebulebis saxiT dgas. ufro aq zogi ram unda davazustoT: jer erTi, is, rom
zustad, problema (amocana, sirTule) isaa, gairkves, Tu ra marqsistebi cnobierebas mxolod adamianis sakuTrebad
damokidebulebaa adamianSi mimdinare `fsiqikur~ (`mSvin- miiCneven da, meorec, isini cnobierebis `adgilsamyofelad~
vier~) da `fizikur~ (sxeulebriv) procesebs Soris. swored mxolod adamianis Tavis tvins miiCneven.
amasTanaa dakavSirebuli e.w. fsiqofizikuris problemac, cnobierebis marqsistuli gansazRvreba aseTia: `cno-
e.i. fsiqofizikuris problema imaSia, Tu ra damokidebu- biereba umaRlesad organizebuli materiis – adamianis
lebaa fsiqikursa da fizikurs Soris. Tavis tvinis produqti, Tviseba da funqciaa~.
adamianSi fsiqofizikuris problemas samgvari ga- cnobierebis marqsistul gansazRvrebaSi upirveles
dawyveta SeiZleba hqondes: idealisturi, roca adamianis yovlisa aRsaniSnavia is, rom cnobiereba dakavSirebulia
fsiqikuri mxare miCneuli xdeba fizikurisagan arsebiTad adamianis Tavis tvinTan, romelic marqsistebis mier aRia-
damoukideblad, realisturi, roca aseTad miCneuli xdeba rebulia `umaRlesad organizebul materiad~, rac sworia.
adamianis fizikuri mxare fsiqikurTan SedarebiT da magram arasworia is, rom marqsistebi am materias cnobiere-
paralelisturi, romlis Tanaxmadac adamianis arcerTi basTan SedarebiT pirveladobas aniWeben, maSin rodesac
mxare ar aris miCneuli damokidebulad erTimeoreze, adamianis Tavis tvinis `umaRlesad organizebuloba~ swo-
aramed damoukideblad erTimeorisagan. red am cnobierebis Sedegia da ara piriqiT. da marTlac,
adamianis `fsiqikuri~ da `fizikuri~ mxareebis urTi- adamianis Tavis tvins swored is garemoeba xdis umaRle-
erTdamokidebulebis kuTxiT sasargeblo iqneboda am sad organizebul materiad, rom cnobiereba swored masTa-
problemis marqsistuli gagebis analizi. saqme isaa, rom naa dakavSirebuli. uamisod adamianis Tavis tvini umaRle-
adamianis fsiqofizikuris problemis marqsistuli Teoria sad organizebuli materia marqsistulive logikiT arc
am problemis mogvarebis klasikuri realisturi (materia- unda yofiliyo. da Tu es ase araa, maSin ratomaa, rom
listuri) Teoriaa, ris gamoc misi kritikuli ganxilva adamianis Tavis tvini garkveuli xani jer kidev ganagr-
dagvexmareba sakiTxis dadebiT (pozitiur), e.i. idealistur Zobs arsebobas maSinac ki, roca igi ukve mkvdaria, e.i. mok-
gadawyvetaSi. lebulia cnobierebas (gonierebas)? rogor SeiZleba

26 27
mizezi iyos (adamianis Tavis tvini) da amas Sedegi (cnobie- TiTqosda materiis ganviTarebis Sedegia misi ganviTa-
reba) Tan ar sdevdes. rebis umaRlesad organizebul safexurze. magram es swori
ase rom, adamianis Tavis tvini ver iqneba cnobierebis, araa, radganac materialuri Tavisi ganviTarebis Sedega-
rogorc Sedegis mizezi. dac ver mogvcemda principulad (Tvisobrivad) gansxvave-
garda amisa, adamianis Tavis tvini, Tundac miuxe- bul idealurs. msgavsidan xom isev mxolod msgavsi
davad misi `umaRlesad organizebuli materiobisac~, mainc SeiZleba ganviTardes.
xom materiaa da sxva araferi da rogor SeiZleba am ma- arc is aris swori, TiTqosda marqsistuli gagebiT
teriis rogorc mizezis Sedegi cnobiereba iyos? cnobie- cnobiereba adamianis Tavis tvinis rogorc umaRlesad
reba xom idealuri movlenaa, tvini ki – materialuri. organizebuli materiis `Tviseba~ iyos, e.i. misi Sinagani
materialuri ki SeuZlebelia iyos idealuris mizezi, mdgomareoba iyos, radganac sruliad gansxvavebuli
vinaidan msgavsi msgavssa Sobs. msgavsi mizezic msgavs sruliad gansxvavebulis Tviseba ver iqneba.
Sedegs warmoSobs, Tanac dabali mizezi maRal Sedegs dabolos, arc isaa swori, TiTqosda marqsistTa Sexe-
ver mogvcems. dulebiT cnobiereba adamianis Tavis tvinis viTarca
aRniSnuli ori garemoebisa gamo SeuZlebelia cno- umaRlesad organizebuli materiis `funqciaa~, anu masze
biereba adamianis Tavis tvinis Sedegi iyos. ase rom, cno- damokidebuli ram iyos, ufro zustad, adamianis cno-
bierebis, rogorc adamianis Tavis tvinis `produqtad, Tvi- bierebaSi mimdinare procesebi misi Tavis tvinSi mimdinare
sebad da funqciad~ yofna, ra Tqma unda, `vulgaruli fiziologiuri procesebis Sedegi iyos, vinaidan ufro
materializmi~ iqneboda, radgan am SemTxvevaSi umaRlesi, dabali donis procesebi rogorRa mogvcemda ufro maRa-
sulieri (cnobiereba) uxeSad dayvanili iqneboda udab- li donis procesebs?
lesze, xorcielze (tvinze). rogorc vxedavT, cnobiereba ver iqneba adamianis
aqedan gamomdinare, araswori iqneboda cnobierebis Tavis tvinis verc produqti. verc Tviseba da verc funqcia.
warmodgena adamianis Tavis tvinis kerZod `produqtad, piriqiT, swored igia adamianis pirveladi, damoukidebeli
Tvisebad da funqciad~. mxare, romelic `acocxlebs~, `asuldgmulebs~ da amdenad
marqsistTa TvalsazrisiT, cnobiereba rom adami- `umaRlesad organizebuli materiad~ xdis adamianis Ta-
anis Tavis tvinis viTarca umaRlesad organizebuli vis tvins. adamianis Tavis tvini es aris misi sulis mate-
materiis `produqtia~, es ise unda gavigoT, rom cnobiereba rialuri organo, iaraRi, romelic mas sWirdeba realur

28 29
(xorciel) sinamdvilesTan saurTierTobod. misi meSveo- Sedegi (produqti). materia TavisiT ar viTardeba, vinaidan
biT suli ukavSirdeba empiriul (cdiseul) sinamdviles. materiis upirvelesi kanonia inercia (pasiuroba, umoqme-
adamianis cnobierebasa da Tavis tvins Soris damoki- doba). materiis ganviTarebis mizezia sulieri (idealu-
debulebis marqsistul gagebasTan dakavSirebiT unda ri) substancia (sawyisi) – RmerTi. adamiani xom RmerTma
SevniSnoT is, rom cnobiereba adamianis Tavis tvinis Seqmna Tavisi xorciTac da suliTac. swored RmerTma
Tviseba ki araa rogorc materiisa, aramed misi sulis STabera suli adamianis xorcs. man Seqmna igi Tavisi
Tviseba, romelic adamianis amqveyniuri cxovrebis Jams cnobierebiTac da tviniTac.
dakavSirebulia mis Tavis tvinTan. SeigrZnobs da azrov- ase rom, cnobiereba materialuris ganviTarebis Se-
nebs ara adamianis Tavis tvini, aramed misi suli, ra Tqma degi ki araa, aramed RmerTis Semoqmedebisa. sanam RmerTi
unda, amqveyniur cxovrebaSi, swored tvinis meSveobiT, xorciel, miwier adamians Seqmnida, mas ukve hyavda, Seqmnili
amitom mkvdari anu usulo Tavis tvini verafersac ver sulieri adamiani Tavisi cnobierebiT. maSasadame, aravi-
Seimecnebs. Tari pirdapiri kavSiri materiis ganviTarebasa da cnobie-
cnobiereba, garda amisa, ar aris adamianis Tavis tvinis rebis Camoyalibebas Soris ar arsebobs. materiasac da
funqciac (masze damokidebuli ram), vinaidan masSi mimdi- cnobierebasac RmerTi hqmnis da RmerTive aviTarebs. mate-
nare fiziologiuri procesebi ki ar gansazRvraven mis ria TavisTavad, spontanurad ver ganviTardeba da igi, bu-
sulSi mimdinare fsiqikur procesebs, aramed swored, piri- nebrivia, Sedegad adamianis cnobierebas ver Camogvi-
qiT, es fsiqikuri procesebi aRZraven masSi mimdinare yalibebs RmerTis gareSe.
fiziologiur procesebs, raTa cnobierebis karnaxaT tvin- amrigad, idealuris (sulieris) realisturi (materia-
ma Seasrulos garkveuli muSaoba realur (xorciel) listuri) Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac idealuri realu-
sinamdvilesTan kavSiris dasamyareblad. garda amisa, riT gansazRvruli fenomenia (movlenaa), arasworia, Tumca
adamianis cnobierebas SeuZlia iarsebos tvinTan misi unda aRiniSnos isic, rom am TeoriaSic aris WeSmaritebis
urTierTobis gareSec, ra Tqma unda, sikvdilis Semdeg. marcvlebi. es is aris, rom realursac (materialursac)
dabolos, cnobiereba ar aris adamianis Tavis tvinis aqvs fardobiTi damoukidebloba idealuris mimarT da
produqtic, rogorc umaRlesad organizebuli materiis garkveul ukuzemoqmedebasac axdens idealurze.
ganviTarebis Sedegi, vinaidan Tavad adamianis Tavis tvini marTalia idealuris (sulieris) arc is realistu-
aris materiis sulieri, misi sulismieri ganviTarebis ri (materialisturi) Teoriaa swori, romlis Tanaxmadac

30 31
idealuri realuriTa gansazRvruli, magram arc is para- mas yofierebis sxva mxaresTan da, meorec, imas, Tu ra
lelisturi Teoria varga, romlis Tanaxmadac idealuri gansxvaveba aqvs mas am mxaresTan, mokled rom vTqvaT,
da realuri paraleluri (araurTierTgadamkveTi) feno- yofierebis saerTo fonze misi Taviseburebis gansazRvras.
menebia (movlenebia) da, maSasadame, araviTari zemoqmedeba amasTan dakavSirebiT, upirveles yovlisa, unda
ara aqvT erTimeoreze, vinaidan igi ver iZleva idealuris aRiniSnos, rom idealuri (sulieri) saerTod yofieris,
axsnas realurTan kavSirSi. Tu arada rogor SeiZleba universaluris erT-erTi saxea, e.i. mas is saerTo aqvs
raime kavSiri ar iyos adamianSi maT Soris. sxva sakiTxia sinamdvilis danarCen sferosTan, rom igic iseve yofieria,
isic, rom es Teoria idealurs adamianSi realurisagan rogoric sinamdvilis sxva danarCeni sfero.
damoukidebel mxared miiCnevs, rac, ra Tqma unda, sruliad magram idealuri (sulieri), ra Tqma unda, yofieris,
misaRebia. Tumca miuRebelia is, rom maT Soris kavSirs universaluris gansakuTrebuli sferoa, romelic
adamianSi ar aRiarebs. gansxvavdeba sxva sferosagan.
yovelive amis gamo erTaderTi swori gadawyveta is `danarCeni~ Tu sxva sfero, romelTanac raRac
idealuris problemis adamianSi misi realurTan damoki- saerToc aqvs da gansxvavebulic idealurs (suliers),
debulebis aspeqtiT, ra Tqma unda, idealuris swored sxva araferia, Tu ara realuri (xorcieli).
idealisturi gagebaa. kerZod, es aris idealuris idealuri (sulieri) saerTod yofieris, univer-
(sulieris) zomier-idealisturi gageba materializmis saluris ubralo saxe rodia, aramed gansakuTrebuli, ra
(realizmis) elementebiT (nawilebiT) anu idealuris Tqma unda, realurTan (xorcielTan) SedarebiT, amitom
realurTan damokidebulebis iseTi gageba, roca es idea- mas gansakuTrebuli adgili unda ekavos da ukavia kidec
luri adamianSi miCneulia realuris ganmsazRvrelad, yofierebaSi. xolo es gansakuTrebuloba gamoixateba
magram realurs ki masSi idealuris mimarT garkveuli imaSi, rom idealuri yofierebis mTavari, ZiriTadi,
ukuzemoqmedebac SeuZlia. ganmsazRvreli mxarea. Tavis mxriv, idealuris (sulieris)
simTavre, ZiriTadoba, ganmsazRvreloba mis e.w. substan-
5. idealuris adgili yofierebaSi ciurobaSi (sawyisurobaSi) mdgomareobas.
yovelive amis gamo saWiroa odnav mainc substan-
idealuris (sulieris) adgilis gansazRvra yo- ciurobis (sawyisurobis) sakiTxsac SevexoT.
fierebaSi gulisxmobs, jer erTi, imas, Tu ra saerTo aqvs

32 33
`substancia~ laTinuri terminia (sityvaa) da qar- (Teoria, romelic mxolod erT sawyiss, substancias
Tulad `arsebas~ niSnavs. yofierebis anu arsis substancia, aRiarebs), dualizmi (Teoria, romelic or sawyiss, subs-
maSasadame, mis sawyiss anu safuZvels warmoadgens. tancias aRiareba) da pluralizmi (Teoria, romelic mra-
arsis substanciis cneba unda akmayofilebdes abso- val sawyiss, substancias aRiarebs). amaTgan erTaderTi
luturobis (upirobobis) pirobas. substancia raimeze swori Teoria, ra Tqma unda, monizmia, vinaidan substanciac
ar unda iyos damokidebuli, piriqiT, yvelaferi masze erTaderTi SeiZleba iyos da aris kidec – is, rac yove-
unda iyos damokidebuli. aseTi ram ki idealuri SeiZleba lives sawyisia, RmerTi. substancia xom uqmneli unda
iyos da ara realuri, vinaidan erTaderTi absoluturi iyos, yovelive danarCeni ki – misi qmnileba. is, rac yove-
arseba RmerTia, xolo RmerTi aris wminda idealuri lives sawyisia, Tavis Tavis sawyisicaa, vinaidan substancia
arseba, ufro zustad, - absoluturad idealuri arseba. TavisTavadia, Tavis Tavis mizezi, TviTmizezi da ara
aqedan gamomdinare, marTalia, yovelgvari idealuri mxolod sxvaTa mizezi.
substanciuri rodia, aramed mxolod – absoluturad ra Tqma unda, monizmi samyaros saboloo sawyisis
idealuri, magram es xels rodi uSlis idealuris substan- Taobaze erTaderTi swori Tvalsazrisia, magram es imas
ciurobas saerTod, maSin, rodesac realuri saerTod SeuZ- rodi niSnavs, dualizmisa da pluralizmis Teoriebic
lebelia iyos substanciuri Tavisi sruli relatiu- ar iyon sworni nawilobriv, Tu maT Cven gaigebdiT ara
robisa gamo. rogorc absoluturi sawyisis, aramed relatiuri sawyi-
imis gamo, rom substancia erTaderTi SeiZleba iyos sebis Teoriebs. am azriT dualizmi da pluralizmi ro-
Tavisi swored absoluturobisa gamo, xolo aseTi sub- di upirispirdeba monizmsac da erTi meoresac, vinaidan
stancia swored idealuria da ara realuri erTaderTi aq monizmis saboloo, absoluturi sawyisis tolmniSvne-
swori Tvalsazrisic swored monisturi unda iyos, xolo lovan sawyisebze ki araa saubari, aramed masTan met-nak-
es monisturi Tvalsazrisi – swored idealizmi da ara lebad SedarebiT (relatiur) sawyisebze. sxvagvarad SeuZ-
realizmi (materializmi). lebelicaa, vinaidan tolmniSvnelovani sawyisi logi-
saerTod unda aRiniSnos, rom arsis sawyisis Taobaze kurad SeuZlebelia saboloo, absoluturi azriT erTze
sxvadasxva Teoria arsebobs, imisda mixedviT, Tu ra oden- meti iyos.
obis sawyisia maTSi aRiarebuli – erTi, ori Tu mravali. monizmi orgvari SeiZleba iyos – idealisturi da
amis mixedviT gvaqvs Sesabamisad sami Teoria: monizmi realisturi (materialisturi), imisda mixedviT, Tu ra

34 35
gvaqvs aRiarebuli substanciad – idealuri Tu realuri 6. idea luris filoso fiuri m oZRvr ebis
(materialuri). amasTan dakavSirebiT unda aRiniSnos is, mniSvneloba adamianis cxovrebaSi
rom erTaderTi swori Tvalsazrisi idealisturi moniz-
mia anu Teoria idealuris erTsawyisianobisa. rac Seexeba idealuris filosofiur moZRvrebas didi mniSvne-
realistur (materialistur) monizms, es Teoria arasworia, loba aqvs adamianis cxovrebaSi. es mniSvneloba Teo-
radgan igi realur (materialur) erTs aRiarebs sawyisad, riulic aris da praqtikulic.
xolo realuri (materialuri) sawyisi, igi erTic rom idealuris filosofiuri moZRvrebis Teoriuli
iyos, saboloo, absolutur sawyisad anu substanciuad mniSvneloba adamianis cxovrebaSi imaSi mdgomareobs,
ar gamodgeba, radganac warmoebulia idealurisagan da rom, jer erTi, igi Cven gvexmareba idealuris problemis
mas sawyisi idealurSi da ara Tavis TavSi aqvs. igi – es zogad gadaWraSi da, meorec, igi saSualebas gvaZlevs
sawyisi, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi mxolod relatiuri sawyisi idealuris sferosTan dakavSirebuli calkeuli sakiTxe-
SeiZleba iyos da aris kidec, vinaidan yovelgvari mate- bis zogad saduZvelTa kvlevaSi, xolo idealuris zogad-
rialuri (realuri) marTlac erTi materialurisagan – filosofiuri problemebis amgvari Tu imgvari gadawyveta
saerTod materiisganaa warmoSobili. safuZvels hqmnis am sakiTxTa swored amgvari Tu imgvari
ase rom, substancia (sawyisi), saboloo azriT, mxolod gadawyvetisaTvis: Tu sworad iqna gagebuli idealuri
idealuri SeiZleba iyos, vinaidan realuri (materialuri) zogadi aspeqtiT (ganaseriT), maSin bunebrivia, sworad
damokidebelia idealurze, idealuri ki TavisTavadia. iqneba mis safuZvelze gagebuli idealuris kerZo
idealuris uaryofa SeuZlebelia, realurisa - ki, vinaidan sakiTxebic. asevev iqneboda es TviT zogadfilosofiuri
idealuris uaryofa isev idealuria, xolo materialuris kvlevis farglebSic. ase, magaliTad, idealuris imgvari
uaryofac – idealuri; idealuris warmodgena materialu- gageba, ra drosac igi gagebulia rogorc yofierebis
ris gareSe SesaZlebelia, magram realurisa (materialu- pirve-ladi mxare, realurTan SedarebiT, Cven gvaiZulebs
risa) idealuris gareSe – SeuZlebeli, vinaidan yovel- yofierebis Teoriuli kvlevisas swored aRniSnul mxares
gvar realurs win uswrebs misi idea (saxe), maSin rodesac mivaniWoT mTavari yuradReba.
es idea SeiZleba idead darCes da arc realizebul rac Seexeba idealuris filosofiuri moZRvrebis
iqnas (ar ganxorcieldes). praqtikul mniSvnelobas, adamianis cxovrebaSi, igi imdenad
mniSvnelovania, rom Cven idealuri cxovrebis da ara

36 37
marto idealuris saerTo warmarTvaSi gvexmareba. ase 7. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis
rom, aq gadamwyveti mniSvneloba imas aqvs, Tu ramdenad `idealuri (sulieri)~
sworada gvaqvs gadawyvetili es Teoriuli problema,
vinaidan idealuris araswori gageba, ra Tqma unda, praq- i d eal ur i s cnebis ganmarteba
tikul cxovrebaSi gzas agvacdenda. ase magaliTad, Tu variantebi
Cven idealurs (suliers) mTavar orientiurad (gzis
maCveneblad) ar davsaxavdiT Cvens cxovrebaSi realurTan 1. idealuri (sulieri) aris zerealuri (zexorcieli)
(xorcielTan) materialurTan (nivTierTan) SedarebiT, da zegrZnobadi (zeempiriuli) yofiereba.
maSin araswori gziT warvmarTavdiT saqmis WeSmarit 2. idealuri subieqturi (subieqtiseuli) sinamdvilea.
viTarebas: idealuri xom yofierebis ufro maRali sfe-
roa, vidre realuri (materialuri). maSasadame, dabali idealuris Tvisebebi
unda daeqvemdebaros maRals da ara, piriqiT.
da bolos, imis gamo, rom, idealuri(sulieri) yofi- 1. subieqturoba, 2. zegrZnobadoba, 3. zedrouloba,
erebis ufro maRali safexuria, vidre realuri (xorci- 4. zevrceuloba, 5. ukvdavoba, 6. waruvaloba,
eli), materialuri (nivTieri), idealuris filosofiuri 7. usasruloba, 8. arsebiToba.
moZRvrebis mniSvnelobac meti unda iyos realuris
(materialuris) filosofiurive moZRvrebis winaSe idealuris saxeebi
rogorc Teoriuli, ise praqtikuli mniSvnelobiTac.
ase rom, rogorc Teoriuli, ise praqtikuli aspeq- 1. RvTaebrivi suli 2. araRvTaebrivi suli
tiTac idealurs gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs yofi-
erebaSi. 1. zesTasofluri suli 2. zeciuri suli
3. qveyniuri suli

1. mcenareuli suli, 2. cxoveluri suli,


3. adamianuri suli, 4. angelozuri suli,
5. RvTaebrivi suli.

38 39
fsiqikuris (mSvinvieris) saxeebi 1. adamianis SemecnebiTi unarebi (SegrZnebani, aRqmani,
warmodgenani, cnebani, msjelobani, daskvnani)
1. aracnobieri (qvecnobieri) fsiqikuri 2. adamianis SefasebiTi unarebi (grZnobebi, emociebi)
2. cnobieri fsiqikuri 3. adamianis nebelobiTi unarebi

termin `cnobierebis~ sinonimebi substanciis cneba


variantebi

1. `goniereba~, 2. `Segneba~, 3. `azrovneba~,


substancia aris is, saidanac yovelive iRebs saTaves,
4. `mizandasaxuloba~
anu is, rac yvelafris mizezia.
substancia yovelives arsebaa.
cnobierebis cnebis ganmarteba
substancia yovelives sawyisia.
variantebi
substancia yovelives Ziria.

cnobiereba aris TviTcodna, anu codnis codna. substanciis (sawyisis) Teoriebi


cnobiereba aris Tancodna, romelsac Tan isev
codna axlavs. 1. monizmi - erTi substanciis Teoria
cnobiereba ormagi codnaa, anu codnis codna. 2. dualizmi - ori substanciis Teoria
cnobiereba `meore rigis~ codnaa. 3. pluralizmi - mravali substanciis Teoria
cnobiereba Segnebuli codnaa.
cnobiereba Segnebaa. idealuris (sulieris) saxeebi

adamianis cnobierebis saxeebi 1. faqtiur-idealuri anu iseTi, rogoric igi aris


an ar aris
1. adamianis cnobiereba
2. adamianis TviTcnobiereba 2. aqsiur-idealuri anu iseTi, rogoric igi unda
iyos, an ar unda iyos

40 41
1. idealuri rogorc ararealuri (arasagnobrivi) Tavi 2 (6). realuri (xorcieli)
2. idealuri rogorc normatiuli (jerovani)
3. idealuri rogorc sakuTriv idealuri gegma

1. socialur-idealuri anu idealuri sazogadoebis 1 . realuris cneba


masStabiT 2. realuris niSan-Tvisebani (dro-sivrce;
2. koleqtiur-idealuri anu idealuri koleqtivis moZraoba)
(jgufis) masStabiT 3. realuris struqtura (Semadgenloba)
3. individualur-idealuri anu idealuri adamia- 4. zogadad realobis ZiriTad saxeTa
nuri individis masStabiT Sesaxeb
5. materia rogorc realoba
idealurisa da realuris 6. veli rogorc realoba
urTierTdamokidebulebis Teoriebi 7. praqtika rogorc realoba
8. realuris adgili yofierebaSi
1. idealizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac idealuri
gansazRvravs realurs 1. realuris cneba

2. fsiqo-fizikuri paralelizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac realuris cneba mravali mniSvnelobiT SeiZleba


idealuri (`fsiqikuri~) da realuri (`fizikuri~) vixmaroT.
erTmaneTze ar zemoqmedeben erTi mniSvnelobiT realuri saerTod yofiers,
arsebuls niSnavs. es aris realuris yvelaze farTo
3. realizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac realuri gan- mniSvneloba.
sazRvravs idealurs meore mniSvnelobiT realuri araidealurs, ara-
suliers, xorciels niSnavs. es realuris ufro viwro
mniSvnelobaa.

42 43
realuris viwro mniSvneloba gveqneboda maSinac, rac sulis gareTaa, mokled, arasulieri yofiereba,
Tu mas namdvilis, aramoCvenebiTis mniSvnelobiT sulismiRma yofiereba saerTod, e.i. yovelive, rac mxolod
gavigebdiT. sulieri ar aris.
realuri pirveli mniSvnelobiT moicavs rogorc magram realuri (xorcieli) sxva mxriv kidev aris
realurs meore mniSvnelobiT, ise realurs mesame mniSvne- grZnobadi (empiriuli) sinamdvile, e.i. grZnobis organo-
lobiTac. ebiT wvdomadi sinamdvile.
realurs Cven am SemTxvevaSi misi meore mniSvne- rogorc vxedavT, Cven aq gvaqvs realuris (xor-
lobiT, e.i. araidealuris, arasulieris mniSvnelobiT cielis) cnebis ganmarteba ori sxvadasxva kuTxiT –
vxmarobT. ontologiuri da gnoseologiuri kuTxiT, pirveli yofie-
realuri (xorcieli) saerTod universaluris (yofi- rebis, obieqturi kuTxiT warmoadgens realuris cnebis
eris) erT-erTi saxea. ganmartebas, meore ki – Semecnebis, subieqturi kuTxiT.
termini (sityva) realuri laTinuri warmoSobisaa ase rom, realuri (xorcieli) obieqturi (subieq-
da igi qarTulad `nivTiers~ niSnavs (laT. realis – nivTi- tis gareSe) da empiriuli (grZnobadi) sinamdvilea.
eri). masve niSnavs terminic `materialuri~ (laT. materialis aseTia realuris (xorcielis) cnebis ganmarteba.
– nivTieri). magram imis gamo, rom Cveulebriv, `idealurs~
`realurs~ Seupirispirebdnen xolme da ara ‘materialurs~, 2. realuris niSan-Tvisebani (dro-sivrce;
amitom `araidealuris~ (arasulieris) aRsaniSnavad umjo- moZraoba)
besia swored `realuri~ vixmaroT, vidre `materialuri~.
miTumetes, rom materialuri araidealuris erT-erTi realuris (xorcielis) Tvisebebi zogadad da kerZod
mxarea da ara mTlianad araidealuri. filosofosebi, SeiZleba davyoT.
kerZod, materiasTan erTad kidev araidealuris sxva realuris (xorcielis) zogadi niSan-Tvisebebia misi
formebad (saxeebad) velsac da praqtikasac asaxeleben. obieqturoba (sagnobrioba) da empiriuloba (grZnobadoba).
ase rom, materia (nivTiereba), veli da praqtika gaerTia- xolo rac Seexeba realuris (xorcielis) kerZo
nebuli xdeba swored realobis cnebaSi. niSan-Tvisebebs, upirveles yovlisa, unda gamoiyos misi
realuri (xorcieli) obieqturi (subieqtis gare- iseTi niSan-Tviseba, rogoricaa droiToba, droSi arseboba.
Se) sinamdvilea. es aris sulis gareSe sinamdvile yovelive,

44 45
realuris (xorcielis) kerZo niSan-Tvisebaa agreTve lursa da realurs Soris idealuri aris arseba, xolo
misi vrceuloba, sivrceSi arseboba. realuri – movlena, maSin, bunebrivia, pirveladi iqneba
es ori niSan-Tviseba ganapirobebs realuris (xor- idealuri da ara realuri, vinaidan arseba gansazRvravs
cielis) sxva iseT kerZo Tvisebebsac, rogorebicaa warmav- movlenas, xolo movlena damokidebulia arsebaze, gan-
loba da mokvdaoba. realuri, marTlac, swored xom imiT sazRvrulia misiT.
unda gansxvavdebodes idealurisagan, rom igi sasrulia dabolos, unda SevexoT realuris (xorcielis) kidev
drosa da sivrceSi. drosa da sivrceSi sasruloba ki erT kerZo niSan-Tvisebasac, rogoricaa moZraoba.
sxva araferia, Tu ara swored warmavloba da mokvdaoba. moZraoba igive cvalebadobaa, cvalebadoba ki yovel-
maSasadame, realuri sasrulic yofila. esec erT- gvari qmnilebis niSan-Tvisebaa da ara marto realurisa.
erTi kerZo niSan-Tvisebaa realurisa. ase rom, absoluturad ucvleli mxolod erTi RmerTia.
unda aRvniSnoT kidev erTi kerZo niSan-Tviseba magram rodesac moZraobaze vlaparakobT, saubaria
realurisa, saxeldobr, misi movlenobrioba, araarsebiToba, relatiur moZraobaze. marTlac, relatiur samyaroSi
ra Tqma unda, idealurTan (sulierTan) SedarebiT, vinaidan yvelaferi xom relatiuri unda iyos, ris gamoc moZraobac
realuri swored rom gamovlenaa misi arsebisa - idealu- rogorc realuris kerZo niSan-Tviseba idealuris mimarT
risa. realuri xom idealuris xorcSesxmaa da meti arafe- moZraobas gulisxmobs, kerZod, imqveyniur-idealurTan
ri. idealuri xom `suli da gulia~ realurisa. gamomdina- SedarebiT. am SemTxvevaSi idealuri qmnilebis sfero
re aqedan, realurs rogorc idealuris gamovlenas, ro- realuri qmnilebis sferosTan SedarebiT ucvleli iqneba,
gorc movlenas axasiaTebs yvela is Tviseba, rac damaxasia- miuxedavad imisa, rom igive cvalebadi iqneba RmerTTan
Tebelia movlenisaTvis sawinaaRmdegod idealurisa, SedarebiT, romelic absoluturad uZrav mdgomareobaSi
kerZod, araTavisTavadoba (gansazRvruloba), araZireuloba, imyofeba.
garegnuloba. rogorc vxedavT, arsebobs rogorc uZraoba, ucvle-
realuris (xorcielis) am niSan-Tvisebas (ara-arsebi- loba, ise moZraoba, cvalebadoba. amasTan uZraoba SeiZleba
Tobas) didi mniSvneloba aqvs realuris gasagebad, kerZod, iyos, rogorc absoluturi, ise relatiuri, xolo moZraoba
misi adgilis gasarkvevad yofierebis saerTo struqturaSi, – mxolod relatiuri, absoluturi moZraoba SeuZlebelia,
vinaidan swored mis safuZvelze dgindeba realuris vinaidan winaaRmdegobrivi ramaa imitom, rom moZraoba,
meoradoba idealurTan SedarebiT. marTlac, Tu idea- cvalebadoba naklovani samyaros Tvisebaa da ara unak-

46 47
losi. unaklo arsebas moZraoba-cvalebadoba ar sWirdeba, arsebobs agreTve bunebrivi (naturaluri) da sazoga-
radganac unakloa. aseTi ki mxolod RmerTia da amitomac doebrivi (socialuri) moZraoba (aseve uZraobac), Sesaba-
igi absoluturi arsebaa, igi xom Tavisi unaklobis gamo misad, bunebisa Tu sazogadoebis sferoSi.
cvlilebas ar saWiroebs. aseTi ram ewinaaRmdegeba RvTis gamoyofen kidev meqanikur, fizikur, qimiur, biotur
cnebas. da socialuri moZraobis formebs (saxeebs), dawyebuls
uZraobis absoluturoba gulisxmobs ucvlelobas ubralo adgilgadanacvlebidan da damTavrebuls TviT
yovelmxriv, uZraobis relatiurobaa (fardobiToba) ki – azrovnebiT (igive iTqmis oRond, sawinaaRmdegod, uZraobis
ucvlelobas raime mxriv, raimesTan SedarebiT. rac See- formebzec (saxeebzec) Sesabamisad).
xeba moZraobis relatiurobas (fardobiTobas), igi gulisx- moZraoba saerTod imdeni saxisaa, ramdeni saxisacaa
mobs cvalebadobas raimes mxriv, raRac mimarTebiT, Tavad realuric (xorcielic). ase rom saqme Tavad am
raimesTan SedarebiT. realuris saxeebad dayofaa da moZraobis saxeebad dayo-
naTqvamidan gamomdinare, naTeli unda iyos, Tu ras fac amiT gadawydeba. moZraobis saxeebi zustad emTxveva
gulisxmobs moZraoba-cvalebadoba, rogorc realuris saerTod realuris saxeebs. igive iTqmis uZraobis saxe-
kerZo-specifikuri niSan-Tviseba, saxeldobr, idealurTan ebzec realobis saxeebTan dakavSirebiT.
SedarebiT moZraobas, Torem Tavad realuris SigniT
uZraobasac SeiZleba hqondes adgili. aqedan isic naTeli 3. realuris struqtura (Semadgenloba)
unda iyos, Tu ras niSnavs idealuris uZraobac, ucvle-
lobac, saxeldobr, realurTan SedarebiT uZraobas (Torem realoba saerTod rogorc idealuris (sulieris)
masSiac SeiZleba adgili hqondes moZraobasac, oRond miRmuri sinamdvile, uamrav saxed SeiZleba daiyos, magram
sxva mimarTebiT). Cven gamovyofT am saxeTa mxolod ramdenime aspeqts
moZraobis, aseve, Sesabamisad uZraobis, uamravi saxe (ganasers).
arsebobs, imisda mixedviT, Tu arsebulis ra sferozea upirveles yovlisa, SeiZleba gamovyoT bunebrivi
msjeloba. ase, magaliTad, arsebobs idealuri moZraoba da sazogadoebrivi relobani, anu, sxvagvarad, bunebasa da
da realuri moZraoba (aseve uZraobac). pirveli idealuris sazogadoebaSi arsebuli realobani, ufro zustad, bune-
sferoSi mimdinare cvalebadobaa, meore - realurisaSi bisa da sazogadoebis realuri (araidealuri) mxareebi.
(uZraobac – Sesabamisad). amasTan dakavSirebiT unda aRiniSnos is, rom arc bunebaa

48 49
mTlad realuri da arc sazogadoeba mTlad idealuri. dabolos, Cven unda SevexoT realobis dayofas iseT
erTSiac da meoreSiac aris rogorc erTi, ise meore saxeebad, rogorebicaa: 1) materialuri (nivTobrivi), 2) ve-
mxarec. liseuli da 3) praqtikuli (moqmedebiTi) realobani. rea-
bunebrivsa da sazogadoebriv realobas Soris, ra luris am sami saxidan pirveli – materialur-realuri
Tqma unda, msgavsebacaa da gansxvavebac. msgavseba imaSia, da veliseul-realuri bunebriv-realuris qvesaxeebi iqneba,
rom orive realobaa, e.i. drosa da sivrceSi arsebulia, mesame ki - sazogadoebriv-realuris qvesaxe.
xolo gansxvaveba – imaSi, rom pirveli aracnobieri, cnobie- imis gamo, rom realuris es sami saxe – materia (niv-
rebis gareSe, Seugnebeli, Segnebis gareSe realobaa, maSin Tiereba), veli da praqtika, misi mniSvnelovani, ZiriTadi
rodesac meore - piriqiT, cnobieri, Segnebuli realoba; saxeebia, Cvenc dawvrilebiT SevexebiT maT.
pirveli cnobierebis gareSe ZalTa moqmedebis Sedegia,
xolo meore – cnobier ZalTan moqmedebis Sedegi. 4. zogadad realobis ZiriTad saxeTa Sesaxeb
rogorc vxedavT, buneba rodi daiyvaneba mxolod
sazogadoebis gareSe realobaze, aramed moicavs agreTve realoba rogorc araidealuri yofiereba sam Ziri-
sazogadoebis gareSe idealobasac, kerZod, mcenareulsa Tad saxed iyofa. esenia: materia, veli, praqtika. aqedan
da cxovelur suls, e.i. buneba unda ganvixiloT mTeli materia da veli bunebrivi, naturaluri realobania. praq-
Tavisi realobiTac da idealobiTac. tika ki – sazogadoebrivi, socialuri realoba. sxva sity-
aseve sazogadoebac ar daiyvaneba mxolod adamianur- vebiT, materia da veli fizikuri realobania, praqtika ki,
idealur, sulier mxareze, aramed igi moicavs agreTve aqedan gamomdinare, - arafizikuri realoba.
masTan erTad adamianur-realur, xorciel mxaresac. materiasa, velsa da praqtikas Soris is saerToa, rom
realuri SeiZleba davyoT bunebrivi da sazoga- samive maTgani, saxeldobr, realobis ZiriTidi saxea. es
doebrivi realobis garda, agreTve 1) mineralur, 2) mce- imas niSnavs, rom isini ganekuTvnebian grZnobad-sagnobriv
nareul, 3) cxovelur da 4) adamianur sferoebad. amgvari yofierebas: grZnobads (empiriuls) imdenad, ramdenadac
dayofisas, mineraluri, mcenareuli da cxoveluri rea- samiveni grZnobis organoebiT, SegrZnebis meSveobiT miiwv-
lobani bunebrivi realobis qvesaxeebi iqneba, xolo adamia- domebian, xolo sagnobrivs (obieqturs) imdenad, ramdenadac
nuri realoba, - ra Tqma unda, sazogadoebrivi realobis sulisgareSe yofierebas, xorciel movlenebs warmoad-
qvesaxe. genen. sxva sityvebiT, gnoseologiurad (Semecnebis

50 51
Teoriulad) samive grZnobadi (empiriuli) sinamdvilea, gorc gankerZoebulTa kavSiria, maTi rogorc simravlis
ontologiurad (yofierebis Teoriulad) ki – obieqturi erTianobaa.
anu sagnobrivi, e.i. subieqtis gareSe, arasulieri, xorcieli bunebrivi realobac da sazogadoebrivi realobac
sinamdvile. Tav-Tavis mxriv, saerTod realobis erTianobidan gamom-
magram materiasa, velsa da praqtikas Soris, ra Tqma dinare, erTiania TavianT am qvedanayofebSiac mTeli maTi
unda, gansxvavebacaa: materia korpuskulur (nawilakur) konkretuli gamovlinebebiT. kerZod, es gamoxatulebas
warmonaqmnTa erTobliobaa, veli - talRur warmonaqmnTa hpovebs am realobaTa mTeli konkretuli gamovlinebebis
erToblioba, xolo praqtika – sazogadoebriv (socialur) urTierTkavSirSi. es urTierTkavSiri urTierTgardaqmnis
grZnobad-qmediT warmonaqmnTa erToblioba. mokled, saxesac ki Rebulobs. magaliTad, bunebrivi realobis
materia sxeulia (sxeulebia), veli – talRa (talRebi), SemTxvevaSi cnobilia velis materiad da materiis velad
praqtika – sazogadoebriv-grZnobadi moqmedeba (moqme- gardaqmnis faqti. igive SeiZleba iTqvas sazogadoebrivi
debani). realobis SemTxvevaSiac praqtikis formebzec.
realobis yvela ZiriTado forma (saxe), rogoradac realobis sam aRniSnul ZiriTad formas `urTi-
ar unda davyoT isini, erTianobas qmnian. kerZod, erTianobas erTgadasvla~ da `urTierTSeRweva~ axasiaTebs. es imas
qmnian bunebrivi, naturaluri da sazogadoebrivi, socia- niSnavs, rom arcerTi maTgani ar imyofeba Tavis mkacr
luri realobani TavianTi konkretuli gamovlinebebiT sazRvrebSi. isini urTierTqmedebis Sedegad `iWrebian~
– materiiTa da veliT, erTis mxriv, da praqtikiT, meores erTmaneTis sazRvrebSi. iseve rogorc es iTqmis bunebisa
mxriv. isini kavSirSia erTmaneTTan. ase rom, realobis da sazogadoebis urTierTdamokidebulebaze zogadad
erTianoba misi formebis (saxeebis) kavSirSi gamoixateba, (sxvaa buneba sazogadoebis gareSe da sazogadoebasTan
xolo am kavSiris safuZvels maTi msgavseba warmoadgens, kavSirSi da sazogadoebac bunebis gareSe da bunebasTan
iseve rogorc maTi gankerZoebulobisas – maTive gansx- kavSirSi), aseve sul sxvaa materia da veli adamianis
vaveba. sxva sityvebiT, realoba gansxvavebulTa msgavsebaa, praqtikuli (grZnobad-saqmianobiTi) zemoqmedebis Sedegad
gankerZoebulTa kavSiria, simravlis erTianobaa, kerZod, da mis gareSe, agreTve praqtikis sferoc materiisa da
bunebrivi da sazogadoebrivi realobebis, materiis, velis, velis zemoqmedebisa Tu am zemoqmedebis SemTxvevaSi.
praqtikis rogorc gansxvavebulTa msgavsebaa, maTi ro- gansakuTrebiT ufro aqtiuria es zemoqmedeba bunebriv
da sazogadoebriv realobaTa Soris, sazogadoebrivi

52 53
realobis mxriv. kerZod, sazogadoeba Tavis praqtikaSi realobis sam aRniSnul ZiriTad saxes Soris materi-
ara mxolod mzamzareulad moixmars bunebriv materiasa aca da praqtikac filosofiaSi imTaviTve cnobili iyo,
da vels, aramed Tavadac qmnis xelovnur materiasac da xolo veli XIX saukuneSi aRmoaCines. es materiasa da
velsac, magaliTad, teqnikis moRwevaTa saxiT. ase rom, praqtikasTan SedarebiT misi Semecnebis ufro meti
sazogadoebrivi praqtika Tavisi `wminda~ formiT ki ar siZneliT iyo gamowveuli.
arsebobs, aramed misi nawili xdeba bunebrivi realobis realobis Sesaxeb filosofiuri moZRvreba unda
rogorc mzamzareuli, ise xelovnurad Seqmnili formebi. ganvasxvaoT misave Sesaxeb kerZo-mecnieruli Sexedu-
realobis sam aRniSnul formas – materias, velsa lebisagan, vinaidan filosofia realuris zogad suraTs
da praqtikas Soris yvelaze dabali formaa materia, ufro gvaZlevs, maSin rodesac kerZo mecnierebani realuris
maRali – veli, xolo yvelaze maRali – praqtika. swored kerZo suraTs gviqmnian, ris gamoc realuris
is, rom praqtika realobis umaRlesi safexuria mate- filosofiuri moZRvreba realuris kerZo-mecnieruli
riasa da velTan SedarebiT, es iqidanac gamomdinareobs, moZRvrebisagan gansxvavebiT ucvlelia, xolo realuris
rom praqtika sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) realobaa, mate- kerZo-mecnieruli moZRvreba filosofiur moZRvrebasTan
ria da veli ki – bunebrivi (naturaluri) realoba, xolo SedarebiT – cvalebadi. am cvalebadobis gamoxatuleba
sazogadoebrivi movlena, ra Tqma unda, ufro maRalia, iyo swored velis rogorc realobis aRmoCenac, e.i. rea-
vidre bunebrivi movlena. sazogadoeba xom bunebaze maRla lobis saxeTa Sesaxeb kerZo-mecnieruli codna ganviTa-
dgas. rebisda kvalad Seicvala. amitom gamoricxuli araa
rac Seexeba bunebrivi realobis SigniT velis upi- realobis kidev sxva formebis aRmoCenac. magram realobis
ratesobas materiasTan SedarebiT, yofierebis safexuris kerZo mxareTa Sesaxeb suraTis cvlileba ver Secvlis
mxriv, es upiratesoba imaSiac Cans, rom rac ufro Rrmad realobis zogad suraTs, ra Tqma unda, Tu realobis am
SevdivarT mikrobunebaSi – e.w. elementarul anu suba- or – kerZo da zogad suraTs Soris Sesabamisobaa WeS-
tomur bunebaSi, miT ufro `xelSi gvadneba~ materia da maritebis mxriv.
igi `qreba~, adgils uTmobs ra vels. materia xom makros-
kopul doneze Cans mxolod, maSin rodesac veli – mikros-
kopuli Semecnebisa da makroskopuli Semecnebis donezec.

54 55
5. materia rogorc realoba magram raSi gamoixateba konkretulad materiis
sxeulebrioba?
materia msgavsad realobis sxva formebis – velisa amasTan dakavSirebiT gamoyofen xolme materiis or
da praqtikisa, ra Tqma unda, obieqturi (sagnobrivi) sinamd- iseT arsebiT niSans, rogorebicaa wyvetiloba (diskretu-
vilea. obieqturoba – subieqtis gareSeoba, subieqtis ga- loba) da Seuvaloba (SeuRwevadoba). da marTlac, nebismie-
reT arseboba misi upirvelesi gvareobiTi niSan-Tvisebaa, ri nivTi, jer-erTi, gamoyofilia sxva nivTTagan da, meorec,
rac mas saerTo aqvs velTan da praqtikasTan. erTi nivTis adgilas sxva nivTi ver moTavsdeba.
magram materia, msgavsebasTan erTad, gansxvavebulicaa da kidev gamoyofen materiis or iseT arsebiT niSan-
realobis sxva formaTagan, e.i. mas axasiaTebs kerZo Tavise- sac, rogorebicaa misi korpuskuluroba da uZraobis ma-
burebac, specifikac. sa. kerZod, materia korpuskulebisagan, e.i. nawilakebisagan
`materia~ laTinuri sityvaa (`Materia~) da qarTulad Sedgeba da uZraobis masa gaaCnia.
`nivTierebas~ niSnavs, xolo `materialuri~ (`ma-terialis~) aRniSnuli oTxi niSan-Tviseba ganasxvavebs nivTi-
– `nivTiers~. Tavad saxeli (termini) am cnebisa bevrs erebas (materias) velisgan. magram es gansxvaveba pirobiTia
rames gveubneba `materiis~ cnebis Sesaxeb, kerZod ki, imas, (relatiuria) da mas Zala aqvs mxolod makroskopul
rom saqme gvaqvs sxeulebriv, korporalur (laT. “corporalis” doneze, maSin rodesac mikroskopul doneze igi Zalas
- `sxeulebrivi~) realobasTan. mokled, materia (nivTiere- hkargavs.
ba) nivTebis (sxeulebis) erTobliobaa, xolo materialuri es garemoeba erTxel kidev miuTiTebs materiis ara-
(nivTieri) – sxeulebrivi realoba, ufro mokled, materia substanciurobaze (arasawyisurobaze), vinaidan materia
(nivTiereba) sxeulebriobaa. garkveul pirobebSi gadaiqceva velad da, piriqiT, veli
aseTia materiis cnebis gansazRvreba. – materiad, e.i. SeiZleba `gahqres~ da `warmoiSvas~ kidec,
am gansazRvrebidan Cans, rom materia yovelgvari rac ewinaaRmdegeba substanciis (sawyisis) upirobobas
realobisagan swored misi sxeulebriobiT gansxvavdeba. (absoluturobas), e.i. Tu SesaZlebelia materia erT
es aris misi specifika (Tavisebureba), gansxvavebiT velisa- pirobebSi iyos, xolo meoreSi - ara, maSin igi, bunebrivia,
gan Tu praqtikisagan, vinaidan arc vels da arc praqtikas verc iqneba yovelives sawyisi. amas ki imitom aRvniSnavT,
sxeulebrivi buneba ar gaaCnia. rom materialistebi swored materias miiCneven yovelives
sawyisad, rac arasworia.

56 57
materia imitomac ver iqneba substancia (sawyisi), imisda mixedviT, `mkvdaria~ Tu `cocxali~ igi. anda SeiZ-
rom igi inertulobiT xasiaTdeba. materia TavisTavad leba gamovyoT kidev bunebrivi (naturaluri) da sazoga-
mkvdaria. mas sicocxle mxolod garedan SeiZleba mieni- doebrivi (socialuri) materia, imisda mixedviT, bunebis
Wos. mas Sinagani aqtivoba (moqmedebis unari) ar gaaCnia, (naturis) produqtia (Sedegia) es materia Tu sazogadoebis
amitomac igi, bunebrivia, substancia (sawyisi) ver iqneba, ( sociumisa). SeiZleba agreTve gamovyoT mikro-, makro-
vinaidan substanciis absoluturobas ewinaaRmdegeba. da mega-materia, imisda mixedviT, Tu rogoria materiis
absoluturi (upirobo) rogor SeiZleba iyos inertuli `zoma~. da bolos, SeiZleba gamovyoT, magaliTad, minera-
ram, es xom uazroba iqneboda? inertuli materia xom luri, mcenareuli, cxoveluri da adamianuri materia,
mTlianad damokidebulia aqtiur (TviTmoqmed) idealur imisda mixedviT, Tu rasTan da visTanaa dakavSirebuli
sawyisze. xorcielis Semoqmedi sulieria, xorcieli es materia – mineralTan, mcenaresTan, cxovelTan Tu
sulieris warmoebulia. adamianTan.
is, rom materia ver iqneba substancia (sawyisi) im am ukanasknel dayofasTan dakavSirebiT unda SevniS-
mxrivac Cans, rom materia relatiuria (fardobiTia) Sem- noT is, rom aq Cven gvaqvs materiis dalageba aRmaval
mecnebeli subieqtis (piris) mimarT. es imas niSnavs, rom safexurebad imisda mixedviT, usuloa Tu sulieri da
materiis suraTi damokidebulia Semmecneblis poziciaze Tu sulieria, maSin ramdenad maRalia es materia Tavisi
(midgomaze), imaze, Tu ra pirobebSi akvirdeba igi mas. ase mdgomareobiT. am mxriv, usuloa mineraluri materia, xolo
rom, erTi da igive materia sxvadasxva pirobebSi sxvadasxva sulieri – sxva danarCeni. oRond gansxvavebuli da Tan
Semmecneblis mier sxvadasxvagvarad aRiqmeba. da saerTodac, aRmavali xaziT. amasTan, ar unda dagvaviwydes isic, rom
materia (nivTiereba) damkvirveblisTvis mxolod makros- materia TavisTavad SeuZlebelia iyos sulieri, Tan mTeli
kopuli TvalTaxedviT arsebobs, vinaidan mikroskopul gradaciiT (xarisxiT) da rom yovelive es im azriTaa
doneze massa da vels Soris sxvaoba hqreba, iSleba, gamodis, naTqvami, rom aRniSnuli materiebi sulis ama Tu im
rom materia am mxrivac absoluturi (upirobo) ar yofila. saxesTanaa dakavSirebuli.
maSasadame, igi substanciad (sawyisad) verc gamodgeba. aq unda SevniSnoT isic, rom, rodesac laparakia
materia uamravi saxiT arsebobs. igi sxvadasxva prin- `adamianur materiaze~, masSi igulisxmeba adamianis ara
cipiT sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba davyoT. ase, magaliTad, mxolod bunebriv-materialuri mxare, aramed sazogado-
SeiZleba gamovyoT araorganuli da organuli materia, ebriv-materialuri mxarec, radgan yovelive, rac mate-

58 59
rialurad dakavSirebulia adamianTan, gulisxmobs ara saganTa Tanamimdevrobis, erTimeoris Semdgom arsebobis
mxolod imas, rac adamianma bunebisgan miiRo sxeulis wesia, iseve rogorc sivrce – saganTa Tanaarsebobis, erTi-
saxiT, aramed isic, rac man Tavis mxriv SesZina mas sazo- meoris gverdiT arsebobis wesi. ase rom, materiac am
gadoebrivi procesis Sedegad, mokled rom vTqvaT, isic, droisa da sivrcis wess emorCileba.
rac Seqmnilia Tavad adamianis mier materiis saxiT. materiis arseboba drosa da sivrceSi metad mniSvne-
materiaze msjelobisas araviTar SemTxvevaSi gverdi lovan rames gveubneba ukiduresi materialistebis wina-
ar SeiZleba avuaroT iseT sakiTxebs, rogorebicaa `materia aRmdeg, romlebic materias substanciad (yovelives sawyi-
da dro da sivrce~ da `materia da moZraoba~. sad) miiCneven, vinaidan materiis drosa da sivrceSi arse-
materia rogorc realoba, ra Tqma unda, drosa da boba mis drosa da sivrceSi sasrulobas moaswavebs, rac
sivrceSi arsebobs. es imdenad didmniSvnelovani maxasia- ewinaaRmdegeba mis substanciurobas (yovlis sawyisu-
Teblebia materiisa, rom zogjer mas aseT formulirebasac robas). substancia rogorc absoluturi (upirobo) ram
ki aZleven: dro da sivrce materiis arsebobis formebiao, xom usasrulo unda iyos. da marTlac, materiis drosa
e.i. dro da sivrce materiis arsebobis `saxeebiao~, anu da sivrceSi arseboba materiis swored droisa da sivrcis
sxvagvarad, materia mxolod droisa da sivrcis formiT, `marwuxebSi~ moqcevas gulisxmobs; Tu nebismieri materia
droisa da sivrcis saxiT arsebobso. da es, ra Tqma unda, kerZod drosa da sivrceSi sasrulia, e.i. aqvs Tavisi da-
sworia, oRond im damatebiT, rom dro da sivrce ara sawyisi da Tavisi dasasruli rogorc droSi, ise sivrceSi,
mxolod materiis, aramed velisa da praqtikis arsebobis maSin ratom ar unda iyos materiac saerTod, zogadad
formebicaa. aseve drosa da sivrceSi sasruli, anu dasawyisisa da
MmaSasadame, dro da sivrce materiis arsebobis auci- dasasrulis mqone? sxvagvarad SeuZlebelicaa, vinaidan
lebeli formebia, vinaidan igi maT gareSe SeuZlebelia rogoricaa erTeuli materia, iseTive unda iyos zogadi
arsebobdes. da marTlac, materia (nivTiereba) droSic materiac. zogadi xom erTeulTa msgavsi mxarea.
arsebobs imdenad, ramdenadac materialuri sagnebi anu rac Seexeba moZraobas materiasTan mimarTebiT, moZ-
nivTebi garkveuli TanmimdevrobiT, erTimeoris Semdgom raoba, rogorc amas Cveulebriv aRniSnaven xolme, materiis
arian ganlagebulni da sivrceSic – imdenad, ramdenadac arsebobis wesia, misi atributia, rac imas niSnavs, rom ar
es nivTebi garkveulad Tanaarseboben erTmaneTTan, anu arsebobs materia moZraobis gareSe, rom moZraoba, maSa-
garkveulad erTimeoris gverdiT arseboben. dro xom sadame, materiis aucilebeli niSan-Tvisebaa. da marT-lac,

60 61
moZraoba anu cvalebadoba materiis rogorc realobis 6. veli rogorc realoba
aranakleb mniSvnelovani niSan-Tvisebaa, vidre droul-
vrceuloba. Tumca aqve unda SevniSnoT isic, rom moZraoba veli, iseve rogorc materia da praqtika, realobis
(cvalebadoba) ara marto materiis arsebobis wesia anu erT-erTi ZiriTadi saxea.
atributi, aramed saerTod yovelgvari qmnilebisa, gansakuT- realuroba is saerTo, msgavsi niSan-Tvisebaa, rac
rebiT ki realuri qmnilebisa. vels akavSirebs rogorc materiasTan, ise praqtikasTan.
materiis moZraobis mravali saxe arsebobs, magram velis es realuroba mis obieqturobas, e.i. sagnobriobas
SeiZleba gamovyoT misi iseTi ZiriTadi formebi (saxeebi), anu misi subieqtisgareSeobas niSnavs.
rogorebicaa: meqanikuri, fizikuri, qimiuri, bioturi, socia- magram vels am saerTo, gvareobiTi niSan-Tvisebis
luri (sazogadoebrivi). garda gaaCnia is kerZo saxeobiTi niSan-Tvisebanic, rom-
es saxeebi dalagebulia aRmavali principiT martivi- lebic gamokveTen mis Tviseburebas gansxvavebiT materi-
dan rTulisaken, dablidan maRlisaken. yoveli Semdgomi isagan da praqtikisagan. es gansxvaveba velisa praqtikisagan
forma (saxe) materiis moZraobisa ufro rTuli da maRalia, materiis msgavsad isaa, rom veli materiasTan erTad fizi-
e.i. gulisxmobs wina formas, arcerTi Semdgomi forma kuri realobaa, xolo praqtika maTgan gansxvavebiT – so-
ar daiyvaneba winaze, vinaidan metia masze. cialuri (sazogadoebrivi) realoba.
materiis moZraobis meqanikuri forma gulisxmobs rac Seexeba velis gansxvavebas materiisagan, igi Sem-
mis gadaadgilebas sivrceSi, adgilgadanacvlebas masSi. degSi mdgomareobs: veli es arasxeulebrivi fizikuri
rac Seexeba materiis moZraobis fizikur da qimiur for- realobaa, romelsac uwyvetoba, SeRwevadoba, talRobrioba
mebs, maT Soris is gansxvavebaa, rom pirvel SemTxvevaSi da masis arqona axasiaTebs.
cvlileba ar iwvevs nivTierebis e.w. agregatuli mdgoma- veli upirveles yovlisa imiT gansxvavdeba materi-
reobis Secvlas, meore SemTxvevaSi ki – iwvevs mas. Semdgom, isgan, rom igi kontinualuri, e.i. uwyveti fizikuri rea-
materiis bioturi moZraobis forma gulisxmobs cocxali lobaa, anu erTmaneTisgan ganuyofeli warmonaqmnebis erTi
materiis cvalebadobas. dabolos, materiis socialuri gabmuli erTobliobaa. veli imiTac gansxvavdeba materi-
(sazogadoebrivi) moZraobis forma gulisxmobs materiis isagan, rom igi SeRwevadia, e.i. SesaZlebelia erTi da igi-
cvalebadobas adamianTa cxovrebis sferoSi. ve adgili erTsa da imave dros sxvadasxva velma daiWiros.

62 63
veli materiisagan gansxvavdeba agreTve imiTac, rom rom arsebobs ara mxolod materiis, aramed velis substan-
igi talRuri bunebisaa, e.i. talRebisgan sdgeba. ciurobis Teoriac, romelic energetizmis saxeliTaa
dabolos, veli imiTac gansxvavdeba materiisgan, rom cnobili. energetizmis Tanaxmad, substancia (sawyisi
mas uZraobis, anu sakuTari masa ar gaaCnia, sxvanairad, mas yovelgvari) energiaa, magram ukiduresi materializmis
uZraobis nulovani masa ar gaaCnia. msgavsad arc ukiduresi energetizmia swori Tvalsazrisi,
veli nivTierebisgan kidev sxva niSnebiTac gansxvav- vinaidan energiac SeiZleba gardaiqmnas materiad, rogorc
deba, magram Cven yvelaze mniSvnelovanze SevCerdiT. materia – energiad. maSasadame, velic iseve SeiZleba
velis materiisgan ganmasxvavebel yvela niSans Zala `gaqres~, rogorc materia. es ki ewinaaRmdegeba substanciis
aqvs makroskopul doneze, magram igi Zalas hkargavs mikros- absoluturobas (upirobobas). ase rom, veli erT-erTi
kopul doneze. es imas niSnavs, rom mikroskopul anu sub- Cveulebrivi bunebrivi (naturaluri) realobaa materiis
atomur, e.i. elementarul nawilakTa doneze velsa da gverdiT.
materias Soris Zireuli gansxvaveba qreba da veli kargavs fizikuri veli mravali saxiT arsebobs. kerZod, gamo-
makroskopul doneze misTvis damaxasiaTebel wminda yofen eleqtromagnitur vels, gravitaciul (mizidulo-
kontinualur (uwyvet) da a.S. xasiaTs. SemTxveviT rodi bis) vels, birTvul vels, mezonur velsa da eleqtronul-
laparakoben amis gamo kvantur meqanikaSi velis (kerZod, pozitronul vels. magram gansakuTrebiT gamoyofen velis
sinaTlis) kvantebze anu fotonebze, iseve rogorc materiis iseT or ZiriTad saxes, rogorebicaa eleqtro-magnituri
talRebze. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, velis korpuskulebze da gravitaciuli veli.
(nawilakebze) iseve, rogorc materiis talRebze, e.i. aq veli, iseve rogorc materia, drosa da sivrceSi arse-
laparakoben velis ara marto talRurobaze, aramed bobs, ase rom, dro da sivrce ara marto materiis arsebobis
korpuskulurobazedac, iseve rogorc materiis ara marto formebia, rogorc es miRebulia Cveulebriv, aramed fizi-
korpuskulurobaze, aramed talRobriobazedac. kuri velis arsebobis formebic. es imas niSnavs, rom
imis gamo, rom veli iseve, rogorc materia, garkveuli veli sxvagvarad ar arsebobs, Tu ara swored droisa da
mimarTebiT, kerZod ki makroskopuli TvalTaxedviT iCens sivrcis formiT (saxiT). magram sxva sakiTxia, rom veli
Tavs rogorc gansxvavebuli ram movlena, igi relatiuria drosa da sivrceSi materiisagan gansxvavebuli saxiT
(fardobiTia), xolo imis gamo, rom igi relatiuria, ra arsebobs. es gansxvaveba anu Tavisebureba imiT gamoixateba,
Tqma unda, ver iqneba substancia. amas ki imitom aRvniSnavT, rom veli drosa da sivrceSi kontinualuri (uwyveti)

64 65
formiT arsebobs gansxvavebiT materiisagan, romelic bunebrivia, velis moZraobis formebi (saxeebi) imden saxed
diskretuli (wyvetili) formiT arsebobs. saerTod unda daiyofa, ramden saxedac daiyofa Tavad velic. maSasadame,
aRiniSnos, rom velis arseboba droSi niSnavs velis SeiZleba gamoiyos velis moZraobis iseTi formebi, rogo-
Semadgeneli warmonaqmnebis erTimeoris Semdgom arse- rebicaa velis eleqtromagnituri, gravitaciuli, birT-
bobas anu Tanmimdevrobas, xolo sivrceSi arseboba – am vuli, mezonuri da eleqtronul-pozitronuli moZraobis
warmonaqmnebis erTimeoris gverdiT arsebobas, anu Tana- formebi (saxeebi). TiToeuli maTgani Seesabameba velis
arsebobas. aRniSnul saxeebSi mimdinare cvlilebebs.
velis dro da sivrce relatiuria (fardobiTia)
imdenad, ramdenadac isini damokidebulia Tavad velze: 7. praqtika rogorc realoba
veli rom ara, arc misi droc da arc misi sivrcec, ra
Tqma unda, arc gveqneboda. praqtika realobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi saxea, materi-
veli arsebiT kavSirSi imyofeba moZraobasTanac, e.i. asa da velTan erTad. realobis saxea igi imdenad, ramde-
icvleba, sxvagvarad, qmnadobas ganicdis. ase rom moZraoba nadac obieqtur, e.i. sagnobriv yofierebas ganekuTvneba
ara marto materiis arsebobis wesia (atributia), rogor msgavsad materiisa da velisa. es aris saerTo, zogadi ni-
es miRebulia Cveulebriv, aramed - velis arsebobis wesic San-Tviseba praqtikisa, rac mas amsgavsebs materiasa da
(atributic). ufro metic, moZraoba xom saerTod qmnilebis velTan.
atributia (wesia), misi moucilebeli niSani. magram praqtikas, materiisa da velisagan gansxvavebiT,
velis moZraobis yvelaze mniSvnelovani da, maSasadame, gansxvavebac, Taviseburebac gaaCnia. da es Tavisebureba
naTeli dadasturebaa is, rom igi imdenad SeiZleba Seic- zogadad imaSi mdgomareobs, rom praqtika sazogadoebrivi,
valos, materiadac ki gardaiqmnas da amdenad rogorc ve- socialuri realobaa, maSin rodesac materia da veli –
li `gaqres~ kidec. igive SeiZleba iTqvas velze sapi- fizikuri realobani; pirveli cnobieri, Segnebuli rea-
rispiro mniSvnelobiTac. e.i. misi ara mxolod mospobisa lobaa, maSin rodesac materia da veli aseTi ram, bunebrivia,
da sxvad, kerZod, materiad qcevis kuTxiT, aramed sxvisgan, ar aris. kerZod ki, praqtika adamianTa Segnebuli (gacno-
kerZod, materiisgan misi warmoSobis kuTxiTac. saerTod bierebuli) grZnobad-sagnobrivi moqmedebaa.
ki, velis moZraobis uamravi forma arsebobs imisda mixedviT, aseTia praqtikis cnebis gansazRvrebac.
Tu ra principiT (safuZvelze) davyofT mas. am mxriv ki,

66 67
amave gansazRvrebaSi upirveles yovlisa yuradReba (realuria) da rac grZnobadad, e.i. grZnobis organoebiT
unda mieqces imas, rom praqtika es moqmedebaa, kerZod ki – wvdomadia, empiriulia.
adamianTa moqmedeba. da marTlac, Tavad termini (sityva) praqtikis grZnobad-sagnobriobas ganapirobebs is
`praqtikac~ momdinareobs berZnuli sityva-terminidan garemoeba, rom praqtika, iseve rogorc materia da veli,
`praqsis~, rac qarTulad swored `moqmedebas~ niSnavs. drosa da sivrceSi gaSlili movlenaa. Tu raime moqmedeba
`moqmedeba~ am SemTxvevaSi `xedvas~ anu Teorias upiris- adamianisa drosa da sivrceSi ar mimdinareobs, igi namdvi-
pirdeba, rac grZnobad-sagnobrivi ki ara, zegrZnobad- lad verc iqneba praqtikuli xasiaTisa. swored esaa praq-
sagnobrivi xasiaTis movlenaa. gamodis, maSasadame, rom tikis Taviseburebac (specifikac) adamianis sxva mxareebi-
adamianis praqtikuli, `moqmedebiTi~ mxare rogorc misi sagan gansxvavebiT. marTlac, nebismieri praqtikuli
realuri mxare upirispirdeba missave Teoriul, `xedviT~ saqmianoba droSi iwyeba da droSi mTavrdeba, aseve sivr-
mxares rogorc idealur mxares adamianisas. adamianis ceSi iwyeba da sivrceSive mTavrdeba.
realuri mxare aq, praqtikis SemTxvevaSi, warmoCndeba praqtika moZraobasTan (cvalebadobasTan) rom kav-
`moqmedebis~ aspeqtiT (kuTxiT), iseve rogorc misi idea- SirSia, arc ki moiTxovs mtkicebas, vinaidan igi Tavad
luri mxare - `xedvis~ aspeqtiT (kuTxiT). Torem sxva moZraobaa. adamianis grZnobad-sagnobrivi moqmedeba xom
mxriv adamianis realuri mxare rodi daiyvaneba mis praq- imTaviTve gulisxmobs moZrav, dinamikur process adamianis
tikul mxareze. adamianis realuri mxare praqtikulis saqmianobisas, mimarTuls movlenaTa gardaqmnisaken. es
(moqmedebis) garda moicavs arapraqtikulsac, magram mainc gardaqmna xom maTs cvalebadobas gulisxmobs.
realurs, kerZod, umoqmedobis momentsac. Tumca arsebiTi praqtika rogorc moZraoba uamravi formiT (saxiT)
adamianis realur cxovrebaSi mainc misi moqmedebiTi arsebobs. da TiToeuli am formaTagani damokidebulia
(praqtikuli) mxarea da ara misi umoqmedo (arapraqtikuli) imaze, Tu ra da ra saxis praqtika arsebobs Tavad. am
mxare, ris gamoc adamianis realur mxaresac arsebiTad mxriv SeiZleba gamovyoT praqtikis iseTi saxeebi (formebi),
misi praqtikuli mxare warmoadgens. rogorebicaa: individualuri da sazogadoebrivi praqtika,
praqtikis cnebaSi yuradReba, garda imisa, rom igi imisda mixedviT, erTi adamianis praqtikazea saubari Tu
moqmedebaa, imasac unda moeqces, rom igi adamianis, saxel- adamianTa erTobliobis praqtikaze; anda sawarmoo da
dobr, grZnobad-sagnobrivi moqmedebaa. da, marTlac, praqtika ara sawarmoo praqtika, warmoebis sferoSi mimdinare praq-
gulisxmobs swored imgvar moqmedebas, rac xorcielia tikazea saubari, Tu warmoebis gareSe sferos praqtikaze;

68 69
an kidev, SromiTi da araSromiTi praqtika da kidev uamravi rac Seexeba ukidures praqticizms, igi gulisxmobs
sxva saxis praqtika. ase rom, praqtikis saxeobaTa speqtri praqtikis rolis gazviadebul gagebas Teoriis mimarT.
mravalgvarovania, imdenad farToa farglebi misi. es imitom, es aris e.w. `viwro praqticizmi~, adamianis cxovrebis
rom friad farToa Tavad adamianis, praqtikuli moR- SezRudva viwro, praqtikuli, Teoriulisagan daclili,
vaweobis gasaqani. saqmianobiT, cxovrebis praqtikuli mxarisTvis gadaWarbe-
praqtikaze msjelobisas mniSvnelovania SevexoT mis buli mniSvnelobis miniWeba, rac, ra Tqma unda, gaumarT-
rols adamianis cxovrebaSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT ki lebelia.
unda gamovyoT orgvari – zomieri da ukiduresi praq- ase rom, praqtikis WeSmariti rolis adamianis cxov-
ticizmi. rebaSi gansazRvrisas unda gamovideT TviT misi adgili-
zomieri praqticizmi gulisxmobs adamianis cxovre- dan adamianis idealur da realur mxareTa Soris kerZod
baSi praqtikis rolis jerovan gagebas. kerZod, praqtikas ki iqedan, rom mas, e.i. praqtikas adamianis cxovrebis saxel-
adamianis cxovrebaSi unda ganekuTvnos araganmsazRvreli, dobr realur sferoSi aqvs adgili. igi xom swored
damokidebuli roli Teoriis mimarT, vinaidan praqtika realobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi saxea, amitom praqtikis
adamianis cxovrebis realur mxares ganekuTvneba, xolo rolic adamianis cxovrebaSi zogadad realuris roliT
Teoria – idealurs, realuri ki, rogorc es cnobilia, iqneba gansazRvruli.
idealuriTaa gansazRvruli, maszea damokidebuli.
praqtikas azrs Teoria aniWebs. praqtika Teoriis gareSe 8. realuris adgili yofierebaSi
waemoudgenelia. bolos da bolos yvelaze kargi praqtika,
ro-gorc es naTqvamia, Tavad isev Teoriaa. praqtika Teo- yofierebaSi realuris adgilis gasarkvevad auci-
riasTan kavSirSi unda iyos. Teoriasa da praqtikis kavSi- lebelia gamovideT iqidan, rom realuri, xorcieli
ris idea filosofiis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani ideaa. idealuriT, sulieriTaa warmoebuli da amdenad meoradi
marTalia, praqtika TeoriiTaa suldgmuli, misiTaa gan- mniSvneloba eniWeba idealurTan, sulierTan SedarebiT,
sazRvruli, magram es rodi niSnavs imas, TiTqosda Tavad xolo realuris, xorcielis meoradoba idealurTan, suli-
praqtikas, Tavis mxriv, Teoriis mimarT raRac fardobiTi erTan SedarebiT sami sxvadasxva kuTxiT – ontiuri (yofi-
damoukideblobac ar hqondes. erebiTi), gnosiuri (SemecnebiTi) da aqsiuri (Rirebule-
biTi) kuTxiT unda ganvixiloT. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT,

70 71
realuri, xorcieli meoradia idealurTan, sulierTan mokled, realurs araganmsazRvreli, magram mainc
SedarebiT ontiuradac, e.i. yofierebiTac (arsebobiTac), didi adgili uWiravs yofierebaSi.
gnosiuradac (SefasebiTac) da aqsiuradac (Rirebule- realuri (xorcieli) idealurTan (sulierTan) Seda-
biTac). rebiT meoradi, warmoebuli romaa, es iqidanac Cans, rom
gamomdinare iqidan, rom realuri (xorcieli) meora- misi logikuri uaryofa SesaZlebelia. da marTlac, rea-
dia idealurTanN(sulierTan) SedarebiT (realuri xom luris uaryofa isev idealurs gvaZlevs, iseve rogorc
idealuris ganxorcielebaa, misi xorcSesxmaa) Tavisi idealuris uaryofa – idealurs. realuris uaryofa idea-
arsebobiT, Tavisi yofierebiT, igi meoradi da amdenad luriT ki logikurad sruliad arawinaaRmdegobrivia,
aramTavari iqneba Semecnebisa da Sefasebis kuTxiTac. maSin rodesac idealuris idealuriTve uaryofa – logi-
marTlac, vinaidan realuri damokidebulia idealurze, kurad winaaRmdegobrivi, rac uazroba gamovidoda.
mas naklebi mniSvneloba eqneba yofierebis TvalsazrisiT mokled, realuris meoradoba idealurTan SedarebiT
(pirveladi, amosavali yofiereba xom idealuria, xolo logikuradac sabuTdeba.
misgan gamosuli, warmoebuli yofiereba – realuri), xolo, da bolos, yofierebaSi realuris namdvili adgili-
aqedan gamomdinare, idealuri codnac, idealuri Semec- saTvis unda SevniSnoT, is umniSvnelovanesi garemoeba,
nebac ufro mniSvnelovani iqneba, vidre realuri codna, rom `Cveulebrivi~ adamianisaTvis namdvili arsi (yofie-
realuri Semecneba. igive iTqmis realurze Rirebulebis, reba) saxeldobr es realuri yofierebaa da ara idealuri
Sefasebis kuTxiTac, idealuri, ra Tqma unda, ufro Rire- yofiereba, romelic mas aranamdvili (moCvenebiTi) yofie-
buli yofierebaa, vidre realuri. reba hgonia, maSin rodesac sinamdvileSi es realoba
ase rom, realurs damokidebuli, gansazRvruli, ara- idealurTan SedarebiT cru, iluziuri yofierebaa. ase
mTavari adgili uWiravs yofierebaSi, ris gamoc mas vera- rom, `Cveulebrivi~ adamiani cdeba imiT, rom arsi ararsi,
viTar SemTxvevaSi ver mivaniWebT upirates mniSvnelobas xolo ararsi arsi hgonia, mas aRreuli aqvs namdvili da
cxovrebaSi, ra kuTxiTac ar unda aviRoT igi. moCvenebiTi, WeSmariti da mcdari. filosofiis uzenaesi
magram sxva sakiTxia is, rom realuris mniSvnelobac, amocana am mxriv swored isaa, Tu adamiani swori Semecne-
Tavis mxriv, didia. sxvagvarad arc SeiZleba iyos, vinaidan biTi da SefasebiTi ganviTarebiT rogor warmarTos im
realuri xom mainc idealuris anareklia, mainc xom mi- mimarTulebiT, raTa manac moiZagos `gaucxoebuli~
si gamovlenaa.

72 73
realoba da Seiyvaros `gaigivebuli~, TviTidenturi, realobis kerZo Tvisebebi
idealuri yofiereba.
realuris yofierebaSi saerTo adgilis gamo ada- 1. droiToba, 2. vrceuloba, 3. mokvdaoba,
mianis cxovrebis mizania ise warmarTos Tavisi realuri 4. warmavloba, 5. sasruloba, 6. movlenobrioba
cxovreba, rom igi daemorCilos idealurs, realuri yofa (araarsebiToba), 7. moZraoba.
SeuTanxmos idealur cxovrebas.
realobis saxeebi

9. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis I. 1) bunebrivi (naturaluri) realoba


`realuri (xorcieli)~ 2) sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) realoba

realuris cnebis ganmarteba II. 1) mineraluri realoba


variantebi 2) mcenareuli realoba
3) cxoveluri realoba
realoba obieqturi (arasubieqturi, subieqtis 4) adamianuri realoba
gareSe) sinamdvilea.
realoba grZnobadi (empiriuli) sinamdvilea. III. 1) materialuri realoba anu materia
realoba grZnobad-sagnobrivi sinamdvilea. 2) veliseuli realoba anu veli
3) praqtikuli realoba anu praqtika
realobis zogadi Tvisebebi
materiis cnebis gansazRvreba
1. obieqturoba (sagnobrioba) variantebi
2. empiriuloba (grZnobadoba)
1. materia fizikur-sxeulebrovi realobaa.
2. materia fizikuri sxeulebriobaa.
3. materia sxeulTa erTobliobaa.

74 75
4. materia nivTieri realobaa.
5. materia nivTierebaa. materiisa da velis ganmasxvavebeli
6. materia nivTTa erTobliobaa. niSnebi
7. materia diskretuli (wyvetili) da Seuvali materiisa
(SeuRwevadi) realobaa.
1. diskretuloba (wyvetiloba), 2. SeuRwevadoba
velis cnebis gansazRvreba (Seuvaloba), 3. korpuskuluroba, 4. masis qona,
variantebi 5. uZraobis Tviseba
....................................................
1. veli fizikur-talRuri realobaa. velisa
2. veli fizikur talRaTa erTobliobaa. 1. kontinuuroba (uwyvetoba), 2. SeRwevadoba
3. veli arasxeulebrivi fizikuri realobaa. (Sevaladoba), 3. talRuroba, 4. masis arqona,
4. veli fizikuri arasxeulebriobaa. 5. uZraobis arqona
5. veli aranivTieri fizikuri realobaa. ........................................................
6. veli fizikuri aranivTierebaa.
7. veli kontinuri (uwyveti) da Sevaladi droisa da sivrcis cnebebi
SeRwevadi realobaa. droisa
variantebi
praqtikis cnebis gansazRvreba
variantebi •dro realobaTa Tanmimdevrobis wesia.
•dro realobaTa erTimeoris Semdgom arsebobis wesia.
1. praqtika sazogadoebrivi (socialuri) realobaa. • dro realobaTa: 1)xangrZlivoba da
2. praqtika cnobieri (Segnebuli) realobaa. 2) Tanmimdevrobis wesia.
3. praqtika adamianTa grZnobad-sagnobrivi realobaa. • dro garkveuli xangrZlivobis mqone movlenaTa
4. praqtika adamianTa grZnobad-sagnobrivi moqmedebaa. Tanmimdevrobis wesia

76 77
• dro movlenaTa Tanmimdevruli xangrZlivobaa. moZraobis saxeebi

sivrcisa 1. bunebrivi 2. sazogadoebrivi


variantebi
1. realuri 2. idealuri
• sivrce realobaTa Tanaarsebobis wesia.
•sivrce realobaTa erTimeoris gverdiT 1. meqanikuri, 2. fizikuri, 3. qimiuri,
arsebobis wesia. 4. bioturi, 5. socialuri
•sivrce realobaTa:
materiis saxeebi
1) ganfeniloba da 2) Tanaarsebobis wesia.
• sivrce garkveuli ganfenilobis mqone 1. araorganuli 2. organuli
movlenaTa Tanarsebobis wesia.
• sivrce movlenaTa Tanaarsebuli ganfenilobaa. 1. bunebrivi 2. sazogadoebrivi
(naturaluri) (socialuri)

droisa da sivrcis ganzomilebani


1. usulo 2. sulieri

droisa sivrcisa 1. mikromateria 2. makromateria 3. megamateria

1. warsuli 1. sigrZe velis saxeebi


2. awmyo 2. sigane
3. momavali 3. simaRle 1. eleqtromagnituri

moZraobis cneba 2. gravitaciuli (mizidulobis)

moZraoba cvlilebaa saerTod. 3. birTvuli

78 79
4. mezonuri Tavi 3 (7). Semecneba da Sefaseba

5. eleqtronul-pozitronuli gegma

praqtikis saxeebi 1 . sinamdvilisadmi SemecnebiT-SefasebiTi


damokidebuleba. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis
1. individualuri 2. sazogadoebrivi Teoriebi
2. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis cnebebi, maTi
1. sawarmoo 2. arasawarmoo msgavseba-gansxvaveba
3. Semecnebis mxareebi, Sefasebis mxareebi
1. SromiTi 2. araSromiTi 4. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis sagnebi, miznebi
da Sedegebi
1. mecnieruli 2. aramecnieruli 5. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saxeebi
............................................. .................................................. 6. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis problemebi
7. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis safexurebi
realobis adgili yofierebaSi 8. codna da faseuloba
variantebi 9. WeSmaritebis problema
10. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis roli adami-
realuri (xorcieli) meoradia idealurTan anis cxovrebaSi
(sulierTan) SedarebiT.
realuri idealuriT aris gansazRvruli, vinaidan 1. sinamdvilisadmi SemecnebiT-SefasebiTi
misi gasagnebaa, gaobieqturebaa mxolod. damokidebuleba. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis
realuri gaucxoebuli yofierebaa. Teoriebi
realuri gaucxoebuli idealuria.
realuri idealuris sxvadyofnaa. sinamdvilisadmi adamians uamravi damokidebuleba
gaaCnia. ase, magaliTad, adamians sinamdvilisadmi gaaCnia

80 81
`Teoriuli~ da `praqtikuli~ damokidebuleba, rac arse- yofiliyo), igi, es Semecneba Tu Sefaseba, ra Tqma unda, uf-
biTad misadmi sulier da xorciel anu idealur da rea- ro naklovani iqneboda, vidre im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi
lur damokidebulebas gulisxmobs. msgavsad amisa, arse- sinamdvilisadmi Tavis damokidebulebaSi am or process
bobs sinamdvilisadmi adamianis SemecnebiTi da SefasebiTi erTmaneTs Seurwyamda. Semecneba da Sefaseba kidec moiT-
damokidebulebac. adamiani, marTlac, yofierebasTan mimar- xovs erTmaneTs adamianis damokidebulebaSi sinamdvi-
Tebisas an imecnebs anda afasebs sagnebs. amis gareSe mas lisadmi, sinamdvilis aTvisebaSi mis mier. marTlac, Tu
sinamdvilesTan urTierToba arc SeuZlia. ar Segimecnia raime, maSin rogorRa Seafaseb, an Tu ar
ase rom, Semecnebaca da Sefasebac adamianis cxov- Seafase, rogorRa Seimecneb?
rebis ori sxvadasxva, aucilebeli momentia. amgvarad, Semecnebisa da Sefasebis gareSe adamiani
sinamdvilisadmi SemecnebiTi damokidebulebis SemT- sinamdvilesTan urTierTobas, damokidebulebas ver
xvevaSi adamiani moipovebs risame codnas, xolo Sefase- moagvarebs, xolo am urTierTobis, am damokidebulebis
biTi damokidebulebisas adgens mis Rirebulebas; pirvel gareSe, Tavis mxriv, mas arsebobac ar SeuZlia – imdenad
SemTxvevaSi adgens ama Tu im sagnis Sesaxeb WeSmariteba- didia am ori – SemecnebiTi da SefasebiTi unaris roli
mcdarobas, meore SemTxvevaSi ki mis mniSvneloba-umniSv- adamianis cxovrebaSi, ris gamoc rogorc Semecnebis, ise
nelobas, sargeblianoba-usargeblobas; Semecnebisas adami- Sefasebis Teoriebi filosofiis ori, sxvadasxva umniSvne-
ans sinamdvile ainteresebs ise, rogoricaa igi misgan lovanesi dargTagania. SemecnebasTan dakavSirebul mTel
damoukideblad, TavisTavad, maSin rodesac Sefasebisas rig sakiTxebs, ra Tqma unda, Semecnebis Teoria Seiswavlis,
mas igi ainteresebs ise, rogoricaa igi swored misTvis, xolo SefasebasTan dakavSirebul mTel rig sakiTxebs,
masTan mimarTebiT. msgavsad amisa, Sefasebis Teoria. Semecnebis Teorias anu
sinamdvilisadmi aRniSnuli, orgvari – SemecnebiTi Semecnebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas (SemecnebaTmcodneobas)
da SefasebiTi damokidebuleba avsebs erTmaneTs da qmnis sxvagvarad gnoseologia anda epistemologia ewodeba,
erT mTlian damokidebulebas yofierebasTan. es ki ufro xolo Sefasebis Teorias anu Sefasebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas
nayofiers xdis adamianis cxovrebas, vinaidan srulyo- (SefasebaTmcodneobas), – eqtimologia (sityva `gno-
fils xdis mas. marTlac, adamiani marto rom imecnebdes seologia~ warmomdgaria berZnuli sityvebisagan: `gnosis~
Sefasebis gareSe, anda piriqiT, marto rom afasebdes Semec- - `codna~ da `logosi~ - `moZRvreba~ da `codnis Sesaxeb
nebis gareSe (aseTi ram sruliadac SesaZlebeli rom moZRvrebas~ niSnavs, xolo sityva `epistemologia~ - aseve

82 83
berZnuli sityvebisgan `episteme - `codna~ da `logosi~ es aris faqtiuri viTarebis Segnebuli, gacnobierebuli
- `moZRvreba~ da isic imave `codnis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas~ arekvla.
niSnavs. ase rom, `gnoseologiaca~ da `epistemologiac~ rac Seexeba Sefasebas, Sefaseba aris Rirebulebis
- orive sityvobrivadac erTsa da imaves niSnavs. rac dadgena, faseulobis dadgena. Sefaseba sinamdvilis arekv-
Seexeba sityvas `eqtimologias~, igi warmosdgeba berZnuli laa ise, rogorc is unda iyos an ar unda iyos. es aris
sityvebisgan: `eqtimis~ – `Sefaseba~ da `logosi~ - `moZRv- jerarsobrivi sinamdvilis Segnebuli arekvla; es aris
reba~ da `Sefasebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas~, `SefasebaTmcod- normatiuli viTarebis Segnebuli, gacnobierebuli
neobas~ niSnavs). Tavad filosofiac ara marto Semecnebaa, arekvla.
aramed Sefasebac, ufro sworad – filosofiuri Semecneba rogorc Semecneba, ise Sefasebac – orive aucileb-
da filosofiuri Sefaseba. lad cnobieri, ASegnebuli procesia. isini mxolod cno-
ase rom, filosofia moicavs ara marto gnoseolo- bier arsebebs Tu SeuZliaT. amitomac cnobiereba – Segne-
giur, anda ara marto eqtimologiur moments Tu elements buloba rogorc Semecnebis, ise Sefasebis saerTo, zogadi,
(nawils), iseve rogorc ontologiur anda aqsiologiur msgavsi niSan-Tvisebaa.
moments, aramed gnoseologiursac da eqtimologiursac, Semecnebisa da Sefasebis amgvarive Tvisebaa isic,
iseve rogorc ontologiursac da aqsiologiursac. rom orive maTgani sinamdvilis arekvlaa, misi arekvlaa
Semmecneblisa Tu Semfaseblis mier, misi sulieri
2. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis cnebebi, maTi msgavseba- aTvisebaa maT mier.
gansxvaveba rac Seexeba gansxvavebas Semecnebasa da Sefasebas
Soris, upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos maT Soris is
Semecnebis Teoriis anu gnoseologia-epistemolo- gansxvaveba, rom Semecneba codnas gvaZlevs, maSin rodesac
giis mTavari cnebaa Semecneba, iseve rogorc Sefasebis Sefaseba fass gvidgens. ese igi erT SemTxvevaSi codnasTan
Teoriisa anu eqtimologiisa – Sefaseba. amitomac upirve- gvaqvs saqme, meore SemTxvevaSi – fasTan. codna ki imiT
les yovlisa aucilebelia am cnebaTa analizi. gansxvavdeba fasisagan, rom igi, jer erTi, faqtiur viTarebas
Semecnebisas codnis SeZena, codnis mopoveba xdeba. areklavs, anu imas, rac aris an ar aris, xolo fasi codnisa-
Semecneba sinamdvilis arekvlaa, rogorc is aris an ar gan – imiT, rom igi normatiul viTarebas, pozicias arek-
aris. es aris arsobrivi sinamdvilis Segnebuli arekvla; lavs, anu imas, rac unda iyos an ar unda iyos. da meorec,

84 85
codna obieqtur (sagnobriv) viTarebas asaxavs, anu imas, sagani (obieqti), 3) sakuTriv Sefaseba, anu Semfaseblis
rac damokidebulia obieqtze (Sesamecnebelze) da damoki- mimarTeba, damokidebuleba SesafasebelTan.
debuli araa subieqtze (Semmecnebelze), xolo fasi – Semecnebisa da Sefasebis mxareebi erTmaneTTan mWid-
subieqtis(subieqtur) (Semfaseblis) pozicias (damokide- rod dakavSirebulia. kerZod, Semmecnebeli da Semfasebeli,
bulebas) anu imas, rac subieqtzea (Semfasebelzea) damoki- Sesamecnebeli da Sesafasebeli, sakuTriv Semecneba da
debuli da damokidebuli araa obieqtze (Sesafasebelze). Sefaseba, marTalia, ori gansxvavebuli, magram mainc erTiani
ase rom, Semecneba da Sefaseba Semdegnairad SeiZleba procesis gansxvavebuli momentebia, kerZod, cnobieri
ganvsazRvroT: Semecneba es aris obieqturi da faqtiuri arekvlis momentia.
viTarebis cnobieri arekvla, xolo Sefaseba – subieqturi marTlac, Semmecnebeli erTdroulad Semfasebelicaa,
da normatiuli poziciis cnobieri arekvla. da, piriqiT, Semfasebeli-Semmecnebelic, oRond, ra Tqma
unda, sxvadasxva mxriv. igive iTqmis Semecnebisa da Sefa-
3. Semecnebis mxareebi, Sefasebis mxareebi sebis urTierTmimarTebazec aRniSnuli kuTxiT. es gamow-
veulia Tavad Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saganTa aseve er-
Semecnebasac da Sefasebasac – orives sam-sami mxare TianobiT. namdvilad, Sesamecnebelica da Sesafasebelic
gaaCnia. mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan: erTi da igive sagani
kerZod, Semecnebis mxareebia: 1) Semmecnebeli, e.i. SeiZleba Sesamecnebelic iyos da Sesafasebelic, oRond
Semecnebis subieqti, 2) Sesamecnebeli, e.i. Semecnebis sagani sxvadasxva mxriv. sxva sityvebiT, erTi da igive sagani
(obieqti), 3) Tavad Semecneba anu Semmecneblis mimarTeba SeiZleba Semecnebis saganic iyos da Sefasebis saganic.
SesamecnebelTan. ufro metic, SeuZlebelicaa, rom ar iyos, vinaidan erTia
am sami mxaris (momentis) gareSe Semecneba rogorc misi Semecneba, xolo – meore misi Sefaseba da am mxriv
procesi ver ganxorcieldeboda, vinaidan samive maTgani erTi xels ar uSlis meores. ufro metic, erTi xels
Semecnebis aucilebeli da sakmarisi pirobebia. uwyobs meores, avsebs mas.
igive iTqmis Sefasebis mxareebzec, rac iTqva Semec-
nebis mxareebze. xolo Sefasebis mxareebia: 1) Semfasebuli
anu Sefasebis subieqti, 2) Sesafasebeli anu Sefasebis

86 87
4. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis sagnebi, miznebi da swori, ise araswori Semecnebaca da Sefasebac, iseTi Semec-
Sedegebi neba da Sefaseba, romlebSiac Semecnebisa da Sefasebis
obieqtur mxaresa (saganTa) da subieqtur mxareTa (Semmec-
Semecnebasac da Sefasebasac orives Tav-Tavisi sagani nebelsa da Semfasebels) Soris an aris Sesabamisoba an
gaaCnia. kerZod, Semecnebis sagania arsi an ararsi, Sefa- ar aris Sesabamisoba.
sebisa – jerarsi an arajerarsi. sxva sityvebiT, erTis sa- namdvili codna swored WeSmariti codnaa, iseve
gani faqtiuri sinamdvilea, meorisa – normatiuli si- rogorc namdvili fasi – WeSmariti fasi; yalbi (mcdari)
namdvile: erTs ainteresebs sinamdvilis faqtiuri mxare, codna Tu fasi arc aris codna da fasi. am pirobiT imis
meores – sinamdvilis normatiuli mxare, sxvagvarad, erTs Tqmac SeiZleba, rom Semecnebis mizania codna, Sefasebisa
– sinamdvile faqtiuri TvalTaxedviT, meores – normati- – fasi.
uli TvalTaxedviT. imis gamo, rom gansxvavebulia Semecnebisa da Sefasebis
sinamdvilis faqtiuri mxare es, sxvagvarad, misi `onti- sagnebi, gansxvavebulia ara marto maTi miznebi, aramed
uri~, xolo normatiuli - `aqsiuri~ sferoa, rac qarTulad Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Sedegebic. da marTlac, sul
Sesabamisad swored `arsebulisa~ da `Rirebulis~ sferos sxvaa Semecnebis Sedegi da sul sxva – Sefasebis Sedegi.
niSnavs. sxvagvarad arc SeiZleba, vinaidan sul sxva bunebisaa
ase rom, `arsebulis~ sfero Semecnebis sagania, `Rire- Semecneba da sul sxva bunebisa – Sefaseba. isini xom
bulebis~ sfero – Sefasebis sagani. ase imijneba erTma- Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli rameebia: Semecnebisas codnis
neTisgan Semecnebisa da Sefasebis sagnebi. mopoveba xdeba, Sefasebisas ki – fasis dadeba ( dadgena).
aseve gansxvavebulia Semecnebisa da Sefasebis mizne- ase rom, Semecnebis Sedegia codna, Sefasebisa – fasi.
bic. da es gamowveulia swored maTi sagnebis gansxvavebiT. codna aris sagnis cnobieri arekvla `obieqtur~ planSi,
marTlac, gamomdinare am gansxvavebebidan, Semecnebis fasi ki – sagnis cnobieri arekvla `subieqtur~ planSi,
mizania WeSmariti codna, xolo Sefasebis mizani – WeSma- erTi - `TavisTavad~ planSi, meore - `sxvisTavad~ planSi,
riti fasi. saqme isaa, rom SesaZloa ara mxolod WeSmariti subieqtis poziciidan, subieqtis xedvis WrilSi.
codna da WeSmariti fasi, aramed yalbi codnaca da yalbi codna da fasi uamravi saxisa SeiZleba iyos, imisda
fasic. marTlac, xom SeiZleba SemecnebaSiac da Sefa- mixedviT, Tu ra da ra saxisa SeiZleba iyos Tavad Semecneba.
sebaSiac moxdes Secdoma an sicrue; arsebobs rogorc rogoricaa Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis saxe, iseTivea Sesaba-

88 89
misad codnisa da fasis saxec. codna SeiZleba iyos daiyos swor da araswor, anu WeSmarit da araWeSmarit
swori da araswori, aseve Sefasebac – swori da araswori. (yalb, mcdar) Semecnebad da Sefasebad, an namdvil da ara-
namdvil (moCvenebiT) Semecnebad da Sefasebad, anda kidev
5. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saxeebi dadebiT (pozitiur) da uaryofiT (negatiur) Semecnebad
da Sefasebad. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi Semecnebisa da
Semecnebisa da Sefasebis uamravi saxe arsebobs, Tanac Sefasebis mxriv unda aRiniSnos Semecnebis iseTi mxareebi,
uamravi aspeqtiT (kuTxiT). es mravalaspeqtovneba, xolo rogorebicaa verifikacia da falsifikacia, xolo Sefa-
mis SigniT Semecnebisa da Sefasebis mravalsaxeoba damo- sebaTa iseTi mxareebi, rogorebicaa mowoneba da dawuneba.
kidebulia imaze, Tu ra principiT (safuZvelze) xdeba gansakuTrebiT unda SevexoT Semecnebisa da Sefa-
maTi dayofa. sebis klasifikacias iseT saxeebad, rogorebicaa 1) grZno-
ase magaliTad, upirveles yovlisa unda gamoiyos badi (empiriuli, sensualuri), 2) gansjiTi (inteleqtualu-
idealuri da realuri Semecneba da Sefaseba saerTod ri), 3) gonebrivi (racionaluri), 4) WvretiTi (intuiciuri),
yofierebis ori didi sferos – idealuri (sulieri) da 5) saidumlo (mistikuri) Semecneba-Sefasebani. TiToeuli
realuri (xorcieli) sferos safuZvelze. am saxeTagani Semecneba-Sefasebis martividan rTulisaken,
arsebobs Teoriuli da praqtikuli Semecnebaca da dablidan maRlisaken aRmavali procesis safexurebia
Sefasebac sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis or didi sferos da Sesabamisad 1) SegrZnebis, 2) gansjis, 3) gonebis, 4) Wvretis,
– Teoriuli da praqtikuli sferos mixedviT. 5) zebunebriv unarTa meSveobiT Semecneba-Sefasebas gu-
SeiZleba gamovyoT agreTve Semecnebisa da Sefasebis lisxmobs.
Semdegi saxeebi: 1) politikuri (saxelmwifoebrivi), 2)ekono- dabolos, unda gamovyoT Semecneba-Sefasebis yvelaze
mikuri (sameurneo) 3)moraluri (zneobrivi), 4)iuridiuli mniSvnelovani saxeebi, rogorebicaa 1) RvTaebrivi da
(samarTlebrivi), 5)religiuri (sarwmunoebrivi), 6)esTetiku- 2) araRvTaebrivi Semecneba –Sefasebani. amasTan araRvTa-
ri (mxatvruli), 7)mecnieruli da misTana Semecnebani da ebrivi Semecneba-Sefasebac or mxares moicavs: erTia ange-
Sefasebani sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ZiriTadi sferoebis losuri, meore - adamianuri Semecneba-Sefaseba. saerTod
mixedviT. unda vicodeT, rom arsebobs samad-sami Semmecnebel-Semfase-
SeiZleba kidev sxva mxareebis gamoyofa sxva aspeqte- beli arseba: RmerTi, angelosi da adamiani. amasTan RmerTi
biTac (kuTxeebiTac). magram yvela es da sxva saxe SeiZleba erTaderTi absoluturi (upirobo) Semmecnebeli da Semfa-

90 91
sebelia, ris gamoc igi aris sazomi (metri, kriteriumi) Tuli, maSin rodesac TviTSefasebas – imgvars, Tavad Semfa-
yovelgvari sxva Semecneba-Sefasebisa. Semecneba-Sefasebis sebelze romaa mimarTuli.
maqsimaluri (yvelaze maRali) idealic (mizanic) amitom rogorc vxedavT, `sxvaT~ Semecneba-Sefasebad da
RvTaebrivi (umaRlesi) Semecneba-Sefasebaa. `TviT~ Semecneba-Sefasebad Semecneba-Sefasebis dayofas
da sul bolos, Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saxeebTan safuZvlad udevs Semecneba-Sefasebis warmarTuloba
dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania maTSi iseTi `gareTken~ Tu `SigniTken~, `sxvaTaken~, Tu `sakuTari
saxeebis gamoyofa, rogorebicaa, erTis mxriv, 1) sxvaTSemec- Tavisken~.
neba da 2) TviTSemecneba da, meores mxriv, 1) sxvaTSefaseba adamianuri TviTSemecneba-Sefaseba sakuTar Tavze
da 2) TviTSefaseba. mimarTuli (orientirebuli), sxvagvarad, refleqsiuri
am dayofis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba imiT gamo- (ukan mibrunebuli) Semecneba-Sefasebaa.
ixateba, rom adamians aZlevs saSualebas Semecnebisa da adamianuri Semecneba-Sefasebis am refleqsiur da
Sefasebis am formaTagan (saxeTagan) Tu romeli romels ararefleqsiur saxeTa (formaTa) Soris mTavari Rirebu-
daemorCilos, romel maTgans mianiWos maT Soris upira- lebiTi (jerarsobrivi (aqsiuri) aspeqtiT (kuTxiT) ref-
tesoba. xolo is, rom TiToeul am or saxes Soris erT- leqsiuri Semecneba anu TviTSemecneba, aseve refleqsiuri
erTs unda mieniWos upiratesoba, es savsebiT logikuria Sefaseba anu TviTSefasebaa, vinaidan adamianuri Sefasebis
(aucilebelia), vinaidan sxvagvarad SeuZlebelicaa. mTavari mizani Tavad adamiania. ararefleqsiuri Semecneba-
magram imisaTvis, rom gairkves Semecneba-Sefasebis Sefaseba mxolod saSualebaa adamianisaTvis sakuTari
aRniSnul saxeTa Soris Tanafardoba, jer aucilebelia Tavis Semecneba-Sefasebis gzaze. mTeli garesinamdvilis
gairkves maT Soris gansxvavebac da amiT dadgindes maTi Semecneba-Sefaseba adamians sWirdeba swored misi adgilis
Tavisebureba (specifika). gasarkvevad masSi.
sxvaTSemecneba aris Semecneba, romelic mimarTu- aq gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania adamianis RmerTTan
lia Semmecneblis gareT arsebul sagnebze, TviT Semecneba SemecnebiT-SefasebiTi damokidebulebis garkveva. da marT-
ki – Semecneba, romelic mimarTulia Tavad Semmecnebelze. lac, am saqmeSi adamianuri TviTSemecneba-TviTSefasebac
msgavsad amisa, sxvaTSefasebas imgvar Sefasebas vuwo- ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre adamianuri sxvaTSemecneba-
debT, Semfaseblis gareT aresebul sagnebze romaa mimar- sxvaTSefaseba; sxvaTSemecneba Tu sxvaTSefaseba da TviT
uzenaesi arsebis – RvTis Semecnebac da Sefasebac adamians

92 93
sWirdeba imisTvis, raTa Seimecnos da Seafasos sakuTari 6. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis problemebi
Tavi gare sinamdvilesTan da upirveles yovlisa RmerTTan
misi urTierTobis mosagvareblad, mosawesrigeblad. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis problema gulisxmobs ro-
is garemoeba, rom upiratesoba gare sinamdvilis Semec- gorc Semecnebis, ise Sefasebis SesaZleblobis sakiTxs.
nebasTan SedarebiT mis TviTSemecnebas unda mieniWos, es SesaZlebloba, ra Tqma unda, sxvadasxvaa RmerTSi, ange-
klasikurad Zveli berZeni filosofosis sokrates mieraa losSi da adamianSi.
gamoTqmuli mowodebaSi ~Seimecne Tavi Seni~, romelic RvTaebrivi Semecneba-Sefaseba Tavisi SesaZleb-
mas auRia delfos taZris warweridan. msgavsive mowodeba lobiT absoluturi (upiroboa) da ara mxolod SesaZleb-
SeiZleboda gamogveTqva adamianuri Sefasebis kuTxiTac: lobiT, aramed sinamdviliTac. amitom Semecneba-Sefasebis
`Seifase Tavi Seni~. problema mxolod araRvTaebriv-cnobier arsebaTaTvis
amgvarad, mowodebani `Seimecne Tavi Seni~, Tu `Seifase SeiZleba arsebobdes kidec (angelozisa da adamianisaTvis),
Tavi Seni~ sruliadac ar gulisxmobs imas, rom SevimecnoT gansakuTrebiT es Cven, adamianebs gvexeba.
Tu SevifasoT mxolod sakuTari Tavi, aramed imas, rom adamianuri Semecneba-Sefasebis problema SemdegSi
TviTSemecnebasa da TviTSefasebasTan erTad SevimecnoT mdgomareobs: jer erTi, SeuZlia Tu ara adamians saerTod
da SevafasoT gare sinamdvilec, oRond refleqsiuri sinamdvilis Semecneba-Sefaseba da, meorec, Tu SeuZlia,
anu TviTSemecneba-Sefasebis upiratesobiT. Torem arc- ramdenad SeuZlia igi. es sakiTxi, marTlac problemuri
erTi am Semecneba-SefasebaTagani ar arsebobs `uerTmane- (Zneli) sakiTxia, vinaidan adamiani relatiuri (fardobiTi)
Tod”; erTi meores avsebs da adamians srul-Semecneba- arsebaa da amdenad naklovani, ris gamoc igi SeiZleba
Sefasebas aZlevs; rac ufro sworad SevimecnebT da Seva- verc swvdes Semecneba-Sefasebis obieqtebs (sagnebs) da
fasebT gare sagnebs, miT ufro sworad SevZlebT sakuTari Tu swvda, SeiZleba jerovnad verc swvdes maT.
Tavis Secnoba-Sefasebasac da, piriqiT, rac ufro sworad magram saqme isaa, rom adamianur Semecneba-Sefasebas
gvecodineba da Sefasebuli gveyoleba sakuTari Tavi, Tavisi sazRvrebi aqvs da igi, marTalia, absoluturi
miT ufro sworad SevZlebT gare sinamdvilis movlenaTa (upirobo) araa, magram relatiuri (fardobiTi) mainc aris,
Semecneba-Sefasebasac, raTa SemdgomSi kidev ufro ukeTe- xolo relatiuri absoluturis raRac `marcvlebs~ Sei-
sad SevZloT sakuTari adgilis povna yofierebaSi. cavs, ris gamoc adamians garkveul (relatiur) sazRv-
rebSi SeuZlia Semecnebac da Sefasebac. es ki imas niSnavs,

94 95
rom am sazRvrebs miRma rCeba iseTi ram, risi Semecnebac SesaZleblobas praqtika adasturebs, da, meorec, Semecnebis
da Sefasebac aRemateba adamianis Zalebs, mis SesaZlebobebs. SesaZleblobis uaryofa logikuradac gaumarTlebelia.
mokled rom vTqvaT, adamians SeuZlia Semecnebaca SemecnebiTi pesimizmi misi orive – ukiduresi da
da Sefasebac garkveul sazRvrebSi, raRac farglebSi, zomieri saxiT, ese igi agnostizmiTac da skepticizmiTac
magram ar SeuZlia am sazRvrebsa da farglebs gareT. es logikurad gaumarTlebelia, kerZod ki, winaaRmdegobrivia,
farglebi ki misi rogorc adamianis SesaZleblobis farg- vinaidan Tu pesimisturad (uimedod) SevxedavdiT Semec-
lebia. nebis SesaZleblobas, maSin pesimisturadve (uimedodve)
ase rom, adamians ZaluZs garkveuli farglebSi sinamd- unda Segvexeda Tavad am uaryofisTvis, rac logikuri
vilis Semecnebac da Sefasebac. winaaRmdegoba iqneboda. amasTan Tu kategoriulad (gadaW-
adamianuri Semecnebis SesaZleblobis Taobaze arse- riT) uarvyofdiT Semecnebas, maSin aseve unda uargveyo
bobs ori urTierTsapirispiro Tvalsazrisi: erTia Semec- es uaryofac, xolo Tu mxolod eWvs SevitandiT Semec-
nebiTi optimizmi da meore - SemecnebiTi pesimizmi. pirve- nebaSi, maSin eWvive unda Segvetana Tavad am eWvSiac, rac
li aRiarebs adamianuri Semecnebis SesaZleblobas, imas, SeuZlebelia. maSasadame, adamianuri Semecneba ara Tu
rom adamians ZaluZs obieqturi sinamdvilis wvdoma, maSin SesaZlebelia, aramed SeuZlebelic kia amgvari ar iyos,
rodesac meore uaryofs mas. e.i. gamarTlebulia e.w. SemecnebiTi optimizmi. magram
SemecnebiTi pesimizmi ori saxisaa: agnosticizmi sxva sakiTxia is, rom adamianuri SemecnebaSi Cven SeiZleba
da skepticizmi. agnosticizmi (berZnuli `a~ -`ara~, `gnosis~ gvqondes ara marto warmatebebi, ara-med warumateblobebic.
- `codna~) Semecnebis SeuZleblobis Teoriaa (TvalTa- kerZod, adamianma SeiZleba ara marto sworad Seimecnos,
xedvaa), skepticizmi ki (berZn. `skeptikos~ - `ganmxilveli~, aramed – arasworadac. igi SeiZleba scdebodes an cruob-
`mkvlevari~, `makritikebeli~) – Semecnebis saeWvo SesaZ- des, magram masve SeuZlia gamoasworos kidec es naklo-
leblobis Teoria. erTi saerTod uaryofs adamianis mier vanebani.
Semecnebis SesaZleblobas, meore ki – eWvis qveS ayenebs ase rom, Semecnebis procesSi gvaqvs rogorc dadebiTi
am SesaZleblobas. (pozitiuri), ise uaryofiTi (negatiuri) mxareebic, rogor
magram arcerTi am SemecnebiT-pesimistur Teoria- optimisturi (imedismomcemi), ise pesimisturi (imedis
Tagani ar aris swori. jer erTi, rom adamianuri Semecnebis armomcemi) momentebi, magram am procesSi optimisturi
(imedismomcemi) mxare Warbobs, ris gamoc adamianur Semec-

96 97
nebas ZiriTadad, mTlianad optimisturad (imedismomcemad) myofelobis) Teoriebic, amitom Sinagnad winaaRmde-
unda SevxedoT. gobrivi da, maSasadame, miuRebeli Teoriebia.
igive, rac iTqva adamianuri Semecnebis SesaZleblo- amrigad, adamians ZaluZs Semecnebac da Sefasebac,
baze, SeiZleba iTqvas agreTve adamianuri Sefasebis Tao- mas ZaluZs sul ufro da ufro farTo da Rrma Semecnebaca
bazec. kerZod, aresebobs SefasebiTi optimizmica da Sefase- da Sefasebac. mas SeuZlia swori Semecnebisa da swori
biTi pesimizmic. sxva sityvebiT, aqsiologiuri optimiz- Sefasebis meSveobiT sworad Seimecnos da Seafasos rela-
mica da aqsiologiuri pesimizmic. pirveli adamianuri tiuri (fardobiTi) sinamdvile, raTa eziaros absolutur
Sefasebis SesaZleblobas aRiarebs, meore uaryofs, marTa- (upirobo) sinamdviles. da es ase rom ar yofiliyo, adamia-
lia, adamianur SefasebaSi gvxvdeba garkveuli siZneleebic: nis cxovrebasac azri daekargeboda, vinaidan igi verafers
adamianma SeiZleba ara marto sworad Seafasos, aramed amaT gareSe ver moimoqmedebda, xolo es ki SeuZlebelia,
arasworadac. an ver Seafasos, an ar Seafasos sworad. da vinaidan ewinaaRmdegeba yovelgvar saR azrs.
miuxedavad am SefasebiT-pesimisturi momentebisa, adamia-
nur Sefasebasac ZiriTadad mainc optimisturad (imedis 7. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis safexurebi
TvaliT) unda SevxedoT. jer erTi, am Sefasebis SesaZleb-
lobas praqtika (grZnobad-sazogadoebrivi saqmianoba) Semecneba da Sefaseba es is procesebia, roca xdeba
adasturebs da, meorec, Sefasebis uaryofa logikuradac naklebad srulyofili Semecnebidan da Sefasebidan ufro
SeuZlebelia, vinaidan Sefasebis uaryofac mainc isev srulyofili Semecnebisa da Sefasebisaken aRmasvla, es
Sefaseba iqneboda. aris procesi Semecnebisa da Sefasebis ufro dabali
saerTod unda aRiniSnos is garemoeba, rom rogorc donidan ufro maRal doneze asvlisa, amitom am process
adamianuri Semecneba, ise Sefasebac – orive refleqsiuri (msvlelobas) Tavisi safexurebi, e.i. aRmavali doneebi
(ukan mibrunebuli) filosofiuri procesia da amitom gaaCnia.
maTi uaryofa, ra formiTac (saxiTac) ar unda xdebodes Semecneba-Sefasebis safexurebic (iseve rogorc maTi
igi, Sinagnad winaaRmdegobrivi da, maSasadame, SeuZlebeli sxva formebi) maTi igive saxeebia, magram gansakuTrebuli
iqneboda logikurad. rogorc SemecnebiTi (gnoseolo- saxeebi, vinaidan sxva saxeebi, Tu ase SeiZleba iTqvas, Se-
giuri), ise SefasebiTi (aqsiologiuri) nihilizmis (uar- mecneba-Sefasebis `horizontaluri~ saxeebia, maSin rode-
sac Semecneba-Sefasebis safexurebi – maTi `vertikaluri~

98 99
saxeebi. Tavad sityva `safexurebi~ ukve mianiSnebs imas, luri), 2) gansjiTi (inteleqtualuri), 3) gonebiTi (racio-
rom aq Semecneba-Sefasebis swored `aRmaval~ (`vertika- naluri), 4) WvretiTi (intuitiuri) da 5) saidumlo (misti-
lur~) saxeebze gvaqvs saubari maTi sxva aspeqtis saxee- kuri) Semecnebani.
bisgan gansxvavebiT. grZnobadi Semecneba gulisxmobs grZnobis orga-
imisaTvis, rom Semecneba da Sefaseba sruli iyos, noebiT (iaraRebiT) Semecnebas, gansjiTi – gansjis, gone-
aucilebelia misi yvela SesaZlebeli safexuri. amasTan biTi – gonebis, WvretiTi – Wvretis, xolo saidumlo Se-
arcerTi maTganis rolis arc daknineba da arc gazviadeba mecneba – RvTaebrivi zeSTagonebiT Semecnebas.
ar SeiZleba. yvela maTgans Tav-Tavisi adgili uWiravs, sensualuri (laT. `sensus~ - `grZnoba~, `SegrZneba~)
arc meti da arc naklebi, Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Semecneba, sxvanairad, empiriul (berZn. `empeiria~ - `cda~)
`kibeebze~. Semecnebad iwodeba.
Semecneba-Sefasebis saxeTa dayofas `safexurebad~ grZnobadi, igive sensualuri anu empiriuli Semecneba
didi mniSvneloba aqvs, vinaidan igi iZleva Semecneba- yvela danarCeni Semecnebisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom
Sefasebis `gaiolebis~ saSualebas, igi `aiolebs~ adamianis misi saSualebiT vwvdebiT realur, xorciel sinamdviles,
`asvlas~ Semecneba-Sefasebis `kibeze~, vinaidan `usafexure- maSin, rodesac Semecnebis danarCeni saxeebiT – idealur,
ebod~ Zalian gaWirdeboda masze asvla, Tu meti ara. gar- sulier sinamdviles. mokled, grZnobadi Semecneba xorcie-
da amisa, Semecnebisa da Sefasebis `kibis~ yoveli safexuri lis Semecnebaa, aragrZnobadi ki – sulieris Semecneba.
swvdeba sinamdvilis ama Tu im sferos (wres). es ki gvaZ- aragrZnobad Semecnebas anu zegrZnobad Semecnebas
levs TiToeuli maTganis Semecneba-Sefasebis saSualebas, azrovnebas uwodeben. ase rom, Semecnebis safexurebi or
rom ar gamogvrCes arcerTi maTgani. jgufad SeiZleba davyoT da maT `SegrZneba~ da `azrov-
Semecnebis safexurebi SeiZleba davyoT sxvadasxva neba~ vuwodoT.
aspeqtiT (kuTxiT), imisda mixedviT, Tu ras aviRebT dayofis grZnobadi Semecneba (farTo gagebiT igive `SegrZ-
principad (safuZvlad). neba~), e.i. sensualuri, anu empiriuli Semecneba sam formas
magram Cven aq Semecnebis safexurebs yvelaze ufro (saxes) moicavs: 1) SegrZnebas, 2) aRqmas, 3) warmodgenas.
gavrcelebuli, yvelaze ufro miRebuli aspeqtiT (kuTxiT) SegrZneba sagnis erTi romelime martivi Tvisebis
warmovadgenT. kerZod, Cven aq gamovyofT Semecnebis iseT TvalsaCino (xatovani) asaxvaa, aRqma – sagnis rogorc
safexurebs, rogorebicaa: 1) grZnobadi (empiriuli, sensua-

100 101
mTelis TvalsaCino (xatovani) asaxva, xolo warmodgena gansjiTi (inteleqtualuri) Semecneba anu ganaz-
– aRqmulis cnobierebaSi kvlavaRdgena (reproduqcia). reba sxvanairad kidev iwodeba logikur Semecnebad, vina-
grZnobadi (sensualuri, empiriuli) Semecneba swvdeba idan cneba, msjeloba da daskvna swored rom azrovnebis
sagnis 1) calkeul, 2) garegan, 3) araarsebiT, 4) SemTxveviT logikuri formebia. amitomac azrovnebis am formebs
mxares, maSin rodesac aragrZnobadi (arasensualuri, ara- (saxeebs) swored logika Seiswavlis.
empiriuli) Semecneba anu azrovneba - sagnis 1) zogad, gansjiTi Semecneba, anu mokled gansja imiT ganir-
2) Sinagan, 3) arsebiT, 4) aucilebel mxares. Ceva Semecnebis sxva safexurTagan, rom igi aris gaSuale-
aragrZnobadi (zegrZnobadi, araempiriuli, arasen- buli Semecneba anu imgvari Semecneba, romelic miiRweva
sualuri) Semecneba anu azrovneba emyareba grZnobad TanmimdevrobiT, garkveuli logikuri operaciebis Sede-
(empiriul, sensualur) Semecnebas, grZnobadi (empiriuli, gad, `nabij-nabij~. amitom amgvar Semecnebas kidev diskursi-
sensualuri) Semecneba anu SegrZneba farTo azriT ivseba ul Semecnebasac uwodeben (laT. `diskursus~ - `msjeloba~),
aragrZnobadi (zegrZnobadi, araempiriuli, arasensualuri) vinaidan dasabuTebiT, mtkicebiT miiReba.
SemecnebiT anu azrovnebiT. erTi ar arsebobs meoris ga- aragrZnobadi Semecnebis meore safexuria gonebrivi
reSe, meore – pirvelis gareSe. orive aucieleblia sagnis Semecneba, romelsac sxvanairad racionalur (laT. `ra-
sruli SemecnebisTvis. cio~ - `goneba~, `racionalis~ - `gonebrivi~) Semecnebas
aragrZnobadi Semecnebis pirveli safexuria gansji- uwodeben.
Ti (inteleqtualuri – laT. `inteleqtus~ - `gansja~) aq upirveles yovlisa unda aRiniSnos is garemoeba,
Semecneba, romelsac sxvanairad ganazreba ewodeba. rom filosofiaSi xSirad aRreulia `inteleqtualuri~
gansjiTi (inteleqtualuri) Semecnebis anu ganaz- da `racionaluri~ Semecneba, vinaidan mkafiod ar aris
rebis saxeebia (formebia): 1) cneba, 2) msjeloba, 3) daskvna. gamijnuli Tavad terminebic (sityvebic) `inteleqti~
cneba aris azri saganze, romelSiac gadmocemulia da `racio~. kerZod, `inteleqti~ da `racio~ xan gaigivebu-
misi arsebiTi niSani Tu niSnebi, msjeloba – debuleba lia erTmaneTTan, xan – Seyvanili erTimeoreSi, xan kidev
(winadadeba), romelic raimes adgens (hoyofs an uaryofs) – aRreulia erTimeoreSi. sinamdvileSi ki es ori ram
saganze, xolo daskvna – wina msjelobaTagan (winadade- adamianis sruliad gansxvavebuli SemecnebiTi unarebia.
baTagan) miRebuli, maTgan gamoyvanili axali msjeloba. da garda amisa, gonebrivi (racionaliuri) Semecneba
sagnis uSualo da sakuTriv cnobieri wvdomaa gansxvave-

102 103
biT Semecnebis sxva safexurTagan. es aris Semecneba, rome- ri~ (`saidumlo~), vinaidan intuicia swored rom gansxvav-
lic Tavidan bolomde Segnebulia adamianis mier, Semecne- deba yvela amgvari Semecnebisagan. sxva SemTxvevaSi mas
ba, ra SemTxvevaSiac adamianis mier gacnobierebulia misi verc gamovyofdiT calke Semecnebis safexurad.
Semecneba. SemTxveviTi rodia is garemoeba, rom `goneba~ dabolos, aragrZnobadi Semecnebis meoTxe safexuria
sxvagvarad `cnobas~ niSnavs. `gonieri~ ki - `cnobiers~, mistikuri anu saidumlo Semecneba, romelic gulisxmobs
ris gamoc `gonebrivi~ Semecnebac sxvas arafers niSnavs, `zebunebriv~ Semecnebas, rac Cveulebrivi adamianis Zalebs
Tu ara `cnobier~ Semecnebas. gonebrivi (racionaluri) aRemateba. amgvari Semecneba zebunebrivi Zalebis mier
Semecnebis swored es `cnobiereba~ (gacnobierebuloba, xorcieldeba uxilavad (e.i. `saidumlod~).
Segnebuloba) aniWebs mas sagnis uSualo wvdomis adamianuri Semecnebis yvela es oTxive aragrZno-
saSualebas. badi safexuri erTmaneTis msgavsicaa da erTmaneTisagan
aragrZnobieri Semecnebis mesame safexuria WvretiTi gansxvavebulic. msgavseba imaSia, rom yvela maTgani ze-
Semecneba. mas sxvanairad intuitiur (laT. `intueri~ - grZnobadi (grZnobadze aRmatebuli) Semecnebaa, e.i. azrov-
`daJinebiT mzera~) Semecnebas uwodeben. mokled am Semec- nebaa, maSasadame, azriT sagnis wvdomaa, xolo gansxvaveba
nebas intuiciac (Wvretac) SeiZleba vuwodoT. – imaSi, rom 1) gansja gaSualebuli azrovnebaa, 2) `Segneba~
WvretiTi (intuiciuri) Semecneba anu Wvreta (intui- (gonebrivi Semecneba) – uSualo azrovneba, 3) Wvreta –
cia) aris sagnis uecari, uSualo, aracnobieri Semecneba, uecari Semecneba, 4) saidumlo Semecneba – uxilavi azrov-
rac mtkicebas ar moiTxovs. es aris gumaniT mixvedra, neba (igulisxmeba Cveulebrivi adamianisaTvis uxilavi).
alRos aReba. adamianuri Semecnebis yvela xuT safexurs Tavisi
intuiciis mraval formas gamoyofen: grZnobads, damoukidebeli adgili uWiravs adamianuri Semecnebis
inteleqtualurs, emociurs, mistikurs. `kibeze~, magram maT Soris mWidro kavSiricaa, TiToeuli
grZnobadi intuicia, ra Tqma unda, gulisxmobs Wvretas cal-calke aucilebeli, xolo yvela erTad – sakmarisi
sinamdvilis grZnobad sferoSi, inteleqtualuri – safexurebia adamianuri Semecnebis `kibisa~. adamianuri
Sesabamisad inteleqtualurSi, emociuri – emociurSi, Semecnebis yvela es safexuri avsebs erTmaneTs da sruls
mistikuri – mistikurSi da ara imas, rom intuicia SesaZloa xdis am Semecnebas.
iyos sakuTriv `grZnobadi~, `inteleqtualuri~ (am SemTx- marTalia, adamianuri Semecnebis yvela aRniSnuli
vevaSi `gonebrivi~), `emociuri~ (`mxatvruli~) Tu `mistiku- safexuri aucilebelia, magram es imas rodi niSnavs, rom

104 105
yvela maTgans erTi da igive mniSvneloba hqondes, aramed wvdomadisaSi), mistikuri (saidumlo) Semecnebisa – zebuneb-
swored, piriqiT, zogs meti mniSvneloba aqvs da zogs – rivi sinamdvilis SemecnebaSi.
naklebi. ra Tqma unda, es mniSvneloba damokidebulia amrigad, adamianuri Semecnebis yovel safexurs Tavad
imaze, Tu ra adgili uWiravs ama Tu im safexurs Semecnebis Sesamecnebeli sinamdvilis safexurebi Seesabameba, ris
kibeze. kerZod, ufro dabal safexurs, bunebrivia, ufro gamoc SeuZlebelia romelime erTi maTganis xarjze
naklebi mniSvneloba eqneba, maSin rodesac ufro maRals sxva safexuris rolis gazviadeba. da miuxedavad yovelive
- ufro meti mniSvneloba, Tumca arcerTi maTganis rolis amisa, filosofiaSi mainc arsebobs sensualizmis (empiriz-
arc daknineba da arc gazviadeba ar SeiZleba. mis), inteleqtualizmis, racionalizmis, intuitivizmis,
adamianuri Semecnebis safexurebis rolTan dakavSi- misticizmis ukiduresi saxeebi.
rebiT filosofiaSi SesaZlebelia Sesabamisad xuTi Teo- sensualizmi (empirizmi) Tavisi ukiduresi gagebiT
riac, rogorc Tav-Tavisi `zomieri~, ise `ukiduresi~ saxiT imgvari SemecnebisTeoriuli (gnoseologiuri) mimarTu-
(formiT). kerZod, SesaZloa rogorc zomieri, ise ukiduresi lebaa, romlis Tanaxmadac adamianis codna arsebiTad
sensualizmic, inteleqtualizmic, racionalizmic, intivi- daiyvaneba grZnobebiT mopovebul codnaze, anu romlis
tivizmica da misticizmic. yvela es `gnoseologizmi~ Tanaxmadac Semecnebis ZiriTadi wyaroa grZnobebi.
(Semecnebis Teoriuli `izmi~) TavTavisi zomieri formiTY ukiduresi sensualizmis (empirizmis) klasikuri (sau-
(saxiT) gvaqvs maSin, rodesac yovel maTganSi, marTlac, keTeso) formulaa (debulebaa) jon lokis gamonaTqvami:
TavTavisi namdvili roli eniWeba Semecnebis Sesabamis `araferia inteleqtSi iseTi, rac uwin ar yofila grZno-
safexurs, xolo Semecnebis yovel safexurs namdvilad bebSi~. aq, rogorc vxedavT, grZnobebis (SegrZnebebisa da
is roli ganekuTvneba da unda ganekuTvnos, rac maT aRqmebis) rolia gazviadebuli inteleqtis (am SemTxvevaSi
Taviseburebas (specifikas) gamoxatavs, arc meti da arc gansjisa da gonebis) rolis dakninebis xarjze, rac, ra
naklebi. kerZod, grZnobadi Semecnebis roli mxolod Tqma unda, gaumarTlebelia, vinaidan sinamdvileSi inte-
sensibeluri (grZnobiTwvdomadi sinamdvilis) asaxvaSi leqtis roli SemecnebaSi ar daiyvaneba sensusis (grZno-
mdgomareobs, gansjiTisa – inteligibelurisaSi (gansjiT- bebis) rolze, ris gamoc vilhelm laibnicma jon lokis
wvdomadisaSi), goniTisa – raciobelurisaSi (gonebiT- sapirispiro aseTi formula wamoayena: `araferia grZnobeb-
wvdomadisaSi), WvretiTisa – intuobelurisaSi (WvretiT- Si iseTi, rac ar yofila uwin inteleqtSi, garda TviT
inteleqtisa~.

106 107
igive, rac iTqva sensualizmze (empirizmze) Tavisi kavSiric ar unda iyos maT Soris), arcerTi misi elementi
ukiduresi gagebiT, iTqmis agreTve inteleqtualizmzec, (mxare) ise ar `gamsWvalavs~ adamianur Semecnebas, da,
racionalizmzec, intuitivizmzec, misticizmzec, Tav- maSasadame, arcerTi misi mxare-safexuri ar `amTlianebs~
TavianTi ukiduresi saxeebiT. kerZod, arc inteleqtua- mas, ise, rogorc saxeldobr `gonebrivi~ Semecneba, yovelive
lizmi iqneboda swori SemecnebaSi inteleqtis (gansjis) aqedan gamomdinare ki, ar gamokveTs mis specifikas
rolis, arc racionalizmi – racios, arc intuitivizmi (Taviseburebas) rogorc swored misi gonebiToba~.
– intuiciisa da arc misticizmi – mistikuris (idumalis) da marTlac, aba sxva kidev ra unda iyos adamianuri
rolis gazviadebaSi. Semecnebis mTavari specifikuri (Taviseburi) mxare, Tu
da marTlac, arc calmxrivi sensualizmi varga, arc ara misi swored `goniereba~? adamiani xom erTaderTi
calmxrivi inteleqtualizmi, arc calmxrivi raciona- gonieri arsebaa amqveynad, amitomac vambobT adamianze -
lizmi, arc calmxrivi intuitivizmi da arc calmxrivi `gonieri kacio~ (`Homo sapiens~). amiT Cven mis specifikas
misticizmic. sruli codna mxolod maSin gveqneboda, (Taviseburebas) gamovTqvamT. amqveynad aseve, ra Tqma unda,
Tu masSi gamTlianebuli iqneboda Semecnebis xuTive specifikuri iqneba adamianur SemecnebaSi swored `gonie-
aRniSnuli elementi. reba~. `goniereba~ xom `cnobierebas~ niSnavs sxvanairad
Semecnebis aRniSnul elementTa (mxareTa) masSi da rom adamianuri Semecnebis specifikac misi `cnobiere-
Tanafardoba ama Tu im saxis Semecnebisas, ra Tqma unda, baa~, es Tavad adamianuri Semecnebis, jer erTi, saxelSiac
sxvadasxvaa. kerZod, grZnobad SemecnebaSi, bunebrivia, (terminSiac) Cans da meorec, - mis cnebaSiac. marTlac,
grZnobadoba sWarbobs, iseve rogorc gansjiTSi – gansji- cnebaSi imdenad, ramdenadac adamianis `Semecnebis~ cneba
Toba, gonebiTSi – gonebiToba, gumaniTSi – gumaniTi, saidum- am Semecnebis swored `gonierebas~, e.i. `cnobierebas~
loSi – idumaleba. sxvagvarad SeuZlebelicaa, magram es gulisxmobs (adamianuri Semecneba xom sinamdvilis
rodi niSnavs imas, rom TiToeul am SemecnebaSi sxva Se- cnobieri (gonieri), e.i. `gacnobierebuli~, `gaazrebuli~,
mecnebis elementic ar iyos da rac ufro metad `gamsWva- `Segnebuli~ asaxvaa da meti araferi), xolo saxelSi
luli~ iqneba erTi saxis Semecneba meore saxis Semecnebis (terminSi) – imdenad, ramdenadac `Semecneba~ terminobriva-
elementebiT, miT ufro `mdidari~ da `savse~ iqneba igi. dac (sityvobrivadac) masve gulisxmobs (SemecnebaSic~
da mainc, ra `gamsWvalulic~ ar unda iyos Semecnebis anu `SecnobaSiac~ Zireuli bgerebia `cn~, iseve rogorc
esa Tu is saxe-safexuri misi sxva saxe-safexuriT (e.i. ra `cnobierebaSi~).

108 109
marTalia, adamianis Semecnebis specifikurobas (Tavi- piro mniSvnelobiT. kerZod, zomieri iracionalizmi
seburebas) misi `goniereba~ anu `cnobiereba~ gansazRvravs, gveqneboda maSin, Tu aRiarebuli iqneboida aracnobieri
magram es sruliadac ar niSnavs imas, TiTqosda `goniTi~ (iracionaluri) SemecnebiTi unarebic cnobieri (raciona-
Semecneba iyos adamianuri Semecnebis umaRlesi safexuri, luri) SemecnebiTi unaris gverdiT, xolo ukiduresi
vinaidan arsebobs masze aRmatebuli, `zeSTagoniTi~ Semec- racionalizmi – maSin, Tu aRiarebuli iqneboda gonebis
nebis safexurebic. amitom gonebis (racios) rogorc Semec- (racios) roli sxva goniT (cnobier) SemecnebiT unarTa
nebiTi unaris rolis arc daknineba da arc gazviadeba, rolis dakninebis xarjze.
rogorc es xdeba e.w. `iracionalizmisa~ da `racionaliz- `racionalizmi~ da `iracionalizmi rogorc Semecne-
mis~ SemTxvevaSi, kerZod, maTi ukiduresi formebis (saxe- bis sapirispiro Teoriebi filosofiis istoriaSi Tavian-
ebis) SemTxvevaSi, ar SeiZleba. Ti ukiduresi formiT (saxiT) iyo gagebuli. kerZod, ra-
`racionalizmi~ aris Semecnebis iseTi Teoria, rome- cionalizmi am gagebiT gonebis (racios) SemecnebiT rols
lic aRiarebs gonebis (upirates) rols adamianis Semecne- azviadebda, xolo aragonebis (iracios) SemecnebiT rols
baSi, xolo `iracionalizmi~ – Semecnebis iseTi Teoria, akninebda, iracionalizmi ki, piriqiT, aragonebis (iraciios)
romelic, piriqiT, uaryofs mis (upirates) rols adamianis SemecnebiT rols azviadebda, xolo gonebis (racios)
SemecnebaSi. SemecnebiT rols akninebda.
logikurad SesaZlebelia rogorc racionalizmis, magram amgvari urTierTdapirispireba (kontrastu-
ise iracionalizmis rogorc zomieri, ise ukiduresi for- loba) am Teoriebisa adamianis SemecnebaSi gonebrivisa
mebic (saxeebic). da aragonebrivis, cnobierisa da aracnobieris, raciona-
zomieri racionalizmis SemTxvevaSi aRiarebulia lurisa da iracionaluris Tanafardobis sakiTxSi gau-
gonebis (racios) SemecnebiTi roli sxva SemecnebiT, ara- marTlebelia, vinaidan TiToeuli cal-calke aucilebeli,
gonebrivi (iracionaluri) unaris dakninebis gareSe, xolo xolo yvela erTad aRebuli sakmarisi pirobaa adamianuri
ukiduresi racionalizmis SemTxvevaSi – piriqiT, sxva, Semecnebisa. amitom racionalizmi da iracionalizmi
aragonebrivi (iracionaluri) SemecnebiTi unarebis normalur (wesier) SemTxvevaSi arc unda upirispirde-
dakninebis xarjze. bodes erTmaneTs. amgvar SemTxvevaSi maT Soris mxolod
igive iTqmis iracionalizmzec (laT. `iracionalis~ kontradiqtoruli (urTierTgansxvavebuli) damokidebu-
- `aragonieri~), rac iTqva racionalizmze misi sapiris- leba gveqneboda.

110 111
iseve rogorc Semecnebas, Sefasebasac Tavisi safe- nic sabolood xom sxva araferia, Tu ara agviyvanos swo-
xurebi aqvs. da es safexurebi analogiuria (msgavsia) red ukanasknel simaRlemde, e.i. gvaziaros RmerTs. es ki
Semecnebis safexurebisa. kerZod, gvaqvs ara marto sensu- SeuZlebeli iqneboda adamianisaTvis, rom ara Semecneba-
aluri (grZnobadi) Semecneba, aramed sensualuri (grZno- Sefasebis safexurebrivoba, vinaidan adamians Tavisi rela-
badi) Sefasebac, aseve msgavsad inteleqtualuri (gansjiTi) tiurobisa (SefardebiTobisa) da, maSasadame, naklovanebisa
Semecnebisa – inteleqtualuri (gansjiTi) Sefasebac, msgav- gamo erTbaSad ki ar SeeZleboda am simaRleze asvla,
sad racionaluri (goniTi) Semecnebisa – racionaluri aramed, `safexur-safexur~ mxolod. sinamdvilis ufro
(goniTi) Sefasebac, msgavsad intuiciuri (WvretiTi) dabal sferos Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Sesabamisad ufro
Semecnebisa - intuiciuri (WvretiTi) Sefasebac, da, bolos, dabali safexuriT vwvdebiT, ufro maRals, - ra Tqma un-
msgavsad mistikuri (saidumlo) Semecnebisa – mistikuri da, Sesabamisadve ufro maRali safexuriT. Semecneba-Sefa-
(saidumlo) Sefasebac. sebis kibis yvela safexuris meSveobiT ki vwvdebiT sinamd-
sensualuri (grZnobadi) Sefaseba grZnobebiT (SegrZ- vilis yvela safexurs.
nebebiT, aRqmebiT, warmodgenebiT) miRweuli Sefasebaa,
inteleqtualuri – gansjiTY miRweuli, racionaluri – 8. codna da faseuloba
gonebiT miRweuli, intuiciuri – WvretiT miRweuli, da,
bolos, mistikuri - `saidumlo~, zebunebrivi unarebiT adamianuri Semecnebis nayofi, Sedegi codnaa, xolo
miRweuli Sefaseba. adamianuri Sefasebisa – faseuloba. pirvel SemTxvevaSi
ase rom, grZnobebi (SegrZnebebi, aRqmebi), warmodgenebi), adamiani faqts (xdomilebas) adgens, meoreSi – Rire-
gansja, goneba, gumani Tu mistikuri unarebi marto Semec- bulebas.
nebiTi ki ara, SefasebiTi unarebicaa. es organoebi (iara- adamianuri codna SesaZloa iyos rogorc `dade-
Rebi) ara marto Semecnebis, aramed Sefasebis organoebicaa biTi~, ise `uaryofiTi~, iseve rogorc adamianuri fase-
(iaraRebicaa). ulobac, magram adamianuri codnisa da faseulobis
Sefasebac, iseve rogorc Semecneba, Tavisi safexure- `dadebiToba-uaryofiToba~ erTi da igive rodia. mar-
biT qmnis Sefasebis erTgvar `kibes~, romelsac iseve ro- Talia, codnisa da faseulobis dadebiToba saerTocaa
gorc Semecnebis kibes, avyavarT umaRles Semecnebamde, da maT `WeSmaritebas~ gulisxmobs, iseve rogorc maTi
avyavarT umaRles Sefasebamde, Semecneba – Sefasebis miza- uaryofiTobac, Tavis mxriv - `siyalbes~, magram es maTi

112 113
`WeSmariteba-siyalbec~ swored rom gansxvavdeba beli cnobieri arekvlaa, maSin rodesac yalbi codna –
erTmaneTisagan. marTlac, sxvaa adamianuri codnis WeSmari- misi araswori, damaxinjebuli cnobieri arekvla. msgavsad
teba-siyalbe da sxva kidev – adamianuri faseulobis amisa, WeSmariti faseulobac normatiuli (aqsiuri) sinamd-
WeSmariteba-siyalbe. marTalia aseve isic, es codnac da vilis swori, daumaxinjebeli cnobieri asaxvaa, maSin ro-
faseulobac – orive, sulieri, e.i. subieqturi arekvla desac yalbi faseuloba - am sinamdvilis araswori,
obieqturi, sagnobrivi viTarebisa da amdenad orive maTgani damaxinjebuli cnobieri asaxva.
SesaZloa iyos WeSmaritic da yalbic, magram am WeSma- imis gamo, rom yalbi codna sinamdvileSi arc aris
ritebaTa da siyalbeTa Soris mainc gansxvavebaa. xolo codna, xolo yalbi faseulobac – faseuloba, amitom
gansxvaveba arsebiTad ufro metia, vidre msgavseba. codnaca da faseulobac sinamdvileSi mxolod WeSmariti,
adamianuri codnis WeSmariteba – siyalbe niSnavs e.i. swori codna da faseuloba iqneba. da marTlac, ra
faqtiuri viTarebis swor Tu araswor cnobier arekvlas, codnaa is codna, Tu igi WeSmariti araa, iseve rogorc –
maSin rodesac adamianuri faseulobis WeSmariteba- is faseuloba, Tu igic WeSmariti araa?
siyalbe – RirebulebiTi (aqsiuri) viTarebis swor Tu ase rom, adamianuri codnisa Tu faseulobis prob-
araswor cnobier arekvlas. xolo sagnis faqtiuri da lema maTi WeSmaritebis problemaa; es codna da faseuloba
aqsiuri viTareba erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavdeba. imdenad iqneba namdvili codna Tu faseuloba, ramdenadac
kerZod, adamianuri codnis WeSmariteba gulisxmobs mis SesaZlebelia da namdvili maTi WeSmaritebac. WeSmariteba
Sesabamisobas imasTan, rac aris an ar aris, xolo siyalbe adamianuri codnisa da faseulobis namdvilobis krite-
– am codnis Seusabamobas imasTan, rac aris an ar aris. riumia (sazomia): Tu Cven viciT, rom raRaca iseTia (an
rac Seexeba adamianuri faseulobas, igi gulisxmobs mis araa iseTi), rogoric igi marTlac aris (an ar aris), anda
Sesabamisobas imasTan, rac unda iyos an ar unda iyos, Tu Cven viciT, rom raRaca iseTi unda iyos (an ar unda
maSin rodesac am faseulobis siyalbe – mis Seusabamobas iyos), rogoric igi, marTlac, unda iyos (an ar unda iyos),
imasTan, rac unda iyos an ar unda iyos. sxva sityvebiT, maSin aseTi arekvla swored WeSmariti codna da faseu-
WeSmariti codna arsis an ararsis (e.i. faqtis) arekvlaa loba da, maSasadame, namdvili codnac da faseulobac
adamianis sulSi ise, rogoradac igi sinamdvileSia, yalbi unda iyos da aris kidec.
codna ki – misi arekvla ara ise, rogoradac sinamdvileSia.
WeSmariti codna faqtiuri sinamdvilis swori, daumaxinje-

114 115
9. WeSmaritebis problema nobierebeli siyalbe. vinc cruobs, iman icis, rom siyalbes
ambobs, vinc Secdomas sCadis, iman – ara.
namdvili adamianuri codnaca da faseulobac WeSmaritebac orgvaria: gacnobierebuli da gauc-
SesaZlebelia mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia nobierebeli. gacnobierebul WeSmaritebas simarTle hqvia.
WeSmariti codnac da faseulobac, rasac Tavad WeSmariti vinc simarTles ambobs, iman icis, rom WeSmaritebas ambobs.
codnisa da faseulobis sinamdvile asabuTebs. WeSmaritebac da siyalbec orive sakuTriv Semmec-
WeSmariteba aris yovelgvari adamianuri Semecnebisa nebeli Tu Semfasebeli sulis Tvisebaa da ara Tavad
Tu Sefasebis mizani. Sesamecnebeli Tu Sesafasebeli sagnisa (obieqtisa), ris
WeSmariteba Sesabamisobaa, Sesatyvisobaa, Tanxmobaa gamoc isini subieqturi Tvisebani arian da ara obieqtu-
Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis sagansa da Semmecneblisa Tu risani (Tumca gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT WeSmaritebaca
Semfaseblis mier maT sulier arekvlas Soris. ufro da siyalbec Tavad obieqtur sagnebsac SeiZleba mivawe-
mokled, WeSmariteba sinamdvilis swori adekvaturi) roT). am azriT WeSmaritebaca da siyalbec subieqturia
sulieri arekvlaa. (subieqtis, cnobieri arsebis kuTvnilebaa).
WeSmaritebas siyalbe upirispirdeba. magram WeSmariteba da siyalbe sxva mxriv obieqturi-
siyalbe Seusabamoba, Seusatyvisoba, uTanxmoebaa caa. WeSmariteba-siyalbis obieqturiba mxolod imas
Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis sagansa da Semmecneblisa Tu SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom Cveneuli Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis
Semfaseblis mier maT sulier arekvlas Soris. ufro WeSmariteba-siyalbe damokidebulia ara Semecneba-Sefa-
mokled, siyalbe aris sinamdvilis araswori (araadekva- sebis subieqtze (e.i. Semmecnebelze an Semfasebelze), ara-
turi), damaxinjebuli (falsificirebuli) sulieri med Tavad Semecneba-Sefasebis obieqtze (e.i. Semecneba-
arekvla. Sefasebis saganze). sxvanairad, sinamdvilis sulieri asax-
siyalbe orgvaria: sicrue (tyuili) da Secdoma vis siswore Tu arasiswore damokidebulia Tavad sagnob-
(cTomileba). riv, obieqturi viTarebaze. ase rom, WeSmariteba subieqturia,
sicrue (tyuili) ganzraxi siyalbea, Secdoma (cdo- erTis mxriv, im azriT, rom igi subieqtis kuTvnilebaa,
mileba) ki – uneblie. pirveli Segnebuli, meore – Seugne- magram obieqturicaa, meores mxriv, im azriT, rom igi
beli siyalbea, anu Sesabamisad, - gacnobierebuli da gauc- obieqtis Sesabamisia.

116 117
WeSmariteba orgvari SeiZleba iyos – absoluturi kidev uamravi sxva saxec imisda mixedviT, Tu ra safuZvels
da relatiuri. (princips) davudebT mis dayofas saxeebad.
absoluturi WeSmariteba upirobo WeSmaritebaa, anu magram Cven aRvniSnavT kidev mxolod erT saxes
iseTi WeSmariteba, romelic ar aris damokidebuli raime WeSmaritebisas, kerZod, `maradiul~ WeSmaritebas anu
pirobaze, garemoebaze. es aris yovlad sruli WeSmariteba, WeSmaritebas, romelic ucvlelia.
romelic mxolod RmerTs gaaCnia. rac Seexeba im WeS- da bolos, unda aRiniSnos isic, rom WeSmariteba es
maritebas, romelic (angelozis Semdeg) adamianis gaaCnia, marto gnoseologiuri (Semecnebis Teoriuli) ki ara,
igi mxolod relatiuri, anu fardobiTi SeiZleba iyos. ara-med amave dros aqsiologiuri (Sefasebis Teoriuli)
adamianuri WeSmaritebac, imis gamo, rom Tavad adamianic kate-goriacaa (uzogadesi cnebaa), vinaidan WeSmariti ara
relatiuri arsebaa, mxolod SefardebiTi WeSmaritebis marto Semecneba SeiZleba iyos, aramed Sefasebac. oRond
Semcveli SeiZleba iyos. Semec-nebiT WeSmaritebasa da SefasebiT WeSmaritebas
SefardebiTi (relatiuri) WeSmariteba aris absolu- Soris gansxvavebacaa, rasac Tavad WeSmaritebasa da
turi WeSmaritebis, ase vTqvaT, `marcvali~. es `miaxloebiTi~, Sefasebas Soris gansxvaveba ganapirobebs. igive iTqmis
arasruli WeSmaritebaa, magram mainc absoluturi, siyalbezec.
yovladsruli, `zusti~ WeSmaritebis, `anarekli~. adamiani da sul bolos, unda SevexoT WeSmaritebis e.w. `kri-
swored am fardobiTi WeSmaritebiT `eziareba~ absolu- teriumis~ sakiTxs. es aris sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra
tur, yovlisgadamwvdom WeSmaritebas. aris Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis sisworis mowmoba, dasturi.
WeSmariteba SeiZleba iyos abstraqtulic da konkre- WeSmaritebis kriteriums gadamwyveti mniSvneloba
tulic. aqvs WeSmaritebis garkvevisaTvis, vinaidan uamisod
abstraqtuli anu ganyenebuli WeSmariteba iseTi SeuZlebelia dadgindes igi. marTlac, Tu ar gveqneboda
WeSmaritebaa, romelic yvela pirobisTvis erTnairia, es kriteriumi, maSin rogorRa SevZlebdiT dagvedgina
konkretuli WeSmariteba ki – iseTi WeSmariteba, rome- azris saganTan Sesabamisoba?
lic konkretuli, ama Tu im pirobebzea damokidebuli. ase rom, WeSmaritebis kriteriumi WeSmaritebis
absoluturi da relatiuri, aseve abstraqtuli da gamarTlebis saSualebaa.
konkretuli WeSmaritebis garda arsebobs WeSmaritebis WeSmaritebis kriteriumis sakiTxi problemas war-
moadgens. misi erTmniSvnelovani gadawyveta amitom filo-

118 119
sofiis istoriaSi arc gagvaCnia, zogi ras Tvlis WeSmari- (fardobiTia) Tavad adamianuri WeSmaritebac. magram
tebis kriteriumad da zogi kidev – ras, magram yvela es masSiac aris WeSmaritebis absoluturi (RvTaebrivi)
sazomi e.w. `Teoriul~ da `praqtikul~ sazomebze daiyva- kriteriumis `marcvlebi~. es ase rom ar iyos, WeSmari-
neba. marTlac, WeSmaritebis Teoriul da praqtikul sa- tebas saerTod adamiani verc eziareboda. da marTlac,
zomsac Tav-Tavisi mniSvneloba gaaCnia, magram adamianuri adamianuri WeSmaritebis kriteriumis relatiurobac
WeSmaritebis saboloo kriteriumi mainc praqtikaa. praq- (fardobiTobac) relatiuri (fardobiTi) rom iyos, e.i.
tika, `cxovreba~ gamoaCens WeSmaritebas; praqtika amarT- raRacnairad rom ar eziarebodes WeSmaritebis absolu-
lebs WeSmaritebas. tur kriteriums, maSin uazroba gamovidoda, rac logi-
praqtika adasturebs rogorc Semecnebis, ise Sefa- kurad SeuZleblia. maSasadame, WeSmaritebis kriteriumi,
sebis siswores, rogorc SemecnebiTi azris, ise SefasebiTi marTalia, arc mTlad absoluturia, magram arc mTlad
azris Sesabamisobas, Sesatyvisobas, Tanxmianobas, igiveobas araabsoluturic. es araabsoluturobac xom swored
Sesamecnebel Tu Sesafasebel sagnebTan (obieqtebTan). fardobiTia (relatiuria).
praqtika rogorc adamianTa sagnobrivi saqmianoba aris
Teoriis rogorc misi sulieri arekvlis sisworis krite- 10. Semecnebisa da Sefasebis roli adamianis
riumi. cxovrebaSi
WeSmaritebis kriteriumi `nawilobrivic~ SeiZleba
iyos da `mTlianic~, `uSualoc~ da `sabolooc~, `calmxri- Semecnebasa da Sefasebas udidesi roli ekisreba
vic~ da `yovelmxrivic~ da misTanani. erTi ram cxadia, adamianis cxovrebaSi imiT, rom maT `ahyavT~ igi cxov-
WeSmaritebis jerovani kriteriumi, ra Tqma unda, `kompleq- rebis umaRles safexuramde. es safexuri ki cxovrebis
suri~, erTiani unda iyos da igi unda amTlianebdes WeSmari- RvTaebrivi safexuria. da marTlac, Semecneba da Sefaseba
tebis kriteriumis mTels mravalsaxeobas. WeSmaritebis es erTgvari ram `kibea~, romelmac unda `agviyvanos~ uzena-
yovelgvari kerZo kriteriumi aucilebelia, magram arasak- es simaRleze, amiT ki SegvaerTos sayovelTao harmonias.
marisi. WeSmaritebis kriteriumis sakmarisobisaTvis auci- es aris adamianuri Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis uzenaesi
lebelia yvela misi kerZo kriteriumis gaTvaliswineba. mizani. sxva sakiTxia is, rom adamianuri Semecneba Tu
WeSmaritebis yovelgvari adamianuri kriteriumi Sefaseba am mizans rom yovelTvis ar emsaxureba, magram
relatiuria (fardobiTia), iseve rogorc relatiuria es sruliadac rodi uaryofs maT uzenaes daniSnulebas.

120 121
da Tu adamiani am mizans ar emsaxureba, igi yovel SemTxve- faseba, vinaidan maTi meSveobiT adamiani axdens sakuTari
vaSi am mizans – RvTaebriv harmoniasTan SerTvis saqmes adgilis garkvevas yofierebis mTels struqturaSi (aq:
(praqtikas) unda emsaxuros. SenobaSi) gansxvavebiT maTi sxva iseTi momentebisagan
xolo es ase rom aris, gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom (e.w. `sxvaTSemecnebisa~ da `sxvaTSefasebisagan~), romelTa
RmerTma Seqmna kaci `xatad da msgavsad Tvisad~, rasac meSveobiTac adamiani arkvevs gare sinamdvilis struq-
udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs adamianis daniSnulebaSi. es turas (aq: Senobas), im gare sinamdvilisas, romelTanac
garemoeba udides misias akisrebs adamians, iyos `xati da swored man unda gaarkvios Tavisi urTierTobac.
msgavsi~ RvTisa. da Tu igi axla ase daSorebulia am
RvTis xatebasa da msgavsebas codviT dacemis Sedegad,
miTumetes aseT dros ufro saWiroa, raTa adamiani isev 11. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis
`emsgavsos~ RmerTs. amaSi ki upirvelesi roli swored `Semecneba da Sefaseba~
adamianur Semecnebasa da Sefasebas ekisreba. msgavsma, am
SemTxvevaSi kacma, msgavsi, RmerTi unda Seimecnos da Sea- sinamdvilisadmi orgvari
damokidebuleba
fasos. da am RvTiuri Semecneba-Sefasebis gzaze swored
filosofiam unda iTamaSos didi roli imiT, rom man un-
1. gnosiuri 2. eqtimuri
da SeimuSaos sayovelTao harmoniisadmi, RmerTisadmi ka-
(SemecnebiTi) (SefasebiTi)
cis SerTvis uzogadesi mecnieruli kanonebi. es ki am ka-
am damokidebulebisas am damokidebulebisas
nonTa filosofiuri Semecnebisa da Sefasebis gareSe dgindeba codna. dgindeba faseuloba.
SeuZlebelia. filosofiam amiT namdvilad Teologiis
msaxuris roli unda Seasrulos, didi italieli Teolo-
gisa da filosofosis Toma akvinelis (1225-1274) sityvebiT Semecnebisa da Sefasebis cnebebi, maTi
`filosofia Teologiis msaxuria~ (`filosofia est msgavseba-gansxvaveba
ancila Teologie~- laT).
gansakuTrebiT didi roli adamianis cxovrebaSi Semecneba codnis Sefaseba fasis
ganekuTvneba miseul Semecnebisa da Sefasebis iseT momen- SeZenaa. dadgenaa.
tebs, rogorebicaa adamianuri TviTSemecneba da TviTSe-

122 123
Semecnebaca da Sefasebac orive sinamdvilisadmi Semecnebisa da Sefasebis miznebi
sulieri aTvisebiTi damokidebulebis formebia (es
ms gavs ebaa maT So r i s ). Semecnebis mizania Sefasebis mizania
Semec neba s i namd vi l i s f aqt i u r i ar ekvl aa; Sef as eba WeSmariti codna. WeSmariti fasi.
s i namd vi l i s no r mat i u l i ar ekvl aa (es ki gans x vaveba
maT So r i s ). Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Sedegebi

Semecnebisa da Sefasebis mxareebi Semecnebis Sedegia Sefasebis Sedegia


codna. Ffasi.
Semecnebis mxareebia Sefasebis mxareebia
Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saerTo
1. Semmecnebeli 2. Semfasebeli saxeebi

2. Sesamecnebeli 2. Sesafasebeli 1. idealuri 2. realuri

3. Tavad Semecneba 3. Tavad Sefaseba 1. Teoriuli 2. praqtikuli

Semecnebisa da Sefasebis sagnebi 1. politikuri, 2. ekonomikuri, 3. eTikuri,


4. iuridiuli, 5. religiuri, 6. esTetikuri,
Semecnebis sagania arsi an ararsi anu faqtiuri 7. mecnieruli.
sinamdvile
1. empiriuli, 2. inteleqtualuri,
Sefasebis sagania jerarsi an arajerarsi anu 3. racionaluri, 4. intuiciuri, 5. mistikuri.
normatiuli sinamdvile
1. RvTaebrivi, 2. angelosuri, 3. adamianuri

124 125
1. sxvaTSemecneba 2. TviTSemecneba bisa Tu Sefasebis Semecnebisa Tu Sefa-
sxvaTSefaseba TviTSefaseba SesaZleblobas. sebis SesaZleblobas.

Sefasebis sakuTrivi saxeebi Semecnebisa da Sefasebis safexurebi

1. mowoneba 2. dawuneba 1. grZnobadi (empiriuli, sensualuri),


dadebiTi Sefaseba uaryofiTi Sefaseba 2. gansjiTi (inteleqtualuri), 3. gonebiTi
(racionaluri), 4. WvretiTi (intuiciuri),
Semecnebisa da Sefasebis 5. saidumlo (mistikuri).
SesaZleblobis Teoriebi
Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Teoriebi
gnoseologiuri gnoseologiuri Semecnebisa da Sefasebis wyaros gagebis
optimizmi pesimizmi sakiTxSi maTi xuTi safexuris
eqtimologiuri eqtimologiuri Sesabamisad
optimizmi pesimizmi
I. sensualizmi (empirizmi) (grZnobadi Semecneba-Sefasebis
optimisturia Teoriebi, romlebic sarwmunod miiCneven Teoria): 1) ukiduresi sensualizmi (azviadebs grZnobebis
Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis SesaZleblobas, xolo rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi; grZnobadze dahyavs Semecneba-
pesimisturi - Teoriebi, romlebic arasarwmunod miiCneven Sefaseba; gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas grZnobebs aniWebs
Semecnebisa Tu Sefasebis SesaZleblobas. Semecneba-SefasebaSi; Semecneba-Sefasebis wyarod grZno-
bebs miiCnevs.) da 2) zomieri sensualizmi (aRiarebs grZno-
gnoseologiuri da eqtimologiuri bebis garkveul rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi.)
pesimizmis Teoriebi
II. inteleqtualizmi (gansjiTi Semecneba-Sefasebis
skepticizmi agnosticizmi Teoria): 1) ukiduresi inteleqtualizmi (azviadebs gans-
eWviT uyurebs Semecne- gadaWriT uaryofs jis rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi; gansjiTze dayavs Semec-

126 127
neba-Sefaseba; gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas gansjas aniWebs da 2) zomieri misticizmi (mistikurs garkveul rols
Semecneba-SefasebaSi; Semecneba-Sefasebis wyarod gansjas aniWebs SemecnebaSi.)
miiCnevs.) da 2) zomieri inteleqtualizmi (aRiarebs
gansjis garkveul rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi.) Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Teoriebi Tav-
Tavisi ukiduresi formiT Semecneba-
III. racionalizmi (goniTi Semecneba-Sefasebis Teoria): Sefasebis wyaros sakiTxSi
1) ukiduresi racionalizmi (azviadebs gonebis rols
Semecneba-SefasebaSi; goniTze dayavs Semecneba-Sefaseba; 1. sensualizmi (empirizmi), romlis Tanaxmadac
gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas gonebas aniWebs Semecneba-Sefa- Semecnebisa da Sefasebis wyaroa grZnobebi (cda).
sebaSi; Semecneba-Sefasebis wyarod gonebas miiCnevs.) da 2. inteleqtualizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac Semecnebisa
2) zomieri racionalizmi (aRiarebis gonebis garkveul da Sefasebis wyaroa gansja.
rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi.) 3. racionalizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac Semecnebisa da
Sefasebis wyaroa goneba.
IV. intuitivizmi (gumaniTi Semecneba-Sefasebis Teoria): 4. intuitivizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac Semecnebisa da
1) ukiduresi intuitivizmi (azviadebs gumanis rols Sefasebis wyaroa gumani (alRo).
Semecneba-SefasebaSi; gumaniTze dayavs Semecneba-Sefaseba; 5. misticizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac Semecnebisa da
gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas gumans aniWebs Semecneba- Sefasebis wyaroa mistikuri (zeSTagoneba).
SefasebaSi; Semecneba Sefasebis wyarod gumans miiCnevs.)
da 2) zomieri intuitivizmi (aRiarebs gumanis garkveul Semecnebisa da Sefasebis Teoriebi
rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi.) Semecnebisa da Sefasebis ori saxis
(gonierisa da aragonieris) Sesabamisad
V. misticizmi (saidumlo Semecneba-Sefasebis Teoria):
1) ukiduresi misticizmi (azviadebs mistikuris rols I. racionalizmi (goniTi Semecneba-Sefasebis Teoria):
Semecneba-SefasebaSi; mistikurze dayavs Semecneba-Sefaseba; 1) ukiduresi racionalizmi (Sefaseba-Semecnebis Teoria,
gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas Semecneba-SefasebaSi mistikurs romelsac Semecneba-Sefaseba dayavs racionalurze
aniWebs; Semecneba-Sefasebis wyarod mistikurs miiCnevs.) (goniTze) da 2) zomieri racionalizmi (Semecneba-

128 129
Sefasebis Teoria, romelic aRiarebs racionaluris Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saxe-
(goniTis) garkveul, aragadamwyvet rols Semecneba- safexurTa cnebani
SefasebaSi).
II. iracionalizmi (aragoniTi Semecneba-Sefasebis Teoria): II varianti
1. ukiduresi iracionalizmi (azviadebs iracionaluris
(aragoniTis) rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi) da 2) zomieri 1. sensualuri (empiriuli) (grZnobiTi) - Semecneba-
iracionalizmi (aRiarebs aragoniTis (iracionaluris) Sefaseba aris sagnis TvalsaCino (xatovani) Semecneba-
garkveul rols Semecneba-SefasebaSi). Sefaseba.
2. inteleqtualuri (gansjiTi) Semecneba-Sefaseba aris
sagnis SualobiTi aracnobieri Semecneba-Sefaseba.
Semecnebisa da Sefasebis saxe- 3. racionaluri (goniTi) Semecneba-Sefaseba aris sagnis
safexurebi da maTi cnebebi uSualo cnobieri Semecneba-Sefaseba.
4. intuiciuri (gumaniTi) Semecneba-Sefaseba aris sagnis
I varianti uSualo aracnobieri Semecneba-Sefaseba.
5. mistikuri (saidumlo) Semecneba-Sefaseba aris sagnis
1. sensualuri Semecneba-Sefaseba aris grZnobadi uxilavi - RvTaebrivi Semecneba-Sefaseba.
Semecneba-Sefaseba.
2. inteleqtualuri Semecneba-Sefaseba aris gansjiTi
Semecneba. sensualuri (empiriuli) (grZnobiTi)
3. racionaluri Semecneba-Sefaseba aris goniTi Semecneba- Semecnebis saxeebi da cnebebi
Sefaseba.
4. intuiciuri Semecneba-Sefaseba aris gumaniTi Semecneba- 1. SegrZneba sagnis erTi romelime martivi Tvisebis
Sefaseba. xatovani (TvalsaCino) asaxvaa.
5. mistikuri Semecneba-Sefaseba aris saidumlo (RvTaeb-
rivi) Semecneba-Sefaseba. 2. aRqma sagnis mTliani, xatovani (TvalsaCino) asaxvaa.

130 131
3. warmodgena erTxel aRqmulis kvlav aRdgenaa saerTo
(reproduqciaa).
codnac da faseulobac orive sinamdvilis sulieri
inteleqtualuri (gansjiTi) logikuri arekvlis Sedegia, orive SeiZleba iyos WeSmaritic da
yalbic.
Semecnebis saxeebi da cnebebi

WeSmaritebis cneba
1. cneba azria saganze, romelSiac gadmocemulia misi
arsebiTi niSnebi.
WeSmariteba sinamdvilis swori (adekvaturi)
cnobieri arekvlaa.
2. msjeloba azria saganze, romelic adasturebs an WeSmariteba Sesabamisobaa sagansa da mis sulier
uaryofs raimes masze, mokled, adgens raimes masze. anarekls Soris.

3. daskvna ori an meti msjelobidan gamoyvanili axali siyalbis cneba


msjelobaa.
siyalbe aris sinamdvilis araswori, damaxinjebu-
codna da faseuloba - li arekvla anu Seusabamoba sagansa da mis anarekls
Soris.
maT Soris msgavseba-gansxvaveba

WeSmaritebis saxeebi
gansxvaveba

1. absoluturi (upirobo) 2. relatiuri (pirobiTi)


codna Semecnebis Sedegia.
codna arsis an ararsis cnobieri asaxvis Sedegia 1. abstraqtuli 2. konkretuli
(ganyenebuli) (gansazRvruli)
faseuloba Sefasebis Sedegia.
faseuloba jerarsis an araajerarsis cnobieri 1. maradiuli 2. warmavali
arekvlis Sedegia.

132 133
siyalbis saxeebi Tavi 4 (8). ganviTareba da misi
kanonebi
1. ganzraxi siyalbe anu tyuili
gegma
2. uneblie siyalbe, anu Secdoma (cTomileba)

1. moZraoba da ganviTareba
WeSmaritebis kriteriumis cneba
2. ganviTarebis cneba
3. ganviTarebis saxeebi, safexurebi (etapebi);
zogadad
sasruloba
WeSmaritebis kriteriumi (sazomi) aris misi damadas- 4. ganviTarebis Teoriebi (ganviTarebis e.w. ori
turebeli, damamowmebeli movlena, mokled, - misi dasturi, koncefcia)
mowmoba. 5. ganviTarebis kanonebi (zogadi daxasiaTeba)
6. dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis
WeSmaritebis kriteriumi kanoni
7. raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis
konkretulad urTierTgadasvlis kanoni
8. uaryofis uaryofis kanoni
WeSmaritebis kriteriumia praqtika.
`cda WeSmaritebis sazomia~ (jerard uinstenli)
1. moZraoba da ganviTareba

Semecneba-Sefasebis roli adamianis


cxovrebaSi moZraoba anu cvalebadoba yovelgvari qmnilebis
arsebobis wesia. es imas niSnavs, rom moZraobis gareSe ar
Semecneba-Sefasebis roli adamianis cxovrebaSi isaa, arsebobs arcerTi qmnileba. ucvleli mxolod RmerTia,
rom sayovelTao harmonias da amiT RmerTs SerTos igi; sxva yvelaferi – cvalebadi.
SeZlebisdagvarad maqsimaluri srulyofa adamianuri marTalia, qmnilebac aris da qmnilebac – arsebobs
Semecneba-Sefasebis jerovani daniSnulebaa. rogorc idealuri, sulieri, ise realuri, xorcieli

134 135
qmnileba, romelTa moZraoba – cvalebadobac, ra Tqma rebicaa, magaliTad, `wuTisofeli~ anda `medini cxovreba~,
unda, gansxvavebulia, magram yvela es moZraoba-cvalebadoba anda kidev `sawuTro~ (`sawuTo~)~.
xom mainc moZraobaa Semoqmedis (RmerTis) uZraobasTan moZraoba qmnilebisa da gansakuTrebiT ki amqvey-
anu ucvlelobasTan SedarebiT. sxva sakiTxia isic, rom niuri cxovrebis kanonia da rom es asea, filosofiis
Tavad qmnilebaSiac gamoiyofa ori sxvadasxva sfero – istoriaSic imTaviTve SeniSnulia. ase magaliTad, Zveli
imqveyniuri da amqveyniuri qmnileba, romelTa Sorisac berZeni filosofosi heraklite am cxovrebaze ambobda,
imqveyniuri qmnileba ucvlelia amqveyniur qmnilebasTan `yvelaferi mimdinareobso~ (berZn. `panta rei~) anda `erT
SedarebiT. es mxolod relatiuri (fardobiTi) ucvlelo- mdinareSi orjer ver Sexvalo~ (sanam meored Caxvidode,
baa da ara absoluturi. absoluturad ucvleli mxolod is mdinare ukve aRar ariso), rac Zvelmave berZenma filo-
uqmneli arseba – RmerTia. sofosma kratilem kidev ufro `daazusta~ - `erT mdina-
ase rom, arsebobs uZraobis, e.i. ucvlelobis ori reSi erTxelac ver Sexvalo~ (sanam erTxelac Caxvidode,
saxe: erTia absoluturi uZraoba RmerTisa (Semoqmedisa) is mdinare ukve aRar ariso). da marTlac, SemTxveviTi
da meore relatiuri uZraoba imsofliur qmnilebaTa rodia is garemoeba, rom yvela didi moazrovne am soflis
(angelozTa, adamianTa), maSin rodesac arsebobs moZraobis warmavlobas, mis moZraoba-cvalebadobas aRniSnavs, ufro
mxolod erTi forma (saxe). esaa relatiuri moZraoba – swored ki, uCivis. poeziaSi es mTeli Temaa – `soflis
moZraoba amsofliur qmnilebaTa (adamianTa, cxovelTa, samduravisa~.
mcenareTa, mineralTa). es aris moZraoba mxolod ara- moZraoba uamravi saxisaa da ganviTarebac misi erT-
amsofliur sferoebTan SedarebiT. amitom absoluturi erTi saxea: yovelgvari ganviTareba moZraobaa, cvalebado-
moZraoba arc arsebobs. ar arsebobs imdenad, ramdenadac baa, magram yovelgvari moZraoba, cvlileba ganviTareba
Tavad es moZravi sofeli ar aris absoluturi, relati- rodia. ganviTareba specifikuri, Taviseburi moZraobaa,
uri sferos moZraobac xom logikurad relatiuri unda cvlilebaa.
iyos. is, rom es sofeli anu e.w. xorcieli da grZnobadi ase rom, moZraoba ganviTarebis gvaria, xolo
sinamdvile gansakuTrebulad moZravi da cvalebadi ganviTareba – moZraobis saxe.
sinamdvilea, es mis uamrav sxvadasxva saxelwodebaSiac magram imisTvis, rom naTlad gamoikveTos ganviTare-
kia asaxuli. amsofliuri cxovrebis warmavlobis aRsaniS- bis saxe moZraobis gvarSi, amisTvis saWiroa gadmovceT
navad SeiZleba vixmaroT, davuSvaT, iseTi terminebi, rogo- misi aucilebeli da sakmarisi niSnebi.

136 137
2 ganviTarebis cneba 3. ganviTarebis saxeebi, safexurebi (etapebi);
sasruloba
ganviTarebis pirveli arsebiTi niSania is, rom ganvi-
Tareba Sinagnad winaaRmdegobrivi cvlilebaa, ufro zus- ganviTarebis uamravi saxe arsebobs. maTgan SeiZ-
tad, Sinagani mizeziT mimdinare cvlilebaa. saqme isaa, leba ganviTarebis iseTi saxeebi gamovyoT, rogorebicaa
rom SesaZloa gvqondes garegnad winaaRmdegobrivi cvli- 1) idealuri ganviTareba da 2) realuri ganviTareba, anu
lebac, garegani winaaRmdegobis mizeziT gansazRvruli sulieri da xorcieli ganviTareba imisda mixedviT, idea-
cvlilebac. lur, sulier sferoSi xdeba es ganviTareba Tu realur,
ganviTarebis meore arsebiTi niSania is, rom igi xorciel sferoSi, anda 1) imqveyniuri da 2) amqveyniuri
Tvisobrivi, qvalitatiuri ki ara, aramed raodenobrivi, ganviTareba imisda mixedviT, zecaSi mimdinare cvlile-
qvantitatiuri cvlilebaa. bazea saubari Tu qveyanaze mimdinare cvlilebaze, anda
dabolos, ganviTarebis mesame arsebiTi niSania is, kidev 1) progresuli (aRmavali) ganviTareba da 2) regre-
rom igi aRmavali, progresuli cvlilebaa. saqme isaa, suli (daRmavali) ganviTareba imisda mixedviT, zrdadi
rom aRmavali, progresuli cvlilebebis garda arsebobs cvlilebaa mxedvelobaSi miRebuli Tu klebadi.
agreTve araaRmavali (daRmavali, regresuli) cvlileba SeiZleba gamovyoT agreTve 1) evoluciuri anu Tanda-
anda kidev saerTod ucvleloba. TobiTi ganviTareba da 2) revoluciuri, naxtomiseburi
ganviTarebis es samive arsebiTi niSan-Tviseba (cvli- ganviTareba, anda 1) bunebrivi (naturaluri) da sazoga-
lebis 1) Sinagnad winaaRmdegobrioba, 2) Tvisobrioba da doebrivi (socialuri) ganviTareba imisda mixedviT bune-
3) aRmavloba. TiToeuli cal-calke warmoadgens ganviTa- baSi xdeba es procesi Tu sazogadoebaSi da a.S. da a.S.
rebis aucilebel, xolo erTad aRebuli – sakmaris ganviTarebas gaaCnia Tavisi safexurebi anu etapebi.
pirobas. da marTlac, igi xom aRmavali, progresirebadi procesia.
amrigad, ganviTareba, Sinagnad winaaRmdegobrivi, es safexurebia: 1) Casaxva, 2) dabadeba (warmoSoba, Camoya-
Tvisobrivi, aRmavali cvlilebaa. libeba, formireba), 4) sakuTriv ganviTareba, 5) kvdoma da
aseTia, ganviTarebis cnebis gansazRvreba. 6) mospoba (ganadgureba) (likvidireba).
ganviTarebadi movlenis Casaxva gulisxmobs mis
dasawyiss, misi safuZvlis Cayras, xolo am movlenis mos-

138 139
poba (ganadgureba, likvidireba) – mis dasasruls, misTvis ganviTarebas, maSasadame, Tavi da bolo aqvs. usasrulo
bolos moRebas. rac Seexeba dabadebas (Sobasa, warmoSobasa, ganviTareba SeuZlebelia, ganviTareba mxolod sasruli
Camoyalibebasa, formirebasa) da kvdomas, esec ori urTierT- SeiZleba iyos, vinaidan dausrulebeli ganviTareba raRa
sapirispiro safexuria ganviTarebadi movlenis arseboba- ganviTareba iqneboda. Tavad ganviTarebis cneba ewina-
Si, romelTagan pirveli am movlenis ZiriTadi saxis aRmdegeba mis usasrulobas, mis daumTavreblobas. saerTod
Seqmnas gulisxmobs, meore – misi am ZiriTadi saxis gauqmebas, unda aRiniSnos is garemoeba, rom yovelgvari realuri
xolo Sualeduri safexuri ganviTarebisa – sakuTriv (xorcieli), romelic ki viTardeba, sasrulia, amitom ro-
ganviTareba ganviTarebaSi movlenis `mwvervals~ (piks), gor SeiZleba zogadi realuric (xorcielic) usasrulo
kerZod ganviTarebadi movlenis sruli saxis Seqmnas iyos, rogorc amas arasworad amtkiceben zogjer. Tu r-
gulisxmobs. aime sasrulia kerZod, maSin igi sasruli unda iyos zo-
da Tu, rogorc amas vxedavT, sakuTriv ganviTarebis gadadac. da, garda amisa, ganviTareba usasrulo rom iyos,
safexuri erTgvari pikia saerTod ganviTarebis procesisa, maSin mas safexurebic ar eqneboda da Tu safexurebi ar
pirveli ori safexuri misi ori aRmavali safexuria, ma- eqneboda, maSin ganviTarebasac azri daekargeboda, vinaidan
Sin rodesac bolo ori safexuri – misi ori daRmavali ganviTarebac imas niSnavs swored, rom raRac etapebis
safexuri. pirveli ori, Tu ase SeiZleba iTqvas, ori `dade- gavlas aqvs adgili.
biTi~ safexuria ganviTarebis saerTo procesisa, maSin
rodesac bolo ori safexuri – ori `uaryofiTi~ safexuri 4. ganviTarebis Teoriebi (ganviTarebis e.w. `ori
am procesisa. koncefcia~)
ase rom, ganviTarebis yvela es safexuri hqmnis
erTgvar `wres~, romlis erTi naxevaric `winganviTarebad~ ganviTarebis ori urTierTsapirispiro Teoria anu
SeiZleba iwodos, meore ki – ukuganviTarebad~. da es ori e.w. `ori koncefcia (Sexeduleba, Tvalsazrisi) arsebobs.
ZiriTadi safexuric urTierTsimetriuli safexurebi erTia, ganviTarebis e.w. `dialeqtikuri~, meore `meta-
iqneba. wre aris ganviTarebis simbolo, vinaidan yovelive fizikuri~ Teoria.
rac viTardeba, Tavis Tavsave ubrundeba, ese igi ganviTarebis e.w. `dialeqtikuri Teoriis anu koncef-
SemosazRvrulia, sasrulia. ganviTarebac xom sasruli ciis Tanaxmad, ganviTarebis wyaroa (mizezia) Sinagani
samyaros, gansakuTrebiT ki realuri samyaros kanonia, winaaRmdegoba, maSin rodesac ganviTarebis e.w. `meta-

140 141
fizikuri~ Teoriis anu koncefciis Tanaxmad – garegani cnebis arsebiT niSnebs. da marTlac, ganviTarebis erTad-
winaaRmdegoba. erTi namdvili Teoria misi swored dialeqtikuri koncef-
es aris pirveli ZiriTadi gansxvaveba ganviTarebis ciaa, vinaidan ganviTarebis metafizikuri koncefcia sinam-
dialeqtikursa da metafizikur koncefciebs Soris. dvileSi sulac ar aris ganviTarebis Teoria; ganviTare-
meore ZiriTadi gansxvaveba ganviTarebis dialeq- bis amgvari gageba sinamdvileSi verc akmayofilebs ganvi-
tikursa da metafizikur koncefciebs Soris isaa, rom Tarebis cnebis moTxovnebs. namdvilad, raRa ganviTareba
pirvelis Tanaxmad, ganviTareba Tavisi raobiT Tvisobrivi iqneboda imgvari cvalebadoba, Tu misi mizezi Sinagani
anu qvalitatiuri (laT. `qvalitas~, `qvalitatis~ - `Tvi- winaaRmdegoba araa, anda axlis Seqmna, anda kidev – aRmav-
seba~) cvalebadobaa, meoris Tanaxmad ki – raodenobrivi loba. amitom ganviTarebis problemis erTaderTi swori
anu qvantitatiuri (laT. `qvantitas~, `qvantitatis~ - gadaWra mis e.w. `dialeqtikur~ gagebaSi mdgomareobs;
`raodenoba~) cvalebadoba. erTaderTi igi iZleva ganviTarebis SesaZleblobis
rac Seexeba ganviTarebis dialeqtikursa da meta- sakiTxis gadawyvetas, vinaidan erTaderTi igi iZleva
fizikur koncefciebs Soris mesame ZiriTad gansxvavebas, ganviTarebis SesaZleblobis pirobebis garkvevis saSua-
pirvelis Tanaxmad, ganviTareba Tavisi xasiaTiT aRmavali lebas, xolo ganviTareba SesaZlebelia mxolod imdenad,
(progresuli) cvalebadobaa, meoris Tanaxmad ki - ramdenadac igi namdvilad akmayofilebs ganviTarebis
araaRmavali (araprogresuli), e.i. an wriuli (cikluri), aRniSnul dialeqtikur niSnebs.
anda daRmavali (regresuli) cvalebadoba.
rogorc vxedavT, ganviTarebis dialeqtikuri da meta- 5. ganviTarebis kanonebi (zogadi
fizikuri koncefciebi erTmaneTisgan arsebiTad gansxvav- daxasiaTeba)
deba ganviTarebis 1) wyaros (mizezis), 2) raobisa da
3)xasiaTis gagebaSi, sxva sityvebiT, imis gagebaSi, Tu ratom gamomdinare ganviTarebis sami ZiriTadi niSnidan
xdeba ganviTareba, ra aris ganviTareba da rogor xdeba gvaqvs ganviTarebis sami kanonic. am kanonebs sxvanairad
ganviTareba. dialeqtikis ZiriTad kanonebs uwodeben. dialeqtikis
ganviTarebis dialeqtikur da metafizikur koncef- ZiriTadi kanonebi es is kanonebia, romlebic gvixsnian
ciaTa Soris, ra Tqma unda, dialeqtikuri koncefciaa ganviTarebis bunebas, e.i. mis mizezs, raobasa da xasiaTs,
swori, vinaidan swored igi akmayofilebs ganviTarebis

142 143
anu imas, Tu ratom xdeba ganviTareba, ra aris ganviTareba cvlilebebis urTierTgadasvlis kanoni); ganviTareba
da rogor xdeba ganviTareba. aRmavali (progresuli) cvlilebaa (amas ki – uaryofis
dialeqtikis ZiriTadi kanonebia: 1) dapirispirebul- uaryofis kanoni).
Ta erTianobisa da brZolis kanoni, 2) raodenobrivi da samive es debuleba ganviTarebis sami ZiriTadi
Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis urTierTgadasvlis kanoni da kanonis gamomTqmelia.
3) uaryofis uaryofis kanoni. samive es kanoni ganviTarebis aucilebeli da
dialeqtikis es samive ZiriTadi kanoni aRmoaCina sakmarisi pirobebia, vinaidan TiToeuli cal-calke
didma germanelma filosofosma georg fridrix vilhelm ganviTarebis aucilebeli, xolo samive erTad – misi
hegelma (1770-1831). sakmarisi pirobaa. samive maTgani ganviTarebis arsebas,
dialeqtikis pirveli ZiriTadi kanoni (dapirispire- mis Sinagan bunebas gamoxatavs.
bulTa erTianobisa da brZolis kanoni) gvixsnis ganviTa-
rebis mizezs (wyaros) anu imas, Tu ratom xdeba ganviTareba, 6. dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis
dialeqtikis meore ZiriTadi kanoni (raodenobrivi da kanoni
Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis urTierTgadasvlis kanoni) –
ganviTarebis raobas anu imas, Tu ra aris ganviTareba, yoveli sagani Sedgeba dapirispirebuli mxareebisgan,
xolo dialeqtikis mesame ZiriTadi kanoni (uaryofis es mxareebi kavSirSi arian erTmaneTTan. am mxareTa kavSiri
uaryofis kanoni) – ganviTarebis xasiaTs anu imas, Tu aris orgvari: dadebiTi da uaryofiTi. orive aucilebe-
rogor xdeba ganviTareba. lia. arc erTi ar arsebobs meoris gareSe.
pasuxad sam ZiriTad dialeqtikur kiTxvaze, Tu ro- sagnis dapirispirebul mxareTa aucilebeli uaryo-
goria ganviTarebis mizezi (ratom xdeba ganviTareba), fiTi kavSiri gulisxmobs imas, rom es mxareebi gamoricxa-
ganviTarebis raoba (ra aris ganviTareba) da ganviTarebis ven erTmaneTs, aucilebeli dadebiTi – imas, rom es mxareebi
xasiaTi (rogor xdeba ganviTareba), Sesabamisad, gvaqvs gulisxmoben erTmaneTs. sagnis dapirispirebul mxareTa
Semdegi pasuxebi: ganviTarebis mizezia Sinagani winaaRmde- uaryofiTi, e.i. urTierTgamomricxveli kavSiri warmoad-
goba (adgens dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis gens am mxareTa brZolas, dadebiTi, e.i. urTierTgulis-
kanoni); ganviTareba Tvisobrivi cvlilebaa anu axlis mxveli kavSiri ki – am mxareTa erTianobas. maSasadame,
Seqmna, anu Semoqmedeba (amas - raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi

144 145
erTis mxriv, gvaqvs dapirispirebulTa erTianoba, meores 7. raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis
mxriv ki – dapirispirebulTa brZola. urTierTgadasvlis kanoni
dapirispirebulTa erTianobac da brZolac rela-
tiuria, fardobiTia, vinaidan es kanoni, agreTve relatiuri, yoveli sagani Sedgeba ori mxarisgan: Tvisobrioba
sinamdvilis kanonia, RmerTSi rogorc absolutSi dapi- da raodenobrioba.
rispirebulobani erTmaneTs emTxvevian. sagnis dapiris- Tvisobrioba aris sagnis Zireuli, xolo raodenob-
pirebul mxareTa erTianoba da brZola warmoadgens swo- rioba – araZireuli mxare.
red winaaRmdegobas. Tvisobrioba, sxvagvarad, TvisebaTa erTobliobaa,
winaaRmdegobis ganviTareba ori ZiriTadi safexu- ufro zustad – TvisebaTa erTianoba.
risgan Sedgeba. 1) winaaRmdegobis gaSla, 2) winaaRmdegobis Tvisobrioba aris sagnis is mxare, romelic mas xdis
gadaWra. imad, rac is aris. misi Secvla iwveva sagnis Secvlas.
am ori safexuris SigniT SeiZleba gamovyoT wina- raodenobrioba aris sagnis ricxobrivi maxasia-
aRmdegobis ganviTarebis Semdegi momentebi: 1) igiveoba, Tebeli, misi Secvla garkveul farglebSi ar iwvevs sagnis
2) gansxvaveba, 3) dapirispirebuloba (arsebiTi gansxvaveba), Secvlas.
4) konfliqti, 5) konfliqtis gadaWra. yoveli sagani warmoadgens Tvisobriobisa da
winaaRmdegobis saxeebia: 1) mTavari (ZiriTadi) da raodenobriobis garkveul erTianobas, amas zoma hqvia.
aramTavari (araZiriTad); 2) Sinagani da garegani; 3) anta- arsebobs cvlilebis ori saxe: raodenobrivi da
gonisturi da araantagonisturi da a.S. Tvisobrivi.
radgan yvelaferi amqveynad winaaRmdegobrivia, amitom raodenobrivi cvlileba uwyvetia, aranaxtomiseburi,
xdeba ganviTareba, magram winaaRmdegobebi SeiZleba iyos Tvisobrivi – wyvetili, naxtomiseburi.
Sinagani da garegani, ganviTarebis wyaro aris ara garegani, Tvisobriv cvalebadobas naxtomi ewodeba. naxtomi
aramed Sinagani winaaRmdegobani. orgvaria: afeTqebadi da araafeTqebadi.
dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis kanoni raodenobrivi cvlilebebi gadadis TvisobrivSi,
kiTxvaze, ratom xdeba ganviTareba, pasuxobs. imitom, rom Tvisobrivi – raodenobrivSi.
qveyana Sinaganad winaaRmdegobrivia. es winaaRmdegobrioba radgan yvelaferi raodenobriv da Tvisobriv mxares
ki aviTarebs, amoZravebs mas. moicavs, amitom ganviTarebac warmoadgens raodenobriv

146 147
da Tvisobriv cvalebadobas. uaryofis uaryofiT mTavrdeba ganviTarebis cik-
raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvlilebis urTierTga- li. yoveli meore uaryofa niSnavs dabrunebas pirveli
dasvlis kanoni kiTxvaze, ra aris ganviTareba, pasuxobs: uaryofisken. meore uaryofa imeorebs pirvel uaryofas,
ganviTareba aris raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvale- magram ufro maRal safexurze. amitom ganviTareba aris
badoba. sxvagvarad, ganviTareba aris axlis Seqmna. spiraluri. rogorc spiralis yoveli wre gulisxmobs
wina wreebis gameorebas, ise ganviTarebac uaryofaTa gziT
8. uaryofis uaryofis kanoni gulisxmobs wina wreebis gameorebas. magram radgan spira-
lis yoveli wre aRmavalia wina wreebTan mimarTebaSi,
yoveli sagani warmoadgens sxva sagnis uaryofas. ise ganviTarebac rogorc uaryofis uaryofa aRmavalia
uaryofa orgvaria: metafizikuri, anu meqanikuri da pirvel uaryofasTan mimarTebaSi.
dialeqtikuri. maSasadame, ganviTareba cikluri xasiaTisaa, e.i. ganvi-
meqanikuri uaryofa aris sagnis mospoba. sxvagvarad, Tarebis garkveul wreebs gulisxmobs, romelTagan yoveli
es aris iseTi uaryofa, romlis Sedegadac mocemuli momdevno wre ufro maRal doneze imeorebs yovel wina
sagnis Semdgomi uaryofa ukve SeuZlebelia. wres.
dialeqtikuri uaryofa es aris sagnis ara meqanikuri radgan yvelaferi sxva danarCenis uaryofaa, amitom
mospoba, aramed misi iseTi uaryofa, romelic iZleva ganviTarebac warmoadgens uaryofaTa aRmaval cvaleba-
ukanasknelis Semdgomi uaryofis SesaZleblobas. sxvag- dobas.
varad, dialeqtikuri uaryofa ar gulisxmobs sagnis ganad- uaryofis uaryofis kanoni kiTxvaze, rogor xdeba
gurebas, mospobas; igi gulisxmobs sagnis iseT cvaleba- ganviTareba, pasuxobs: ganviTareba xdeba aRmavali (progre-
dobas, rodesac masSi moixsneba raRac mxare, xolo suli) cvalebadobis gziT. sxvagvarad, ganviTareba aris
Seinaxeba romelime sxva mxare. da ufro metic, iseTi aRmavali (progresuli) cvalebadoba.
cvlileba, romlis drosac sruliad axalic iqmneba.
yoveli ganviTareba uaryofaTa rigia. erTi uar-
yofa jer kidev ar gviCvenebs ganviTarebis aRmaval, Tu
araaRmaavl xasiaTs, xolo meore uaryofa gviCvenebs imas,
ganviTareba aRmavalia, Tu araaRmavali.

148 149
9. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis ganviTarebis arsebiTi niSnebi
`ganviTareba da misi kanonebi~
1. winaaRmdegobrioba 2 siaxle 3. aRmavloba
moZraobisa da uZraobis cneba
ganviTarebis saxeebi
moZraoba nebismieri cvalebadobaa,
xolo uZraoba - ucvleloba. 1. idealuri (sulieri), 2. realuri (xorcieli)

uZraobis saxeebi 1. progresuli (aRmavali), 2.regresuli (daRmavali)

1.absoluturi (upirobo) 2.relatiuri (fardobiTi) 1. evoluciuri 2. revoluciuri


uZraoba yoveli uZraoba raRac (TandaTanobiTi) (naxtomiseburi)
mimarTebiT mimarTebiT
1. bunebrivi 2. sazogadoebrivi
moZraobis da ganviTarebis Tanafardoba (naturaluri) (socialuri)

yovelgvari ganviTareba moZraobaa, magram yovelgvari ganviTarebis safexurebi anu etapebi


moZraoba ganviTareba rodia; ganviTareba ufro viwro
cnebaa, vidre moZraoba, xolo moZraoba - ufro farTo 1. Casaxva, 2. dabadeba (warmoSoba, Camoyalibeba,
cneba, vidre ganviTareba. formireba), 3. sakuTriv ganviTareba, 4. kvdoma,
5. mospoba (ganadgureba, likvidacia)
ganviTarebis cneba
ganviTarebis ZiriTadi Teoriebi
ganviTareba Sinaganad winaaRmdegobrivi,
(koncefciebi)
Tvisobrivi, aRmavali cvlilebaa; ganviTareba
progresuli axlis Seqmnaa. 1. e.w. dialeqtikuri Teoria aRiarebs ganviTarebis
Sinagnad winaaRmdegobriobas,siaxles,aRmavlobas.

150 151
2. e.w. metafizikuri Teoria uaryofs ganviTarebis 1. igiveoba, 2. gansxvaveba, 3. dapirispirebuloba
Sinagnad winaaRmdegobriobas, siaxles, aRmavlobas. (arsebiTi gansxvaveba), 4. konfliqti,
5. konfliqtis gadaWra
ganviTarebis ZiriTadi kanonebi
winaaRmdegobis saxeebi
1. dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis kanoni
1. mTavari (ZiriTadi) 2. aramTavari (araZiriTadi)
2. raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis
urTierTgadasvlis kanoni 1. Sinagani 2. garegani

3. uaryofis uaryofis kanoni 1. antagonisturi 2. araantagonisturi


..................................................... ......................................................
dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da
brZolis cnebebi dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da
brZolis kanonis arsi
dapirispirebulTa erTianoba gulisxmobs maT dade-
biT Sinagan kavSirs, dapirispirebulTa brZola ki - maT dapirispirebulTa erTianobisa da brZolis kanonis
uaryofiT Sinagan kavSirs, erTi gulisxmobs maT Soris Tanaxmad, ganviTarebis wyaroa Sinagani winaaRmdegobani.
urTierTgulismxvlel, meore - urTierTgamomricxvel
kavSirs.
raodenobriobisa da Tvisobriobis
winaaRmdegobis safexurebi cnebebi

I. winaaRmdegobis gaSla II. winaaRmdegobis gadaWra raodenobrioba sagnis araZireuli, ricxobrivi


mxarea, Tvisobroba - Zireuli, araricxobrivi mxare.

152 153
zomis cneba uaryofis saxeebi

zoma raodenobriobasa da Tvisobriobis 1. meqanikuri (metafizikuri), rodesac sagani ispoba


erTianobaa.
2. dialeqtikuri, rodesac sagani mTlianad ki ar ispoba,
aramed nawilobriv, xolo nawilobriv SenarCundeba da,
raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi
garda amisa, mas axalic emateba, gardaiqmneba
cvlilebebis xasiaTi

raodenobrivi cvlileba uwyvetia, TandaTanobiTi, uaryofis uaryofis kanonis arsi


Tvisobrivi cvlileba ki - wyvetili, naxtomiseburi.
uaryofis uaryofis kanonis Tanaxmad, ganviTareba
raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi aRmavali cvlilebaa.
cvlilebebis urTierTgadasvlis
kanonis arsi

raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi cvlilebebis urTi-


erTgadasvlis kanonis Tanaxmad, sagnis raodenobrivi
cvlileba iwvevs mis Tvisobriv cvlilebas da piriqiT,
Tvisobrivi - raodenobriv cvlilebas; ganviTareba aris
Tvisobrivi cvlileba.

uaryofis cneba

uaryofa risime Secvlas gulisxmobs.

154 155
Tavi 5 (9). kavSiri da misi formebi. urTierTobaTa mTeli sistemis (erTobliobis), jer-erTi,
wyviladi kategoriebi CamoyalibebaSic, meorec, aRmavlobaSiac, mesamec, daRmavlo-
baSiac da, meoTxec, aRsasrulSiac, vinaidan uganviTarebod
gegma arcerTi maTgani ar SeiZleba ganamdvildes.
mokled, ganviTareba kavSirurTierTobaTa mTeli
1. kavSiri da ganviTareba. kavSiris Tvisebebi. erTobliobis (sistemis) centraluri (saSuagulo) rgo-
kavSiris mniSvneloba lia, romelic erTianad hkravs yvela mis saxeobas.
2. kavSiris cneba. samyaros sayovelTao kavSiri kavSirsa da ganviTarebas Soris logikurad (logi-
3. kavSiris saxeebi (formebi) kis mecnierebis kuTxiT) gvarsaxeobiTi damokidebulebaa,
4. kanoni rogorc kavSiris forma, misi saxeebi e.i. imgvari damokidebuleba, rogoric gvarsa da saxes
5. kavSiris Teoriebi Soris. kerZod, kavSiri ganviTarebis gvaria, maSin rodesac
6. wyvi l ad i kat ego r i ebi ( b1 zogadi da erTeuli; ganviTareba saxea misi. aqedan gamomdinare ki, kavSiri
b2 mTeli da nawili; b3 arseba da movlena; ufro farTo cnebaa, ganviTareba – ufro viwro cneba.
b4 forma da Sinaarsi; b5 mizezi da Sedegi; yovelgvari ganviTareba, ra Tqma unda, kavSiria, magram
b6 aucilebloba da SemTxveviToba; yovelgvari kavSiri ki ganviTareba rodia. kavSiri ganvi-
b7 SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile) Tarebis garda kavSirebis kidev uamrav sxva saxes moicavs.
mainc ra mizeziTa da ramdenadaa ganviTareba kavSiri?
1. kavSiri da ganviTareba. kavSiris Tvisebebi. im mizeziTa da imdenad, ra mizeziTac da ramdenadac gan-
kavSiris mniSvneloba viTareba aucileblobiT gulisxmobs misi momentebis
(moZravi mxareebis) urTierTobas, ganviTareba rogorc
ganviTareba kavSiris erT-erTi saxea da Tanac metad kavSiri xom, marTlac, sxva araferia, Tu ara misi am momen-
mniSvnelovani. saqme isaa, rom swored ganviTareba aniWebs tebis damokidebuleba maTi aRmavali Tvisobrivi Tanacva-
qmnilebaTa kavSirs `sicocxles~ da mis gareSe igi mTeli lebadobis kuTxiT. kavSiric xom sxva araferia, Tu ara
Tavisi mravalsaxeobiT verc iarsebebda. swored ganvi- swored kavSiris momentTa urTierTdamokidebuleba.
TarebaSi hpovebs es kavSiri `azrs~. swored ganviTarebas
eniWeba arsebiTi, gadamwyveti roli qmnilebebis kavSir-

156 157
2. kavSiris cneba. samyaros sayovelTao kavSiri gove Tvisebebi unda gaaCndes da gaaCnia kidevac. esenia:
relatiuroba da arauniversaluroba, da marTlac, izo-
kavSiri urTierTobaa, mimarTebaa, damokidebulebaa. lacia, kavSiris ararseboba relatiuria anu fardobiTi
urTierToba, mimarTeba, damokidebuleba, ra Tqma unda, imdenad, ramdenadac mas mxolod raRac mimarTebaSi eniWeba
nebismier movlenas Soris. SeiZleba ufro metic iTqvas: azri, e.i. garkveul pirobazea damokidebuli, xolo ara-
kavSiri es aris movlenaTa urTierTzemoqmedeba, maTi universaluria, anu arasayovelTao – imdenad, ramdenadac
urTierTzegavlena. zogan aqvs adgili da zogan ki – ara.
kavSiris sawinaaRmdegoa, ra Tqma unda, kavSiris kavSiris absoluturoba-universalurobas udidesi
ararseboba. igi gamoricxavs kavSiris arsebiT niSans – mniSvneloba aqvs saerTod yofierebis struqturaSi
mimarTebas anu damokidebulebas. (Semadgenlobasa da aRnagobaSi), radgan swored am niSan-
sxvagvarad kavSiris ararsebobas izolacia SeiZ- TvisebaTa meoxebiT `hkravs~ igi mTels yofierebas. es
leba vuwodoT. izolacia gulisxmobs gankerZoebas, kavSiri rom ara, yofierebac ki warmoudgeneli iqneboda.
gancalkevebas. da marTlac, yvelaferi yvelaferTan kavSirSia, araferi
kavSirs uamravi Tviseba aqvs. maTgan aRsaniSnavia ar arsebobs kavSiris gareSe. yvelaferi imdenad arsebobs,
misi iseTi ori Tviseba, rogorebicaa absoluturoba da ramdenadac igi kavSirSia sxvasTan. ase rom, kavSiri TviT
universaluroba. arsebobis faqtoric kia, imdenad didia misi mniSvneloba.
kavSiris absoluturoba anu upiroboba imas niS- Tumca garkveul mniSvnelobas izolaciac rodia mokle-
navs, rom kavSiri substanciuri (sawyisuri) Tvisebaa buli, vinaidan gancalkevebuloba, gankerZoebuloba garkve-
yofierebisa, radganac igi yovelgvari mimarTebisagan uli pirobac kia kavSirisa. sawinaaRmdego xom sawinaaRmde-
damoukideblad arsebobs. marTlac, ar arsebobs araferi, gos aZlevs azrs. da marTlac, Tu sagnebi erTmaneTisagan
rac raime mimarTebaSi mainc ar iyos kavSirSi CarTuli. gancalkevebulni, gankerZoebulni, izolirebulni ar arian,
rac Seexeba kavSiris sayovelTaobas, anu yovlad- isini sagnebi arc arian. yvela sagani xom raRac individua-
zogadobas, igi gulisxmobs kavSiris arsebobas yovelgvari lobiT unda gamoirCeodes, da Tu es gamorCeuli sagnebi
gamonaklisis gareSe. ar gveqna, maSin raRa azri eqneboda maT Soris kavSirsac?
xolo rac Seexeba kavSiris ararsebobas anu izo- ase rom, kavSiri gulisxmobs kidec mis ararsebobasac.
lacias, sawinaaRmdegod kavSirisa, bunebrivia, sawinaaRmde-

158 159
3. kavSiris saxeebi (formebi) rac Seexeba obieqtursa da subieqtur kavSirebs, maT
Soris is gansxvavebaa, rom pirveli obieqturi (sagnobrivi)
kavSirs uamravi saxe (forma) aqvs. misi klasifika- sinamdvilis kavSirebia, meore ki – subieqturi (arasag-
cia (dajgufeba) amitomac rTulia. da namdvilad, arsebobs nobrivi) sinamdvilisa.
kavSiris uamravi sxvadasxva saxe uamravi sxvadasxva kavSirTa Soris gamoiyofa iseTi kavSirebic, rogore-
aspeqtiT (kuTxiT). bicaa idealuri da realuri kavSirebi. idealuri kavSiri
ase, magaliTad, SeiZleba gamovyoT kavSiris iseTi igive sulieri kavSiria, realuri ki – igive xorcieli
saxeebi, rogorebicaa: pirdapiri da arapirdapiri, romel- kavSiri.
Tac sxvanairad Sesabamisad uSualo da SualobiTi anu kavSirTa calkeul jgufebs qmnis iseTi kavSirebi,
iribi kavSiri ewodeba. rogorebicaa axlo (mWidro) da Soreuli kavSirebi; xSiri
arsebobs agreTve dadebiTi da uaryofiTi kavSiri, (mravaljeradi) da iSviaTi (aramravaljeradi) kavSirebi;
anu sxvagvarad, pozitiuri da negatiuri kavSirebi. pirve- Rrma (Zireuli) da zedapiruli (araZireuli) kavSirebi;
li urTierTgulismxvlel kavSirs warmoadgens, meore – uwyveti (permanentuli) da wyvetili kavSirebi; Zlieri
urTierTgamomricxavs. da susti kavSirebi.
gamoyofen kidev iseT kavSirebs, rogorebicaa: cal- calke aRvniSnoT unda iseTi kavSirebi, rogorebicaa
mxrivi, mravalmxrivi, yovelmxrivi kavSirebi. calmxrivi kavSiri da ukukavSiri, romlebic kavSiris urTierTsawi-
kavSiri gulisxmobs erTi romelime kuTxiT kavSirs, naaRmdego mimarTulebas gamoxatavs.
mravalmxrivi da yovelmxrivi ki – Sesabamisad mravali gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia kavSiris iseTi
da yvela kuTxiT kavSirs. saxeebi, rogorebicaa ganviTareba da kanoni, TiToeuli
kavSiris iseTi saxeebi, rogorebicaa mTliani da maTgani Tav-TavianT sapirispirosac gulisxmobs. ase rom,
nawilobrivi kavSirebi, Sesabamisad moicaven erTiani am mxriv SeiZleba gvqondes rogorc ganviTarebadi, ise
movlenis yvela Tu erT romelime mxares. ganuviTarebadi kavSiri, agreTve rogorc kanonzomieri,
harmoniuli da disharmoniuli kavSirebi erTma- ise arakanonzomieri kavSirebic.
neTisagan ganirCeva rogorc Sesabamisad SeTanxmebuli didad mniSvnelovania kavSiris iseTi saxeebi, rogo-
da SeuTanxmebeli kavSirebi, anu, sxvanairad, kavSirebi, rebicaa meqanikuri da dialeqtikuri kavSiri. meqanikuri
romelTagan erTi Tanxmobas hqmnis, meore ki – uTanxmoebas. kavSiri iseTi kavSiria, romelic misi elementebis (Semad-

160 161
geneli nawilebia) jamze (sumaze) daiyvaneba, xolo dialeq- ri (kanonSesabamisi) da arakanonzomieri (kanonSeusabamo)
tikuri kavSiri es iseTi - `organuli~ kavSiria, romelic kavSirebic.
am elementTa jamze ar daiyvaneba. sxva sityvebiT rom kanoni upirveles yovlisa kavSiris saxea. es ki imas
vTqvaT, meqanikuri kavSiri elementTa garkveuli jamia, niSnavs, rom kavSiri kanonis gvaria, xolo kanoni –
maSin rodesac dialeqtikuri kavSiri – maTi erTianoba. kavSiris erT-erTi saxe.
ase, magaliTad, meqanikuri kavSiria [risame] grova, xolo mokled, kavSirsa da kanons Soris logikurad e.w.
dialeqtikuri kavSiri – sinTezi (nazavi). `gvarsaxeobiTi~ damokidebulebaa. kerZod, kavSiri ufro
dabolos, metad mniSvnelovania kavSiris sxva wyvile- farTo cnebaa, vidre kanoni, kanoni ki - ufro viwro
bi, rogorebicaa: zogadi da kerZo, mTliani da nawilobrivi, cneba, vidre kavSiri.
arsebiTi da araarsebiTi (movleniTi), formaluri da mainc ra aris kanoni?
Sinaarsoblivi, aucilebeli da SemTxveviTi, mizezobriv- kanoni [movlenaTa Soris] obieqturi, zogadi, arsebiTi,
Sedegobrivi, SesaZlebeli da namdvili. aucilebeli, myari, ganmeorebadi kavSiria.
rogorc vxedavT, es kavSirebi imiT ganirCevian sxva am gansazRvrebaSi gadmocemulia kanonis specifikuri
kavSirTagan, rom isini kavSirTa Tavisebur wyvilebs qmnian, (gamorCeuli) Tvisebebi), kerZod,. 1) obieqturoba, 2) zogadoba,
ris gamoc maT SeiZleba wyviladi kavSirebi vuwodoT. 3) arsebiToba, 4) aucilebloba, 5) simyare, 6) ganmeorebadoba.
kavSirTa es wyvilebi dapirispirebulTa erTianobas da, marTlac, kanoni ara nebismieri kavSiria, aramed swored
qmnian, amasTan TiToeuli kavSiris wyviliscali kidec aRniSnuli Tvisebebis mqone kavSiri.
gamoricxavs da kidec gulisxmobs erTmaneTs. mokled, kanoni obieqturi kavSiria imdenad, ramdenadac igi
maT Soris dadebiTi damokidebulebacaa da uaryofiTic. damoukidebelia adamianis nebisagan, e.i. sagnobrivi,
da ai, es qmnis maT Soris erTianobasac. TavisTavadi kavSiria.
kanoni zogadi kavSiria anu sayovelTao kavSiria.
4. kanoni rogorc kavSiris forma, misi saxeebi sxvanairad, es kavSiri saerToa mocemuli sferos yvela
movlenisaTvis.
kavSiris saxeTa (formaTa) Soris gansakuTrebuli kanoni arsebiTia imitom, rom igi kavSiris ganmsazRv-
adgili uWiravs kanons. da, marTlac, arsebobs kanonzomie- reli, siRrmiseuli niSan-Tvisebaa.

162 163
kanoni aucilebeli kavSiria, radganac igi movlenaTa kanonebi. pirveli rigis kanonebs swored filosofia
Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinareobs. Seiswavlis, maSin rodesac meore rigis kanonebs – arafi-
kanoni myari ram kavSiria, vinaidan movlenaTa Soris losofiuri mecnierebani.
ucvlel kavSirs gulisxmobs. rac Seexeba bunebisa da sazogadoebis kanonebs, sxva-
da bolos, kanoni ganmeorebadia, anu mravaljeradia, gvarad, naturalursa da socialur kanonebs, maT Soris
e.i. mravaljer meordeba. is sami gansxvavebaa, rom bunebis kanonebi, jer erTi, Seug-
mokled Tu vityviT, kanonis obieqturoba mis sagnob- nebel (stiqiur) ZalTa moqmedebis Sedegia, maSin rodesac
riobas gulisxmobs, zogadoba – sayovelTaobas, arsebiToba sazogadoebisa, piriqiT – Segnebul ZalTa moqmedebis
– ganmsazRvrelobas, aucilebloba – Sinagnobas, simyare Sedegi, meorec, bunebis kanonebi ufro xangrZlivi kanonebia,
- ucvlelobas, xolo ganmeorebadoba – mravaljeradobas. xolo sazogadoebisa – naklebad xangrZlivi, dabolos,
kanonis arsis gasagebad TviT terminic ki sainte- pirveli ufro `wminda~ saxis kanonebia, maSin rodesac
resoa. xolo termini `kanoni~ momdinareobs berZnulidan, meoreni – naklebad wminda xasiaTisani.
rac qarTulad swored `wess~ niSnavs. ase rom, kanonis xolo rac Seexeba e.w. faqtiursa da normatiul
sinonimad (tolmniSvnelovan sityvad) qarTuli sityva kanonebs, maT Soris gansxvaveba isaa, rom pirvelTa darRveva
`wesic~ SeiZleba vigulisxmoT. maSasadame, termini `kanoni~ SeuZlebelia, meoreTa SeiZleba. meore kanonebi es sazo-
sworad (adekvaturad) aRniSnavs kanonis cnebas. gadoebis an saxelmwifos mier dadgenili kanonebia, ro-
kanoni uamrav saxed iyofa, magram Cven gamovyofdiT melTa Sesrulebac savaldebuloa, magram romelTa darR-
mxolod oTx jgufs kanonebisas. esenia: universaluri vevac SesaZlebelia, xolo faqtiuri kanonebi aseTi araa.
da specialuri, bunebisa da sazogadoebis, faqtiuri da sxvanairad, aranormatiuli kanonebis aRsruleba adamianTa
normatiuli, obieqturi da subieqturi (mecnieruli) kano- nebaze rodia damokidebuli, maSin rodesac normatiuli
nebi. kanonebis aRsruleba adamianis nebazea damokidebuli.
universaluri kanonebi es is sayovelTao kanonebia, Tumca es gansxvaveba rodi arRvevs mainc maT Soris
romlebic saerToa yvela movlenisaTvis. misgan gansxva- msgavsebas, kerZod ki imas, rom orive rigis kanoni mainc
vebiT, specialuri kanonebi ama Tu im kerZo sferos kanone- kanonia, wesia.
bia. sxva sityvebiT, pirveli – zogadi kanonebi – sayovel- dabolos, erTmaneTisagan unda gavarCioT e.w.
Tao kanonebia, meore – kerZo kanonebi – gansakuTrebuli obieqturi, e.i. sagnobrivi anu adamianis cnobierebis gareT

164 165
arsebuli kanonebi da araobieqturi (subieqturi), kerZod arsebobs, xolo `metafizikuri~ ki – iseTi, romlis Tanax-
mecnieruli kanonebi, rac swored am obieqturi kanonebis madac kavSiri ar arsebobs, sxvagvarad, erTi aRiarebs
cnobieri arekvlaa adamianis TavSi; mecnieruli kanonebi kavSirs, meore – uaryofs mas.
es mis gareT arsebuli, obieqturi kanonebis arekvlaa amasTan dakavSirebiT unda iTqvas, Semdegi: marTalia,
sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi da amdenad maT (obieqtur kavSiris es ori aRniSnuli moZRvreba upirispirdeba
da subieqtur kanonebs) Soris mxolod is gansxvavebaa, erTi meores, magram ara absoluturad (upirobod), aramed
rac `dedansa~ da `asls~ Soris. sxva mxriv ki maT Soris, relatiurad (fardobiTad). saqme, marTlac, ise ki ar unda
ra Tqma unda, araviTari gansxvaveba araa. warmovidginoT, TiTqosda `dialeqtikosebi~ mxolod da
da saerTodac, miuxedavad kanonTa mTeli saxe-sxva- mxolod kavSirs aRiarebdnen, xolo `metafizikosebi~,
obisa, maT Soris mainc erTianobaa, rac mas saxeldobr piriqiT, uaryofdnen mas. sinamdvileSi `dialeqtikosebic~
wesier kavSirad gamoarCevs kavSirTa mravalgvarovani aRiareben kavSiris ararsebobas, iseve rogorc `metafizi-
wyvilebidan. kosebic~ - mis arsebobas.
ase rom, kavSiris dialeqtikuri Teoriac nawilobriv
5. kavSiris Teoriebi uaryofs kavSirs, iseve. rogorc kavSiris metafizikuri
Teoria, piriqiT, aRiarebs mas. maSasadame, kavSiris dialeq-
kavSiris Teoria kavSiris Sesaxeb moZRvrebaa, mokled, tikuri Teoria ganmsazRvrelwilad aRiarebs kavSirs,
kavSirTmcodneobaa. xolo garkveulwilad uaryofs kidec, iseve rogorc
arsebobs kavSiris zogadi Teoriac saerTod, rome- kavSiris metafizikuri Teoriac, uaryofs ra ganmsazRv-
lic aerTianebs kavSiris yovelgvar kerZo, calkeul Teo- relwilad kavSirs, nawilobriv aRiarebs kidec mas.
rias da kavSiris kerZo, gansxvavebuli Teoriebic, romle- imisaTvis, rom ufro gasagebi iyos kavSiris dia-
bisganac Sedgeba kavSiris zogadi Teoriac. leqtikuri da metafizikuri Teoriebi da saerTod kavSi-
Cven aq SevexebiT kavSiris mxolod or gansxvave- ris bunebac, amasTan dakavSirebiT saWiroa aRvniSnoT is,
bul kerZo Teorias. es Teoriebia kavSiris, e.w. `dialeqti- rom yovelive, rac ki arsebobs, raRac mxriv kavSirSia
kuri~ da `metafizikuri~ Teoriebi. sxva raimesTan, magram sxva mxriv ki – kavSirSi rodia
kavSiris e.w. `dialeqtikuri~ Teoria es kavSiris masTan. ar arsebobs iseTi ram, raRac kavSirSi mainc rom
iseTi dilosofiuri Teoriaa, romlis Tanaxmadac kavSiri ar iyos sxva raimesTan. miTumetes, rom kavSiri absoluturi

166 167
(upirobo) mimarTebaa, maSin rodesac kavSiris uqonloba saxiT unda gulisxmobdes misi metafizikuri gagebis
- relatiuri (fardobiTi) (ar moiZebneba raime, raRac elements.
mimarTeba rom ar hqondes sxva raimesTan, magram moiZebneba ase rom, saWiroa kavSiris dialeqtikur Teorias `Se-
iseTi raime, rac kavSirSi SeiZleba ar iyos sxva raimesTan). vurwyaT~ misi metafizikuri Teoriis dadebiTi elementebi,
magram arsebobs movlenaTa rogorc erTianoba (gaerTia- raTa amiT vpovoT sayovelTao kavSiris yovlismomcveli
nebuloba), ise gancalkevebuloba (gankerZoebuloba, gaTi- (sruli) gageba. arc `SiSveli~, `carieli~ dialeqtika
Suloba, izolirebuloba). namdvilad, yoveli movlena kavSirebisa da arc `SiSveli~. `carieli~ metafizika miT-
cal-calkec arsebobs da erTadac. erTi mxolod rodi umetes, aramed maTi dadebiTi yovelmxrivi sinTezi (Serwyma,
gamoricxavs meores, aramed, piriqiT, gulisxmobs kidec nazavi). mxolod amgvari sinTezi mogvcems kavSiris erTian
mas. da marTlac, erTi meoris gareSe SeuZlebelicaa. Tu swor Teoriasac. dialeqtikisa da metafizikis swored
movlenebi erTmaneTisagan gancalkeveblni ar arian, maSin amgvari. `sinTezuri~ gagebac iqneba Tavad WeSmaritad
maT Soris erTianoba rogorRa iqneboda? kavSirs xom dialeqtikuri gageba misi.
imaT Soris aqvs azri, romlebic erTi meorisagan gancal-
kevebiT arseboben? da, piriqiT, gancalkevebul arsebobasac 6. wyviladi kategoriebi (61 zogadi da erTeuli;
xom marto imaT Soris aqvs azri, romelTa Sorisac raRac 62 mTeli da nawili; 63 arseba da movlena;
kavSiria? 64 forma da Sinaarsi; 65 mizezi da Sedegi;
mokled, kavSiris arseboba da ararseboba erTmaneTs 66 aucilebloba da SemTxveviToba;
aZlevs azrs. 67 SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile).
yovelive aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT naTlad
SeiZleba warmovidginoT kavSiris e.w. `dialeqtikursa~ wyviladi kavSirebi filosofiaSi Sesabamisad wyvi-
da `metafizikur~ Teoriebs Soris TanamimarTebis sakiT- ladi kategoriebiT aisaxeba. amiT gansxvavdeba es kategori-
xic. kerZod, es Teoriebi, Tu maT ukiduresad gavigebT, ebi arawyviladi – erTeuli, calkeuli filosofiuri
erTmaneTs gamoricxaven, maSin rodesac maTi zomieri kategoriebisagan, romlebic Sesabamisad arawyvilad,
gagebis SemTxvevaSi, piriqiT, erTmaneTs `avseben~. da marT- erTeul, calkeul kavSirebs asaxavs.
lac, kavSiris dialeqtikuri gageba aucileblad momentis da saerTod, filosofiuri kategoriebi SeiZleba
rogorc erTeuli, ise wyviladi iyos.

168 169
magram ra aris Tavad kategoria? erTeuli saganTa erTmaneTisagan ganmasxvavebeli
kategoria (berZn. `kategoria~ - `gamoTqma~, `mtkiceba~) mxarea, zogadi ki – erTmaneTis mamsgavsebeli mxare.
uzogadesi cnebaa, anu yvelaze zogadi cnebaa, e.i. iseTi zogadsa da erTeuls Soris Sualeduri adgili
cneba, romelzec ufro zogadi cnebac ar arsebobs. gansakuTrebuls uWiravs, romelic erTeulis mimarT
ase rom, filosofiuri kategoria filosofiis uzo- zogadia, magram zogadis mimarT – erTeuli.
gadesi cnebaa, xolo erTeuli (calkeuli) da wyviladi is, rom erTeuli arsebobs, problemuri sakiTxi rodia,
filosofiuri kategoriebi Sesabamisad filosofiis magram problemuria zogadis arseboba.
erTeuli (calkeuli) Tu wyviladi kategoriebi, amasTan zogads sxvanairad universalia (laT. `universa-
es kategoriebi SeiZleba davyoT kavSiris amsaxvel Tu lis~ - `zogadi~) ewodeba. amitomac zogadis problema
kavSiris araamsaxvel calkeul da wyvilad kategoriebad. igive universaliebis problemaa.
filosofiur kategoriaTa Tavisebureba isaa, rom zogadis anu universaliebis problema zogadis anu
isini uzogadesi kategoriebia. saqme isaa, rom filosofi- universaliebis (zogadi sagnebis), jer erTi, arsebobasa
uri kategoriebis garda, ra Tqma unda, arsebobs arafilo- da, meorec, maTi arsebobis wesSi mdgomareobs, sxva sityve-
sofiuri kategoriebic, romelTa asaxvis saganic yofiere- biT, imaSi, arsebobs Tu ara da Tu arsebobs, maSin rogorRa
bis esa Tu is kerZo sferoa, maSin rodesac filosofiur arseboben isini.
kategoriaTa Taviseburebaa maTi yovlisgadamwvdomoba. amasTan dakavSirebiT ori Tvalsazrisi arsebobs:
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia vTqvaT: zogadi erTia nominalizmi da meore realizmi.
da erTeuli; mTeli da nawili; arseba da movlena; forma nominalizmis Tanaxmad, zogadi ar arsebobs (uki-
da Sinaarsi; mizezi da Sedegi; aucilebloba da SemTxvevi- duresi nominalizmi), anda Tu arsebobs, mxolod gone-
Toba; SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile – yvela es kategoria, baSi, `sagnebis Semdeg~ (post rem) (zomieri nominalizmi
jer erTi, kavSiris amsaxveli, meorec, wyviladi da, mesamec, anu konceptualizmi (laT. `koncefcius~ - `cneba~).
filosofiuri kategoriebia. esaa maTi Taviseburebac. termini `nominalizmi~ zustad aRniSnavs am Tval-
Zalze mokled, es kategoriebi kavSiris amsaxveli wyvi- sazriss, romelic zogadis (universaliebis) realurad
ladi filosofiuri kategoriebia. arsebobas uaryofs da mxolod nominalurad (saxelebad)
61 zogadi da erTeuli. zogadi da erTeuli sagnis aRiarebs mas. da marTlac, sityva `nominalizmic~ momdina-
or, sxvadasxva, dapirispirebul mxares warmoadgens. reobs laTinuri `nomenidan~, rac swored `saxels~ niSnavs.

170 171
rac Seexeba realizms, igi, marTlac, realurad bia~), maSin miviRebT srul, mTlian WeSmaritebas, vinaidan
aRiarebs zogadis arsebobas (aqedan Tavad terminic `rea- zogadi, marTlac SeiZleba arsebobdes saxelis saxiTac.
lizmi~, rac momdinareobs laTinuri `realisidan~ - ase rom, arcerTi am TvalsazarisTagani calmxr-
`sagnobrividan~, `nivTieridan~, `namdvilidan~). kerZod, ivad, urTierTmowyvetiT ver amowuravs zogadis arse-
ukiduresi realizmi aRiarebs zogadis realurad arse- bobis saxeTa Sesaxeb WeSmaritebis mTels sisavses, maSin
bobas, oRond `sagnebamde~ (ante rem), maSin rodesac zomieri rodesac aseTi ram SesaZlebelia mxolod maTi
realizmi – agreTve zogadis arsebobas realurad, oRond gaerTianebiT.
`sagnebSi~ (in re). zogadis Sesaxeb msjelobisas aucileblad unda
nominalizmisa da realizmis TeoriebTan dakavSire- gvaxsovdes erTi uryevi WeSmariteba, rom zogadi amqveynad
biT unda aRiniSnos maTi rogorc met-naklebi Rirebule- ar arsebobs erTeulis gareSe da misgan damoukideblad,
bani, ise naklovanebanic. kerZod, arc nominalizmisa da aramed swored erTeulSi da misi meSveobiT.
arc realizmis arcerTi forma (saxe) ar aris mTlianad miuxedavad zogadis arsebobis wesis problemurobisa,
swori, magram yovel maTganSi aris WeSmaritebis met- saerTod zogadis arsaeboba ueWvelia, vinaidan zogadis
naklebi marcvlebic. uaryofa logikurad SeuZlebelia: zogadis logikuri
mTliani WeSmariteba universaliaTa (zogadTa) arse- uaryofa isev zogads gvaZlevs.
bobis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad gamoTqmulia italieli filo- zogadsa da erTeuls Soris dialeqtikuri kavSiria:
sofosis Toma akvinelis (1225-1274) mier: `zogadi arsebobs erTi ar arsebobs meoris gareSe; isini erTmaneTs gulisx-
samgvarad: ante rem (sagnebamde), in re (sagnebSi) da post rem moben.
(sagnebis Semdeg)~. erTeuls grZnobadad (empiriulad) vwvdebiT, xolo
ase rom, gamoTqma `universalia ante rem, in re, post zogads – azrovnebiT.
rem~ aerTianebs Sesabamisad ukiduresi realizmis, zomieri 62 mTeli da nawili. mTeli da nawili sagnis or
realizmisa da zomieri nominalizmis (konceptualizmis) sxvadasxva, dapirispirebul mxares Seadgens.
Tvalsazrisebs. da Tu gavaerTianebT maTTan agreTve mTelisa da nawilis orgvari – e.w. `meqanikuri~ da
ukiduresi nominalizmis Tvalsazrissac, rac gamoTqmulia `dialeqtikuri~ gageba gvaqvs. pirveli imiT gansxvavdeba
sityvebiT: `universalia sunt nomina~ (`zogadebi saxele- meorisagan, rom mTelisa da nawilis `meqanisturi~ gagebi-
sas mTeli warmodgenilia, rogorc nawilebis jami. es

172 173
aris mTelis e.w. `adiciuri (krebiTi, SekrebiT miRebuli) dialeqtikuri mTeli da nawili rogorc organuli
warmodgena, sxvagvarad, mTelis `sumuri~ warmodgena. aseT mTeli da nawili, imiT gansxvavdeba kerZod meqanikuri
SemTxvevaSi nawilic xom ‘meqanikuri gamodis.. anu araorganuli mTelisa da nawilisagan, rom es mTeli
meqanikur mTelsa da nawils, garda imisa, rom maT ar daiyvaneba mis nawilebze, arc raodenobrivad da arc
`sumuroba~ (jamuroba) axasiaTebs, isic axasiaTebs, rom Tvisobrivad. igi ar aris sumuri (jamuri) mTeli da
erTgvarovani, homogenuri mTeli da nawilia: aq yvela nawili, e.i. adiciuri (krebiTi, Sekrebis gziT miRebuli),
nawili erTnairia, ris gamoc mTelic rogorc maTi jami aramed swored subadiciuria (arakrebiTia, nawilTa Sekre-
erTgvarovani iqneba. mTeli am SemTxvevaSi Tvisobrivad biT ki araa miRebuli). garda amisa, es aris araerTgvaro-
gansxvavebuli ver iqneba nawilebisagan. gansxvaveba mxo- vani, sxvadasxvagvarovani, mravalgvarovani, e.i. heterogenuri
lod raodenobrivi iqneba, mTeli aq mxolod raodenobri- mTeli da nawili.
vad meti iqneba nawilebze. amgvari nawilebis moklebiT dialeqtikuri mTeli da nawili, mokled, aris
mTelis bunebas ara daakldeba ra, iseve rogorc mTelis 1) arasumuri da 2) heterogenuli mTeli da nawili.
daSliT yofili nawilebis bunebasac. aq mTelis bunebac WeSmariti mTeli da nawili sinamdvileSi swored
imgvaria, rogoric nawilebisa, ubralod nawilebi aq – am dialeqtikuri, organuli mTeli da nawilia da ara meqa-
mTelSi erTad aris mocemuli. nikuri, araorganuli, ris gamoc mTelisa da nawilis
yovelive amis gamo meqanikur mTelsa da nawils wyviladi kategoriebis SemTxvevaSi upiratesad swored
Sesabamisad `araorganul~ mTelsac da nawilsac uwodeben, dialeqtikur, organul mTelsa da nawils vgulisxmobT
vinaidan es nawilebi erT `organul~ mTlianobas ki ar xolme.
hqmnian, rogorc es cocxal warmonaqmnSi (organizmSi) mTeli es aris sagnis yvela mxaris erTianoba, xolo
gvaqvs, aramed swored araorganuls, rogorc es namdvilad nawili – erTiani sagnis romelime mxare.
araorganul warmonaqmnebSi gvaqvs. `organuli~ mTeli aseTia mTelisa da nawilis cnebis gansazRvreba.
aq urRvev, ganuyofel, mtkice kavSirs gulisxmobs. Tu aq, rogorc vxedavT, ori niSani unda gamovyoT. erTia
organul mTelSi nawilTa Soris kavSiri ramenairad nawilTa yovloba (sisrule) da meore - maTi erTianoba
dazianda, maSin rogorc mTeli, ise nawilebic msgavsadve (kavSiri).
daziandeba. es kavSiri aq Rrma aris, gansxvavebiT araorga- yovel mTels raRac struqtura gaaCnia.
nulisagan, romelic ufro zedapirulia.

174 175
struqtura mTelis mxareTa garkveuli kavSiri, mTe- arseba sagnis mTavari mxarea imitom, rom igi gansazRv-
lis garkveuli Semadgenloba da kavSiria anu is, Tu ra ravs sagnis Tvisobriobas, movlena ki am Tvisobriobis
da ra elementisagan (nawilisagan) Sedgeba igi da rogori farglebSi Tu sZens mxolod sagans saxes.
kavSiria maT Soris. movlenaSi Semecnebis kuTxiT SeiZleba ganvasxvaoT
mTelis elementTa (nawilTa) Soris SeiZleba gvqon- misi ori - `obieqturi~ da `subieqturi~ saxe. pirvel
des mowesrigebuli (harmoniuli) da mouwesrigebeli (dis- SemTxvevaSi movlena danaxulia sworad, ise rogoradac
harmoniuli) kavSiri. mowesrigebul struqturas sistema igi avlens arsebas TavisTavad, Semmecneblisagan damouki-
(berZn. `sistema~ - `Sedgenili nawilebisagan~, `gaerTianebu- deblad, meore SemTxvevaSi ki – arasworad, damaxinjebulad,
li~) ewodeba. ase rom, arsebobs rogorc sistemuri (mowes- ara ise, rogoradac igi obieqturad avlens arsebas, aramed
rigebuli), ise usistemo (mouwesrigebeli) mTelic. subieqturad, rogorc es miaCnia Semmecnebels. arsebis
mTelsa da nawils Soris dialeqtikuri kavSiria: amgvar araswor gamovlenas Semmecneblis TvalSi moC-
erTi ar arsebobs meoris gareSe; erTi meores gulisxmobs. veneba hqvia.
amasTan mTelsa da nawils Soris, ra Tqma unda, ganmsaz- arseba da movlena dialeqtikur kavSirSia erTmaneT-
Rvrelia mTeli, xolo nawilebs fardobiTi (relatiuri) Tan: arseba aris movlenis arseba, movlena – arsebis
damoukidebloba gaaCnia. gamovlena. arseba rom ara, movlena arc iqneboda iseve,
63 arseba da movlena. arseba da movlena sagnis rogorc, piriqiT, movlenis gareSe – arsebac, vinaidan
ori sxvadasxva, dapirispirebuli mxarea. arseba unda gamovlindes.
arseba sagnis Zireuli, ganmsazRvreli, Sinagani, zogadi, 64 Sinaarsi da forma. Sinaarsi da forma sagnis
myari mxarea. or sxvadasxva, urTierTdapirispirebul mxares Seadgens.
rac Seexeba movlenas, sapirispirod amisa, igi sagnis Sinaarsi aris sagnis elementebis (Semadgeneli
araZireuli, araganmsazRvreli, garegani, kerZo, cvalebadi mxareebis) kavSiri, xolo forma sagnis elementebis kav-
mxarea. zogadad ki movlena arsebis gamovlenaa. Siris wesi, kanoni.
`movlena~ farTo da viwro mniSvnelobiT ixmareba. Sinaarsi aris sagnis Semadgeneli mxareebis (elemen-
farTo mniSvnelobiT saerTod sagans udris, viwro tebis) saxeldobr kavSiri da ara jami. ase rom, Sinaarsi
gagebiT ki – sakuTriv movlenas, anu saxeldobr arsebis sagnis elementTa mTlianobas, erTianobas gulisxmobs
gamovlenas. da ara ubralod nakrebs. Sinaarsis sakiTxi exeba imas,

176 177
Tu ra da ra elementebisagan Sedgeba sagani da aris Tu im movlenaTa wres, romlebic Tan axlavs Sedegis
ara maT Soris kavSiri, maSin rodesac formis sakiTxi – warmoSobas, garemo ewodeba.
imas, Tu rogoria es kavSiri. sxvagvarad, formis sakiTxi garemo orad iyofa: Sedegis warmoSobasTan dakavSi-
sagnis mxareTa kavSiris, e.i. Sinaarsis ragvarobas exeba. rebul da masTan daukavSirebel movlenebad. movlenebs,
sagans mxolod erTi Sinaarsi SeiZleba hqondes, romlebic Sedegis warmoSobasTan arian dakavSirebulni,
vinaidan misi mxareebis kavSiric mudam erTia, magram forma pirobebi ewodeba. es pirobebic, Tavis mxriv, orad iyofa.
ki – mravali, vinaidan es kavSiric mravali SeiZleba erTia Sedegis arsebobisaTvis aucilebeli, Tumca ara-
iyos. sakmarisi pirobebi da meore – Sedegis arsebobisTvis
Sinaarsi gansazRvravs formas, Tumca formac Tavis aucilebeli da sakmarisi pirobebi. pirvels garemo
mxriv garkveul zemoqmedebas axdens mis Sinaarsze. rogo- pirobebi ewodeba, meores ki – mizezi.
ricaa Sinaarsi, iseTive iqneba formac. Sesabamis Sinaarss maSasadame, mizezi Sedegis aucilebeli da sakmarisi
Sesabamisi forma unda hqondes da, piriqiTac, oRond piroba yofila.
pirvelis ganmsazRvrelobis pirobiT. rogorc vxedavT, garemo yvelaze farTo cnebaa, piro-
sagnis Sinaarsobrivi mxaris cvlileba ufro `revo- bebi – ufro naklebad farTo, xolo mizezi – kidev uf-
luciuria~, formalurisa ki – ufro konservatiuli. ro naklebad farTo cneba.
Sinaarsi da forma erTmaneTs gulisxmoben: erTi aseTia damokidebuleba garemosa, garemo pirobebsa
ar arsebobs meoris gareSe da, piriqiT. isini erTmaneTze da mizezebs Soris.
zemoqmedeben kidec. progresuli Sinaarsi xels uwyobs arsebobs mizezis uamravi saxe.
progresuli formis saqmes da, piriqiT. ase rom, maT Soris upirveles yovlisa SeiZleba gamovyoT pirvelmizezi,
dialeqtikuri kavSiria. Suamizezi da bolo mizezi, mizezTa rigis mixedviT.
65 mizezi da Sedegi. mizezi da Sedegi sagnis ori arsebobs mTavari, e.i. ZiriTadi (ganmsazRvreli) da
sxvadasxva, urTierTdapirispirebuli mxareebia. erTi da aramTavari, e.i. araZiriTadi (araganmsazRvreli) mizezi.
igive sagani, ra saxisac ar unda iyos igi, erTis mxriv, gamoyofen Sinagan da garegan mizezebs, anu, Sesa-
mizezia, meores mxriv, – Sedegi. bamisad, TviT- da araTviTmizezebs, e.i. sakuTari Tavis da
mizezi movlenis gamomwvevia, anu is, rac iwvevs raimes, sxva raimes mizezs.
Sedegi – mizeziT gamowveuli movlena.

178 179
uSualo da Soreuli mizezi igive pirdapiri da `determinare~ - `gansazRvra~) ewodeba. isini sxvadasxva
arapirdapiri mizezebia. formiTYarsebobs, magram ra saxiTac ar unda arsebobdes,
arsebobs kidev uanmravi sxva saxis mizezi imisda- mainc ZiriTadad or aRniSnul Tvalsazrisze dauyvaneba.
mixedviT, Tu ra principiTY gamovyofT maT. arc determinizmisa da arc indeterminizmis absolu-
mizezisagan unda ganvasxvaoT sababi. sababi es cru- tizacia (gazviadeba) anda ugulebelyofa ar SeiZleba.
mizezia, viTomc mizezia, riTic iniRbeba namdvili mizezi vinaidan ar SeiZleba Tavad mizezobrobis rogorc ukidu-
da Cqardeba Sedegi. sababi uSualod win uZRvis Sedegs, resi gazviadeba, ise ukiduresi ugulebelyofac.
maSin rodesac mizezi SeiZleba uSualod win arc uZRo- mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirisTvis droSi Tanmimdevro-
des mas. sababi es mizezis erTgvari `katalizatoria~ bis kuTxiT damaxasiaTebelia is, rom Sedegi arasdros
(damaCqarebelia). mxolod igi sinamdvileSi araviTar win ar uswrebs mizezs, magram mizezi ki SesaZloa droSi
mizezTa rigSi ar gadis, igi ubralod Sedegis warmoSo- an win uswrebdes an Tan emTxveodes mas.
basTan dakavSirebul SemTxveviT movlenaTa rigs miekuTv- mizezsa da Sedegs Soris Tanafardobis kuTxiT
neba. mokled, Sedegis SemTxveviTi pirobaa. SemTxveviTia SesaZloa tolma mizezma toli Sedegi gamoiwvios, mcire
igi imdenad, ramdenadac erTi da igive Sedegi SesaZloa mizezma – didi Sedegi, anda, piriqiT, didma mizezma – mci-
sruliad sxvadasxva sababs mohyves, maSin rodesac igives re Sedegi.
ver vityviT mizezze: erTi da igive Sedegi SeiZleba mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri SeiZleba erTi -erTniSna,
mxolod da mxolod erTma da igive mizezma an mizezebma erTi - mravalniSna anda mraval- erTniSna iyos, imisda
gamoiwvios. mixedviT, erTi mizezi erT Sedegs iwvevs, erTi – mravals,
mizezis udides mniSvnelobaze metyvelebs is, rom Tu mravali – erTs.
uamisod ar arsebobs araferi. Zveli berZeni filosofosi mizezi da Sedegi dialeqtikur kavSirSia erTma-
levkipe mizezis am kanons Semdegnairad gamoTqvams: `arc neTTan. erTi meores gulisxmobs. erTi meoris gareSe ar
erTi nivTi ar aRmocendeba umizezod~. umizezod, marTlac, arsebobs. mizezs Sedegi unda mohyves, Sedegs mizezi unda
xom araferi xdeba. hqondes. garda amisa, mizezi Sedegis ganmsazRvrelia,
mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris maRiarebel Teorias vinaidan swored igi iwvevs aucileblobiT Sedegs, magram
determinizmi (laT. `determinare~ - `gansazRvra~), xolo Sedegic garkveulwil ukuzemoqmedebas axdens mizezze.
uarmyofel Teorias indeterminizmi (laT. `in~ - `ara~,

180 181
mizezis zemoqmedeba Sedegze Sedegis Tvisebebzecaa vanilia mizezobriobaze da, aqedan gamomdinare, radga-
damokidebuli da ara mxolod mizezisaze. nac umizezo movlena ar arsebobs, uaryofilia SemTx-
66 aucilebloba da SemTxveviToba. aucilebloba veviTobac.
da SemTxveviToba sagnis ori, urTierTdapirispirebuli dabolos, dialeqtikuri Teoriis Tanaxmad, arsebobs
mxarea. aucileblobac da SemTxveviTobac, magram isini
aucilebloba sagnis is Tvisebaa, rac misi Sinagani erTianobas qmnian.
kanonzomierebidan, misi Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinareobs, determinizmi (laT. `determinare~ - `gansazRvra~),
SemTxveviToba ki – aucileblobis gamovlenis forma iseve rogorc mizezobrivi gansazRvrulobis (ganpi-
(saxe). robebulobis) Teoria, aucileblobiTi gansazRvrulobis
aucilebloba, sxvagvarad, garduvalobaa. Tavad ter- (ganpirobebulobis) Teoriaa (xedvaa), romlis Tanaxmadac
mini `aucilebloba~ zustad migviTiTebs aq iseT rameze, yvelaferi uklebliv aucileblobiTaa gansazRvruli
risi acilebac Cven ar SegviZlia. aucilebloba anu (ganpirobebuli). es Teoria swori araa imdenad, ramdenadac
garduvaloba, maSasadame, sxvagvarad SeuZleblobaa risame. aucileblobis farglebs azviadebs.
aucilebloba, iqidan gamomdinare, rom igi swored arc metafizikuri Teoriaa swori imdenad, ramdenadac
sxvagvarad SeuZleblobaa, erTaderTia, maSin rodesac igi erTmaneTs wyvets aucileblobasa da SemTxveviTobas.
SemTxveviToba, rogorc aucileblobis gamovlenis forma erTaderTi, sruliad WerSmariti Teoria dialeqti-
(saxe), - mravali. da marTlac, SemTxveviToba amgvaradac kuri Teoriaa. romlis Tanaxmadac aucilebloba da
SesaZlebelia da sxvagvaradac. SemTxveviToba orive arsebobs, Tumca urTierTkavSirSi.
aucileblobisa da SemTxveviTobis samgvari – meta- aucilebloba SemTxveviTobaTa formiT gamovlindeba,
fizikuri, meqanisturi da dialeqtikuri Teoria arsebobs. SemTxveviToba ki – aucileblobis safuZvelze. ase rom,
metafizikuri Teoriis Tanaxmad, aucileblobac wminda aucilebloba an wminda SemTxveviToba arc
arsebobs da SemTxveviTobac, oRond erTmaneTisagan arsebobs.
mowyvetiT. marTalia, metafizikuri da meqanistur-determi-
meqanisturi Teoriis Tanaxmad, arsebobs mxolod nistuli Tvalsazrisebi erTis mxriv arasworia, magram
aucilebloba, SemTxveviToba ki – ara. amgvar Teorias sxva mxriv isinic mTlad uarsayofni rodia, kerZod, deter-
determinizmi ewodeba. am TeoriiT aucilebloba day- minizmi, Tundac imaSi, rom igi aRiarebs aucileblobas,

182 183
xolo metafizika – Tundac imaSi, rom, miTumetes, aRiarebs velze, mokled, aucileblobaze batonoba da ara misi
erTsac da meoresac. gauqmeba, vinaidan es SeuZlebelicaa. adamians SeuZlia
amitom saWiroa dialeqtikuri Teoriis safuZvelze mxolod sakuTar nebas daumorCilos aucileblobis kano-
da metafizikur da meqanistur-deterministuli Teoriebis nebi, ufro metic, adamiani moralurad (zneobrivad) valde-
dadebiTi elementebis (mxareebis) gaTvaliswinebiT auci- bulic kia sul ufro da ufro afarToebdes Tavisufle-
leblobisa da SemTxveviTobis sruli WeSmariti Teoriis bis sazRvrebs aucileblobis sferoSi. aucileblobas
Seqmna. brmad ki ar unda emonebodes adamiani, aramed, piriqiT, mas-
aucileblobis mravali saxe arsebobs, magram gansa- ze SegnebiT unda batonobdes igi.
kuTrebiT unda gamovyoT bunebrivi da sazogadoebrivi ase rom, aucilebloba rodi gamoricxavs adamianis
aucilebloba, sazogadoebriv aucileblobas sxvagvarad aqtiurobas (moqmedebas), aucilebloba rodi auqmebs Tavi-
istoriul aucileblobas uwodeben, bunebrivi aucileb- suflebas, aramed moiTxovs misgan damorCilebas.
loba stiqiur (Seugnebel) ZalTa moqmedebis Sedegia, aqedan gamomdinare, sruliad mcdaria, e.w. TviTdinebis
xolo istoriuli aucilebloba –arastiqiur (Segnebul, (pasiurobis, umoqmedobis) Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac araa
gonier) ZalTa moqmedebis Sedegi. saWiro adamianis aqtiuroba: Tu yvelaferi aucilebelia,
aucilebloba ar gamoricxavs Tavisuflebas, xolo maSin yovelive TavisiT wava.
Tavisufleba – aucileblobas. aucilebloba erTia da es Tvalsazrisi emyareba fatalizmis Teorias.
Tavisufleba – meore. fatalizmi (laT. `fatum~ - `bediswera~) es aris ada-
Tavisufleba mWidro kavSirSia aucileblobasTan, mianTa cxovrebis winaswargansazRvrulobis Teoria, rom-
rogorc bunebrivTan, ise istoriulTan, oRond ufro lis Tanaxmadac adamianis cxovrebas bediswera gansazRv-
ukanasknelTan. ravs. da Tu es asea, maSin adamiani Tavisufali verc iq-
aucilebloba SeiZleba iyos `brmaca~ da `Segnebu- neba.
lic~. Tavisufleba aucileblobis Segnebaa da mis fatalizmis Teoria, ra Tqma unda, sruliad mcdari
safuZvelze sakuTari nebiT moqmedeba. Teoriaa imdenad, ramdenadac igi uaryofs Tavisuflebas
ase rom, Tavisufleba aucileblobis sawinaaRmdego da istoriaSi Tavidan bolomde brma bedisweras aniWebs
ram ki ar aris, aramed aucileblobis mxolod sakuTari mniSvnelobas, Tumca im mxriv ki sworia, rom aRiarebs be-
nebisadmi damorCileba misi Segnebis (Semecnebis) safuZ- dis mniSvnelobas. da marTlac, bedsac Tavisi mniSvneloba

184 185
aqvs adamianis cxovrebaSi, magram gadamwyveti mniSvneloba, degeba arsis kanonebs, yovelive ki, rac maT ewinaaRmdegeba
ra Tqma unda, mis cdas (Tavisufal qmedebas, Zalisxmevas) – SeuZlebeli.
aqvs RvTis nebasTan erTad. da saerTod, adamianis war- SesaZlebloba ganxorcielebadi ram aris, anu isaa,
matebis faqtorebia: cda (Tavisufali qmedeba) plius bedi risi ganxorcielebac gamoricxuli ar aris, maSin rode-
da kidev plius RvTis neba. sac SeuZlebloba – ganuxorcielebadi ramaa, risi ganxor-
ase rom, istoriuli aucilebloba verc ganxorciel- cielebac gamoricxulia yvela variantSi.
deba, Tu adamiani ar imoqmedebs Segnebulad, istoriuli SesaZlebloba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes an ar gan-
aucilebloba marTlac xom sxva araferia, Tu ara swored xorcieldes, pirvel SemTxvevaSi igi sinamdviled iqceva,
adamianTa – rogorc Segnebul, Tavisufal arsebaTa - meoreSi – ara.
moqmedebis Sedegi. SesaZlebloba sinamdviled rom iqces, saWiroa gark-
67 SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile. SesaZlebloba veuli pirobebi. SesaZleblobis sinamdviled qcevis
da sinamdvile sagnis ori, urTierTdapirispirebuli aucilebeli da sakmarisi pirobebia: SesaZleblobis
mxarea. yoveli sagani erTdroulad SesaZlebelic aris sinamdviled qcevis 1) sagani, 2) pirobebi, 3) moqmedeba.
da namdvilic. marTlac, Tu gvaqvs 1) garkveuli sagani, romlis SesaZ-
SesaZlebloba aris mosalodneli, savaraudo viTareba, leblobis sinamdviled qcevazecaa saubari, 2) am SesaZleb-
tendencia (mimarTuleba), sinamdvile ki – SesaZleblobis lobis sinamdviled qcevisaTvis saWiro garkveuli piro-
ganxorcieleba (realizacia). amasTan sinamdvilis cnebas bebi da, bolos, 3) garkveuli moqmedeba, romlis ZaliTac
ori – farTo da viwro azriT xmaroben. es SesaZlebloba sinamdviled iqceva, SeuZlebelia
farTo azriT sinamdvileSi yoveli arsi da maT SesaZleblobac sinamdviled ar iqces.
Soris SesaZleblobac SeaqvT xolme, viwro azriT ki - im faqtorTa erTobliobas, romlis safuZvelzedac
mxolod SesaZleblobis sapirispiro ram, is, rac SesaZlebloba sinamdviled iqceva, SesaZleblobis piro-
SeuZleblobis miRma rCeba. bebi ewodeba, xolo im Zalas, romlis meoxebiTac SesaZleb-
SesaZleblobis zogadi pirobaa saerTod arsis kano- loba sinamdviled iqceva, Sesabamisi moqmedeba. amasTan
nisadmi Sesabamisoba, SeuZleblobisa – misadmi Seusabamoba. SesaZleblobis pirobebi SeiZleba obieqturi an subieqtu-
marTlac, yovelive SesaZlebelia, rac ki ar ewinaaRm- ri iyos. pirveli adamianis nebisagan damoukidebeli ram
aris, meore masze damokidebuli. rac Seexeba moqmedebas,

186 187
moqmedeba ki SesaZloa an Segnebuli iyos, an Seugnebeli, 7. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis
sxva sityvebiT, gacnobierebuli an gaucnobierebeli. `kavSiri da misi formebi.
SesaZleblobis uamravi saxe arsebobs, romelTagan wyviladi kategoriebi~
aRsaniSnavia: formaluri da realuri, abstraqtuli da
konkretuli, potencialuri da aqtualuri SesaZlebloba. kavSirisa da ganviTarebis Tanafardoba
formaluria SesaZlebloba, Tu is SemTxveviTo-
basTanaa dakavSirebuli, realuri ki – Tu igi auci- ganviTareba kavSiris saxea, kavSiri ki - ganviTarebis
leblobasTanaa dakavSirebuli. gvari; kavSiri ufro farTo cnebaa, vidre ganviTareba,
abstraqtulia SesaZlebloba, Tu misi ganxorcie- ganviTareba - ufri viwro cnebaa, vidre kavSiri.
lebis pirobebi mocemul situaciaSi (viTarebaSi) ar
aris, xolo konkretuli – Tu misi ganxorcielebis kavSiris cneba
pirobebi mocemul situaciaSi aris.
potencialuria SesaZlebloba, romelic jer ar kavSiri urTierTobaa, mimarTebaa, damokidebulebaa.
arsebobs, xolo aqtualuri – romelic ukve arsebobs.
SesaZleblobasTan dakavSirebulia albaToba. kavSiris saxeebi
albaToba aris SesaZleblobis zoma, anu, sxvanairad
1. absoluturi 2. relatiuri
rom vTqvaT, SesaZleblobis ganxorcielebis xarisxi.
(upirobo) (fardobiTi)
SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile dialeqtikur urTierT-
kavSirSia erTmaneTTan: erTi gulisxmobs meores. arc
1. universaluri 2. arauniversaluri
wminda Sesalebloba arsebobs da arc wminda sinamdvile.
(sayovelTao) (arasayovelTao)
SesaZlebloba marto SesaZlebloba rodia, aramed swored
sinamdvilis SesaZlebloba, iseve rogorc sinamdvile,
1. idealuri 2. realuri
romelic aseve marto sinamdvile rodia, aramed swored
sinamdvilis SesaZlebloba. 1. pirdapiri 2. iribi
(uSualo) (gaSualebuli)

188 189
1. dadebiTi 2. uaryofiTi 1. naturaluri 2. socialuri
(pozitiuri) (negatiuri) (bunebis) (sazogadoebis)

1. calmxrivi 2. mravalmxrivi 3. yovelmxrivi ....................................... ................................................

1. mTliani 2. nawilobrivi kavSiris Teoriebi anu koncefciebi

1. harmoniuli 2. disharmoniuli 1. e.w. `dialeqtikuri~


ganmsazRvrelwilad aRiarebs kavSirs.
1. meqanikuri 2. dialeqtikuri
............................................. ................................................ 2. e.w. `metafizikuri~
ganmsazRvrelwilad uaryofs kavSirs.
kanonis cneba

kanoni movlenaTa Soris obieqturi, zogadi,


kategoriis cneba
arsebiTi, aucilebeli, myari, ganmeorebadi kavSiria.

kanonis saxeebi kategoria uzogadesi anu yvelaze zogadi cnebaa.

1. universaluri 2. specialuri
(sayovelTao) (gansakuTrebuli) kategoriaTa saxeebi

1. faqtiuri 2. normatiuli 1. wyviladi 2. arawyviladi


(arsis) (jerarsis) (erTeuli)

1. obieqturi 2. subieqturi
(sagnobrivi) (mecnieruli)

190 191
wyviladi kategoriebi II. realizmi - aRiarebs zogadis arsebobas obieqturad.

1. zogadi da erTeuli; 1. ukiduresi realizmi 2. zomieri realizmi


2. mTeli da nawili; zogads aRiarebs zogads aRiarebs
3. arseba da movlena; sagnebamde (ante rem). sagnebSi (in re).
4. forma da Sinaarsi;
5. mizezi da Sedegi; mTelisa da nawilis cnebebi
6. aucilebloba da SemTxveviToba;
7. SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile mTeli sagnis yvela mxaris erTianobaa, nawili ki -
erTiani sagnis esa Tu is mxare.
zogadisa da erTeulis cnebebi
mTelis saxeebi
zogadi saganTa msgavsi mxarea, erTeuli ki - maTi
ganmasxvavebeli mxare; pirveli isaa, rac saerToa maT 1. meqanikuri 2. dialeqtikuri
Soris, meore - is, rac gansxvavebulia maT Soris. (araorganuli) daiyva- (organuli) ar daiyvaneba
neba nawilTa jamze. nawilTa jamze.
zogadis Teoriebi
struqturisa da sistemis cnebebi
I. nominalizmi - uaryofs zogadis
arsebobas obieqturad. struqtura mTelis agebulebaa, xolo sistema -
mowesrigebuli struqtura.
1. ukiduresi nominalizmi 2. zomieri nominalizmi
arsebisa da movlenis cnebebi
zogads aRiarebs (konceptualizmi) -
mxolod nominalurad. zogads aRiarebs sagne-
arseba sagnis Zireuli, ganmsazRvreli, Sinagani, zogadi,
nebis Semdgom (post rem). myari mxarea, movlena - misi araZireuli, araganmsazRvreli,
garegani, kerZo, cvalebadi mxare.

192 193
Sinaarsisa da formis cnebebi mizezis Teoriebi

Sinaarsi sagnis elementebis kavSiria, xolo forma 1. determinizmi 2. indeterminizmi


- am kavSiris wesi. mizezs aRiarebs. mizezs uaryofs.

mizezisa da Sedegis cnebebi

mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris saxeebi


mizezi gamomwvevi movlenaa, Sedegi ki - misiT
gamowveuli movlena.
1. roca toli mizezi tol Sedegs iwvevs.
garemo - piroba - mizezi 2. roca mcire mizezi did Sedegs iwvevs.
3. roca didi mizezi mcire Sedegs iwvevs.
Sedegis warmoSobis Tanmxleb movlenaTa wres garemo
ewodeba, Sedegis warmoSobasTan dakavSirebul movlenas 1. roca erTi mizezi erT Sedegs iwvevs.
- piroba, xolo Sedegis warmoSobis aucilebel da 2. roca erTi mizezi mraval Sedegs iwvevs.
sakmaris pirobas - mizezi. 3. roca mravali mizezi erT Sedegs iwvevs.

mizezis saxeebi
aucileblobisa da SemTxveviTobis
1. mTavari 2. aramTavari
cnebebi
(ZiriTadi) (araZiriTadi)

1. Sinagani 2. garegani aucilebloba risame sxvagvarad SeuZleblobaa,


SemTxveviToba ki - misi gamovlenis forma.
1. uSualo 2. Soreuli
(pirdapiri) (arapirdapiri)

..................................... ...........................................

194 195
aucileblobisa da SemTxveviTobis SesaZlebloba da SeuZlebloba
Teoriebi
SesaZlebloba ganxorcielebadi ramaa, SeuZlebloba
1. metafizikuri 2. meqanisturi ki - ganuxorcielebadi.
aRiarebs aucilebloba- aRiarebs mxolod da
sac da SemTxveviTobasac, mxolod aucileblobas. SesaZleblobis sinamdvilid gadaqcevis
oRond erTmaneTisagan pirobebi
mowyvetiT.
3. dialeqtikuri 1. sagani 2. pirobebi 3. moqmedeba
aRiarebs aucileblobasac da SemTxveviTobasac,
oRond erTianobaSi.

aucileblobis saxeebi SesaZleblobis saxeebi

1. bunebrivi 2. sazogadoebrivi 1. formaluri 2. realuri


(naturaluri) (istoriuli) SemTxveviTobasTanaa aucileblobasTanaa
Seugnebel ZalTa Segnebul ZalTa dakavSirebuli. dakavSirebuli.
moqmedebis Sedegi moqmedebis Sedegi
1. abstraqtuli 2. konkretuli
Tavisufleba da aucilebloba romlis ganxorcielebis romlis ganxorcielebis
pirobebic mocemul pirobebic mocemul
Tavisufleba aucileblobis Segnebaa da mis situaciaSi ar arsebobs. situaciaSi arsebobs.
safuZvelze moqmedeba.
1. potencialuri 2. aqtualuri
SesaZleblobisa da sinamdvilis romelic jer ar romelic ukve
cnebebi arsebobs. arsebobs.

SesaZlebloba mosalodneli viTarebaa, sinamdvile ............................................. ........................................


- misi ganxorcieleba.

196 197
Tavi 6 (10). filosofia rogorc sagan gancalkevebuli da mowyvetili ki araa, aramed
meTodologia erTmaneTSi gaerTianebuli da Serwymuli, rac imas niSnavs,
rom nebismieri filosofiuri debuleba masSi erTdrou-
gegma lad Teoriulicaa da meToduric, oRond gaaCnia, ra kuT-
xiT ganvixilavT am debulebas da, maSasadame, ra kuTxiT
1. sakiTxis dayeneba. Teoria da meTodi zoga- CamovayalibebT am debulebas.
dad ase rom, yoveli filosofiuri debuleba SeiZleba
2. meTodisa da meTodologiis cnebebi CamovayaliboT an Teoriuli debulebis, anda meToduri
3. meTodisa da meTodologiis saxeebi debulebis saxiT. ar arsebobs iseTi Teoriuli debuleba,
4. filosofia rogorc Teoria da rogorc romlis gardaqmnac ar SeiZlebodes meTodur debulebad
meTodi da, piriqiT, meToduri debuleba, romlis agreTve gardaqm-
5. filosofiis meTodologiuri roli adamianis nac ar SeiZlebodes Teoriul debulebad.
Teoriasa da praqtikaSi Teoriuli da meToduri filosofiaSi ise Rrmadaa
6. filosofiis meTodologiuri roli adamianis dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan, rom filosofiis am nawilTa
cxovrebaSi warmodgenac ki SeuZlebelia uerTmaneTod.
gamomdinare aqedan, filosofiiis meToduri nawili
1. sakiTxis dayeneba. Teoria da meTodi gulisxmobs mis Teoriul nawils, iseve rogorc Teoriu-
zogadad li nawili – meTodurs. marTlac imisTvis, rom vicodeT,
Tu rogor mivudgeT raimes, jer unda vicodeT is, Tu ra
filosofia marto Teoria rodia, aramed meTodic. aris Tavad es raime, jer unda vicodeT, Tu ra aris ra da
filosofia Teoriaa imdenad, ramdenadac codnaa imis mere ki gvecodineba, Tu rogor mivudgeT raimes. sxvagvarad
Sesaxeb, Tu ra aris ra (Teoria marTlac adgens imas, rac rom vTqvaT, jer unda vicodeT saqmis arsi, ris Semdegac
aris), xolo meTodi – imdenad, ramdenadac codnaa imis mxolod SegveZleba vicodeT am saqmisadmi midgomac wesic.
Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda mivudgeT raimes (meTodic sxva igive, rac iTqva filosofiis Teoriuli mxaris auci-
araferia, Tu ara raimesadmi midgomis wesi). amasTan Teo- leblobaze misive meToduri mxarisaTvis, igive unda
riuli da meToduri nawilebi filosofiaSi erTmaneTi- iTqvas, piriqiT, filosofiis meToduri mxaris aucileb-

198 199
lobazec misive Teoriuli mxarisaTvis, vinaidan imisaTvis, Cven amjerad gvainteresebs mxolod Teoria rogorc me-
rom vicodeT, Tu ra aris raime, jer unda vicodeT is, Tu Todologiis, e.i. meTodis Sesaxeb moZRvrebis sapirispiro
rogor unda mivudgeT am raimes, jer unda vicodeT is, Tu ram.
rogor mivudgeT raimes, raTa gavigoT is, Tu ra aris es rac Seexeba `meTods~, igi momdinareobs berZnuli
raime. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, jer unda vicodeT saqmisadmi sityvisagan `meTodis~ da qarTulad niSnavs `gzas rai-
midgomis wesi, raTa gavigoT saqmis arsi. mesken~.
saqmis arsi da wesi – es ori iseTi urTierTdakavSire- meTodis cneba erTaderTi mniSvnelobiT ixmareba:
buli ramaa, rac aucilebelia vicodeT nebismieri filo- meTodi aris raime miznis miRwevis saSualeba da sxvag-
sofiuri sakiTxis sruli SemecnebisaTvis. varad igi swored xerxs, midgomis wess gulisxmobs.
amrigad, filosofiuri Teoria da filosofiuri meTodis sakiTxze msjelobisas aucilebelia aRi-
meTodi filosofiuri moZRvrebis ganuyofel nawilebs niSnos, rom meTodi aucileblobiT gulisxmobs winaswar-
warmoadgenen. es ori mxare aucileblobiT moiTxovs gamiznulobis, winaswarganzraxulobis moments. sxvanai-
erTmaneTs. isini erTmaneTs avseben da amdenad qmnian rad rom vTqvaT, meTodi aucileblobiT gulisxmobs gegma-
filosofiis srul, erTian suraTs. zomierebis moments, ris gareSe igi warmoudgenelicaa.
ufro naTeli rom iyos, umjobesi iqneboda saer- amrigad roca vambobT, rom meTodi raime miznis
Todac Teoriisa da meTodis Sesaxeb gveTqva raime, vinaidan miRwevis saSualebaa, ra Tqma unda, ukve igulisxmeba misi
Teoriisa da meTodis urTierTdamokidebulebis zogadi winaswarganzraxuloba. da marTlac, gana `miznis miRwevis
plani (Wrili) bevrs SesZens mis kerZo filosofiur saSualebac~ ukve ar gulisxmobs am saSualebis swored
aspeqts (ganasers). gamiznulobas. sxvagvarad, Tu ara SegnebiT, mizans marTlac
`Teoria~ berZnuli sityvaa da qarTulad `dakvirvebas, ver mivaRwevT; sxvagvarad saSualebas mizans ver Sevufar-
ganxilvas, gamokvlevas~ niSnavs. debT. swored rom mizani aniWebs saSualebas azrs, amdenad
Teoriis cneba mravali mniSvnelobiT moixmareba, meTodsac gamiznuloba aniWebs azrs.
es mniSvnelobania: 1) Teoria, rogorc praqtikis sapiris- Teoriisa da meTodis cnebaTa am urTierTSepirispi-
piro ram; 2) Teoria, rogorc hipoTezis (varaudis) sapiris- rebiT naTlad unda gamoikveTos is ambavi, rom Teoria
piro ram; 3) Teoria, rogorc meTodologiis sapirispiro raimes ganixilavs ise, rogorc igi aris (an ar aris), xo-
ram; 4) Teoria rogorc mecnieruli xedva, romelTagan lo meTodi – ise, rogorc igi unda iyos (an ar unda

200 201
iyos). Teoriuli debulebac amitom faqtiuri msjelobis mokled, meTodologia ori mniSvnelobiT SeiZleba
saxiT Camoyalibdeba, xolo meToduri debuleba – norma- gavigoT: 1) meTodologia rogorc meTodTa erToblioba
tiuli msjelobis saxiT. Teoria saerTod aris pasuxi da 2) meTodologia, rogorc meTodis Sesaxeb moZRvreba.
kiTxvaze `ra~, maSin rodesac meTodi pasuxia kiTxvaze da rodesac Cven vlaparakobT filosofiaze rogorc
`rogor~. meTodologiaze, ra Tqma unda, vgulisxmobT rogorc erT,
Teoria da meTodi saerTod da filosofiuri Teo- ise meore mniSvnelobasac erTad. da marTlac, meTodolo-
riac da meTodic kerZod dapirispirebulTa erTianobaa, giis es ori mniSvneloba swored rom kavSirSia erTmaneT-
maTi erTmaneTisagan mowyveta yovlad SeuZlebelia. Tan. es aris erTi mTliani Tema, oRond, ra Tqma unda, ori
sxvadasxva doniT.
2. meTodisa da meTodologiis cnebebi msgavseba meTodologiis am or dones Soris isaa,
rom orive maTgani isev meTods exeba, magram gansxvaveba
meTodi SeiZleba gavigoT rogorc calkeuli, erTeu- ki isaa, rom erTi Tavad meTods exeba, meore ki - am meTo-
li meTodi da calkeul, erTeul meTodTa erTobliobac. dis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas. da Tu erT SemTxvevaSi saqme me-
roca erTmaneTs SevupirispirebT xolme Teoriasa da me- Tods exeba, meoreSi ki – am meTodze moZRvrebas, maSin
Tods, maSin meTodi, bunebrivia, gagebulia rogorc calke- gamodis, rom meTodologiis es ori mxare mis swored
ul, erTeul meTodTa mTeli erToblioba, rogorc meTodi `doneebs~ qmnis, vinaidan erTia Tavad meToduri codna
mTlianad. magram roca meTodi gagebulia rogorc cal- da, meorec, meToduri codnis codna. es ukanaskneli xom
keuli, erTeuli meTodi, maSin calkeul, erTeul meTodTa ormagi codnaa. bunebrivia, amitom meTodologia rogorc
mTeli erToblioba ukve iwodeba meTodologiad. meTodTa erTianobis codna, ufro dabali safexuria meTo-
ase rom, `Teoriis~ sapirispirod erT SemTxvevaSi dologiisa saerTod, vidre meTodologia rogorc am
SeiZleba gvqondes rogorc `meTodi~, ise ‘meTodologiac~. meTodTa codnis codna – es ukanaskneli ufro maRali
am SemTxvevaSi `meTodi~ da `meTodologia~ erTi mniSvne- safexuria meTodologiisa saerTod.
lobiTaa gagebuli. magram meore SemTxvevaSi `meTodolo- yovelive, rac iTqva saerTod meTodisa da meTodolo-
gia gagebulia rogorc moZRvreba Tavad meTodis Sesaxeb. giis Sesaxeb, unda iTqvas, ra Tqma unda, filosofiuri
am SemTxvevaSi ki meTodi da meTodologia, bunebrivia, meTodisa da meTodologiis Sesaxebac da, miTumetes, ufro
gansxvavebuli iqneba erTmaneTisagan. meti ZaliTac, vinaidan filosofia es xom uzogadesi

202 203
moZRvrebaa, amitom miseuli meTodologiac, bunebrivia, yvela kerZomecnierul meTodologias zogad-mecnie-
amis msgavsad universaluri iqneboda. uzogadesSi ki ruli, kerZod, filosofiuri meTodologia afuZnebs. verc-
ufro `akumulirebulia~, Tavmoyrilia yovelgvari kerZo erTi arafilosofiuri meTodologia ver daifuZnebs
Tvisebani. sakuTar wiaRSi, vinaidan yovelgvari kerZo saerTod zoga-
dis wiaRSi fuZndeba. ufro metic, filosofiur meTodo-
3. meTodisa da meTodologiis saxeebi logiasac isev filosofia afuZnebs.
ase rom, filosofia sabazo, safuZvelmdebeli meTo-
meTodi uamravi saxisaa. aseve meTodologiac, magram dologiaa. igi sakuTar meTodebsac afuZnebs da ucxosac.
meTodologia rogorc ufro zogadi ram naklebad garda zogadi, gansakuTrebuli da kerZo meTodolo-
mravalsaxovania. giisa, meTodologiis sxva saxeebic arsebobs, romelTagan
upirveles yovlisa unda ganvasxvaoT filosofiuri davasaxelebT Teoriul da praqtikul, igive xedviTsa
da arafilosofiuri meTodologia. da saqmiT meTodologias. erTia Teoriuli meTodebis
filosofiuri meTodologia aris universaluri Sesaxeb moZRvreba da meore – praqtikuli meTodebisa,
(zogadi) meTodologia, maSin rodesac arafilosofiuri mokled, Teoriuli meTodTmcodneoba da praqtikuli
meTodologia - kerZo meTodologia. gansxvaveba maT meTodTmcodneoba.
Soris im punqtSia (wertilSia), raSic gansxvavebaa Tavad rac Seexeba Tavad meTodebs, es meTodebic SeiZleba
zogadsa da kerZos Soris. upirveles yovlisa davyoT universalur, anu zogad, gansa-
ufro zustad Tu vityviT, arsebobs samgvari meTo- kuTrebul da kerZo, anu erTeul, calkeul meTodebad.
dologia: zogadi, gansakuTrebuli da kerZo meTodolo- universaluri (zogadi) is meTodebia, yvela SemTxvevaSi
gia. pirveli aris zogadi meTodebis Sesaxeb moZRvreba, rom gamodgeba, gansakuTrebuli – isini, zogierT SemTxve-
meore - gansakuTrebuli meTodebis Sesaxeb moZRvreba, vaSi, xolo kerZo (erTeuli, calkeuli) meTodebi – isini,
xolo mesame – kerZo meTodebis Sesaxeb moZRvreba. romlebic calkeul, erTeul SemTxvevebSi rom gamodgeba.
gansxvaveba maT Soris isaa, rom pirveli yvela meTodis pirveli rigis meTodebs filosofia swavlobs, danarCens
Sesaxeb moZRvrebaa, meore – zogierTi meTodis Sesaxeb, – arafilosofiuri mecnierebani.
xolo mesame – erTi romelime meTodis Sesaxeb moZRvreba. filosofiuri meTodebi imiT gansxvavdeba sxva
mecnierebaTa meTodebisagan, rom es meTodebi univer-

204 205
saluria (zogadia). filosofia xom universaluri (zoga- sac metafizikuri meTodi - kavSirisa da ganviTarebis
di) mecnierebaa. aqedan gamomdinare ki, misi meTodebic gareSe.
xom msgavsive unda iyos, xolo arafilosofiur mecniere- dialeqtikur da metafizikur meTods Soris upirate-
baTa meTodebi an gansakuTrebulia, anda kerZo. esec am soba, marTalia, dialeqtikur meTods eniWeba, vinaidan sabo-
mecnierebaTa specialuri (kerZoobiTi) xasiaTisa (bune- loo jamSi yovelive, marTlac, kavSirsa da ganviTarebaSia,
bisa) gamo. magram metafizikur meTodsac garkveuli Rirebuleba
maSasadame, arsebobs meTodis iseTi saxeebic, rogore- gaaCnia, vinaidan garkveuli raRaceebic raRac mxriv kavSi-
bicaa: zogadmecnieruli (filosofiuri) da kerZomecnie- risa da ganviTarebis gareSec dgas.
ruli (arafilosofiuri) meTodi, oRond mecnieruli meTodi kidev uamravi saxisaa, magram gansakuTrebiT
kuTxiT, maSin rodesac universaluri (zogadi) da ara xSirad gamoyeneba misi iseTi saxeebi, rogorebicaa: eqsperi-
universaluri (kerZo, specialuri) meTodebi saxeebia Tavad menti, dakvirveba, abstraqcia, analogia, modelireba, hipoTe-
im meTodisa, romlis arekvlasac warmoadgens mecnieruli za, Sedareba, analizi da sinTezi, induqcia da deduqcia,
meTodi. istoriuli da logikuri da misT.
meTodis kerZo saxeebia agreTve Teoriuli (xedviTi) es meTodebi met-naklebad zogadia, ris gamoc maTi
da praqtikuli (saqmiTi) meTodebi. pirveli TeoriaSi gamoyenebis arealic Sesabamisad met-naklebad zogadia.
gamosayenebeli meTodebia, meore ki – praqtikaSi. zogi maTgani yvela mecnierebaSi gamosadegia, filoso-
praqtikuli (saqmiTi) meTodi es grZnobad-moqmedebiTi fiuri iqneba igi Tu ara filosofiuri mecniereba, kerZod,
meTodia, anu is meTodia, rac gamoiyeneba adamianTa grZno- abstraqcia, analogia, modelireba, hipoTeza, Sedareba,
bad saqmianobaSi, maSin rodesac Teoriuli (xedviTi) meTo- analizi da sinTezi, induqcia da deduqcia, istoriuli
di azrovnebiT saqmianobaSi gamosayenebeli meTodia, cne- da dialeqtikuri. rac Seexeba eqsperimentsa da dakvirvebas,
biTi azrovnebis meTodia. isini mxolod mecnierebaTa, kerZod ki arafilosofiur
meTodis saxeTa Soris gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia mecnierebaTa garkveul wreSia gamosadegi.
e.w. `dialeqtikuri~ da `metafizikuri~ meTodebi. eqsperimentis anu eqsperimentaluri meTodi qarTu-
dialeqtikuri meTodi iseTi meTodia, romelic yove- lad Sesabamisad niSnavs cdis anu cdiseul meTods (laT.
lives ganixilavs kavSirsa da ganviTarebaSi, maSin rode- `eqsperimentatum~ swored `gamocdas, cdas~ niSnavs)

206 207
eqsperimentis meTodi gulisxmobs movlenisadmi da cdaSi rodi gveZleva. universaluri (sayovelTao)
eqsperimentis wesiT midgomas, xolo Tavad eqsperimenti mniSvneloba xom Tavad universalur (sayovelTao) meTods
– movlenis gamokvlevas misi xelmeore gamowveviT. ase unda mieniWos. sxva sakiTxia, roca saqme exeba universalur
rom, cdis (eqsperimentis) dayeneba, Catareba am movlenis (zogad) meTodebs, romelTa moqmedebis arealic (sivrcec),
swored ganmeorebis gziT gamokvlevas niSnavs. aq xazi ra Tqma unda, Sesabamisad sayovelTaoa.
esmeba gamokvlevas xelovnurad, specialurad Seqmnil abstraqcia (laT. terminidan `abstraqcio~ - `ganyene-
pirobebSi. ba~) es azrobrivi gamocalkevebaa sagnis ama Tu im mxarisa
rac Seexeba dakvirvebas, msgavsad cdisa (eqsperimen- misgan. aqedan gamomdinare, abstraqciis meTodic sagnisadmi
tisa) igic praqtikul, e.i. grZnobad-moqmedebiT Semecnebas abstraqciiT (ganyenebiT) midgomas gulisxmobs. abstraq-
gulisxmobs da Tanac specialurs (sagangebo mizniT), cias imdenad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba meTodis Tvalsaz-
oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom dakvirveba SeiZleba rogorc risiT, rom mis gareSe ar SeiZleba araviTari Semecneba
eqsperimentis (cdis), ise mis gareSec, e.i. rogorc xelovnu- Tu gardaqmna. am mxriv es meTodi yvelaze aucilebelia,
ri, ise bunebrivi cdis SemTxvevaSiac. dakvirveba sagangebo maSin rodesac sxva meTodebi aseTi rodia. marTlac, arc
mizniT grZnobadi, cdiseuli Semecnebaa. sxvagvarad, dakvir- erTi sxva meTodi sayovelTao-savaldebulo araa.
veba sagnis sagangebo cdiseuli Tvalierebaa. amdenad, nebismieri ramis Semecneba Tu gardaqmna ukve gulisxmobs
dakvirvebis meTodic amgvari Semecnebis safuZvelze sagni- mis ganyenebas, sxvagvarad SeuZlebelicaa.
sadmi midgomas gulisxmobs. analogia (berZnuli sityvidan `analogia~ - `Sesa-
eqsperimentisa (cdisa) da dakvirvebis meTodebis meSve- bamisoba~) msgavsebas gulisxmobs. amitom analogiis meTo-
obiT sinamdvilis mxolod im sferoebis (wreebis) Semec- dic msgavsebis gziT sagnisadmi midgomas warmoadgens.
neba Tu gardaqmna SeiZleba, romelTa mxolod grZnobadi am SemTxvevaSi erT sagans sxva saganTan misi msgavsebis
wvdoma Tua SesaZlebeli. am meTodTa gamoyenebis arealic safuZvelze vudgebiT. da marlac, Tu erTi sagani meoris
(sivrcec) amitom SezRudulia Tavad grZnobadi, empiriuli msgavsia, maSin pirvelisadmi midgomac meorisadmi midgomis
sinamdviliT, ris gamoc maT universalur (sayovelTao) msgavsad gaamarTlebs.
mniSvnelobas verc mianiWebT. saqme is aris, rom zogjer modelireba (franguli sityvidan `modeli~ - `nimu-
maTi rolis gazviadebac xdeba, rac gaumarTlebelia, Si~. `pirvelsaxe~) risame modelis (nimuSis) Seqmnas niSnavs,
radgan yovelive, rac arsebobs, bunebrivia, dakvirvebasa

208 209
xolo Tavad modeli – risame xelovnur, sagangebod Seqm- Sedarebis meTodsa da analogiis (msgavsebis) meTods
nil nimuSs. modelirebis meTodi amdenad modelirebis Soris kavSiria imdenad, ramdenadac Tavad analogia (msgav-
gziT sagnisadmi midgomas niSnavs. seba) Sedarebis erT-erTi mxarea, Sedareba xom msgavsebasac
modelirebis meTodi kavSirSia analogiis meTodTan, gulisxmobs, gansxvavebasTan erTad.
vinaidan pirveli SeuZlebelia meoris gareSe. modelire- eqsperimentis (cdis), dakvirvebis, agreTve abstraq-
ba xom ukve aucileblobiT gulisxmobs analogias, msgavse- ciis (ganyenebis), modelirebis (nimuSis Seqmnis), hipo-
bas obieqtsa (sagansa) da models (nimuSs) Soris da swored Tezis (varaudis), Sedarebis meTodebi (xerxebi) calsaxa
am msgavsebis safuZvelze xdeba modelis Seqmnac. kerZo Tu zogadi meTodebia. magram arsebobs wyviladi
hipoTeza (berZnuli sityvidan `hipoTezis~ - `safuZ- zogadi meTodebic, rogorebicaa: analizi da sinTezi,
veli~, `varaudi~) winaswar daSvebaa risame SesaZleblobisa, induqcia da deduqcia, istoriuli da logikuri. wyvila-
amitom hipoTezis (varaudis) meTodic hipoTeziT (varau- di meTodebi dapirispirebul meTodTa erTianobas qmnian.
diT) sagnisadmi midgomas niSnavs, sxvanairad - hipoTezis esaa maTi Taviseburebac. calsaxa meTodebi ki gancalkeve-
(varaudis) safuZvelze sagnisadmi midgomas. buli meTodebia.
hipoTezis (varaudis) Tavisebureba isaa, rom igi dasaS- analizi da sinTezi (berZnuli sityvebidan `anali-
vebi, e.i. SesaZlebeli kia, magram mTlad sarwmuno, e.i. namd- zis~ - `daSla~ da `sinTezis~ - `SeerTeba~) Sesabamisad
vili rodia. miuxedavad amisa, hipoTezis meTodi mainc mTelis daSlaa nawilebad da nawilebis SeerTeba mTe-
mniSvnelovania, vinaidan igi ase Tu ise mainc gvexmareba lad. aqedan gamomdinare, analizisa da sinTezis meTodebi
sagnis aTvisebaSi. ase rom, hipoTezam (varaudma) SeiZleba Sesabamisad gulisxmoben analizisa (daSlisa) da sin-
gaamarTlos anda verc gaamarTlos, magram igi orive Tezis (SeerTebis) wesiT sagnisadmi midgomas. analizis
SemTxvevaSi mainc sasargebloa, radganac mainc WeSma- meTodi, kerZod gulisxmobs sagnisadmi mTelis nawilebad
ritebisaken mivyavarT. msgavsad amisave hipoTezis (varadis) daSlis safuZvelze midgomas, xolo sinTezis meTodi ki
meTodic orive SemTxvevaSi gamosadegia.. piriqiT, sagnisadmi nawilebis mTelad SeerTebis safuZ-
dabolos, Sedarebis meTodi es aris Sepirispirebis velze midgomas. mokled, pirveli sagnisadmi mTelis
meTodi, rodesac saganTa Soris msgavseba-gansxvavebis danawilebiT midgomas gulisxmobs, xolo meore – misadmi
gamovlenis safuZvelze xdeba ama Tu im sagnisadmi midgoma. nawilTa gamTlianebiT midgomas.

210 211
analizis meTodi sagnisadmi misi danawevrebis gziT aqedan gamodinare, induqciis meTodi sagnisadmi
mimarTebas gulisxmobs, rac metad nayofieri (efeqturi) imgvar damokidebulebas gulisxmobs, rac iTvaliswinebs
meTodTa (xerxia, saSualebaa), vinaidan igi sagnis mTel swored kerZodan zogadisken svlas, deduqciuri meTodi
struqturasTan (agebulebasTan) gvakavSirebs. ki – imgvars, rac iTvaliswinebs zogadidan kerZosken
magram ufro mniSvnelovania sinTezis meTodi, svlas.
romelsac, analizis sapirispirod, sagnis gamTlianebis induqciuri da deduqciuri meTodebi urTierT-
gziT, sagans, marTlac, srulad gvaziarebs. sad meTodi dakavSirebuli meTodebia: isini uerTmaneTod ki ar arse-
(xerxi), romelic sagnis nawilebs gvaziarebs da sad boben, aramed gulisxmoben erTmaneTs. erTi avsebs meores
meTodi, romelic sagans mTlianobaSi gvaziarebs. da piriqiT, amitom efeqturi (nayofieri) meToduri
analizisa (danawevrebisa) da sinTezis (gamTlia- saqmianobisTvis saWiroa maTi urTierTkavSirSi gamoyeneba.
nebis) meTodi (xerxi) `dialeqtikur~ (yovelmxriv) kav- istoriuli da logikuri meTodebi sagnisadmi Sesa-
SirSia erTmaneTTan, rac imas gulisxmobs, rom erTi ar bamisad istoriul da logikur midgomas gulisxmoben,
arsebobs meoris gareSe da meorec – pirvelis gareSe, er- xolo sagnisadmi istoriuli da logikuri midgoma –
Ti gulisxmobs meores da, piriqiT, meore – pirvels. amitom sagnisadmi Sesabamisad ganviTarebis procesisa (msvlelo-
saganTan misasvlelad umjobesia gaviTvaliswinoT maTi bisa) da Sedegis (nayofis) kuTxiT midgomas. istoriuli
urTierTkavSiris mniSvnelobac. da logikuri, marTlac, xom erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian
induqcia da deduqcia (laTinuri sityvebidan: `in- imiT, rom erTi ganviTarebis process (msvlelobas) asaxavs,
duqcio~ - `miniSneba~ da `deduqcio~ - `gamoyvana~) Sesaba- meore ki - mis Sedegs (nayofs). xolo orive ganviTarebas
misad kerZodan zogadisaken da zogadidan kerZosken az- asaxavs. es maTi ukve saerTo Taviseburebaa. da swored es
robrivi svlebia. induqciaca (kerZodan zogadisken msje- aris istoriuli da logikuri meTodebis (xerxebis)
lobac) da deduqciac (zogadidan kerZosaken msjelobac) dawyvilebis safuZvelic.
orive daskvnis logikuri (azrovnebaTmcodneobrivi) saerTodac, yoveli meTodis wyviladobis safuZveli
formebia (saxeebia). kerZod, induqciuri daskvna kerZo meTodTa wyviliscalebis saerTo Taviseburebaa, ris gamoc
msjelobaTagan zogadi msjelobis gamoyvanaa, xolo yoveli wyviladi meTodi ukve ganixileba ara rogorc
deduqciuri daskvna, - piriqiT, zogad msjelobaTagan kerZo or-ori meTodi, aramed TiTi-TiTo meTodi. kerZod, ana-
msjelobis gamoyvana. lizuri da sinTezuri, an induqciuri da deduqciuri, an-

212 213
da kidev istoriuli da logikuri meTodebi maTi wyvila- TaviseburebaSia (specifiurobaSia), imaSi, amarTlebs Tu
dobis gamo eqvsi sxvadasxva meTodi (xerxi) ki araa, aramed ara igi Tavis saxelwodebas. meTodis msgavsad meTodolo-
sami wyviladi meTodi. umjobesia amitomac analizur da giac SeiZleba swori iyos an araswori, WeSmariti an
sinTezur meTodTa wyvils analizur-sinTezuri meTodi, yalbi, es ki damokidebulia Tavad meTodTa da maT Sesaxeb
induqciur da deduqciur meTodTa wyvils – induqciur- moZRvrebis sisworeze Tu arasisworeze.
deduqciuri meTodi, xolo istoriul da logikur me-
Tods – istoriul-logikuri meTodi vuwodoT. 4. filosofia rogorc Teoria da rogorc
istoriuli da logikuri Rrma kavSirSia erTmaneT- meTodi
Tan: istoriuli da logikuri erTmaneTs gulisxmoben.
logikuri igive istoriulia, oRond sxva aspeqtiT (ganase- meTodisa da, aqedan gamomdinare, meTodologiis mniSv-
riT), iseve rogorc istoriulic igive logikuria, oRond nelobac imdenad didia, rom maT gareSe yovlad SeuZle-
sxva aspeqtiT (ganaseriT). istoriuli logikuris gaSlaa belia adamianis raime saqmianobaa. da, marTlac, gana adami-
ganviTarebis procesSi (msvlelobaSi), xolo logikuri anis nebismieri saqmianoba ukve aucileblobiT ar gulisx-
istoriulis `SekumSvaa~ ganviTarebis Sedegis, misi bo- mobs saqmisadmi garkveul midgomas? sagnisadmi raRacnairi
los saxiT. damokidebulebis gareSe rogor SeiZleba mivideT masTan,
meTodebi garkveul sistemas (mowesrigebel mTliano- SevimecnoT igi, anda vimoqmedoT masze?
bas) qmnian. am sistemaSi yovel meTods Tav-Tavisi adgili ase rom, meTodis aucilebloba ueWvelia. ufro metic,
uWiravs. zogs meti mniSvneloba eniWeba da zogs – naklebi, meTodis uaryofa SeuZlebelicaa, vinaidan es logikuri
magram yoveli maTgani Tav-Tavis rols asrulebs, amitom winaaRmdegoba iqneboda. saqme is aris, rom meTodis uaryo-
yvela maTgani sasargebloa, Tu, ra Tqma unda, isini sworia. fac raRac meTodiT unda moxdes, rac yovlad SeuZlebe-
saqme is aris, rom meTodi (xerxi) sworic SeiZleba lia. piriqiT, meTodis uaryofac meTods gulisxmobs isev.
iyos da arasworic, WeSmaritica da yalbic. meTodis aucilebloba saerTod logikurad ganapi-
WeSmariti, swori meTodi iseTi meTodia, romelic robebs meTodologiis aucileblobasac, vinaidan Tu
amarTlebs Tavis daniSnulebas, xolo yalbi, araswori meTodi aucilebelia adamianis cxovrebaSi, maSin, aqedan
meTodi iseTi meTodi, romelic ar amarTlebs Tavis gamomdinare, aucilebeli iqneba meTodologiac, anu meTod-
daniSnulebas. meTodis daniSnuleba ki Tavad meTodis ze moZRvrebac masSi. meTodis am aucilebeli mniSvnelo-

214 215
bidan gamomdinare, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba swored WeS- gamorCeuli anu yvela sxva Teoriisa da meTodisagan
mariti meTodis sakiTxs, vinaidan swored mas SeuZlia gansxvavebuli Teoria da meTodi iqneba.
swori gziT gvataros. amitom meTodis sakiTxi es prob- filosofiuri Teoria da meTodi, upirveles yov-
lemuri (Zneli) sakiTxia. problemuria (saZneloa) igi lisa, imiT gansxvavdeba arafilosofiur-mecnierul Teo-
imdenad, ramdenadac moiTxovs swored swori meTodis riaTa da meTodTagan, rom igi zogadi Teoria da meTodia,
SerCevas. es ki yovelTvis advili rodia. maSin rodesac arafilosofiur-mecnieruli Teoriebi
meTodis SerCevis problema imdenad mniSvnelovania, da meTodebi – kerZo Teoriebi da meTodebi.
rom masze didwilad damokidebulia saqmis warmateba. filosofiuri Teoria da meTodi imiTac gansxvav-
swori meTodi xom, marTlac, warmatebis sawindaria. Tu deba arafilosofiur-mecnierul TeoriaTa da meTodTagan,
raimes sworad vakeTebT, swored imis wyalobiT, rom mas rom igi msoflmxedvelobrivi Teoria da meTodia, maSin
swori meTodiT (xerxiT) vakeTebT, xolo Tu raimes sworad rodesac kerZomecnieruli Teoriebi da meTodebi aseTi
vakeTebT, maSin mas, bunebrivia, kargadac vakeTebT. ram ar aris. sxvagvarad, filosofia rogorc Teoriac da
igive rac iTqmis meTodze, ufro metadac ki iTqmis rogorc meTodic orive SemTxvevaSi msoflmxedvelobaa.
meTodologiazec. meTodologia es xom mTeli sistemaa e.i. filosofia msoflmxedvelobaa ara marto rogorc
(mowesrigebuli mTlianobaa) meTodebisa (xerxebisa); Teoria, aramed rogorc meTodic. saqme isaa, rom Cveulebriv
meTodologia xom mTeli moZRvrebaa meTodebze (xerxebze). filosofias rogorc msoflmxedvelobas ganixilaven
swori meTodologia Teoriis sisworis sawindaria. xolme mxolod Teoriis (xedvis) kuTxiT, maSin rodesac
amrigad, swori meTodologia adamianis warmate-bis igi aseTi ram meTodis (midgomis) kuTxiTac unda iyos.
safuZvelia. da gana, marTlac, filosofiaSi rogorc meTodSic igive
msoflmxedveloba ar unda gvqondes, rogoradac es masSi
5. filosofiis meTodologiuri roli adamianis rogorc TeoriaSia? oRond ra Tqma unda gansxvavebuli
Teoriasa da praqtikaSi kuTxiT.
mokled, arsebobs ara marto filosofiur-Teoriuli
filosofia specifikuri (Taviseburi), yvela sxva msoflmxedveloba, aramed filosofiur-meToduri msofl-
mecnierebisagan gansxvavebuli, gamorCeuli mecnierebaa. mxedvelobac. xolo imis gamo, rom filosofiuri msofl-
amitom, bunebrivia, igi aseve specifikuri (Taviseburi), e.i. mxedveloba es aris adamianis mier garkveuli poziciiT

216 217
(damokidebulebiT) mTliani mecnieruli xedva, aman ar filosofiis meTodologiuri rolisagan, bunebrivia,
SeiZleba aucilebliv asaxva ar hpovos agreTve mis meTo- unda ganvasxvaoT filosofiis Teoriuli roli, rac
dur mxareSiac. adamianis cxovrebaSi misi zogadTeoriuli mecnieruli
rac Seexeba Tavad filosofiis farglebSi misi orientiris roliT gamoixateba.
Teoriuli da meToduri mxareebis gansxvavebas, es gansx- filosofiis Teoriuli da meTodologiuri roli
vaveba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom filosofiuri Teoria sa- (daniSnuleba), rogorc vxedavT, filosofiis rolis ori
ganze adgens imas, rac filosofiuri masStabiT (zomiT) sxvadasxva aspeqtia (mxarea).
aris (an ar aris), maSin rodesac filosofiuri meTodi filosofia saboloo jamSi adamianis cxovrebis
adgens imas, rac amave masStabiT (zomiT) unda iyos (an ar meTodologiaa. es imas niSnavs, rom igi aris misi cxovre-
unda iyos) sagnis mimarT. aq, rogorc vxedavT, filosofiis bisaTvis saWiro meTodebis (xerxebis) Sesaxeb moZRvreba.
or gansxvavebul – faqtiur da normatiul anu Sesabamisad filosofiuri meTodologia aiaraRebs kacs im saSuale-
arsobriv da jerarsobriv mxarezea saubari. baTa codniT, rac aucilebelia misi cxovrebisaTvis, im
miznisaTvis, rasac igi isaxavs cxovrebaSi. xolo imis
6. filosofiis meTodologiuri roli adamianis gamo, rom adamianis cxovrebis umaRlesi mizania RmerTTan
cxovrebaSi SeerTeba, gamomdinare aqedan, filosofiis mizanic meTodo-
logiur planSi (WrilSi) sxva araferia, vidre im saSua-
filosofias ara marto Teoriuli (xedviTi) roli lebaTa uzrunvelyofa, romlebsac unda mohyves am miznis
eniWeba adamianis cxovrebaSi, aramed – meTodologiuri aRsruleba. oRond filosofiuri meTodologiis Tavise-
(midgomiTi) rolic. da es bunebrivicaa, vinaidan filoso- bureba (specifika) am gzaze isaa, rom man unda mogvces
fia TeoriasTan (xedvasTan) erTad xom meTodicaa (midgo- zogadmecnieruli moZRvreba am meTodTa Sesaxeb.
macaa). ase rom, filosofiuri meTodologiis jerovnebis,
filosofiis meTodologiuri roli adamianis cxov- e.i. misi vargisianobis, gamosadegobis, sargeblianobis krite-
rebaSi saerTod gamoixateba imaSi, rom igi warmoadgens riumi (sazomi) es aris is, Tu ramdenad gavyavarT mas
misi cxovrebis zogadmeTodologiur mecnierul orien- sabolood RvTis gzaze.
tirs (misamarTs), misi mimarTulebis maCvenebels, gezis magram filosofiuri meTodologiis uSualo miza-
mimcems. nia Tavad filosofiuri Teoriisa da saerTod mecnieru-

218 219
li Teoriis meTodologiuri (meTodismxrivi) uzrunvel- ar unda warmovidginoT, TiTqosda filosofias martooden
yofa. Teoriul-meTodologiuri mniSvneloba hqondes, vinaidan
filosofia, rogorc zogadi mecniereba kerZo mecnie- filosofia Tavad Teoriaa, namdvilad ki filosofias
rebaTa meTodologiaa, ufro zustad, igi meTodologiuri praqtikul-meTodologiuri mniSvnelobac gaaCnia da Teo-
baza anu safuZvelia maTi. yoveli kerZo mecniereba met- riul-meTodologiurze aranaklebic. bolosdabolos
naklebad sargeblobs am filosofiuri meTodologiiT, Teoria praqtikis gzismkvlevi unda iyos. amdenad filoso-
ra Tqma unda, ukuzegavlenac gvaqvs. kerZo mecnierebaTa fiur Teoriasac praqtikuli daniSnuleba aqvs. am Teoriam
meTodebic masalas qmnian filosofiuri meTodologi- rogorc meTodma unda uzrunvelyos adamianis jerovani
isaTvis maTi ganzogadebis kuTxiT. praqtikuli cxovreba, e.i. Seasrulos sulieri meTodis
filosofiis meTodebi gamosadegia ara mxolod roli xorciel meTodTan kavSirSi.
filosofiaSi, aramed sxva mecnierebebSiac. verc erTi filosofiis roli Teoriul-meTodur planSi (gana-
kerZo mecniereba filosofiuri, e.i. zogadi meTodo- serSi) gulisxmobs sagnisadmi gegmazomier, mizandasaxul
logiis gareSe ver gaarTmevs Tavs warmatebiT Tavis mimarTebas misi Semecnebis mizniT, xolo praqtikul-
saqmes, miuxedavad imisa, rom yovel kerZo mecnierebas meTodur planSi (ganaserSi) – sagnisadmi gegmazomier,
Tavisi meTodebi aqvs. kerZo mecnierebaTa meTodebsac, mizandasaxul mimarTebas mis mimarT moqmedebis mizniT.
araTu sakuTars, isev filosofiuri meTodologia afuZnebs, Teoriuli meTodi igive praqtikuli meTodia, oRond im
vinaidan es kerZo mecnierebaTa uf-lebis farglebs gansxvavebiT, rom erTi xedvis meTodia da meore - saqmis
scildeba. meTodi. ufro zustad, es erTi meTodis ori mxarea, mxo-
filosofiuri meTodologia, swored imis gamo, rom lod erT SemTxvevaSi xedviT planSi gamoyenebuli da
igi uzogadesi meTodologiaa, yovlismomcveli meTodo- meore SemTxvevaSi ki – saqmiT planSi.
logiaa, anu yovlisgadamwvdomi meTodebis (saSualebebis) amrigad, filosofias uaRresad didi meTodologi-
erTobliobaa. es imas niSnavs, rom igi moicavs meTodTa uri misia (movaleoba) ekisreba: filosofiis meTodologi-
erTobliobas mTeli Tavisi sisavsiT, mis yovel ganaserSi. uri misiaa iyos adamianis jerovani sulieri da xorcieli
am mxriv gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos filosofiuri cxovrebis zogadmecnieruli meTodologia (meTodebis
meTodologiis roli adamianis rogorc Teoriul, ise Sesaxeb moZRvreba). aseTia misi uzenaesi daniSnulebac.
praqtikul planSi (ganaserSi). da marTlac, saqme ise ki

220 221
7. TvalsaCino masala TemisaTvis 1. zogadmecnieruli 2. kerZomecnieruli
`filosofia rogorc meTodologia~ (filosofiuri) (arafilosofiuri)

meT o d o l o gi i s cnebis gansazRvreba 1. calsaxa 2. wyviladi

meTodologia meTodTmcodneobaa 1. abstraqciis


anu meTodTa Sesaxeb moZRvrebaa. 2. analogiis
3. modelirebis
gansxvaveba filosofiur-mecnierulsa 4. hipoTezis
da arafilosofiur-mecnierul meTodTa 5. Sedarebis
Soris 6. eqsperimentis
7. dakvirvebis
I. a) zogadoba b) kerZooba 8. induqciisa da deduqciis
9. analizisa da sinTezis
II. a) msoflmxedvelobrioba 10. istoriulisa da logikuris.
b) aramsoflmxedvelobrioba

meTodTa saxeebi meTodologiis saxeebi

1. zogadi (universaluri) 1. filosofiuri 2. arafilosofiuri


2. gansakuTrebuli zogadi kerZo
3. erTeuli (specialuri)
1. Teoriuli 2. praqtikuli
1. Teoriuli 2. praqtikuli (xedviTi) (saqmiTi)
(xedviTi) (saqmiTi)

1. dialeqtikuri 2. metafizikuri

222 223
filosofiis meTodologiuri roli
bolosityvaoba
filosofiis meTodologiuri daniSnulebaa uzrun-
velyos adamiani misi jerovani cxovrebisaTvis saWiro am wigniT dasrulda sistemuri filosofiis zogadi
Teoriuli codniT; mogvces jerovani adamianuri cxov- kursi, romelic moicavs aRniSnuli kursis ZiriTad, aseve
rebis zogad-Teoriuli saSualebani. daskvniT nawils da romelic daiwyo amave kursis Cvens
mierve 2006 wels gamoqveynebuli Sesavali nawiliT. ase
rom, es ori wigni (uwindeli da winamdebare) warmoadgens
erTi mTliani filosofiis cikls. am mxriv igi, marTlac,
SesaZloa namdvilad amarTlebdes kidec `sistemuri
filosofiis~ saxels.
vfiqrobT, es wigni, iseve rogorc misi winamorbedi
wigni garkveul samsaxurs gauwevs Cvens moswavle-
axalgazrdobas filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobis
CamoyalibebaSi, rac adamianis sulieri ganviTarebis
umniSvnelovanesi mxarea.

avtori
Tbilisi
2009

224 225
ibeWdeba avtoris mier warmodgenili saxiT

gadaeca warmoebas 28.05.2009. xelmowerilia dasabeWdad


05.06.2009. qaRaldis zoma 60X84 1/16. pirobiTi nabeWdi Tabaxi 14.
tiraJi 100 egz.

sagamomcemlo saxli `teqnikuri universiteti~, Tbilisi,


kostavas 77

i.m. `goCa dalaqiSvili~,


q. Tbilisi, varkeTili 3, korp. 333, bina 38