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Nadia Sanità • Antonio Saraceno • Annabel Pope
English for Specific Purposes

Images & MessagesEnglish for Graphic Arts, Communication


and Audio-Visual Productions

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Nadia Sanità • Antonio Saraceno • Annabel Pope

Images & Messages


English for Graphic Arts, Communication and Audio-Visual Productions
Images & Messages
Realizzazione editoriale e contributi:
– Progetto e consulenza: Raffaele Polichetti
– Consulenza iconografica: Sara Antonaccio
– Impaginazione: C.G.M. - Napoli
– Disegni: Mauro Borgarello
– Revisione testi: Lunella Luzi
– Registrazione audio: Ivano Atzori

Gli autori hanno realizzato congiuntamente quest’opera in ogni sua parte, compresi gli apparati didatti-
ci. In particolare, Nadia Sanità ha curato i Moduli 1, 2, 6 e le relative sezioni CLIL; Antonio Saraceno
ha curato i Moduli 3, 4, 5 e le relative sezioni CLIL; Annabel Pope si è occupata degli aspetti linguistici
della sezione Revision and Practice e della revisione linguistica generale.
L’Editore desidera ringraziare la Prof.ssa Paola Briano per il contributo dato nella pubblicazione di quest’opera.

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Ristampe
5 4 3 2 1 0 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
PRESENTAZIONE

L’ARGOMENTO
Images & Messages è rivolto:
• in particolare agli studenti dei Nuovi Istituti:
– Tecnici ad indirizzo Grafica e Comunicazione
– Professionali ad indirizzo Produzioni Artigianali e Industriali (Grafica Multimediale,
Produzione Audio-Video, Fotografia);
• in generale a coloro che hanno l’esigenza di utilizzare la lingua inglese come strumento
di studio e/o di lavoro in campo grafico, pubblicitario, audiovisivo e fotografico.
Grazie alla ricchezza del materiale proposto, Images & Messages – concepito per promuovere
un apprendimento attivo basato sui contenuti (content based learning) – offre la possibilità
di scegliere gli argomenti sia in base ai programmi delle materie di indirizzo, sia in base agli
interessi e al livello di competenza linguistica degli studenti.
I contenuti sono stati ordinati secondo criteri di graduale complessità concettuale e linguistica
(A2, B1 e B2) e vengono esplorati utilizzando le quattro abilità in modo omogeneo ed
integrato. I brani, tutti autentici, offrono un assortimento di stili, registri e livelli di difficoltà
e sono tratti da fonti diverse: libri, giornali e riviste specializzate, materiale promozionale,
manuali settoriali e siti internet.

3
GLI OBIETTIVI
Images & Messages si propone di
• far acquisire le competenze necessarie per leggere e comprendere testi che presentano
termini, espressioni, strutture sintattiche e modalità discorsive specifiche del linguaggio
settoriale;
• migliorare le capacità di ricezione e produzione orale e scritta, anche tramite attività tipo
PET per il conseguimento del livello B1 del CEFR;
• arricchire il patrimonio lessicale;
• consolidare abitudini grammaticali corrette o approfondire alcune strutture;
• stimolare l’interesse e la partecipazione attiva degli studenti, dando spazio alla loro
esperienza personale e a problematiche di attualità;
• contribuire a sviluppare sensibilità per il rispetto e la protezione dell’ambiente con
suggerimenti per comportamenti ‘eco-friendly’.

4
LA STRUTTURA
Images & Messages è diviso in sei Moduli ognuno dei quali è ripartito in due sezioni:

1 Contents Section – Divisa in Unità, contiene testi e attività che riguardano i contenuti
specifici della specializzazione già affrontati in L1. Ogni Unità è suddivisa in Capitoli
per favorire non solo uno studio più parcellizzato, ma anche la scelta antologica da parte
dell’insegnante. I testi vengono affrontati in modo graduale, attraverso esercizi di Before
Reading, While Reading, esplorazione del lessico specifico, comprensione scritta e/o
orale, globale e specifica. Brevi ‘box’ di approfondimento, denominati Spotlight on...,
permettono di ampliare le conoscenze sull’argomento. Un ricco apparato iconografico
(con funzioni esplicative, non solo esornative) correda i brani di lettura, per ognuno dei
quali è previsto un esauriente glossario.

5
2 Revision and Practice – Si occupa di contenuti inerenti alla disciplina ponendo
particolare attenzione all’arricchimento lessicale, strutturale e allo sviluppo delle quattro
abilità linguistiche. Presenta le seguenti ripartizioni:
• Vocabulary. Comprende specifiche attività per il consolidamento del lessico più
importante del Modulo. Costituisce anche uno strumento che gli studenti possono
utilizzare come rinforzo e ripasso degli argomenti del Modulo.
• Grammar. Propone il rinforzo delle strutture morfosintattiche più ricorrenti.
• Communication. Offre testi e attività di consolidamento dei contenuti appresi per
sviluppare le quattro abilità linguistiche: Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing.
• CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning). Alla fine di ogni Modulo è presente
un CLIL CORNER che si collega alle tematiche presentate in alcune delle discipline
curriculari – Arti Visive, Produzioni Multimediali, Progettazione Grafica, Psicologia
della Comunicazione, Letteratura, Storia. Gli argomenti proposti possono favorire una
didattica cross-curricolare, coinvolgendo docenti delle materie citate per eventuali
approfondimenti e/o progetti che permettono concretamente di studiare il medesimo
contenuto da diverse prospettive.

RISORSE NLINE
Disponibili sul sito www.edisco.it:
– file audio formato MP3 con la registrazione delle attività di ascolto;
– materiali extra per attività di approfondimento e di esercitazione;
– Teacher’s Guide: soluzioni degli esercizi – transcripts delle attività di ascolto –
note didattiche – prove di verifica collegate ai singoli Moduli – simulazioni della
terza prova dell’Esame di Stato.

6
CONTENTS
MODULE 0 LEARNING TO LEARN
Unit 2 Get smart about learning!
Unit 1 Welcome to Images & Messages! A. Study skills checklist ............................................ 14
A. Something about yourself ................................ 10 B. Tips for language learning success ................ 15
B. Survival English .................................................... 12 C. How to get better grades in school ............... 17

1
B. Decoding advertisements 34
M O D U L E

.................................
C. Electronic trading and promotion:
ADVERTISING language and strategies .................................... 36

REVISION AND PRACTICE


Unit 1 Welcome to the advertising world! VOCABULARY ...................................................................... 38
A. What is advertising? ........................................... 20 GRAMMAR (Plurals, Prepositions of place) .............. 40
B. Different kinds of advertising .......................... 22 COMMUNICATION
Listening (Leo Burnett’s Life) ............................. 42
Unit 2 A bit of history Speaking (Ad analysis) ........................................ 43
A. How advertising began ..................................... 24 Reading (Mad Men: a question of style) ........ 44
B. The first half of the 20th century .................... 26 Writing (The importance of post-production
C. Television and the new media ......................... 28 in commercials) ..................................................... 45
CLIL History and Multimedia Productions • NO,
Unit 3 Advertising language features A movie about the adman who changed
A. Advertising texts .................................................. 30 history ...................................................................... 46

2
Unit 3 Graphic design practice
M O D U L E

THE ADVENT A. Branding and positioning .................................. 68


OF GRAPHIC DESIGN B. Brand identity and graphic design ................. 70

REVISION AND PRACTICE


VOCABULARY ...................................................................... 74
Unit 1 A new style for a new culture
GRAMMAR (Articles, Indefinite adjectives and
A. Art nouveau style ................................................ 50 pronouns, Comparatives and Superlatives) .. 76
B. From Bohemian artists to modern graphic
COMMUNICATION
design ...................................................................... 54
C. The London underground ................................ 58 Listening (Graphic design in a digital age) ..... 78
Speaking (Social activism and graphic design) 79
Unit 2 Choosing and using type Reading (Pop art) .................................................. 80
A. Typography: a brief overview ......................... 60 Writing (Logo analysis) ....................................... 81
B. Fonts ........................................................................ 62 CLIL History and Graphic Design • Design
C. A new typography .............................................. 64 as a social and political commitment:
D. The father of the Times New Roman ........... 66 Albe Steiner ............................................................ 82

7
3
Unit 3 Advertising communication
M O D U L E

ADVERTISING A. Commercial and non-commercial


AND ITS AUDIENCE advertising ............................................................. 104
B. The use of influencers in advertising ............ 108
C. ASA (Advertising Standard Authority) ......... 110

Unit 1 The consumer society


REVISION AND PRACTICE
A. Consumption and the consumer society ..... 86
VOCABULARY ...................................................................... 112
B. Motivational research ........................................ 90
GRAMMAR (The use of past simple and present
C. Consumer motivation and behaviour ........... 92
perfect tenses) ....................................................... 114
D. Appealing to feeling and fears ........................ 94
COMMUNICATION
Unit 2 Selling strategies Listening (The first Industrial Revolution) ..... 116
A. Sophisticated audience and stylish ads: Speaking (Personality symbolism) .................... 117
cultural references ............................................... 96 Reading (The use of colour in advertising) .... 118
B. The use of works of art ..................................... 98 Writing (Colour... reduction) ............................. 119
C. The use of figures of speech ............................ 100 CLIL Visual Arts • American Art ................................ 120

4
Unit 3 New packaging technologies
M O D U L E

A. Sustainable Packaging ....................................... 140


PACKAGING B. LCA – Life Cycle Assessment ........................... 144
C. The waste hierarchy ........................................... 146

Unit 1 History of packaging REVISION AND PRACTICE


A. Packaging, what is it? ........................................ 124 VOCABULARY ...................................................................... 148
B. Packaging, the beginning ................................. 126 GRAMMAR (The passive voice, The more... the better) 150
C. Modern packaging .............................................. 128
COMMUNICATION
Listening (Re-usable packaging and bio-plastics) 152
Unit 2 Packaging and overpackaging
Speaking (Debate) ................................................ 153
A. Packaging: design and labels ........................... 132
B. Overpackaging: raising awareness ................ 134 Reading (The Japanese art of gift wrapping) . 154
C. Packaging management in Europe and the Writing (Packaging… reduction and report) . 155
UK ............................................................................ 136 CLIL Literature • The Gift of the Magi ..................... 156

8
5
Unit 3 Online advertising
M O D U L E

ADVERTISING A. Online advertising and e-commerce ............. 192


IN THE DIGITAL AGE B. Electronic commerce .......................................... 194
C. Security on the Internet .................................... 196
D. E-commerce tools ................................................ 198
E. Create your own website ................................. 200
F. Find your own job ............................................... 202
Unit 1 History of packaging
A. Traditional media and new media ................. 160
B. Digital and analogue photography ............... 164
C. The new dimension of Web 2.0 ..................... 168 REVISION AND PRACTICE
D. Advantages and disadvantages of new VOCABULARY ...................................................................... 204
media ....................................................................... 172
GRAMMAR (Connectors, Phrasal Verbs) ...................... 206
COMMUNICATION
Unit 2 The Internet and its history
Listening (Second Life) ........................................ 208
A. Who invented the computer? ......................... 176
B. A cool case: Apple Inc. ...................................... 180 Speaking (Something more about the
C. The Internet and the Web ................................ 182 Internet use) ........................................................... 209
D. World Wide Web ................................................ 184 Reading (Cloud computing) ............................... 210
E. Browsers and search engines ........................... 186 Writing (Wi-Fi networking technology) ......... 211
F. The mobile web ................................................... 188 CLIL Psychology of Communication •
G. Cookies ................................................................... 190 Psychoanalysis shapes consumer culture ........ 212

6
Unit 2 The seventh art
M O D U L E

A. Adapting history and literature into films .... 234


VISUAL ARTS B. What is a logline? ................................................ 236
C. Writing compelling screenplays ...................... 238
D. What a director of photography does .......... 240

REVISION AND PRACTICE


Unit 1 The history behind the pictures VOCABULARY ...................................................................... 246
A. “You push the button and we do all the GRAMMAR (Compounds) ................................................ 248
rest” ......................................................................... 216 COMMUNICATION
B. Eadweard Muybridge: what’s in a bet ......... 218 Listening (The right soundtrack) ....................... 250
C. Photojournalism and its heroes ....................... 220 Speaking (Spare the pain, spoil the game?) ... 251
D. Slightly out of focus ........................................... 224 Reading (The History Boys) ............................... 252
E. When photographs make things happen ... 228 Writing (How to write a film review) .............. 253
F. Documenting the bitter years ......................... 230 CLIL History • The horror of war and the arts ........ 254

9
3
E
L

ADVERTISING
U
D

AND ITS AUDIENCE


O
M

Unit 1 The consumer society


A. Consumption and the consumer society
B. Motivational research
C. Consumer motivation and behaviour
D. Appealing to feelings and fear

Unit 2 Selling strategies


A. Sophisticated audience and stylish ads: cultural
references
B. The use of works of art
C. The use of figures of speech

Unit 3 Advertising communication


A. Commercial and non-commercial advertising
B. The use of influencers in advertising
C. ASA (Advertising Standard Authority)
“All the papers that matter live off their
advertisements, and the advertisers exercise an
indirect censorship over news.”
George Orwell

• Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George


Orwell, was an English author and journalist. His work
is marked by keen intelligence and wit, a profound
awareness of social injustice, an intense opposition to
totalitarianism, a passion for clarity in language and a
belief in democratic socialism.

Why study this Module?

In this Module you will learn


how advertising works: its
secrets, based on feelings and
fears, and its psychological
approach and research. You
will discover some tips that
advertisers give to make their
ads more interesting. You will
also look at different kinds of
advertising communication and
read about the authority which
ensures equitable conditions
for fair market competition and
protects the fundamental rights
of all citizens.
1 THE CONSUMER SOCIETY
U N I T
In this Unit we will focus on how psychology has become part of advertising,
with special regard to motivational research. Moreover, we will concentrate
on how the psychological approach has influenced advertising communication.
Feelings, emotions, affections are strong and powerful weapons in the hands of
advertisers. We will analyse how they work on consumers.

A. CONSUMPTION AND THE CONSUMER SOCIETY


Consumerism has emerged as part of a
historical process which has created mass
markets, industrialization and cultural
attitudes that guarantee that growing
incomes are used to purchase an ever-
growing output. If we look back in
history, we find very different patterns of
consumption from those that exist today.
Only a few centuries ago, no one could
spend a considerable amount of time or
resources on shopping for goods. Earlier
than the Industrial Revolution, before
the late 18th century in England, or the
middle of the 19th century in the rest of
Western Europe and North America,
the huge majority of each country’s
population lived in rural areas and
worked in agriculture, and, moreover,
individual material goods were used –
with repairs if needed – for decades. The
Industrial Revolution, without any doubt,
has transformed production and has
transformed consumption, in that mass
production has led to mass consumption.
Department stores appeared in the
big cities of the world; new packaging
technologies were developed, allowing
the distribution of goods in bags, cans, and bottles. This industrial progress made it possible for
the first time to create nationally and internationally known “brand names” in the marketing of
foods, beverages, cosmetics and other goods. Advertising emerged as an important component
of the marketing and distribution of goods. Although advertising has existed as a specialized
profession for only about a century, it immediately became a great force in affecting public values
and aspirations. Advertising appeals to many different values, to emotional as well as practical

86
Answer the following questions.
a. Can you name some key words concerning consumer society?
b. Why do you think a psychological approach is important
in advertising?
c. Can you define the concept of the unconscious and the
subconscious?
d. Do you think fear is a basic emotion?
e. Can you name any other basic emotions?
PET Describe the picture on the right.

needs, to a range of desires and fantasies. The multitude of


advertisements that we encounter all carry their own separate
messages; yet, on a deeper level, they all share a common
message – they are selling the joys of buying, promoting the
idea that purchasing things is, in itself, a pleasurable activity.

GLOSSARY

to appeal: fare huge: enorme imballaggio


appello income: reddito pattern: modello
can: lattina mass consumption: pleasurable:
consumerism: consumo di massa piacevole
consumismo output: produzione purchase: acquisto
goods: merci packaging:

1 PAIR WORK. Answer these questions.

a. Where did people live before the Industrial Revolution?


b. How did the Industrial Revolution change consumption?
c. When did advertisements become an important component of marketing?

2A PET Decide if the following sentences are true or false.


T F
a. Most English people lived in the country at the end of the 18th century.
b. Department stores spread everywhere in the 19th century.
c. The consumer society arose from the Industrial Revolution.
d. In the past, consumption models were not so different from modern ones.
e. Advertising appeals to practical needs only.
f. Some brand names became famous all over the world thanks to industrial
progress.
g. New packaging technologies enabled companies to distribute goods in cans
and bottles.

2B Now correct the false sentences.

87
module 3

3 Connect the words/phrases with their right meaning.


a. ever-growing 1. It not only identifies a product but also its producer.
b. department store 2. Increasing consumption of goods.
c. shopping centre 3. Group of retail shops, restaurants and other businesses with
a common interest in soliciting sales.
d. consumerism 4. Something that continues to increase, without stopping.
e. brand name 5. Building open to the public which offers a wide range of
consumer goods.

Find the opposite of the following words/phrases in the reading passage.


4
a. not ensure .....................................................................................................

b. tiny .....................................................................................................

c. look forward .....................................................................................................

d. later .....................................................................................................

e. generalized .....................................................................................................

Listen to the following passage and fill in the blanks choosing from the words below. Be
5 careful, you won’t need all of them.
18th – 19th – admitted – advised – alienated – cool – cultural – culture – French – Industrial –
influenced – interesting – linked – method – periods – shift – society – theorists – tool – trench
– unusual

Mass society is a description associated with (1) ….....……


in the modern industrial era. The metaphor of society as a
“mass” took form in the (2) ….....…… century, referring to
the levelling tendencies, in the period of the (3) ….....……
Revolution, which weakened traditional and aristocratic values.
More broadly, this term can be applied to any society that is
said to possess a mass (4) ….....…… and large-scale, impersonal, social institutions. In the first years
of the 19th century, political (5) ….....…… , such as Alexis de Tocqueville, used the term in discussions
concerning a (6) ….....…… in the body politic1 of the western world marked after the (7) ….....……
Revolution. In the late 19th century, in the work of Émile Durkheim, the term was associated with
society as a mass of undifferentiated, atomistic individuals. In the 20th century neo-Marxist works,
such as those of the Frankfurt School, mass society was (8) ….....…… to a society of (9) ….....……
individuals held together by a culture industry that served the interests of Capitalism. Conservative
ideas, in the 20th century, criticized mass society from a different perspective. José Ortega y Gasset,
for instance, lamented the decline of high culture in mass society. One of the most (10) ….....……
things about the term “mass society” is that at different (11) ….....…… of time it has been used by
both the radical right and the radical left, as a (12) …..…… for their political argumentation.

1 the body politic: l’insieme dei cittadini di uno Stato, la Nazione.

88
THE CONSUMER SOCIETY
unit 1

SPOTLIGHT
ON...
Consumerism
We consume a variety of resources and products today having moved beyond basic needs to include
luxury items and technological innovations. Such consumption beyond minimal and basic needs is
not necessarily a bad thing in itself, as throughout history we have always tried to find ways to make
our lives a bit easier to live. However, increasingly, there are important issues around consumerism
that need to be understood. For example:
• How are the products and resources we consume actually produced?
• What are the impacts of the production process and certain forms of consumption on the
environment, society and individuals?
• Which actors influence our choices of consumption?
• Which actors influence how and why things are produced or not?
• What is a necessity and what is a luxury?
• How do demands on products influence the requirements placed upon the environment?
• How do consumption habits change as societies change?
• Businesses and advertising are major engines in promoting
the consumption of products so that they may survive.
How much of what we consume is influenced by their
needs versus our needs?
• Also influential is the very culture of today in many
countries, as well as the media and the political
institutions themselves. What is the impact on poorer
nations and people on the demands of the wealthier
nations and people that are able to afford to consume
more?
• How do material values influence our relationships with
other people?
• What impact does that have on our personal values?
The impacts of consumerism, positive and negative are very
significant to all aspects of our lives, as well as our planet. But
equally important to bear in mind in discussing consumption
patterns is the underlying system that promotes certain types
of consumption and not other types.

GLOSSARY

actually: in realtà, veramente increasingly: sempre più very: vero e proprio


to afford: permettersi luxury: lusso wealthy: ricco
to bear in mind: tenere presente pattern: modello, sistema
beyond: al di là underlying: sottostante, alla base

89
module 3

B. MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH
For many years psychology has dealt with motivational
research, which seeks to analyse the reasons why some
products attract and others repel the consumer.
In 1955, in New York City, during an important Congress
on Advertising, some psychologists were commissioned
by leading American industrialists to head a group
of 150 specialists in motivational research to find an
answer to why people buy or do not buy a product.
This group of experts made a discovery which
was essential for the world of advertising. They
demonstrated that 10% of the reasons that lead people
to buy are located only on a conscious level, namely in
the sphere of awareness; for the remaining 90%, the
reasons for buying are related to the subconscious and
the unconscious level of the human mind.
If you make a choice in the level of the subconscious,
your mind is driven by likes, dislikes, fears and emotions.
In addition, the unconscious level is the area of the
oldest, innate instincts that each individual possesses;
the instinct to stand out and to assert oneself, the sexual
instinct and aggressiveness are just some of them.
It is evident that to attract people to buy, it is not
necessary to make them aware, because only 10% of
the purchases is caused by rational reasons. Instead,
people’s sympathy towards the goods must be aroused by getting in touch
with pleasant feelings and emotions and deep instincts.

GLOSSARY

to attract: attrarre namely: principalmente


awareness: consapevolezza to repel: respingere
driven: guidata to seek: cercare
to get in touch: entrare in contatto

6 Find the English equivalents of these phrases in the text above.

a. si è occupata di ricerca motivazionale ......................................................................................................

b. sono stati incaricati ......................................................................................................

c. trovare una risposta ............................................................................................


d. sono situati ............................................................................................

e. sono collegati con ............................................................................................

f. fare una scelta ............................................................................................

g. inoltre ............................................................................................

h. renderli consapevoli ............................................................................................

90
THE CONSUMER SOCIETY
unit 1

7 Complete the questions and then answer them.

WH-Questions Answers
a. .............. happened in New York in 1955? ...................................................................................

b. .............. was the research commissioned by? ...................................................................................

c. .............. specialists were contacted? ...................................................................................

d. .............. is the unconscious level? ...................................................................................

e. .............. are reasons of buying connected to? ...................................................................................

8 Tick the correct option.

a. Motivational research seeks to ...….. why some products attract more people than others.
1. evaluate 2. remove 3. catch
b. 150 specialists were asked to ................................................................................................. .
1. discover a way 2. analyse peoples’ 3. create a social
of marketing choices in buying campaign
c. The reason for buying is ……… connected to the subconscious level.
1. never 2. sometimes 3. generally
d. Sexual instinct is in the area of the ...................................................................................... .
1. unconscious 2. subconscious 3. conscious
e. To attract people to buy, it is necessary to ........................................................................ .
1. make them sensible 2. trick them 3. reach their feelings

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C. CONSUMER MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR


Psychological theories of motivation can shed light on why people come to desire certain
things. Moreover, communication between human beings is different from that of other species
because it not only responds to primary needs, but also to more advanced ones. A well-known
hierarchy of human needs, formulated by Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, has
split the perceived needs of humans into five categories.
Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970, even though various
publications appeared in his name some years after his death. Maslow’s PhD in psychology,
in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin, formed the basis of his motivational research, initially
studying rhesus monkeys, one of the best known species of Old World Monkeys. Later, Maslow
moved to New York’s Brooklyn College.
Maslow’s theory argues that human needs are arranged in a pyramidal hierarchy that puts
primary needs at the base level and secondary ones at the higher levels.
Basic needs are those related to survival: water, air, food, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep; secondary
ones are related to security and safety, then there are membership and love motivations; the
psychological and emotional spheres are at the top of the pyramid. Maslow considers that only
if the basic needs are satisfied, can the higher levels, the mental and affective ones, emerge.
Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer
concerned with maintaining our higher order needs.

These are the five levels:


1. physiological needs, such as hunger and thirst;
2. safety needs, for security and protection;
3. social needs, for a sense of belonging and love; Self Actualization –
personal
4. esteem needs, for self-esteem, recognition and status growth and
5. self-actualization needs, for self-development and realization. fulfillment

Advertising is based on these hierarchies when working Estreem Needs –


achievement, status
on a communication strategy. It is important to correctly
responsibility,
place the product to be advertised on the scale of the reputation
needs and to know how important that product is to
the well-being of the person. To have a reasonable Belongingness and Love Needs –
assurance that the advertising message will family, affection, relationships,
workgroup, etc.
work, it is essential to start by examining
the needs of the consumers, because their
willingness to meet these needs will Safety Needs – protection, security, order,
encourage them to purchase. If the law, limits, stability etc.
product is related to the satisfaction of
vital needs (food, health and beauty
of the body), it will be easier to Biological and Physiological Needs – basic necessities to
convince the consumer to buy. live (air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.)

GLOSSARY

to argue: argomentare self-esteem: autostima survival: sopravvivenza


membership: appartenenza to shed light: fare luce swept away: vengono spazzati via
need: bisogno shelter: riparo
PhD: Dottorato di Ricerca split: ha diviso

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9 Decide if the following sentences are true or false and then correct the false ones.

a. Maslow died when he was 62 years old.


b. Maslow got a Doctorate in Philosophy in 1934.
c. Maslow divided human needs into 8 categories.
d. Food and drink are physiological needs.
e. Security and safety are only female needs.
f. Primary and basic needs are innate.
g. Maslow built up his theory studying the monkeys.
h. People are pushed into buying by their primary needs.

10 Have a look at these ads and, working in pairs, say what kind of needs they try to satisfy.
For example,

a. It is about the idea that beauty is inside people.

b. c. d.

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D. APPEALING TO FEELINGS AND FEAR


11 Read this text and identify no more than five key phrases.

Millions of people think in the same manner but, at the same


time, everyone has got life experiences based on his/her own
ideals, values, principles, ethics or economic conditions;
what we buy depends on these factors. Everyone is afraid of
something and there is no doubt that fear helps to sell. Brands
able to provoke this feeling can set up a long-term relationship
with consumers who think they will be safe only if they buy the product. It is important for
advertisers to be aware that messages of fear mustn’t be depressing or discouraging. So bright
copywriters don’t play on the sense of insecurity or diffidence, but, on the contrary, they use
fear to satisfy the feeling of security or protection their product can offer, to suit consumers’
psychological desires.
Fear is an emotion induced by a supposed threat, a danger, a menace or simply pain; it is a
basic survival mechanism which takes place as a reaction to a specific stimulus. It is necessary
because it assures the ability to recognize any sort of danger. Some psychological studies suggest
that there is only a small set of basic innate emotions and that fear is one of them. We can say
that fear is the ability to distinguish a threat which leads to the advice to confront it or run away
from it, but in some excessive cases, it can cause a freeze or paralyzing emotion.
Joy, sadness, fright, dread, horror, panic, anxiety and anger are included. It is necessary, however,
to distinguish fear from anxiety, as the latter occurs without any direct or pressing threat.
Everyone has an immediate and instinctual reaction to danger, a common behaviour necessary
to the survival of the species, a sort of evolutionary process. For this reason, fear and anxiety can
be used to control and manipulate individuals’
GLOSSARY
lives.
to assure: assicurare to: manipolare In the top ten list of fears there are: flying,
to be aware of: essere to set up: impostare acrophobia (the fear of heights), death, crowd,
consapevoli to suit: accontentare
the latter: quest’ultimo
snakes, spiders, but one of the most common
threat: minaccia
fears in humans is the fear of public speaking.

12 Decide if the following sentences are true or false and then correct the false ones.
T F
a. People always buy products and services according to what they really need.
b. Everyone has the same ethical principles.
c. Dread is an emotion induced by a real menace.
d. Anxiety is synonymous of fear.
e. Brand is the name of a market company.
f. Advertisers want to satisfy the consumers’ urgency of security.
g. Acrophobia is a particular panic you get when you are in a very tall building.
h. Fright is not a common reaction in a scary situation.
i. Copywriters are people working in security.
j. Fear of public speaking is for men only.

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13 Read the ads below. Each of them works on different types of fear. Discuss with your
classmate and try to find out:

a. what kind of people each ad is addressed to;


b. what fear which ad works on;
c. what each ad offers to overcome the fear.

1. 2. 3.

5.
4. 6.

GLOSSARY

anger: rabbia guilt: colpevolezza


awe: soggezione hurt: ferita
disappointment: delusione, loneliness: solitudine
disappunto shame: vergogna

SPOTLIGHT
distress: disagio sorrow: pena
dread: terrore trust: fiducia
ON... envy: invidia
grief: dolore
What is emotion?
Emotion is another word for feelings. We have feelings of this kind as a reaction to events that are
happening or remembering past moments.
Some common emotions are anger, disappointment, fear, grief, hurt, jealousy, joy, love and sadness.
Advertisements are full of these sub-rational appeals; nearly all advertisements have them.
Here are some more emotions that are supplied to the audience in different advertisements:
amusement, anticipation, anxiety, awe, depression, disgust, distress, dread, embarrassment, envy,
excitement, frustration, guilt, happiness, hope, horror, interest, loneliness, peacefulness, shame,
sorrow, surprise, sympathy, trust.

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