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Requirements

Analysis

System
Requirements
(objectives)

User input
Conceptual View
Design Design

View Integration

Acess
information
Global
External
Conceptual
Schema
Schema
Definitions

Distribution
design User Input

Local
Conceptual
Schemas

Physical
design

Physical
Schema

Feedback Observation Feedback


and
Monitoring
Hay una relación entre el diseño
conceptual y el diseño de la vista en
un sentido, el diseño conceptual
puede interpretarse como una
integración de las vistas de usuarios.
Aun cuando la actividad integración
de las vistas es muy importante, el
modelo conceptual podría soportar
no solo las aplicaciones existentes,
también aplicaciones futuras. La
integración de la vista podría
utilizarse para asegurar los
requerimientos de entidad relación
para todas las vistas incluidas en el
esquema conceptual.
En las actividades de diseño
conceptual y de vistas los usuarios
necesitan especificar las entidades y
deben determinar las aplicaciones
que se ejecutaran en la base de datos
Global Query on multiple
Databases at multiple sites

Data
Control Split Allocation
Site
Subqueries, each on a single
Database at a single site

Data
Fragment Directory

Multi-dbms
Subqueries,on multiple
Layer at
Databases
Each site
Auxiliary
Translate database

A query that can be processed


By one DBMS

Local
Individual Decomposition schema

DBMSs
Algebraic query

Access
Optimization paths

Optimized local Queries


Coordinator Participant

Initial Initial

Prepare

Write Write abort NO Ready


To
Begin_commit in log commit
In log

Vote-abort Yes

Vote-commit Write ready


Wait in log

Write abort in Global Abort


Any
No?
log Ready
Unilateral Abort

Global Commit
Write
commit in Abort
log Type of
msg?
Ack Commit
Write
Abort abort in
Write
Commit log
commit in
log
Ack

Write Comm
end_of_transac Abort it
tion in log
Coordinator Participant
Commit:
write begin_commit record to log
send PREPARE to all participants Prepare:
wait for responses write ready_commit record to log

Ready_commit: send READY_COMMIT to coordinator


if all participants have voted READY: wait for GLOBAL_COMMIT or GLOBAL_ABORT
write commit record to log
send GLOBAL_COMMIT to all participants Global_commit:
wait for acknowledgements write commit record to log
commit transaction

Ack:
if all participants have acknowledged: send acknowledgements
write end_of_transaction to log

(a)

Coordinator Participant
Commit:
write begin_commit record to log
send PREPARE to all participants Prepare:
wait for responses write abort record to log

Abort send ABORT to coordinator


if all participants have voted ABORT: abort transaction
write abort record to log
send GLOBAL_ABORT to all participants
wait for acknowledgements