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(Diisi oleh RMC)

JABATAN PENGAJIAN TINGGI


KEMENTERIAN PENGAJIAN TINGGI
LONG TERM RESEARCH GRANT SCHEME (LRGS)
APPLICATION FORM-PROJECT

One (1) copy of this form must be submitted to the


Institution of Higher Education Excellence Planning Division,
Department of Higher Education, Level 7, No.2, Tower 2,
P5/6 Street, Precinct 5,62200 Putrajaya.
[Incomplete Form will be rejected]

A TITLE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH/TAJUK PENYELIDIKAN

A(i) Title of proposed research program:


Tajuk program penyelidikan yang dicadangkan :

Enhancement Strategies for Zero Waste Campus

A(ii) Title of proposed research program:


Tajuk projek penyelidikan yang dicadangkan :

Shaping Pro-environment Behaviors

B DETAILS OF RESEARCHER / MAKLUMAT PENYELIDIK

B(i) Name of Project Leader: IC / Passport Number:


Nama Ketua Projek: No. Kad Pengenalan/ Pasport:

Prof. Madya Muhammad Rafie Hj Mohd Arshad 620501-08-6189

B(ii) Position (Please tick ( √ )):


Jawatan (Sila tanda ( √ )):

Professor Assoc. Prof.


Profesor Prof. Madya
Faculty /School/Centre/Unit (Please provide full address):
B(iii) Fakulti /Jabatan /Pusat/Unit (Sila nyatakan alamat penuh):

Pusat Pengajian Sains Komputer,


Universiti Sains Malaysia
11800 USM
Pulau Pinang
B(iv) Office Telephone No.: 04-6533616 Handphone No.: 0134214669
No. Telefon Pejabat: No. Telefon Bimbit:

B(v) E-mail Address: rafie@usm.my


Alamat e-mel:

B(vi) Date of first appointment with this University: 02 Jan 1987


Tarikh mula berkhidmat dengan Universiti ini:

B(vii) Type of Service (Please tick ( √ )):


Jenis Perkhidmatan (Sila tanda ( √ )):

Permanent Contract (State contract expiry date):


√ Tetap Kontrak (Nyatakan tarikh tamat kontrak):

C RESEARCH INFORMATION / MAKLUMAT PENYELIDIKAN

C(i) Research Area of Project Leader (Please tick ( √ )):


Bidang Kepakaran Ketua Projek (Sila tanda ( √ )):

A. Pure Science (Sains Tulen)

Chemistry Physic Biology


(Kimia) (Fizik) (Biologi)

Biochemistry Materials Science Mathematics and Statistics


(Biokimia) (Sains Bahan) (Matematik dan Statistik)

B. Applied Science (Sains Gunaan)

Chemistry Physic Biology


(Kimia) (Fizik) (Biologi)

Mathematics and Statistics Computer Science Biotechnology


(Matematik dan Statistik) (Sains Komputer) (Bioteknologi)

Materials Science
(Sains Bahan)

C. Technology and Engineering (Teknologi dan Kejuruteraan)

Mechanical & Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic General


(Mekanikal dan Pembuatan) (Elektrikal dan Elektronik) (Awam)

Material and Polymer Chemical Engineering Information &Communication


(Bahan dan Polimer) (Kejuruteraan Kimia) √ Technology
(Teknologi Komunikasi dan
Informasi)
Energy Transportation
(Tenaga) (Pengangkutan)
D. Clinical and Health Sciences (Sains Kesihatan dan Klinikal)

Basic Medical Sciences Pharmacy Pharmacology


(Sains Perubatan Asas) (Farmasi) (Farmakologi)

Medical Microbiology Parasitology Pathology


(Mikrobiologi Perubatan) (Parasitologi) (Pathologi)

Community Medical Prevention Clinical Surgical Clinical Medical


(Perubatan Pencegahan (Klinikal Surgikal) (Klinikal Medikal)
Masyarakat)

Associate Health Science Dental Nursing Science


(Sains Kesihatan Bersekutu) (Pergigian) (Sains Kejururawatan)

E. Social Sciences (Sains Sosial)

Anthropology Psychology Sociology


(Antropologi) (Psikologi) (Sosiologi)

Political Science Management and Business Geography


(Sains Politik) (Pengurusan dan Perniagaan) (Geografi)

Economic Human Ecology Communication


(Ekonomi) (Ekologi Manusia) (Komunikasi)

F. Arts and Applied Arts (Sastera dan Sastera Ikhtisas)

Language and Linguistic Literature Religion


(Bahasa dan Linguistik) (Kesusasteraan) (Agama)

Philosophy Civilization History


(Falsafah) (Tamadun) (Sejarah)

Art Culture Education


(Seni) (Budaya) (Pendidikan)

Principle and Law Built Environment Environment


(Dasar dan Undang-undang) (Alam Bina- (Alam Sekitar-
Aspek Kemanusiaan) Aspek Kemanusiaan)

G. Natural Sciences and National Heritage (Sains Tabii dan Warisan Negara)

Environment Forestry Argiculture


(Alam Sekitar) (Perhutanan) (Pertanian)

Marine Archaeology Geology


(Marin) (Arkeologi) (Geologi)

Ethnography Built Environment Culture


(Etnografi) (Heritage Aspect) (Budaya)
Alam Bina (Aspek Warisan)
Various Biology
(Kepelbagaian Biologi)
C(ii) Location of Research:
Tempat penyelidikan dijalankan:

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi Campus & Universiti Sains Malaysia Pulau Pinang

C(iii) Duration of this research (3-5 years):


Tempoh masa penyelidikan ini (3-5 tahun):

Duration: 3years
Tempoh :

From : 1/4/2019
Dari :
To : 31/3/ 2022
Hingga :

3
C(iv) Other Researchers:
Ahli-ahli penyelidik yang lain:
(Please include your curriculum vitae if necessary)
Faculty/ School/ Academic
Bil Name IC / Passport Signature
Centre/ Unit Qualification/
Nama Number: Tandatangan
Fakulti/ Designation
No. Kad
P.Pengajian/ Tahap Kelayakan
Pengenalan/
Pusat/Unit/Universiti Akademik/Jawatan
Pasport:
Pusat Pengajaian
1
Dr Sharifah 781001-08-6112Sains Komputer PhD
Mashita Syed Universiti Sains Senior Lecturer
Mohamad Malaysia
Pusat Pengajaian
Dr Mohd Heikal 821205075435 Sains Komputer PhD
2
Husin Universiti Sains Senior Lecturer
Malaysia
Pusat Kecerdasan
Dr. Zainal Rasyid 800625-14-5513 Buatan, Fakulti PhD
3
bin Mahayuddin Teknologi dan Sains Senior Lecturer
Maklumat, UKM
Dr Mohd Halim Pusat Pengajaian
4 Bin Mohd Noor 810914-10-5381 Sains Komputer PhD
Universiti Sains Senior Lecturer
Malaysia
Pusat Kecerdasan
Dr Azrulhizam 780322-01-6727 Buatan, Fakulti PhD
5
Shapii Teknologi dan Sains Senior Lecturer
Maklumat, UKM
Pusat Pengajaian
Dr Nor Athiyah Sains Komputer PhD
6 Abdullah 871207-23-5696 Universiti Sains Senior Lecturer
Malaysia

Pusat Pengajaian PhD


7 Sains Komputer Senior Lecturer
841011-05-5362
Dr Nur Intan Universiti Sains
Raihanan Malaysia
Ruhaiyem
Dr Nazarudin b Pusat Pengajaian PhD
Zainun 700106-08-5557 Sains Komputer Senior Lecturer
8
Universiti Sains
Malaysia

C(v) Research projects that have been completed or ongoing by researchers for the last three
years. Please provide title of research, duration, year commence and year ending.
Sila sediakan maklumat termasuk termasuk tajuk, tempoh, tahun mula dan tahun tamat bagi
penyelidikan yang sedang/telah dijalankan oleh penyelidik-penyelidik di dalam tempoh tiga tahun
terakhir.

Title of Research Duration Start Date End Date


Tajuk penyelidikan Tempoh Tarikh mula Tarikh tamat
Reusable Learning Objects Compilation
Framework for Effective Mobile Learning
Materials Based on Semantic Web and Random 2 years 15/08/2017 14/08/2019
Forest, FRGS, RM60,420.00. (Principle
Investigator)
Disaster Relief and Preparedness: ResQ Banjir:
A Mobile Apps for Emergency Rescue,
1 year 1/4/2015 31/03/2016
Evacuation and Relief Center Management ,
PRGS, RM80,000.00.(Principle Investigator)
Enhancing Hajj Performance - Novel Crowd
Management System And Reduction Of Related
4 years 1/8/2012 31/7/2016
Health Problems, LRGS, RM0.00, (Co-
Researcher)
Please furnish information on academic publications that has been published by the
C(vi)
researchers for the last five (5) years. (Example: Journals, Books, Chapters in books, etc)
Sila kemukakan maklumat berkaitan penerbitan akademik yang telah diterbitkan oleh penyelidik
dalam tempoh lima (5) tahun terakhir. (Contoh: Jurnal, buku, bab dalam buku, dll)

Title of publication Name of journals/books Year


Tajuk penerbitan Nama jurnal/buku published
Tahun
diterbitkan
Reham Adel, Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd Arshad, International Review of Research in 2018
Empirical Analysis on Factors Impacting on Open and Distance Learning, Volume
Intention to Use M-learning in Basic Education 19, Number 2, 253-270.
in Egypt.
Journal of Physics Conference Series, 2018
Azizah binti Safie, Muhammad Rafie Mohd. 06/2018; 1019(1):012070. doi
Arshad, Norhaliza binti Idris, Acceptance Factor :10.1088/1742-6596/1019/1/012070
of Mobile Learning Application for Adult
Learners in Life Long Learning.

Malik Khlaif Gharaibeh, Muhammad Rafie Bin Journal of Engineering and Applied 2018
Mohd Arshad, Determinants of Intention to Use Sciences 13(8) June 2018
Mobile Banking Services in the North of
Jordan: Extending UTAUT2 with Mass Media DOI: 10.3923/jeasci.2018. pg
and Trust 2023.2033, ISSN: 1816-949X

Malik Khlaif Gharaibeh, Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd International Journal of Interactive 2018
Arshad, Using the UTAUT2 Model to Determine Mobile Technologies (iJIM).
Factors Affecting Adoption of Mobile Banking
Services: A Qualitative Approach.
Malik Khlaif Gharaibeh, Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd Journal of Theoretical and Applied 2018
Arshad, The Impact of Demographic Factors Information Technology 28th February
and Visual Aesthetics of Mobile Application 2018. Vol.96. No 4, Pg 937-945, ISSN:
Interface on Intention to Use Mobile Banking 1992-8645
in Jordan.
Wan Nurfatin Faiqa Wan Abdullah, Muhammad Rafie Bin Advances in Intelligent Systems and 2018
Mohd Arshad, Kamal Karkonasasi, Seyed Computing, 843:, 499-509
Aliakbar Mousavi, Hasimah Binti Mohamed, 2018,
RFID Smart Shelf Based on Reference Tag
Technique,
Hasimah Binti Mohamed, Muhammad Rafie Bin International Journal of Engineering & 2018
Mohd Arshad, Mohd Heikal Bin Husin, Technology, 7:, 246-250
Fadratul Hafinaz Binti Hassan, Maziani Binti
Sabudin, Wan Mohd Nazmee Bin Wan
Zainon, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, 2018, RESQ
Banjir: A Mobile Apps for Emergency
Rescue, Evacuation and Relief Center
Management,
Hasimah Binti Mohamed, Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd International Journal of Business 2018
Arshad, Muhammad Dzulhilmi Azmi, 2018, Information Systems, 29/1:, 42-58
Mobile decision support system with dynamic
knowledge base using decision tree and Case-
Based reasoning,
Chia Yean Lim Muhammad Rafie Hj. Mohd. Arshad, A IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, 2017
Triad-Based Contextualisation Approach for Information and, Systems Vol.136 No.12
Understanding of a Critical Issue in a pp.1753-1758.
Government Investment Agency.
Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd Arshad, Reham Adel, International Journal of Interactive 2017
Proposing a Model to Test Students’ Intention Mobile Technologies
to Use M-learning in Egypt,
Hasimah Binti Mohamed, Arshad, M.R.M., Azmi, International Journal of Business 2017
M.D., Mobile Decision Support System with Information Systems,
Dynamic Knowledge Base using Decision Tree
and Case-Based Reasoning.
Walid Shaher M. Yousef,, Muhammad Rafie Bin Journal of Theoretical and Applied 2017
Mohd Arshad, Ammar Zahary, Vehicle Information Technology, 95/2: 2017, 242
Rewarding For Video Transmission Over – 258
Vanets Using Real Neighborhood And Relative
Velocity (Rnrv).
Salah Bindahman, Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd 8th International Conference on 2017
Arshad, Nasriah Zakaria, 2017, Attribute Based Information Technology (ICIT) 2017
Diversity Model for Privacy Preservation, proceeding, pg 524 -531
Seyed Aliakbar Mousavi, Putra Bin Sumari, Zahra International Journal of Applied 2016
Hanifeloo, Muhammad Rafie Bin Mohd Arshad, A Engineering Research, Volume 11,
Robust Method to Detect and Track Moving Number 7:, pp 5277-5283
Targets in Cluttered Scenes with Respect to
Illumination Changes,
Reham Adel Ali, Muhammad Rafie Mohd Arshad, Journal of Engineering, Technology & 2016
Perspectives of Students’ Behavior Towards Applied Science Research Vol. 6, No. 4,
Mobile Learning (M-learning) in Egypt: an 2016, 1109-1114.
Extension of the UTAUT Model,
Sally Almanasra, Khaled Suwais & Muhammad The International Arab Journal of 2016
Rafie Arshad, Adaptive Automata-based Model Information Technology, IAJIT
for Iterated n-Player’s Prisoner’s Dilemma, Issues/Vol 13, No.1, January 2016) Pg
85 – 92.
Malik Khlaif Gharaibeh, Muhammad Rafie Bin World Applied Sciences Journal 34(7): 2016
Mohd Arshad, Current Status of Mobile pg 931-935, ISSN 1818-4952
Banking Services in Jordan.
Esraa Alobaydi , Rayan Alkhayat, Norlia Mustaffa; Proceeding in IEEE International 2016
Muhammad Rafie Mohd Arshad, Context-Aware Conference on Teaching and Learning
Ubiquitous Arabic Vocabularies Learning in Education (ICTLE2016) 1-2 March
System (U-Arabic): A Framework Design and 2016, Putrajaya.
Implementation.
Lim Chia Yean, Muhammad Rafie Mohd Arshad, The Fourth Asian Conference on 2015
A Triad-based Contextualisation Approach for Information Systems (ACIS 2015),
Better Understanding a Critical Issue. Penang, Malaysia Oct 15 – 17, 2015.
Mohammad Alipour, Abdollah Saberi Manesh, International Journal of Engineering and 2015
Seyed Aliakbar Mousavi, Putra Sumari, Technology (IJET) ISSN : 0975-4024,
Muhammad Rafie Mohd Arshad, Digital Finite – Vol 7, No 4 Aug-Sep 2015, Pg 1297 –
Field for Data Coding and Error Correction in 1303.
GF(2m),
Mohammad Alipour, Abdollah Saberi Manesh, The Fourth Asian Conference on 2015
Seyed Ali Akbarmousavi , Putra Sumari, Information Systems (ACIS 2015),
Muhammad Rafie Mohd Arshad, Alternative Penang, Malaysia Oct 15 – 17, 2015
Rotation Matrix for Human Motion Tracking.
Walid Shaher M. Yousef*, Muhammad Rafie Hj. International Journal of Digital Content 2014
Mohd. Arshad and Ammar Zahary, Mobility and Technology and its Applications(JDCTA)
Traffic-Based Analytical Study for Single and , April 2014, Volume 8, Number 2, 29-
Multipath Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc 39.
Network
NumtipTrakulmaykee*, RongQuan Low, Ahmad International Journal of Accounting and 2013
Suhaimi Baharudin and Muhammad Rafie Hj. Business Management [ISSN: 2289-
Mohd. Arshad. Investigating Determinants of 3717], 1 (1):123-130. [Citation-indexed]
Tourist Intention and Associations of
Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use and
Mobility in the Context of Mobile Tourism
Guide.
Ahmed DheyaaBasha*, Satar Habib Mnaathr, International Journal of Scientific & 2013
Rayan Yousif Alkhayat, Muhammad Rafie Hj. Engineering Research. (2229-5518), 4,
Mohd. Arshad and Rozinah Jamaludin. Issue 6:650 - 653. [Citation-indexed]
Importance of Applying E-learning
Instructional Design for New Electronic
Environment in Iraqi Universities.
Rogers Philip Bhalalusesa, Muhammad Rafie Hj. International Journal of Information 2013
Mohd. Arshad. Possibilities and Challenges of Technology & Computer Science
Deploying Effective Learning Materials in (IJITCS). (2091-1610), 7: No 1:13 - 19.
Mobile Learning. [Citation-indexed]
Numtip Trakulmaykee, Ahmad Suhaimi Book Chapter (Chapter 4) 2013.
Baharudin, Muhammad Rafie Hj. Mohd. Arshad, Readings on Hosptality and Tourism
Towards A Better Understanding of Issues. (Hamimah Hassan, Lee Shin
International Tourists' Acceptance of Mobile Yiing and Ng Siew Imm ) 978-967-
Tourisn Guide. 57718-8-0. McGraw-Hill (Malaysia) Sdn
Bhd.
Sally Almanasra, Khaled Suwais, Muhammad Intelligent Technologies and Techniques 2013
Rafie Hj. Mohd. Arshad. The Applications of for Pervasive Computing.
Automata in Game Theory. 9781466640382, 204-217, 2013.
[Chapters in book]
Seyed Ali Akbarmousavi, Muhammad Rafie Hj. Proceeding in The 3rd International 2013
Mohd. Arshad, Hasimah Hj. Mohamed, Putra Conference on Computer Engineering
Sumari. P300 Detection in and Network (CENET2013). [Citation-
Electroencephalographic Signal for Brain indexed].
Computer Interface System: A Neural Network
Approach.
Abdullah Hussein Al-Hashedi, Muhammad Rafie Proceeding in IEEE International 2013
Hj. Mohd. Arshad, Ahmad Suhaimi Baharudin. Conference on RFID Technologies and
RFID Adoption Intention in Hajj Organizations. Applications – IEEE RFID TA 2013,
Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
Hasimah Hj. Mohamed, Muhammad Rafie Hj. Proceeding in Wireless and Mobile 2013
Mohd. Arshad, Ng Moon Hui, Liu Ban Chieng and Networking Conference (WMNC), 2013
Wen Yin Ting (2013). Cross-Platform Mobile 6th Joint IFIP . (978-1-4673-5616-
Applications for Android and iOS. 9).[Citation-indexed]
Muhammad Rafie Hj. Mohd. Arshad, Wahidah 2nd International Conference on 2013
Husain, Nur'Aini Abdul Rashid, Zurinahni Zainol Advanced Computer Science
and Hasimah Hj. Mohamed. M-Umrah : An Applications and Technologies – ACSAT
Android-based Application to Help Pilgrims in 2013. [Citation-indexed]
Performing Umrah.

C(vii) Executive Summary of Research Proposal (maximum 300 words)


(Please include the background of research, literature reviews, objectives, research
methodology and expected outcomes from the research project)

Ringkasan Cadangan Eksekutif Penyelidikan (maksima 300 patah perkataan)


(Meliputi latar belakang penyelidikan, kajian literatur, kaedah penyelidikan, objektif dan jangkaan
hasil penyelidikan)

Public participation is a crucial element for the success of zero waste programme specifically in
source reduction including waste separation and recycling. However despites advantages of
recycling program, the implementations have encountered public opposition including lack of
awareness and participation in recycling activities.The most effective way to increase public
participation in waste minimisation process is through education and encouragement by firstly
understanding their concerns, preferences, knowledge and behaviour. The objective of this study
is to identify the factors influencing communities’ participation in waste minimisation at source and
to develop an education module and awareness apps in shaping the pro-environment behaviour
in regards to waste minimisation at source in specific waste separation and recycle. The
methodology will include qualitative (focus group discussion) and quantitative (survey) approach
among communities from every sectors (administration, academics, housing, retailers, services)
whom selected through purposive sampling. The expected output will be a comprehensive but
practical education module and awareness apps on waste separation and recycle that is workable
for every stakeholders. This education module is hoped to be aplicable at national level as it could
be adopted by the government to devise suitable strategies to enhance public awareness and
participation in waste minimisation. Some This research is translational in nature due to it's
contribution towards the nation and societal well-being.

C(viii Detailed proposal of research project:


) Cadangan maklumat penyelidikan secara terperinci:

(a) Research background including Hypothesis /Research Questions and Literature


Reviews. Keterangan latar belakang penyelidikan termasuk kenyataan hipotesis /
persoalan penyelidikan dan kajian literatur.
Research Background.
The changes in lifestyle, particularly in the urban areas, have led to more acute waste problems
in Malaysia. Solid waste generation in Malaysia is expected to exceed 30,000 tonnes per day
by the year 2020 (Ministry of Housing and Local Government Malaysia 2005). These increased
in solid waste will need an effective solid waste management. How ever the existing solid waste
management encounters many problems and become ineffective. Many of these problems are
rooted in human behaviour (DuNann Winter & Koger, 2004; Gardner & Stern, 2002; Vlek & Steg,
2007), and can thus be managed by changing the relevant behaviour so as to reduce its
environmental impacts. Changes in human behaviour are believed to be needed to ensure the
success of any sustainable program which depend on positive attitudes and high participation
rate by the public towards the program. In this research, we will identify the main factors that
influence the pro-environmental behaviour of university students toward reducing solid waste in
campus. With the finding, we will design and apply interventions program; with focus on
awareness and educational programs to change behavior and to reduce environmental impact.
Problem Statement
-waste minimisation is most cost effective at source (Babaei et al. 2011)
-recycle is not only important due to the commodity value of the recovered materials but as an
alternative to increasingly expensive landfills and other waste treatment options (Scheinberg
2011)
-public participation in these activities in developing countries remains poor (Wilson et al. 2012,
2009)
-public low knowledge towards waste reduction, separation and recycle (Babaei et al. 2011)

Literature Review
Environmental quality is strongly depends on human behavior patterns. It is important to
understand and promote pro-environmental behavior. Pro-environmental behavior refers to
behavior that harms the environment as little as possible, or even benefits the environment. It is
a form of environmental action that consciously seeks to minimize the negative impact of one’s
actions on the environment. Such environmental actions can be performed individually or
collectively, and may be direct or indirect in their approach to mitigating harm to, and improving,
the environment. (Mary Pothitou, et al., 2016)
Amir H Pakpour et al., 2014 conducted a study using theory of planned behavior (TPB) to
understand the factors influencing recycling behavior that can lead to better and more effective
recycling programs in a community in Iran. The result show that attitude, subjective norms,
perceived behavioral control, moral obligation, self-identify, intention, action planning, and past
behavior significantly predicted household waste behaviors. The results also indicate that
educational materials which target moral obligation and action planning may be particularly
effective.
In a study to examine the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 Universiti Sains
Malaysia (USM) students, which examines the extent of environment related knowledge and
awareness towards recycling attitude and the relationships between attitude, social norm,
perceived behavioural control (i.e. convenience of available recycling infrastructure and costs
of recycling) and recycling behaviour. The result indicates that environment related knowledge
and awareness significantly influenced attitude towards recycling behaviour (T.Ramayah, et al.,
2012).
Education and awareness programs has a pivotal role in impelling pro-environmental
behavior and solutions, since it aims to raise responsible, competent individuals with knowledge,
skills and values that will contribute to an environmentally sustainable. Environment-related
knowledge and awareness significantly influenced attitude towards pro-environmental behavior.
Campaigns that could inculcate public awareness and encourage public participation in
sustainable management of public waste should done; to encourage public awareness and
responsibility towards the cleanliness of the environment, reports on illegal dumping of solid
waste and to increase public awareness on the importance of recycling.
To achieve this, a carefully thought-out waste education and awareness strategy should be
developed in order to change peoples’ habits and behaviour and traditions. This research will
identify factors associated with waste reduction behaviours; design, implement and measure
the effectiveness of educational module and awareness apps. This research on shaping pro-
environmental behaviours will be implemented in two sub research topics:
1) Development of Educational Modules.
2) Development of awareness apps.

Awareness Apps.
Zero waste awareness apps are Android/iOs based apps that will be developed to impel pro-
environmental behavior and solutions, with an objective to raise responsible, competent
individuals with knowledge, skills and values that will contribute toward zero waste and
environmentally sustainable campus. In this apps, we use Location Based System (LBS), GPS,
SMS, compass and Augmented Reality (AR) to support the waste management processes. The
apps will be connected to a server which will allow data entered into the tablet to be sent/updated
to the data base server of Waste Management whenever internet service is available. This will
allow a centralized data collection which enable the coordination of the awareness data
collection for evaluation & monitoring purposes.

Some of the functionalities of the apps will include:


i. Awareness raising campaign for the promotion of:
a) Zero waste and environmentally sustainable campus.
b) Waste Reduction, Reuse and Recycling.
c) Upcoming events and drop-off dates
d) Promotion/communication module (SMS/emails)

ii. Waste management


a) Guide.
b) Garbage and recycling schedules and reminders.
c) Reports on illegal dumping of solid waste.
d) Information on waste and resource recovery facilities, including maps and
directions.
e) Information about waste and recycling services.
f) Disposal instructions specific to your area.
g) Monitoring.

iii. Mobile platform to connect Recycler (recycle partner) And Recyclee (normal user)
for waste recycling.
iv. Ideas of How To Reuse And Recycle
a) recycling programme that rewards cash
b) DIY Easy Recycled Craft Tutorial
c) composting and wormeries.
d) Quick guide to recycling, including list of materials and how to recycle or dispose of
them.
e) Recycling tips and debunked recycling myths
f) Tips
v. Navigation & tracking of Recycle infrastructure/sites
vi. Evaluation & reporting.
vii. FAQ (frequently asked questions)

References:

Amir H Pakpour , Isa Mohammadi Zeidi, Mohammad MahdiEmamjomeh, Saeed Asefzadeh.


Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: An application of the theory
of planned behavior. Waste Management 34 (2014) 980–986
Mary Pothitou Richard F. Hanna b , Konstantinos J. Chalvatzis, Environmental knowledge, pro-
environmental behaviour and energy savings in households: An empirical study Applied Energy
184 (2016) 1217–1229.
T.Ramayah, Jason Wai Chow Lee, Shuwen Lim. Sustaining the environment through recycling: An
empirical study. Journal of Environmental Management 102 (2012) 141-147.

(b) Objective (s) of the Research


Objektif Penyelidikan

This study embarks on the following objectives:

1) To investigate the main factors that influence the pro-environmental behaviour and assess
which factors are the most relevant in shaping communities participation in waste separation
and recycle
2) To develop a general framework to help promote environmental sustainability via pro-
environmental behaviour especially toward zero waste.
3) To design and apply interventions program; with focus on awareness and educational
programs to change the negative behavior and to reduce environmental impact.
4) To develop awareness apps toward reducing solid waste in campus
5) To develop an education module for waste separation and recycle

(c) Methodology
Kaedah penyelidikan

Please state in the form / Sila nyatakan di borang ini

1. Description of Methodology

Awareness Apps.
In this research project, we will develop a general framework to help promote environmental
sustainability via pro-environmental behaviour especially toward zero waste. Some awareness
apps will be developed to help shape the behaviour toward pro-environmental behaviour. The
research methodology for this research project is as follows:

i. Selection and assessment of environmental behavior. Identification of the behavior to be


changed. Valid behavioral measures are needed to decide which (groups of) individuals
should be targeted, and whether target group-specific interventions may be worthwhile.
ii. Examination of the main factors underlying this behavior. Causal factors should be
identified, so that intervention strategies can be targeted on the relevant factors.
iii. Design and application of interventions (awareness campaign) to change behavior to
reduce environmental impact.
iv. Run a comparative study on existing Awareness Apps.
v. Analysis on functionalities - Awareness apps.
vi. System storyboard & interface design – Awareness apps.
vii. Design database for data repository.
viii. Implementation and Testing.
ix. Usability Studies.
x. Evaluation of the effects of interventions.
xi. Publish results
xii. Document Projects

Educational Modules
This research will use mixed methods approach to capture the complexity of public awareness
and participation towards zero waste in specific waste separation and recycle. The method will
include qualitative method: focus group study. The data from the qualitative studies will be
triangulated with data from quantitative method: survey.

Qualitative method
Several focus group studies will be carried out to investigate the factors contributing to the
public participation in waste separation and recycling. Respondents will be recruited using a
purposeful sampling strategy that focuses on the need to obtain ‘information rich cases’, in
other words, respondents who are willing to talk freely and openly about a particular subject.
They will be representatives of USM communities (administration (n=10), academics (n=10),
housing (n=10), retailers (n=10) and services (n=10). A topic guide will be prepared to steer
group discussions but flexibility will be allowed so that members of the focus groups will be
able to explore the wider aspects of the topic they considered important (O’Brien 2005). The
data will be recorded and thematic analysis will be carried out using the soft-ware N-vivo 10.
Thematic analysis involves methodically reading through the verbatim transcripts and
segmenting and coding the text into categories that highlights what the group discussed
(Boyatzis, 1998; Aronson, 1994). They are then assessed, compared and interpreted and any
similarities and differences will be noted. The categories will be combined and assigned to
major themes that provide a framework of community participation in waste separation and
recycling in USM.

The focus group study data will be further strengthened with in-depth interviews. Selected
informants (n=10) representing the relevant stakeholders during the focus group study will be
further interviewed to gain an in-depth insights into the major themes that emerged from the
focus group study analysis. The data will be recorded and thematic analysis will be carried out
using the soft-ware N-vivo 10.

Quantitative method
A survey will be carried out to assess more representative samples of the stakeholders and to
triangulate the focus group findings. An instrument will be developed based on the focus group
findings and past related studies. Content of the instrument will be sent to various experts related
for validation. Improvement of items will be made following suggestions and comments from the
experts. Pilot testing of the instrument will be carried out on 100 respondents. Reliability of the
instrument will be analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha. A field test using more representative
samples (n=400) of USM communities will be carried out to establish an inventory of community
participation in USM waste minimization (Krejcie & Morgan 1970). The respondents will be adult
representatives (age 18 years old and above). The respondents will be selected based on
stratification according to their role in waste management using stratified purposive sampling as
recommended by Monroe & Monroe (1993). This technique allows comparisons among
respondents from different roles that might otherwise be underrepresented if random sampling
was used. The questionnaires will be conducted face-to-face by trained enumerators. Before
answering, the respondents were first briefed with an introduction to basic concepts waste
separation and recycle.

Data analysis for this research will be carried out using SPSS version 22. Reliability test
(Cronbach’s alpha) will be determined for all variables and corrected item-total correlations will
be run to test the validity of instrument.

1. Flow Chart of Research Activities ( Please enclose in the Appendix 2.1)

2. Gantt Chart of Research Activities (Please enclose in the Appendix 2.2)

3. Milestones and Dates

Description Date Cumulative Project


Completion
Percentage(%)
Comparative study on existing Awareness Apps 31/01/2020 25
Report, Design and application of interventions
Functionalities analysis documentation Design 30/12/2019 40
documentations –storyboard, database &
interface design
Implementation – apps developed 31/12/2021 80

Usability Studies report, System manual and 31/3/2022 100


documentation

(d) Previous Research Track Record


Please specify group’s track record, for the past five (5) years, for example scival-spotlight,
h-index,citation,etc.

(e) Expected Results/Benefit


Jangkaan Hasil Penyelidikan

1. Novel theories/New findings/Knowledge


i. An valid education module suitable for enhancing public participation in waste
minimisation at source in specific waste separation and recycle.
ii. A preliminary data base of Malaysian public participation in waste separation and
recycling

2. Research Publications
i. Journal Publication (Q1&Q2) - 2
ii. Publications: 3 (min –SCOPUS)

3. Specific or Potential Applications


i. The modules and apps can be used by policy makers, regulators and local authorities to
increase public participation in waste reduction at source.
ii. Factors influencing public participation in waste separation and recycle will be identified
and can be used as indicators by the Malaysian government to design better
infrastructure.
iii. Recommendation on suitable strategies to enhance public participation in waste
minimisation at source.

4. Number of PhD and Masters (by research) Students


1 Masters student
1 PhD student

5. Intellectual Property(IP)
Copyright for the awareness mobile applications – 3.
Total Number of IP: 3

ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL / KEMUDAHAN SEDIA ADA UNTUK KEGUNAAN


D
BAGI PENYELIDIKAN INI

Equipment Location
Peralatan Tempat

PC Server USM
3 - Android tablet
2 – Android phone USM

E BUDGET /BELANJAWAN

Please indicate your estimated budget for this research and details of expenditure according
to the guidelines attached.
Sila nyatakan anggaran bajet bagi cadangan penyelidikan ini dan berikan butir – butir perbelanjaan
lengkap dengan berpandukan kepada garis panduan yang dilampirkan.

Budget details Amount requested by applicant Amount


Butiran belanjawan Jumlah yang dipohon approved by
oleh pemohon VC/Dep.VC
(R&D)/Director
of RMC

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total


Tahun 1 Tahun 2 Tahun 3 Jumlah
(RM) (RM) (RM) (RM)
Vote 11000 -
E(i) Salary and wages Please
Upah dan Elaun Indicate the
overall
● 1 GRA Master student Budget
10,800.00 21,400.00 10,800.00
@RM 1800/month 98,000.00 Sila nyatakan
bajet secara
● 1 GRA (PhD) student @ keseluruhan
17,600.00 27,400.00 10,000.00
RM2300/month
E(ii) Vote 21000 -
Travelling and
Transportation/
Perjalanan dan
Pengangkutan
● 1 x International
conference 7,000.00 44,250.00
Flight : RM3500
Accommodation: RM3500
● 2 X Local conference 2,000.00 3,000.00
5,000.00
Flight : RM1000
Accommodation: RM1000
● Meeting – KL – PG
4x/yr @RM1,500 4,000.00 5,000.00 4,000.00

● Workshop and meetings


for researchers for 2,000.00 4,000.00 4,000.00
planning, progress and
publication
● Fieldwork
Fieldwork survey (fuel, tol, 4,250.00
parking for researchers and
insurance for enumerators)

E(iii) Vote 24000 -


Rental
Sewaan
● Transport rental for survey
2,800.00 2,800.00
(RM3000)

E(iv) Vote 27000 -


Research Materials &
Supplies

● External Harddisk 1 TB
500.00 500.00
2@RM500 for backup 5,400.00
● Scanner-Copier
500.00
● Paper, Stationaries &
consumables 400.00 400.00 400.00
@RM300/year
● 3 X Smartphone for testing
apps @RM900 each 900.00 1,800.00

E(v) Vote 28000 -


Maintenance and Minor
Repair Services
Baik pulih kecil dan
ubahsuai

Maintenance & minor repair 2,000.00 4,500.00 3,000.00 9,500.00


of existing equipment
E(vi) Vote 29000 -
Professional Services

● Honorarium for Apps


developer RM2,000.00 x 12000.00 24000.00 12000.00 48,000.00
12 = RM24,000/yr
● Honorarium for graphic 3,000.00 4,000.00 2,000.00
artist services = RM9,000
● Proofreading of 2,200.00 2,200.00
manuscripts. 61,450.00
X 4 publications
● Photocopy & printing 1000.00 1000.00
● Conference/journal fees 3
journal & 3 conferences 2,000.00 3,000.00 2,000.00

Fieldwork
1. Workshop for focus group 6,250.00
(1 workshop x RM125 X
50 pax)
2. Workshop for module
introduction (1 workshop x 6,250.00
RM125 x 50 pax)
3. Workshop for module
refinement (1 workshop x 450.00
RM150 x 3 researchers)
4. Survey enumerators (RM
10,000.00
25 X 400) questionnaires)
5. Token for respondents
(RM9X 400) respondents) 3,600.00

6. Data entry (RM5 X 400


Questionnaires) 2,000.00
7. Token for content
validation experts (RM 400 2,000.00
X5 experts)
8. Token for focus group
respondents (RM 50 X 50 2,500.00
pax)
Caj pengurusan 2%
2000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00

E(vii) Vote 35000 -


Accessories and
Equipment
Aksesori dan Peralatan

● 1 High end notebook


@RM6,000 for apps 6,000.00
development.
● 1 Apple Mac Book Pro
For iOs apps version 6,000.00
development.
● 1 tablet @RM1000 for
development/testing 1,000.00 30,600.00
● 1 PC workstation
@RM5,500 for apps 5,000.00
development for
RO/GRA
● 1 Apple I Pad pro for iOs
apps development & 2,200.00
testing
● 1 i Phone for iOs apps
development & testing 2,900.00
● 1 Apple Mac Book Pro
(Notebook computer for
field survey, data 6,000.00
storage and data
analysis)
● 1 Android smartphone
For apps 1,500.00
development/testing

TOTAL AMOUNT 300,000.00


JUMLAH BESAR (294,000.00)
F Declaration by applicant / Akuan Pemohon
(Please tick ( √ )): / (Sila tanda ( √ )):

I hereby declare that:


Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa:

1. All information stated here are accurate, KPT and IPT has right to reject or to cancel
the offer without prior notice if there is any inaccurate information given.
Semua maklumat yang diisi adalah benar, KPT dan IPT berhak menolak permohonan atau
membatalkan tawaran pada bila-bila masa sekiranya keterangan yang dikemukakan adalah
tidak benar.

2. Application of this long term research is presented for the Long Term Research Grant
Scheme (LRGS).
Permohonan projek penyelidikan ini dikemukakan untuk memohon peruntukan di bawah
Geran Penyelidikan Jangka Panjang IPT (LRGS).

3. Application of this long term research is also presented for the other reasearch grant/s
(grant’s name and total amount)
Permohonan projek penyelidikan ini juga dikemukakan untuk memohon peruntukan geran
penyelidikan dari(nama geran dan jumlah dana)__________________________________

Applicant’s Signature : Prof. Madya Muhammad Rafie Mohd Arshad

Tandatangan Pemohon : _____________

Date : 10 April 2019


Tarikh :
G Recommended by Vice Chancellor/Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research and
Innovation)/Director of Research Management Center
Perakuan Naib Canselor/Timbalan Naib Canselor(P & I)/Pengarah Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan

Please tick ( √ )
Sila tandakan ( √ )

Recommended:
Diperakukan:

A. Highly Recommended
Sangat Disokong

B. Recommended
Disokong

C. Not Recommended (Please specify reason)


Tidak Disokong (Sila Nyatakan Sebab)

Comments:
Ulasan:

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Name: Signature:
Nama: Tandatangan:

Date:
Tarikh:

Note: APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED WILL BE TREATED IN FULL CONFIDENCE. THE DECISION OF THE LONG TERM
RESEARCH GRANT SCHEME MAIN COMMITTEE MOHE IS FINAL.
Semua permohonan dianggap sulit. Keputusan Jawatankuasa Induk Skim Geran Penyelidikan Jangka Panjang KPT
adalah MUKTAMAD.