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408834 EARLY ITALIAN PIANO MUSIC A COLLECTION OF PIECES WRITTEN FOR THE HARPSICHORD AND CLAVICHORD EDITED BY M. ESPOSITO O73 { .S) musicians (—} BOSTON : OLIVER DITSON COMPANY NEW YORK: CHAS. H. DITSON & CO. CHICAGO: LYON & HEALY “ as Eve price: paren, $120; cLoTH, $230) THE MUSICIANS LIBRARY e1cury voLUMES IS8UED SONG VOLUMES* JOHANNES BRAHMS; FORTY SONGS. “Pio by Jones Huneler ROBERT FRANZ: FIFTY SONGS. (Edd by Wiliam FsterApthrg [EDVARD GRIEG: FIFTY SONGS. Bed by Hem 7. Fick ‘GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL VoL. 1,s0NGS AND AIRS FOR HIGH VOICE YOU fi: SONGS AND AIRS FOR LOW VOICE ‘ited by Bbeneser Prout ADOLF JENSEN: FORTY SONGS ted by Wiliam Foter bptary ‘reawz. sz: THIbry soNcs Eeied by Carl Armbruster FRANZ SCHUBERT : FIFTY SONGE itd by Henry T. Finck ROBERT SCHUMANN : FIFTY SONGS Bui by We J. Renderon AICHARD STRAUSS: FORTY SONGS Eeiad by James Hasek 2, roHAikOvSKY: FORTY SONGS Euited by James Haneler RICHARD WAGNER: LYRICS FOR SOPRANO. ied by Carl Armbrarter [RICHARD WAGNER: LYBICS FOR TENOR ‘Eaied by Carl Arracter RICHARD WAGNER: LYRICS FOR BARITONE AND BASS “Esta Carl Armbar NuGO WOLF: FIFTY sonGs ied bp Braet Nema FIFTY MASTERSONGS lied by Henry T. Finck HIFTY SHAKSPERE soNGS Eiied by Charles Vincent MODERN FRENCH SONGS VOL: 1. BEMBENG TO FRANCK; VOL. 11, GEORGES TO WIDOR ‘aed by Philip Hae ‘ONE HUNDRED ENGLISH FoLKSONGS Esbted by Cel J Sharp Bolted by Gramuile Bartck ‘ONE HUNDRED SONGS BY TEN MASTERS VOL 1 SCHUBERT, SCHUMANN, FRANZ, RUBINSTEIN & JENSEN VOL. Il. BRAHNS, TCHAIKOVSKY, GRIEG, WOLF, AND STRAUSS Eide by Henry T. ich (ONE HUNDRED SONGS OF ENGLAND Eiad by Grave Bantch SEVENTY SCOTTISH SONGS lita with ecompasints, by Helen Hopeck SUXTY IRISH SONGS Eee by Wiliam drm Fisher SUATY FaTRIoTIg SONGS OF ALL NATIONS lind by Gramile Bantch ied by Rupert Hughes “At! song volumes ate ed for oth High ant Lew Voir capt where oer SITY FOLEONGS OF FRANCE ied by Jain Tiere SONGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR SOP#ANO SONGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR MEZZO SOPRANO 'SORGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR ALTO SONGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR TENOR SONGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR BARITONE AND BASS Bult by He B. Krchiel PIANO VOLUMES JOHANN SEBASTIAN mucat vou. tnow7ae Fano conrostions WSC fs tacee Fano Comrostions ‘Eel by Baws Prost LUD VAN BEETHOVEN: VOLS 1 PLANO COMPOSITIONS TEltad by Engen dirt JOHANNES BRAHMS: SELECTED PANO COMPOSITIONS dy fo! Sot reGanic CHORIN: FORTY PIBNO COMPOSITIONS ‘Bled by Famer Hacer sxfotic cHoriN tre GREATER CHOPIN Biited by James Hunker 5. COLERIDGE TAYLOR TWENTY-FOUR NEGRO KeLODIES “Tremere fre fae | eovano oniec: tare nano conPositions ‘Bite Berth Fong Tater EDVARD GRIEG: PIANO LYRIS AND SHORTER CONROSITIONS “Bled by Berta Png Taper FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN TWENTY PIANO COMPOSITIONS ‘ated Kove” Scharsenbe eaNe User cTWANTY ORIGINAL PlaNO COMPOEITIONS edb pe Sp RANE LISET TWENTY PIANO TRANSCRIPTIONS ed Ange Spat Faz usz7 TEN HUNGARIAN RHAPSODIES aint by Aaa Spot and Job Orch ELIK MENDELSSONN: THNTY FlaKO COMPOSITIONS ‘ited by Pony Cathe | wouroanc anabeus ozaer-T wey PIANO COMPOSITIONS ‘edb Carl Rete [RANE SCHUBERT: SELECTED PIANO COMPOSITIONS ‘ied by dag Spm OBERT SCHUMANN: FIFTY Piano COMPOSITIONS | ‘Bed by Xr Scared ICHARD WAONER: SELECTIONS prow THE MUSIC Daawas | “tree fr he fam by Ot Singer ANTHOLOGY OF FRENCH PIAKO MUSIC VOL. 1. EARLY COMPOSERS ; VOL. Il, MODERN COMPOSERS Eiied by Lider Philipp ANTHOLOGY OF GERMAK PIANO MUSIC VOL. EARLY COMPOSERS: VOU. ¢. MODERN COMPOSERS Bite by Moritz Morakowskt [EARLY ITALIAN PIANO MUSIC Esied by M. Exoite MODERN RUSSIAN PLANO MUSIC VOL. 1 AKIMENKO TO KORESTCHENKO Voi. Il LADOFF TO WRANGELL Eaied by Constantin og Sterner Price of cach volume, paper, citch back, $1.50; full cloth, gills $2.50. Prices include postage. EARLY ITALIAN PIANO MUSIC 108834 EARLY ITALIAN PIANO MUSIC A COLLECTION OF PIECES WRITTEN FOR THE HARPSICHORD AND CLAVICHORD EDITED BY M. ESPOSITO ke) =D) LIBRARY BOSTON : OLIVER DITSON COMPANY NEW YORK : CHAS. H. DITSON & CO. CHICAGO: LYON & HEALY y al Ete peice; paren, $15; CLOTH, $250] COPYRIGHT, 1906, BY OLIVER DITSON COMPANY INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT SECURED D. B. UPDIKE, THE MERRYMOUNT PRESS, BOSTON: Nhemete, IS 127 fae eeu CONTENTS PASQUINI, ERCOLE (sorw asout 1580) ‘Canzona Francese FRESCOBALD}, GIROLAMO (1583-1644) Tccata, in G minor Corrente, in A minor Gagliarda, in G minor in Bb major ‘Aria (called “La Frescotalda”) Fugue, in G minor ROSSI, MICHELANGELO (aie0 1660) Andantino, in G major Toccata, in D minor PASQUINI, BERNARDO (1637-1710) Sonata (Fugue) SCARLATTI, ALESSANDRO (1649-1725) ‘Aria from Toceata Seconda Minuetto from Toccata Quarts ‘Teena con variazioni (Toccata Settimma) ‘Toccata Oxcava ‘Toccata Nona Fugue, in F minor POLLAROLI, CARLO FRANCESCO (anovr 1650-1722) Sonata, in D minor (Fugue) SCARLATTI, DOMENICO (1683-1757) 34 Sonate J, in D raajor Sonata TI (Tempo di Ballo) Sonata III, in G minor « Sonata IV, in G minor Sonata Vin G minors Sonata VI, in G major Sonata VI, in P minor “Sonata VIII, in F major #2 Sonate EX, in F minor Sonata Xin F major = 2 Sonata XI, in G major Sonata XIL, in G minor * Sonata XIff, in G major « Sonata XIV, in C major Sonata XV, in A major Sonata XVI, in © major + = Sonata XVI, in A major 3» Sonata XVIIL, in A major ¥> @ Sonata XIX, in D minor 12 oThe Cat's Fugue (Fuga del Gatto) DURANTE, FRANCESCO (1684-1755) Fugue, in F minor (Seudio) 26 28 30 3 8 48 49 sa vi CONTENTS MARCELLO, BENEDETTO (1686-1739) ‘Toccata, in C minor PORPORA, NICCOLO (1686-1766) Fugue, in G minor ZIPOLI, DOMENICO (nonw aBour 1686) Suite in B minor MARTINI, PADRE GIAMBATTISTA (1706-1784) ‘Aria, fom the Sonata in C minor Gavotta, in F major Preludio, and Fugue, in E minor GALUPPL, BALDASSARE (1706-1785), ys - ate? Sonata, in D major % PARADIES, PIETRO DOMENICO (1710-1795) Sonata, in A major TURINI, FERDINANDO (1749-1812) Presto, in G minor GRAZIOLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1755-1820) ‘Minuetto, from the Sonata in G major CLEMENTI, MUZIO (1752-1832) Toccata in By major 137 13 135, 42 45 48 153, 161 173, 175 TE I , CLAVICHORD (GERMAN) EIGHTEENTH CENTURY THE CLAVICHORD Among the predecessors of the modern pianoforte the clavichord and the harpsichord (Italian cembalo) were the most important, The clavichord was derived from the old monochord, and was in general use up to the beginning of the nineteenth century; in fae, it was frequently still to be found as late as 1870 in remote German villages. When the superior possibilities of the perfetied pianoforte led t0 its universal adoption among musicians, the whole family of mediacval keyed instruments fell into disuse. Neither the clavichord nor the harpsichord was the true ancestor of the pianoforte, which was derived, ‘by analogy at least, from the dulcimer, Their principle of attion was quite different from the pianoforte, and they also differed entirely the one from the other. In the clavichord the string was struck full by a small brass “tangent” or wedge attached to the farther end of the key, and continuing its pressure on the string as long as the key was held down. The resulting tone was charmingly sweet and delicate, suscep- ible of increase and decrease, and until the piano was invented, unequalled in refletTing gradations of touch, An effet much admired in the clavichord was the “ Bebung” or vibrato, produced by a repeated after-pressure of the key without removing the finger. In shape the clavichord was the prototype of the modern square piano; while its small size—often portable—and the weakness of its delicate tone made it preéminently the instrument of intimacy and the: home, ‘The illustrations om the opposite page show two excellent examples of the clavichord of different periods. ‘The Italian instrument is a very interesting specimen of early construction; and although, like many old instruments, this one has met with considerable restoration, its value and interest are not affetled thereby, Ibis contained in a small portable case, covered with stamped leather with design in brown on a gold ground; and has a compass of but thirty-six notes, The name of the maker, Alex. Trasontini, and the date, 1537, are found on ivory within the edge of the case ; also a motto which has surely been erroneously re- Lettered, and which should read wT ROSA FLOS PLORUM ITA HOC CLAVILE CLAVHLIUM, i.e, “the ‘rose is the flower of flowers, so this is the clavickord of clavichords.”” In contrast with this primitive though elegant instrument is the German clavichord shown in the lower illustration, which was made in the year 1765 by Fokn Christopher ‘Jesse, organist at St. Martin's Church, Halberstadt. The case, supported upon a permanent stand, is plain, painted upon the outside in imitation of tortoiseeshell; the inside of the cover black, with painted panels. But the compass has been ex- tended to frve offaves, and the mechanism so improved, that the contrapuntal masterpieces of the eighteenth century may be satisfaltorily performed thereupon. It twas for an instrument such as this that the great Bach wrote the celebrated Preludes and Fugues of the “Well-tempered Clavichord.” THE HARPSICHORD Contemporary with the clavichord, though probably of later invention, was the harpsichord, an instru ment evolved, in common with the spinet and virginal, from she ancient psaltery. Its compass, in earlier instruments very restrifled, was gradually extended t0 five oBlaves, The wing shape (“Fligel”) of the modern grand piano was charatleristic of the true harpsichord —a model taken from the trapexe-shaped psaltery. The virginal and spinet, though operated by the same mechanical device, were of oblong shape like the differently construéied clavichord. The harpsichord was not only larger than the clavichord, but was capable of producing a powerful, brilliant tone, and was very generally used for public performance. The strings, instead of being struck by a tangent, were plucked with points of quill or hard leather which stood out from the side of wooden uprights, known as jacks, fastened to the farther end of the keys. As the keys were pressed down the jacks passed upward, causing the quills to pluck the strings above, which vibrated like those of a mandolin. The tone of the harpsichord «was hard and metallic, and entirely incapable of reproducing the nuances of forte and piano, or responding to differences of touch. To offiet this defeE? a suggestion was borrowed from the organ. Stops were added, which, as they were drawn out or pushed in, made it possible to use either one, £00 or three strings, thus producing three degrees from piano 10 forte. A damper of leather or cloth ‘put upon the strings by the same means produced an imitation of the lute. Or, by providing two keyboards placed one above the other, these appliances were combined, and by shifting the hands the player could se- care dynamic contrasts, The beautiful harpsichord reproduced upon the opposite page is the work of an unknown Italian maker of the seventeenth century. It has but a single keyboard, with two unison strings to each note, and a com- pass of four oflaves and a fourth, The case is elaborately decorated with inlay of ivory and ebony, and ‘with paintings of musical scenes and a sleeping Venus. Above the keys (also inlaid) are small ivory plagues engraved with scenes from the Passion of our Lord, The sound-board bears three sunken roses, one of which is partly visible in the photograph. ‘The second illustration shows a fine example of the double-banked harpsichord. It was made in Flanders about 1650 by Foannes Couches, a nephew of Jean Ruckers, of the famous Ruckers family of harpsi- chord makers, who flourished in Antiwerp during the seventeenth century, Both keyboards have a compass of four oétaves and a fifth. There are three strings, two in unison and one in the offave, and a lute-stop. The upper keyboard ails on the first string and with the lute-stop ; the lower keyboard on the first, second and third strings without the lute-stop. The combinations are operated by small brass knobs, which pro- elt at the right of the case, which is painted with flowers and conventional ornament on a gilt ground, ‘and rests upon a stven-legged stand, finely decorated with carving and gilt gesso work. HARPSICHORD (ITALIAN) SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ITALIAN COMPOSERS FOR THE HARPSICHORD ‘ N the sixteenth century Italy was first in all the arts, in music, in sculpture, in painting and I in literature. Palestrina was called upon to reform church music, and he composed masses of a beauty that has never been equalled; Luca Marenzio composed his madrigals, and Mon- teverde invented the opera. The example of these geniuses was followed by a host of lesser com- posers; schools for music were founded, and French, Belgian and Spanish musicians, who one hundred years before had gone to Italy to teach, now came to learn and to admire. Though a great deal of the music written in Italy in the sixteenth century was vocal,—all Palestrina’s masses, in fa all religious music was unaccompanied,—instramental composition was not negleéted, and at the beginning of the seventeenth century Frescobaldi produced his works for Organo ¢ Cembalo, and later on Corelli and Viotti wrote for the violin. ‘Vhat the musical inspiration which arose in Italy in the sixteenth century should have been continued far into the eighteenth shows how strong the instinét must have been, and how excel- lent the musical tradition; and the learning of these masters of old time, and their knowledge of music, will, I think, astonish the reader of this volume. I have endeavored to bring together, for the student and the amateur, examples of the music that was written at this time for the harpsi- chord. They have been chosen from the earliest Italian composers down to Clementi, whom I have included, although he has written chiefly for the modern pianoforte, ‘True it is that most of these pieces have been published in various editions, but Alessandro Scar- latt’s toccatas are given now for the first time by the kind permission of the authorities of the Conservatorio di Musica Giuseppe Verdi, of Milan, where the original manuscripts are kept. The pieces of this volume follow the originals stritly, and whenever I have thought it necessary to make a slight alteration the altered passage is given together with the original. I have supplied the marks for expression and speed, for, as every one knows, those old composers only put the mere notes on the paper. I claim no more for my marks of expression than that they were suggested to me by the music, and every one is free to alter them according to his individual feeling. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES RCOLE PASQUINI was born in Fer- ra about 1580. He studied with one of the Milleville, who were established at the Court of the Duke of Ferrara. Pasquini was organist at San Pietro in Rome; he left Rome in 1614, but his reasons for leaving and what became of him are unknown. He-was a celebrated organist; but his compositions are rare, and few are acquainted with them. Frescobaldi succeeded him at San Pietro. IROLAMO FRESCOBALDI was born in Ferrara in 1 §83,and was buriedin Rome, March 2, 1644. He was a pupil of Luzzasco Luzzaschi, and when, accompanied by his master, he went to Rome, to fill the place left vacant by Ercole Pasquini, acrowd of thirty thousand peo- ple assembled to hear him play the organ in the Cathedral. He left works that place him above all composers of his time for the organ and cembalo or harpsichord. His toccatas, canzonas, x ITALIAN COMPOSERS fagues, &c., are full of beautiful melodies and daring harmonies, and show an extraordinary feeling of tonality. Besides the technical diffcul- ties of his compositions Frescobaldi wrote on a stave of six lines for the right hand and eight lines for the left. (See illustration below.) In the preface to his Toccate d” intrvaiatura di cembalo ed organo Frescobaldi, after having pro- tested that he prefers the merits of other com- posers to his own, proceeds to give some advice on the playing of his compositions: that the time must not be kept with striét beats through- out, but be subjected to the emotion, sentiment and brilliancy of the different passages; that the ‘opening of the toccata be played slow, and the chords and discords arpeggiando; that the ca- denzas, although written rapidly, must be played broadly and rallentando towards the end; that me- Jodie passages be played slowly, and brilliant ones quickly; and, finally, that he leaves to the good taste and judgment of the player fall liberty in se- leéting the cempo, “in which consists the spirit and perfeétion of this manner and style of playing.” ICHELANGELO ROSSI was born in Rome; the date of his birth is unknown, but it is certain that he lived there from 1620 to 1660. He was a pupil of Frescobaldi, and had a great reputation as a violinist, organist and composer. In 1625 an opera written by him, Erminia sul Giordano, was performed in Rome, and successfully. His book called Intavolatura organo ¢ cembalo, published in Rome, 1657, contains many interesting pieces. We find in the Toccata in D minor (see page 21) many daring modulations, and its close is an extraordinary example of the early use of chromatics. The Andantino (see page 18) might have been written by a Mozart. ERNARDO PASQUINI was born in Massa de Valnevola, Tuscany, the 8th of December, 1637. He studied with Loreto Vittori and Antonio Cesti. When quite a young man he was appointed organist in Santa Maria Mag- giore in Rome, and later organist of the Senate and Roman People. He was the greatest organ- ist of Italy in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and his best pupils were F. Gasperini and Francesco Durante. He died in Rome on the 22d of November, 1710. LESSANDRO SCARLATTI, one of the greatest of Italian composers, was born in ‘Trapani, Sicily, in 1649. He studied counter- point under Carissimi in Rome, and later became . FOR THE HARPSICHORD x maestro di cappella of Queen Christine of Sweden, then living in Rome, In 1688,"éfter the Queen's death, he accepted a similar appointment at the Chapel Royal of Naples. In 1703 he went back to Rome as maestro di cappella of Santa Maria ‘Maggiore, where he stayed util March, 1709, and then returned to Naples. He died there Oétober 24, 1725. In the various conservatori di musica of Na- ples (Sant’ Onofri, Poveri di Gesu Cristo, Lo- reto) he taught maiy who became celebrated and contributed tothe glory of the Neapolitan school; for instance, Logroscino, Durante, and his own son Domenico. Alessandro Scarlatti was a voluminous writer: fone hundred and fifteen operas, two hundred masses, several oratorios, a large number of can- tatas, church music, chamber music, &e. Many of his compositions for the harpsichord are still unpublished; a Fugue in F minor and an Alle- £70 in G major have been printed in colleétions of music by old composers. Fétis, however, speaks of two books of toccatas and 2 suite of pieces. Through the kindness of the authorities of the Milan Conservatorio di Musica Giuseppe Verdi, I was permitted to copy ten toccatas for the harpsichord, with a view to publication; and some of these pieces are now printed for the first time. I felt must harmonize the Aria from Toc- cata Secondaand the Minuettofrom Toccata Quarta, for in the originals only the melody and the bass are given; no doubt the composer left the per- former free to harmonize it, the # on the two B’s in the bass being, I hope, my valid excuse. All the other toccatas are left as in the originals, 1 to call the attention of musicians to Toc- cata Settima. ‘The form of Scarlati’s coccatas is quite differ- cent from those of Frescobaldi and Rossi, which may be almost said to be formless and read like improvisations. Every one of Scarlatt’s toccatas is different; but though he changes the form, there is always form. No. 1 is in one movement, not unlike his son’s pieces. No. 2 is in four movements: Adagie, Allegro, Grave (aria), Vivace. No. 3 is in two movements: Allegro, Giga. No. 4 is in three movements: Allegro, Ada gis, Minwetto. No. 5 is in three movements: Allegro, Ada- ‘gio, Alla Francese, No. 6 is in one movement. No. 7 is a theme with variations. No. 8 is in two movements: ilegro, Giga. No. 9 is in one movement, like a fantasia. No. 10 is in one movement. From the above it will be seen that Scarlatti gave a wider meaning to the name “toccata.” In some of these pieces he wrote what we would call a small sonata, in two, three or four move- ments. ‘The best of these pieces to my mind is No. 7, Tema con variazioni. He seems to have been the inventor of this form, for we do not find it in the works of any earlier composer, nor in any later until we come to Beethoven. The theme is in it- self a strong one; and the treatment, the tech- nique, the handling of each variation, are extraor- dinaty, With later composers these would be mere scales, arpeggios or florid passages ; but with Scarlatti there isa sequence of rhythm and mood, and we have a sense that the composer is work- ing up to a complete whole. The closes of the second, third, fourth, sixth and eighth variations are full of passion, such as we find in no one else before Beethoven, In looking at this toccata and at No.9 one can hardly realize that such music was written merely for the cembalo at a time when Bach and Handel were still boys, and one hundred years before Beethoven. ‘ARLO FRANCESCO POLLAROLO, born in Brescia about the middle of the seventeenth century, studied with Legrenzi, and passed all his life in Venice, where he died in 1722. He composed seventy operas, various ora torios, cantatas and organ pieces. The fugue given in this volume is a good specimen of his vigo- rous writing, xii OMENICO SCARLATTI, son of the ‘great Alessandro Scarlatti, was born in Naples, in 1683. His father was his first teachers and larer he went to Rome and finished his studiesunder Gasparini, He became Italy's great- est harpsichord player, and one of the best in Europe. He wrote several operas, and they were all performed in Italy. When he visited Lon- don, in 1720, his opera Narciso was given at the Italian Opera. Scarlatti also composed church music, but it is his pieces for the harpsichord which place him in the first rank of composers for that instrument. Many and varied ideas, charming melodies and abundance of technical devices make these pieces a source of continual delight to musicians and amateurs. Any one of them may be placed on a modern pianoforte- recital programme with a certainty of pleasing the audience. Scarlatti wrote a great number of pieces for the harpsichord; about five hundred have been attributed to him. Some have been printed, but many remain still in manuscript. Domenico Scarlatti died at Naples in 1757. RANCESCO DURANTE was born in Frattamaggiore in the kingdom of Naples, ‘March 15, 1684. He was admitted into the Con- servatorio dei Poveri di Gesi Cristo and became pupil of Gaetano Greco, and soon acquired great ability as player on the harpsichord and organ, Later on he was sent to the Conservatorio di S. Onofrio, and finished his studies with Ales- sandro Scarlatti. He composed chiefly church music, and his compositions were admired all over Europe. To him, more than to any other Neapolitan teacher, is due the foundation of the famous Neapolitan school of the eighteenth cen- tury,and his pupils included Traetta, Vinci, Jo- melli, Piccini, Sacchini, Guglielmi and Paisiello. He became professor at the Conservatorio di Loreto, in Naples, in 1742, and died August 13, 1755. ENEDETTO MARCELLO, the cele- brated composer of the Psalms, was born in Venice, July 24, 1686. He was of noble birth, ITALIAN COMPOSERS and received a solid and manifold education; but poetry and music attraéted him, and he studied counterpoint with Gasperini, for whom he had great respedt. Like all Venetian nobles, Marcello, in his young days, studied law and held several posts as magistrate. For fourteen years he was mem- ber of the Council of the Forty, and was sent as «Provvisore” to Pola in 1730. There his health broke down, and in 1738 he went to Brescia (as treasurer), hoping the change would benefit him. Unforcunately he did not recover his health, and he died there on the agth of July, 1739. Besides his fifty celebrated Psalms he com- ‘posed some dramatic works, masses, oratorios, cantatas and instrumental music. The toceata published in this volume is remarkable for its peculiar wrist motion and clearness of form. ICCOLO PORPORA was born in Na- ples, August 19, 1686. He studied at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto under Gaetano Greco and others; and probably received advice from Alessandro Scarlatti. Likeall Italian composers he wrote numerous operas, oratorios, masses, &c.; but his best compositions are his cantatas for solo voice with harpsichord accom- paniments, twelve of which were published in London in 1735. He was 2 great teacher, and the most famous singers of the eighteenth cen- tury were his pupils, viz., Farinelli, Caffarelli, Porporino, Salimbeni and Molteni. In Vienna he ‘gave few lessons to young Haydn; in Dresden hhe met with ingratitude from his former pupil Hasse. In London he competed with Handel and founded a rival opera house; but his ad- venture was not successful, and he returned to Naples, old and in broken health, and died there, in poverty, in February, 1766. The fague in this volume gives a good idea of his instrumental style. OMENICO ZIPOLI, born about 1686, was organist at the church of the Jesuits in Rome in the beginning of the eighteenth cen: tury. More than this is not known of his life, FOR THE HARPSICHORD nor is the date of his death obtainable. He pub- ished in Rome, in 1716, Sonate d° intavolarura organo ¢ cembale. The two volumes in which his music is published contain many varied pieces, such as foccate, wersi, canzone, offertori, pastoral, preludi, almande, correnti, sarabande, gighe, ga~ ‘vette and partite. His style is flowing, melodic, elegant and harmonious. IAMBATTISTA MARTINI was born in Bologna, April 25,1706. He was taught the violin at an early age by his father, who very soon found that there was nothing farther he could teach the boy. Martini was sent to Padre Predieri, with whom he studied singing and harp- sichord playing; Antonio Ricederi taught him counterpoint. He was confided to the Fathers of St. Filippo Neri for his moral and religious train- ing,and they accomplished their task so well that when he was eighteen Martini became a monk. He studied philosophy seriously, and acquired such a deep knowledge of theoretical and prac- tical music that, although he was only nineteen, hewas seleéted as maestro dicappella at the church of San Francesco. When not composing music he spent his ime studying mathematics, and reading ancient and modern treatises on music. He gathered together a remarkable library of music-books and manuscripts. Martini collected for fifty years, and spent large sums on his col- leGion. His former pupils, and foreign princes, his admirers, knowing his acquisitive passion, presented him withold and rare ooksand manu- scripts, and vied with each other in increasing his colleétion. Martini opened a School of Music in Bologna which soon became celebrated all over Europe, and the great musicians of his time were sensible of the advantages of his advice. He died Octo- ber 3, 1784. The greater part of Martini's compositions is still in manuscript at the Liceo Musicale, in Bologna; very little has ever been printed. He wrote masses, motets, oratorios and other kinds of religious and secular music. He also wrote eighteen sonatas for organ and harpsichord. xiii ALDASSARE GALUPPI was born Oc- tober 18, 1706, in the island of Burano, near Venice. His father, who united the dispa- rate offices of barber and violinist, was his first master. When he was sixteen he went to Venice and picked up a living by playing the organ in different churches. Galuppi was a daring boy, for though quite ignorant of the principles of smasic, he composed a comic opera, and was clever enough to get it performed; but he could not get it applauded, —it was hissed,—and in despair he resolved to return tothe original shop, to the shears and the razor. But Benedetto Mar- cello, who recognized his musical talent, took the boy under his protection, and put him to learn counterpoint with Lotti, He also studied the harpsichord, and became a very good player. Daring his long life he composed many operas, all of which were performed in Italy, many with success, especially the comic ones. Catherine I sent for him, and he went to Russia, where his first opera, given in St. Petersburg, was wel) re- ceived. He returned to Italy, and died at Venice, in January, 1785. IETRO DOMENICO PARADIES was born in Naples about 1710, and studied with Porpora. He composed several operas, one of which was performed in London when he settled there as professor of the harpsichord in 1747. His twelve sonatas were published in Lon- don, in 1754, by John Johnson. Many years after he returned to Italy, and died in Venice about 1795. ERDINANDO TURINI was born at Salo, near Brescia, in 1749. His uncle, P. Bertoni, taught him harmony and organ play- ing. Ac the age of twenty-three he lost his sight, was obliged to give up writing operas, and ac- cepted a position as organist at the Church of Santa Giustina in Padova. In 1800, on account of the war, he went to Brescia, where he sup- ported himself by teaching till his death, about 181, xiv IOVANNI BATTISTA GRAZIOLI was born in Venice about 1755, and studied with F, Bertoni, whom he succeeded as organist at the Church of San Marco in 1782. He died in 1820. Several sonatas by Grazioli have been published in Germany. UZIO CLEMENTI was born in Rome in 1752, and died in England, March 10, 1832. With his Gradus ad Parnassum he laid Oétaber 30, 1905. ITALIAN COMPOSERS the foundation of modern pianoforte playing. All his compositions, which include one hun- dred and five sonatas, belong to the period of pianoforte music and are outside the scope of this volume. Nevertheless I have decided to in- clude his celebrated Toccata for comparison with those of the older composers. It would be use- less to give any of his sonatas, as all students of the pianoforte are acquainted with them. epee EARLY ITALIAN PIANO MUSIC CANZONA FRANCESE Faited by M. Rsposito ERCOLE PASQUINI (bora about 4580) Andante mosso (J- tov) PIANO ‘mp con espressione =——_ |p Conyright MCMVIby Oliver Ditson Company Pres Fo i refi a eno mosso dem) “| 4 = f | a) Inthe oriyinal there is SS instead of the rest Moderato 5 foo So | S ritentnd wt ea | - eee fa it - a lunge SSS eS Lento (d= 58) TOCCATA, in G Minor Fuitea by M. Espasito GIROLAMO FRESCOBALDI fasye-t644) Moderato su) t fp ritenendo accel. PIANO. ‘Copyright MCMVIby Otiver Ditton Company, M 1800-8 @ Lento (50) Pp Ss Moderato (00) =—. — 2 5 t - | pespress. =~ tiie hs yess ny den) Ss P Allegro molto &. Lento (- 54) : : - 2 ei eis WO =— rs Allegro moderato (@.- 144) ‘un poco Pit € SE =| affrettando errr Par irceP ars. S, sostenuto ie tog dad ' CORRENTE, in A Minor Budited by M. Esposito GIROLAMO FRESCOBALDI ‘Moderato (4 : 1) (isea-2044) 5 sz f PIANO nf \m-s. y—s | un poco rit: Ccopyrignt MCMV by Olieve Dison Compas Begesnanee 9 GAGLIARDA, in G Minor SIROLANO FKESCOBALDI Edited by M. Esposito (as 1968) . Sostenuto (dss) PIANO (p tutta legato ed | espressivo Conpeight NONVTY Over Ditson Company wis w PASSACAGLIA, in Bb Major Edited by M. Esposito GIROLAMO FRESCOBALDE sts-a0es) Con moto (= 120) SS PIANO mp Sonsriewt MEDI Ober Bitsun Compeny MLwne Altro Tuono (un poco pi rN 4 gs Pp espressivo ¢ apres. ii tento) (d= 54) so 5 5 12 ARIA Edited by M. Esposito (called “LA FRESCOBALDA”) : ARIA GIROLANO FRESCOBALDI Lento ( - 0) oss 4644) ate atempo |) 2 2 VARIATION IV. (Corrente? Graziosamente (412) = 2 a WP, P 15 FUGUE, in G Minor Edited by M. Esposito GIROLAMO FRESCOBALDI Allegro moderato (J s0) 1 > a PIANO p espressivo Copyright MEMMIby Oliver Bitson Company wisn 18 ANDANTING, in G Major Edited by M. Esposito MICHELANGELO ROSSI (aie 1660) PIANO Copyright NeMviby O1tver Dityon Company wen-s06-3 wenasoh-n TOCCATA, in D Minor MICHELANGELO ROSSI Edited by M, Bsposito Lento 50) | === ——~_ Fs Sp dalce ed espressivo PIANO Ima. (senza misura, come fantasia) 2 fa XP _—? @ poco a poco rianimando |—~ | wpe ts frattenendo ~ Moderato (J: 28) messa vate M8078 ™ tissimo = 0co animando il te) _——_——. foee snina po rit, - @ tempo ed eo 3 x \ 4 ores. Moderato con espressione ¢ molto legato-(d - «) —== 3 ara 4s z vy wa Grese.un poco affrettando SONATA (FUGUE) Bsited by Ml. Eaposito BERNARDO PASQUINI sarin) Allegro con fuoco (4 PIANO Coprright MCNVIby Oliver Ditton Company Mote Bei irra allargando . 28 ARIA from “TOCCATA SECONDA” ‘Rained by AL Rsposito ALESSANDRO SCARLATTL (4e4s 4725) Grave ao PIANO pcon espressione Original wenized hy M-Fspossty Cconstight MeMVIby Oliver Ditson Company s)——" a,fempo ritardando 29 30 *»)MINUETTO from “TOCCATA QUARTA” Edited by M-Esposito ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI Molto moderato (2-112) (as49 1725), a PIANO Pp Original eiHarmionited hy M. Esposito Copsright MeMViby Oliver Ditaon Company M L-900-4 31 TEMA CON VARIAZIONI (TOCCATA SETTIMA) Edited by M.Esposito ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI TEMA (aei9-1223) Allegro id= ) , ) D ep PIANO tne POS | crese. VARIATION L ete), 5 5 Sorittante Copyright NeMMIby Oliver Ditsen Company 102824 VARIATION I] (reo re | | ae a VARIATION II i 2 == ior 2 VARIATION IV Fratguitlo m.d: sopra ma fl espressiro 5 34 nie al vi (dees) leggieremente (2, fee <#ies. Lost VARIATION VI : aa ds Pi, t Pry 4 ‘Arapido VARIATION VII (109) se oy — — paelicatamente espress. J he 37 VARIATION IX Vivamente (d-=100) md. i ms. Pp 38 VARIATION X Presto (-s0s) 4 % ms.| % martellato 39 TOCCATA OTTAVA ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI Balited by M. Esposito NURO, 8c Allegro con brio @: 13s) >> >> ‘.-. es PIANO St a Cis ets isp Sey Az Sse |e tereey 7 ? - ag OF sr, 4 ‘ taae un poco rit. a tempo — — st = 40 aa a L:stentato britante e f SS >> Me Lota08-8 43 TOCCATA NONA ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI Edited by M. Esposito Spiritoso(d = 120) a PIANO f sempref 44 Tt [pespressibo M 1902-6 aT stentando - Peon espressione k ‘pon a poco pitt mosso 8 ag *)FUGUE, in F Minor Edited by M-Esposito ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI Andantino (4.-s0) PIANO p tutto legate )¥on Bulow weongly ascribes.this Fugue to Domenico Scarlatti at 5 4 e as tere geere a ——_~. 3 5 2 Pe FET 2 espressivi SONATA, in D Minor Eiaca: (FUGUE) Edited by M-Reposite Allegro con spirito (J=112) o— 2 tf 53 CARLO FRANCESCO POLLAROLI (about 1650 a poo ‘resc. poco 55 sempre, 2 SONATA I, in D Major Edited by M, Esposito Presto (4-11) r PIANO Sorillante re - = pp | espresstoo — POPTESSTVO Le ML-005-5 59 ot espressivo 62 SONATA II (TEMPO di BALLO) ‘ Eaited by M. Esposito 33 DowENtco ScaRLATTI Allegro moderato (se) : _ iz PIANO P 64 SONATA IIL, in G Minor Bdited by M. Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATTI (lund 1267) Allegro te <120) = 5 5 = => 3 PIANO ra Copyright MCMMTy Otjver Ditson Company 65 Andante (47) p espressie— v 67 68 SONATA IV, in G Minor r Fited by. M. Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATTI (4080-1252) Andante con moto (¢ 6) bcd sys q PIANO fyesee a fd Copyright NOMVIBS O1iver Ditson Company ML-000-5 0 SONATA V, in G Minor 34 DOMENICO SCARLATTI * (4608-5969) ited by A. Bsposito Allegro moderato (d- s2) Spd ot 2 s24 4 =. 4 PIANO Copyright NeWLUY OMieer Dlekan Company M L908 = n 34 sempre staccalo . 2 2 hnebetens yf See Mo 6 R SONATA VI, in G Major Edited by M. Esposito DOMBNICO SCARLATTI Allegro con brio ¢4-+ 122) (9080-1767) 4 2 413 4 = PIANO S ron legato e|marcato Coperignt MOMVIDs Oliver Diteon Company wrens rattenuto M L-ai0-4 0 SONATA VII, in F Minor DOMENICO SCARLATTI Baited by M. Esposito Moderato (4-60) PLANO mp espressivo % ms. 8 a Ga OF cepressivo 9 SONATA VIII, in F Major Bajted by M. Esposito oa DOMENICO SCARLATTI Allegretto _pastorale > (1es3-1787) 81 SONATA IX, in F Minor Edited by M. Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATTT (esa-1959) Allegretto moderato (J 108) 4, te ar Pp ree Conseight MCMV be Olive Ditson Company weno 83. ~ SONATA X, in F Major Buited by M. Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATTS doost-tns) Presto (a= #20) _ PIANO copra ‘ ER : oO oresc_| un poco rit. | f° 85 SONATA XI, in G Major Edited by M. Esposito poate Sico ScaRLATTI (ona 1959) Presto PIANO REE Pleggiero 88 89 SONATA XII, in G Minor Buited by M. Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATTI oa 1252) Andante (J++ 52) 6 nf | Coppright MCMVI by Oliver Ditson Company 7 “staccato pespressiva J 93. SONATA XIII, in G Major Baited by M, Esposito . DOMENICO SCARLATTI Presto (.= 100) (tos 1989) PIANO 94 (a) in some.editioas the measures from(@) to(B) are omitted a) In some editions tne measures from (a) ta(b) are omitted wes Mao99-8 97 SONATA XIV, in C Major Edited by M, Esposito 4 DOMENICO SCARLATTI 3689-1957) Allegro molto (4.100) ge PIANO. ES i | ted un poco rall, densa 101 SONATA XV, in A Major Baited by M. Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATTI (usa -1980) Allegro (d.s40) PIANO 104 SONATA XVI, in C Major Fiited by M. Esposito a DOMENICO SCARLATTI (ons. 4987) Molto allegro (4-120) tot tot Psubito 106 glissando issand Ossia F a Mi-sno8 107 SONATA XVII, in A Major Edited by M.Esposito DOMENICO SCARLATT \ssa-t2it) Prestod+1) 4 z aed PIANO S con brio Copyright MCHH by Oliver Dlssse cy 109 A A 10 y atempo P at un poro dim Psubito in SONATA XVII, in A Major 4) DOMENICO SCARLATTI Edited by M. Esposito ‘ase 4782) Presto (4-126) 2 (ee : Tt Set 1 PIANO ua wn geee SONATA XIX, in D Minor 7 dived by M. Esposito DONENTCO SCARLATTI _ (oest-tr87) Allegretto tranquillo eee - (de 68), ce s~ to § P dolce simile) =e (simile) 6 a tempo 1/7 \stmile) uy THE CAT’S FUGUE (FUGA DEL GATTO) Buited by M. Esposito 3 DOMENICO SCARLATTI (1042-1752) Allegro moderatod. «#8) to il te PIANO Ben marcaty il tema A peplA A One day the favorite’ eat of Scarlatti walked over the keyboard _prnducine hy chance the fillowing notes: which the master used as the theme for a Fave seaenss 120 p ne FUGUE, in F Minor (STUDIO) hy M, Esposito FRANCESCO DURANTE. (1056-4288) Allegro moderato ds100) > (simi) iol ‘ai i) Gonse ornamenti) wt + PIANO us —_—— oT —=| = ¢ oe Ri Cit ate Hon : Copyright MCNMIby Oliver Ditton Compasy mL-025-5 un poco crese. to a 4 a & > Bi fie soe m01-026-5 125 126 = . 127 TOCCATA, in C Minor Edited by M. Esposito BENEDETTO MARCELLO ay Presto = 10, 4 sa 3 $2 tt ti y P tutto staccato 128 129 430 Me L826-4 131 FUGUE, in G Minor Edited by M.Bsposito NICCOLO PORPORA (4ss6-1000) Moderato (¢ - 92) ‘d ———~_ PIANO dolce ‘apres. wor 5 134 2 sostenuto a 135 SUITE, in B Minor PRELUDIO Felted by M-Baposito, bowsntco Z1PoLt Lento con espressione (d= 72) a 5 5) a J + | PIANO. 4 CORRENTE Allegro (des 60) an po rv Largo (: 60) a pron espressione Les no GAVOTTA Allegro Gs 141 142 ARIA from the SONATA in C Minor : Edited by M. Esposito PADRE GIAMBATTISTA MARTINI (1708-1784) yi 13 Andante sostenute (4-60) HAN (P espressioo , = PIANO ————— 5 a tempo ‘Pdolce Tempo I, =_=_-| p espress. 4 144 Poco pitt mosso 2 tutto legato r md. Tempo L. ritenendo C GAVOTTA, in-F Major Edited by M. Esposito PADRE. GIAMBATTISTA MARTINI (1206-1768) dene) + ‘ PIANO nf MAG ioe 5 pli, NF pp dolce ran us PRELUDIO and FUGUE, in E Minor . PRELUDIO Balited by M. Esposito PADRE GIAMBATTISTA MARTINI (706-4764) Allegro moderato ( 13 Se PIANO 149 > a tempo 13 “ia EN 150 FUGUE Allegretto moderato (d.=00) ea 151 182 eta crese. ritenendo_| le SONATA, in D Major i Beited by M. Esposito BALDASSARE GALUPPI ‘(y708-1988) Adagio (= «) pe z ek 3 dolce oF a