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Lecture on

Outline
Comunicazioni Wireless Ubique: Tecnologie Esistenti e Future
‰ Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems.
CISM - Centro Internazionale di Scienze Meccaniche
Udine - May 20, 2004 ‰ Part I

ƒ Multiple Antenna Systems and Space-Time Coding.


Transmission Techniques for Wireless Channels
‰ Part II
“Stato dell’Arte e Futuro delle Tecniche di Trasmissione Wireless”
ƒ Multicarrier Transmission.
Dr. Andrea Tonello
‰ Part III
e-mail: tonello@uniud.it - http://www.diegm.uniud.it/tlc/tonello

ƒ Ultra Wide Band Communications.


UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE

DIEGM DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA ELETTRICA, GESTIONALE E MECCANICA

DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 2

Wireless Communications

Satellite Systems

Terrestrial Radio
Systems Free space
Optical Comm.

Introduction
Some reasons for success

– Wireless connection
– Simple and cheap deployment enjoy ubiquitous communications !
– Coverage
– Mobility

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Research and Technology Drivers Existing and Emerging Wireless Technologies
Existing Technologies

System Standard Data Rate Band Mobility


Marketing
WPAN (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.15.1 1 Mb/s ISM 2.4 GHz Low
Increasing Demand for Ubiquitous IEEE 802.11b 11 Mb/s ISM 2.4 GHz
WLAN IEEE 802.11a 54 Mb/s ISM/UNI 5 GHz Low
High Rate, Real Time Services
Develop Spectral Efficient Air-Interfaces IEEE 802.11g 54 Mb/s ISM 2.4 GHz
IEEE 802.16 134 Mb/s 10-66 GHz
WMAN None
ƒ Source Codes IEEE 802.16a 70 Mb/s 2-11 GHz

ƒ Channel Codes Cellular 1G


AMPS
Analog FM 0.8 GHz High
ETACS
ƒ Modulation and Multiple Access Techniques IS-136 TDMA 9.6 kb/s
ƒ Media Access Control and Resource Cellular 2G
GSM 9.6 kb/s
0.8 - 0.9 - 1.8 - 1.9 GHz
GPRS 115 kb/s High
Technical Challenge Allocation Algorithms EDGE 384 kb/s
ƒ Spectrum Limitations Cellular 3G UMTS / WCDMA 2 Mb/s 1.9 - 2.025 GHz High
Emerging Technologies
ƒ Wireless Channel Unreliability
WPAN (UWB) IEEE 802.15.3 Up to 400 Mb/s 3.1-10.6 GHz Low
ƒ Co-channel Interference
Low -
WLAN ? Up to 1 Gb/s ?
ƒ Power Limitations High
Sensor Networks
IEEE 802.15.4 5-200 Kb/s 0.433, 0.866, 0.916, 2.4 GHz None
Ubiquitous Computing
Cellular 4G ? Up to 100 Mb/s High

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Wireless Channel in Mobile Wireless Networks Base-Band Channel Impulse Response


bi ak
Pulse
x(t)
RF RF
y(t)
Matched
xk x(t) bi ‰ Narrow Band Systems ‰ Wide Band Systems
Bit Mapping Detector
Shaping Modulator Demodulator Filtering

ƒ Signal Bandwidth < Channel Coherence Band ƒ Signal Bandwidth > Channel Coherence Band
ƒ Symbol duration ~ Channel Coherence Time ƒ Symbol duration < Channel Coherence Time
h(t;τ) +
Time-Variant Flat Fading Frequency Selective Fading
Propagation Phenomena η(t)

NP
‰ Attenuation (path-loss) h(t ;τ ) = α (t )δ (τ ) h(t ;τ ) = ∑ α p (t )δ (τ − τ p )
p =0
‰ Slow Fading (shadow fading) α1
α2
α3
ƒ Slow variations of the received power caused by obstructions. α4
xk = x(kT ) = α (kT )ak + ηk τ1 τ2 τ3 τ4
‰ Fast Fading

NP
ƒ Fast variations of the received power caused by multipath propagation
xk = x( kT ) = ∑ α p ak − p + η k
in correspondence to movement in the order of the wavelength. p =0

ƒ Performance of digital transmission is severely affected by fading.


Modelled as zero mean complex Gaussian (Rayleigh Fading)

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Multiple Antenna Systems

MS Smart Antennas
MS
RX
Generate beams with phased arrays to sectorize
coverage.
MS
MS

PART I

Adaptive Antennas
Multiple Antenna Systems MS RX
Receive antenna combining to gain spatial diversity
and cancel co-channel interference.
MS
MS

Space-Time Coding
TX RX
Multiple transmit and receive antennas to increase
capacity.

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Multiple In – Multiple Out (MIMO) System Capacity MIMO Capacity, cont.ed

1 1 ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡ α 1,1 ... α 1, NT ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ n1 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ Es ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Es
⎢ ... ⎥ = ... ... ... ⎥ ⎢ ... ⎥ + ⎢ ... ⎥ y= Hx +n
TX RX NT ⎢ N R ,1 NT
⎢y R ⎥
N ⎢α α R T ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ x NT
N , N ⎥ ⎢n R ⎥
N

NT NR ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

ƒ The channel capacity conditioned on a channel realization reads


NT
Es
y =r

NT
∑α r ,t
x t
+ n r
r = 1,..., N R ⎛ E / N0 ⎞
t =1 CH = log 2 det ⎜ I + S HH † ⎟ bit / s / Hz
AWGN, m=0, σ2=N0
⎝ NT ⎠
transmitted complex signal by antenna t
ƒ We assume H to have independent complex Gaussian entries (Rayleigh fading)
channel weight link antenna (t-r)
ƒ The Outage Capacity is the distribution of CH

ƒ The received signal is the superposition of the NT transmitted signals. C = P [ CH < K ]


ƒ All antenna links experience independent fading “in rich scattering”. ƒ The Ergodic Capacity is the average of CH
ƒ We keep the average transmitted energy constant.
C = E [ CH ]

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Mean Capacity Space-Time Coding
240
30 dB
xk1 yk1

200
25 dB
xk2 yk2
160 bi bi

Capacity (bit/s/Hz)
Space-Time
20 dB ST Encoder S/P
Decoder

120 SNR=15 dB
xkNT ykNR

80 10 dB

5 dB
40
0 dB
‰ To approach the Shannon Capacity we need to design powerful space-time codes:
C < 9.16 bit/s/Hz
0
with NT=NR=1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
ƒ joint channel coding, modulation, with transmission over multiple antennas.
Number of Antennas (NT=NR )

‰ Ergodic Capacity is used to characterize fast fading channels. ‰ Fundamental contribution by Tarokh, Seshadri, and Calderbank (1998 AT&T Labs)
‰ Outage Capacity is used to characterize quasi-static fading channels.
‰ Fundamental contribution by Foschini (1996 Bell Labs):
ƒ Capacity increases linearly with the number of TX antennas if NR≥ NT.

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Space-Time Coding Classes ST-BICM: ST Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation


‰ Three Main ST Coding Approaches
di1 xk1
Bit-Symbol
ƒ ST Trellis Codes: extension of the TCM (trellis coded modulation) concept. Mapper

ƒ ST Block Codes: M-QAM block codes with orthogonal structure.


di2 xk2
Bit-Symbol
bi ci di
Mapper
ƒ ST Bit-interleaved Codes Encoder Bit-Interlever S/P

‰ Diversity Gains and Coding Gains are determined by the rank and determinant of certain
diNT xkNT
matrices constructed from complex codewords. Recall that the transmitted signals overlap, Bit-Symbol
Mapper

therefore, the ST code must have a structure that allows to separate the signals at the receiver.
‰ ST-BICM comprises
L
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
L

Pe ~ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ L ≤ NT N R ƒ coder (block, convolutional, turbo)


⎝ SNR ⎠ ⎝ χ ⎠
ƒ bit interleaver
Diversity Gain Coding Gain ƒ space-time mapper (M-PSK / M-QAM).

~ (χ2 )
−L
decreasing
Prob. Error

decreasing
Prob. Error

~ ( SNR )
−L
‰ Flexible approach.

‰ Full diversity codes can be designed for both quasi-static and time-variant fading

channels.
SNR SNR

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Turbo MIMO Decoding Example of Application to GSM/EDGE Air Interface
yk1 λe(di1)
1 Bit/s/Hz 2 Bit/s/Hz 3 Bit/s/Hz
λa(ci1)
Bit-DeInterlever

yk2 λe(di2)
Joint Soft-In bi
Soft-In Soft-Out
Soft-Out P/S
Decoder
Detection

λe(ci1)
ykNR λe(diNT) Bit-Interlever 1 TX
it=1
1 TX
λa(diNT) λa(di1)
1 TX it=4

260 bits
S/P
it=4

NT
2 TX 1 TX
ykr = y r (kT ) = ∑∑ x t (nT )g CH
t ,r
(kT − nT ) + η (kT ) it=4 it=4
t =1 n
1 TX
it=4
‰ The receiver has to separate the overlapping signals and recover the information bits.
‰ Iterative (turbo) decoding procedure:
MIMO Demapping at the Detector: A Posteriori Probability Calculator for Each Coded Bit.
Single receive antenna – TU channel model – 4/8 PSK with STBI convolutional coding.
Maximum a Posteriori Channel Decoder: Improved Extrinsic Information for the Coded Bits.

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Remarks

‰ Spectral efficiency of wireless channels is significantly increased with MIMO technology

‰ It is fundamental to
PART II
ƒ Study and model the MIMO channel

ƒ Design good Space-time codes


Multicarrier Transmission
ƒ Develop simplified decoding algorithms

ƒ Turbo (iterative) processing is the state-of the art detection/decoding approach.

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Multicarrier Transmission Principles General Multicarrier Architecture
f1 − f1
a1 (lT0 ) y1 ( nT0 ) aˆ1 (lT0 )
Motivation h(.) x x g(.) Equalizer
η (t )
– Simplify the equalization task in wide band frequency selective channels.
a k (lT0 ) RF RF
y k (nT0 ) aˆ k (lT0 )
Principle h(.) x + Channel + x g(.) Equalizer
Mod Dem
fk − fk
– Divide the spectrum in a number of narrow band sub-channels (flat faded).
y M ( nT0 )
a M (lT0 ) aˆ M (lT0 )
h(.) x x g(.) Equalizer
– Allocate transmission power over the good channels (water filling principle).
QAM / PSK symbols fM − fM

|H(f)|

Two efficient digital implementations


Applications f
– ADSL : advanced digital subscriber line DMT (Discrete Multitone): well known OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)
– DAB : digital audio broadcast
scheme. Prototype filter with rectangular impulse response.
– DVB : digital video broadcast
– IEEE 802.11 and Hiperlan II : wireless LAN
– proposed although killed for 3rd generation cellular FMT (Filtered Multitone): prototype pulse with time-frequency concentrated response.
– likely to be chosen for next generation cellular.

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Efficient Digital Implementation Cyclically Prefixed DMT / OFDM


µ
• Overall bandwidth W = 1 / T.
µ z1 (lT0 )
a1 (lT0 ) A1 (lT0 )
RF Channel RF
• Uniformly spaced sub-carriers fk = k / (MT) , k=0,…,M-1.
P/S S/P
IFFT DAC ADC FFT
• DMT – OFDM : Rectangular impulse response prototype pulse h(nT).
a M (lT0 ) AM (lT0 ) z M (lT0 )
• FMT : Frequency concentrated prototype pulse, e.g., square root raised cosine. x (nT ) y (nT )
M M M+µ M+µ M M

DMT - OFDM
Sub-Ch. Data Period: ‰ Transmitter
T = MT
0
Tone Spacing: ƒ M points IDFT
∆ f = 1 / MT

ƒ Add a cyclic prefix of duration µT

CS-FMT
ƒ Sub-channel symbol period T0=NT=(M+ µ)T
Sub-Ch. Data Period:
T = MT M 2π
( n − µ )( k −1)
x( nT + lT0 ) = ∑ a k (lT0 )e
0
j
n = 0,..., N − 1
Tone Spacing: M
∆f = 1 / MT
k =1

‰ Receiver
NCS-FMT
Sub-Ch. Data Period: ƒ Disregard cyclic prefix
T = NT
0
Tone Spacing:
∆f=1 / MT
ƒ M points DFT
N/M =K>1
ƒ One tap equalizer
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One Tap Equalization for CP-DMT FMT: Digital Implementation
a1 (lT0 ) z1 (lT0 )
‰ Hypothesis g1(mT0) RF Channel RF g1(-mT0)
NP ≤µ

• Channel with duration shorter than µT: g CH (nT ) = ∑ α δ (nT − pT )


p =0
p IFFT P/S DAC ADC S/P FFT
ISI

M
• Static over a DMT symbol M
a (lT0 )
gM(mT0) gM(-mT0)
z (lT0 ) ICI~0

M M M M
x( nT ) y (nT )
‰ Thesis

• The DFT output equals the data symbol weighted by the channel frequency response.
CS-FMT
• The receiver simplifies into a simple one-tap equalizer.
k −1
fk = T0 = MT k = 1,..., M
T0

⎛ NP −j

p ( k −1) ⎞
z k (lT0 ) = DFT {y (lT0 )}( k ) = DFT {A (lT0 )}( k ) DFT {α}( k ) = a k (lT0 ) ⎜ ∑ α p e M ⎟ g k ( mT0 ) = h((k − 1)T + mT0 )
⎝ p =0 ⎠
Prototype pulse
DFT received block Transmitted block is cyclically

convolved with the channel

Ref: Cherubini, Eleftheriou, Olcer, Cioffi, 2000

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Equalization for FMT FMT, cont.ed


‰ Hypothesis ‰ The presence of some sub-channel ISI can be handled with

• Frequency separated sub-channels and static wide band channel.


ƒ Linear or DFE equalization.
‰ Thesis
ƒ Optimal maximum likelihood detection (Viterbi equalization).
• The receiver simplifies into a bank of independent equalizer.

‰ The sub-channel equalizer has low complexity since the sub-channel impulse
l-th output sample of the k-th RX filter response is short (sub-channel is narrow band).

z k (lT0 ) = a k (lT0 ) g EQ
k
(0) + ∑ a k (lT0 − mT0 ) g EQ
k
(mT0 ) + η (lT0 ) ‰ Practical issues (real world !!)
m≠0

ƒ Extra ICI and ISI because of


useful data ISI equivalent sub-channel impulse response - Overlapping sub-channels (finite duration TX pulses)
- Timing Errors (Time Offsets) and Carrier Frequency Offsets.
• In general scenarios we get both inter-symbol (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI).

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Example of Sub-Channel Frequency Response Probability [ Achievable Bit Rate > K ]
DMT
0
CS-FMT
-10 1
0

Complementary Distribution of the Achievable Bit Rate


-20
-10 0.9
|H(f)| (dB) -30
-20
-40 0.8
-30

|H(f)| (dB)
-50
-40
0.7
-60
-50 0.6
-70
-60
-80 0.5
0.5 0.505 0.51 0.515 0.52 0.525 0.53 -70
fT
-80 0.4
0.5 0.505 0.51 0.515 0.52 0.525 0.53
fT NCS-FMT
0 0.3

M = 128 B = 25 MHz -10 0.2


-20
0.1
NCS-FMT: square root raised cosine pulses -30

|H(f)| (dB)
-40 0
40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
N/M = 1.125 + 4 virtual carriers -50 M bit/s
-60

CS-FMT: rectangular windowed pulses + 4 virtual -70

carriers -80
0.5 0.505 0.51 0.515 0.52 0.525 0.53 c Rayleigh exponential with τrms=100 ns
fT ------ DMT
------ CS-FMT ¦ Rayleigh exponential with τrms=40 ns

CP-DMT: CP length = 30 chips + 16 virtual carriers ------ NCS-FMT * Ricean exponential with R=5 dB, τrms=40ns

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Remarks

‰ DMT-OFDM is an elegant simple solution to overcome channel frequency selectivity.

‰ FMT can yield higher spectral efficiency than DMT.


PART III
‰ FMT is more robust to time and frequency offsets.

‰ FMT is more complex than DMT since it requires filtering and equalization.
Ultra Wide Band Communications

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UWB Main Characteristics Impulse Modulation

‰ FCC definition of UWB: 1


b0 = +1 b1= -1 b2= +1 b3= -1

0.5
ƒ Signal bandwidth > 500 MHz or Bandwidth / Center-frequency ≥ 0.2

s(t)
0
‰ Most popular schemes are based on impulse modulation with short duration pulses Tg
-0.5
Tf
ƒ Simple base band (carrier less) implementation. -1
0 1 2 3 4 t
ƒ Good penetration properties.
‰ Convey a bit sequence via a sequence of monocycles (short duration pulses)
ƒ Good spatial and temporal resolution.
ƒ Co-existence with other radio systems. • Bi-Phase PAM modulation or Time-Hopped modulation.

• Guard time to cope with the channel time dispersion.


‰ Very tight emission masks have been set. Therefore, practical application is limited to
short range communications. ‰ Multiplex users via Time Hopping or DS-CDMA with codes of length L frames.

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Time-Hopped Solution DS-CDMA Solution


cTH
=0 TH
c =2
TH
c
u ,1 =3 cuO,0 = 1 cuO,1 = −1 cuO,2 = 1
u ,0 u ,1

T Tg T Tg
cuI ,m = cuI , m = cuI ,m =
slots: NST
−1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1
frame: Tf
slots: NST
burst: LTf frame: Tf
burst: LTf
‰ TX signal of user u
‰ TX signal of user u
L −1
su (t ) = ∑ bu , k ∑ g (t − cuTH,l T − lT f − kLT f ) ⇒ = ∑ bu , k vuTH (t − kLT f ) L −1 N S −1

k l =0 k su (t ) = ∑ bu , k ∑ cuO,l ∑c I
u,m g (t − mT − lT f − kLT f ) ⇒ su (t ) = ∑ bu , k vuDS (t − kLT f )
k l =0 m=0 k
signature waveform
± 1 bit sequence monocycle signature waveform
± 1 bit sequence monocycle
hopping codeword of user u and length L
inner codeword user u and length Ns

‰ Aggregate data rate: R =


1
⎯⎯⎯→
1
NS →∞ outer codeword user u and length L
T + Tg / NS T
‰ Aggregate data rate identical to the TH solution.
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Monocycle Shape FCC Requirements
First Derivative Second Derivative First Derivative Second Derivative
1 1 0 0

0.5 0.5 -10 -10

|G(f)|2 (dB)

|G(f)|2 (dB)
g(t)

g(t)
0 0 -20 -20

-0.5 -0.5 -30 -30

-1 -1 -40 -40
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Third Derivative Fourth Derivative Third Derivative Fourth Derivative


1 1 0 0

0.5 0.5 -10 -10

|G(f)|2 (dB)

|G(f)|2 (dB)
g(t)

g(t)
0 0 -20 -20

-0.5 -0.5 -30 -30


---- FCC spec
-1 -1 -40 -40
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
t / T0 t / T0 f (GHz) f (GHz) T0 = 0.087 ns

‰ We can use time-frequency concentrated pulses as the family of: ‰ The FCC specifications are very tight:
π
− ( t / T0 )2 ƒ Transmission band 3.1 -10.6 GHz with Spectral Density of -41 dBm/MHz
ƒ Derivatives of Gaussian monocycle g (t ) ~ e 2

ƒ We can transmit 0.6 mW !!


‰ The antennas act as a filter: they differentiate the wide band impulse signal.
‰ The fourth derivative of G-Pulse matches the FCC specs !

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Multiuser Scenario Single User Receiver


‰ Matched Filter Receiver is optimal with guard time longer than the channel dispersion
and single user.
TX 1
TX 0

TX y(t) Z0(k) ∞
NU-1 g0MF(t) LTf Z 0 (k ) = ∫ y (t ) g 0MF ( kLT f + ∆t − t ) dt
−∞
RX 0

TX 2 TX 3

‰ The RX filter has to be matched to the equivalent signature waveform:


‰ Composite RX signal
g 0MF (t ) = v0EQ ( −t ) = v0TH − DS * g CH (−t )
NU −1 NU −1
y (t ) = ∑
u =0
su * guCH (t − ∆tu ) + η (t ) = ∑ ∑b
u =0 k
v (t − kLT f − ∆tu ) + η (t )
EQ
u ,k u ‰ ISI is assumed to be zero (it can be controlled with the guard time)

NU −1 1
Z 0 (k ) = b0, k ∫ ∑ ∑b ∫
LT f LT f
| v0EQ (t ) |2 dt + u ,k − n vuEQ (t + nLT f + ∆t0 − ∆tu )v0EQ (t )dt + w(k )
0 0
Convolution of the u-th user’s signature waveform with the u-th user channel u =1 n = 0

useful term MAI noise

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Synthesis of Matched Filter and Rake Reception Cont. ed
‰ UWB channel is highly frequency selective.
‰ We need to estimate the channel tap delays and amplitudes. It can be done with a
‰ We assume to synthesize the channel with a finite number of taps (FIR filter). training approach.

α1
α3 ‰ We can implement a mixed Analog-Digital Rake Receiver
α5
τ2 τ4
NP
g uCH (t ) = ∑ α p ,u δ (t − τ p ,u ) α1
τ1 τ 3 τ5 nTf+τ1
α6 p =1 x

α4 α2
α2 nTf+τ2 x

y(t) Z0(k)
‰ The received signature waveform can be synthesized as follows g(-t) +

L −1 N P
αN
vˆ0EQ ,TH (t ) = ∑∑ αˆ 0, p g (t − c0,THl T − lT f − τˆ0, p ) nTf+τN x
l = 0 p =1

L −1 N S −1 NP
vˆ0EQ , DS (t ) = ∑ c0,Ol ∑ c ∑ αˆ I
0, m 0, p g (t − mT − lT f − τˆ0, p ) No Spreading / TH
l =0 m=0 p =1

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Simulation Results Cont. ed


ƒ Frame structure: 8 slots of duration D, plus 4D guard time. Orthogonal codes. ƒ DS-CDMA UWB works better than TH UWB especially with a high number of users.

ƒ Channel: Exponential delay profile, 10 Rayleigh faded rays (with sign) and with uniform delay distribution in [0 4D].

ƒ Search and estimate only 3 taps with 100 training bits.

TH -- Ns=8 -- L=1 TH -- Ns=8 --L=8 DS-CDMA -- Ns =8 -- L=1 DS-CDMA -- Ns=8 --L=8


te

te
ma

ma
-1 -1 -1 -1
10 10 10 10
sti

sti
lE

lE
ne

ne
A
an

an
DM
Nu=8
Ch

Ch
-C
Nu=8

DS
al
TH

al
Ide

Ide
-2 -2 Nu=8 -2 -2
10 10 10 10

Nu=2
BER

BER

BER

BER
Nu=2
Nu=8

-3 -3 Nu=2 -3 -3
10 10 10 10
Nu=2

Nu=1 Nu=1

Nu=1 Nu=1
-4 -4 -4 -4
10 10 10 10
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 0 3 6 9 12 15 18
SNR (dB) SNR (dB) SNR (dB) SNR (dB)

DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 43 DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 44
Cont. ed Remarks
ƒ With practical channel estimation we get a tolerable performance loss.
‰ UWB systems allow very high transmission speed (say in the order of Gb/s)

DS-CDMA -- Ns =8 -- L=1 DS-CDMA -- Ns=8 --L=8 ‰ Potentially, their implementation is simple, however,

te
ma
sti -1 -1
lE
10 10
ne

– Optimal receivers may be too complex.


an

Nu=8
A
Ch
DM

al
-C

tic
DS

– All-digital receiver is not currently applicable.


ac
Pr

-2 -2
10 Nu=2 10 Nu=8
BER

BER
Nu=2
Nu=1

-3 -3
10 10

Nu=1

Nu=1
-4 -4
10 10
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 0 3 6 9 12 15 18
SNR (dB) SNR (dB)

DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 45 DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 46

Conclusions References
‰ Space-Time Coding
‰ Reliable spectral efficient transmission over wireless channels is an Algorithmic
ƒ Foschini, Bell Labs Tech. Journal 1996
Challenge.
ƒ Tarokh, Seshadri, Calderbank, IEEE Trans. IT, 3-1998 & 3-1999.
‰ The state of the art is represented by
ƒ Tonello, IEEE Trans. Comm, 2-2003.
ƒ Multiple Antenna Technology
‰ OFDM – FMT Systems
ƒ Multi-carrier Modulation
ƒ Cherubini, Eleftheriou, Olcer, Cioffi, IEEE Comm. Mag. 5-2000.
ƒ Ultra Wide Band Transmission.
ƒ Assalini, Pupolin, Tomba, Proc. WPMC 2003.
‰ A powerful air interface allows for ƒ Tonello, Bell Labs Tech. Journal 2003.
ƒ Higher receiver sensitivity (coverage)
‰ UWB Systems
ƒ Robustness to co-channel interference (spectral efficiency)
ƒ Win, Scholtz, IEEE Comm. Letters, 1-1998.
ƒ Lower transmission power
ƒ Durisi, Benedetto, Proc. ICC 2003.
ƒ Simpler processing complexity.
ƒ Tonello, Rinaldo, Bellin, Proc. ISPLC 2004.

DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 47 DIEGM UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE CISM COURSE 2004 48