Sei sulla pagina 1di 17

DANNI INDOTTI DA EVENTI SISMICI

Deformazione del suolo - Compressione

Earthquake

of

August

18,

1959,

Hebgen

Lake,

Montana.

The magnitude 7.1 earthquake killed 28 people and caused $11 million property damage.

killed 28 people and caused $11 million property damage. Notare la staccionata deformata a S; tale

Notare la staccionata deformata a S; tale deformazione e' il risultato della compressione appena il suolo si e' spostato verso valle durante il terremoto.

Photo Credit: J.R. Stacy, U.S. Geological Survey

Deformazione del suolo - Slumping

Earthquake of August 18, 1959, Hebgen Lake, Montana.

Earthquake of August 18, 1959, Hebgen Lake, Montana . Una porzione del'autostrada 287 e' franata nel

Una porzione del'autostrada 287 e' franata nel Lago Hebgen. Franamento, sommersione, rottura, e traslazione della strada l'hanno resa impraticabile per una lunghezza di circa 58 km. Piu' di 200 vacanzieri rimasero intrappolati nel Madison Canyon quando il terremoto distrusse la porzione autostradale. Vennero stimati danni forestali e stradali pari a circa 11 milioni di $. Photo Credit: University of California, Berkeley

Deformazione del suolo - Slumping

Earthquake of March 28, 1964, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

The magnitude 8.5 earthquake killed 131 people and caused $538 million in property damage. An area consisting of 120,700 km2 was shaken with damaging intensity.

of 120,700 km2 was shaken with d a m a ging inten s it y .

La foto mostra l'effetto della subsidenza alla Government Hill School ad Anchorage. I suoli si mossero verso valle. La rottura del suolo suddivise in due parti la scuola. Photo Credit: National Geophysical Data Center

Liquefazione - Cedimenti differenziali

Earthquake of June 16, 1964, Niigata, Japan.

The magnitude 7.4 earthquake killed 26 and destroyed 3,018 houses and moderately or severely damaged 9,750 in Niigata prefecture.

moderately or severely damaged 9,750 in Niigata prefecture. Vista a er ea di edifici "coricati" presso

Vista aerea di edifici "coricati" presso Niigata dovuti a fenomeni di liquefazione. I danni maggiori furono causati da rottura e e cedimento dif- ferenziale del terreno. Circa 1/3 della citta' sprofondo' fino a 2 metri a causa dell'addensamento delle sabbie. Photo Credit: National Geophysical Data Center

Liquefaziione

Earthquake

of

February

4,

1976,

Guatemala.

The magnitude 7.5 earthquake killed 23,000, injured 76,000, and caused $1,100 million in property damage. It was felt over 100,000 km2 and was accompanied by extensive surface faulting.

km2 and was accompanied by extensive surface faulting. Vulcanelli di sabbia. L'incremento di pressione dovuto

Vulcanelli di sabbia. L'incremento di pressione dovuto al terremoto ha indotto la liquefazione alle sabbie Photo Credit: U.S. Geological Survey.

Liquefaction Earthquake of October 15, 1979, El Centro, California. The magnitude 6.9 earthquake caused $30
Liquefaction
Earthquake
of
October
15,
1979,
El
Centro,
California.
The magnitude 6.9 earthquake caused $30 million property damage and
injured 91 people.
The photo shows one of many sand boils that formed near El Centro. At
localities where the water table is close to the surface, compaction of
saturated unconsolidated materials is often accompanied by ejection of water
or water-sediment mixtures forming sand boils. Photo Credit: University of
Colorad

Deformazione del suolo - Frane

Earthquake

of

April

29,

1965,

Seattle,

Washington.

The magnitude 6.5 earthquake killed 7 and caused 12.5 million in property damage.

of April 29, 1965, Seattle, Washington. The magnitude 6.5 earthquake killed 7 and caused 12.5 million

Deformazione del suolo - Cedimenti differenziali

Earthquake of July 29, 1967, Caracas, Venezuela.

The magnitude 6.6 earthquake killed 240 and caused $50 million in property damage.

killed 240 and caused $50 million in property damage. The ground collapsed beneath this structure in

The ground collapsed beneath this structure in Caracas. A house in foreground has been removed. A number of houses with one or two floors showed great damage in Caracas and in the surrounding area. In addition, a number of high-rise buildings were partially or totally destroyed. This destruction was concentrated in two small areas, one in Caracas and one in Caraballeda, north of Caracas. Soil failures such as the one shown here were blamed for much of the damage. Photo Credit: National

Deformazioni del suolo - Rotture in superficie

Deforma z ion i del suolo - Rotture in superficie Aerial view of San Andreas fault

Aerial view of San Andreas fault

- Rotture in superficie Aerial view of San Andreas fault Right-Lateral Strike-Slip Faults The fence was

Right-Lateral Strike-Slip Faults The fence was offset 2.6 m by the magnitude 8.2 earthquake of April 18, 1906, San Francisco, California. The section of the San Andreas fault shown here is 0.8 km north of Woodville. The photo is looking northeast. The lateral or strike-slip fault offset is large; however, the trace is nearly invisible. This earthquake, together with the fire that followed, resulted in more than 3,000 deaths and 400 million dollars of property damage. Photo credit: G.K. Gilbert, U.S. Geological Survey Photo has been colorized

Frane

Earthquake

of

February

4,

1976,

Guatemala.

The magnitude 7.5 earthquake killed 23,000, injured 76,000, and caused $1,100 million in property damage. It was felt over 100,000 km2 and was accompanied by extensive surface faulting.

km2 and was accompanied by extensive surface faulting. Landslides occurred in the steep roadcut of stratified

Landslides occurred in the steep roadcut of stratified pumice and ash deposits at the San Cristobal subdivision west of Guatemala City. The materials exposed in this roadcut are typical of much of the Pleistocene tephra deposits that underlie inhabited parts of the Guatemalan highlands. Photo Credit: U.S. Geological Survey

Danni da terromoto al sistema di trasporto viario

Loma Prieta Earthquake

On October 17, 1989, a 7.1 magnitude earthquake occurred near Loma Prieta in the Santa Cruz mountains. Movement occurred along a 40-km segment of the San Andreas fault from southwest of Los Gatos to north of San Juan Bautista

from southwest of Los Gatos to north of San Juan Bautista View of the double-deck San

View of the double-deck San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge looking towards the north. San Francisco is to the west and Oakland is to the east, support Pier E-9 is located in the center of the photo. The 15-m long deck sections in both the upper and lower decks were pulled from their support bearings when the 88-m long truss on the right of Pier E-9 moved about 25.4 cm east. Photo credit: E.V. Leyendecker, U.S. Geological Survey

Tsunami

Tsunami Tsunami Generated by Earthquake of April 1, 1946, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Before and after pictures
Tsunami Tsunami Generated by Earthquake of April 1, 1946, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Before and after pictures

Tsunami Generated by Earthquake of April 1, 1946, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

Before and after pictures of the Scotch Cap Lighthouse on Unimak Island, Alaska. A magnitude 8.0 (Mw) earthquake with the source to the south of Unimak Island generated a tsunami that destroyed the five-story lighthouse, located 9.8 m above sea level. Only the foundation and part of the concrete sea wall remained. All five occupants were killed. The waves deposited debris as high as 35 m above the sea. Although little damage occurred in Alaska, except at Scotch Cap, the tsunami was one of the most destructive ever to occur in the Hawaiian Islands. Photo credit: U.S. Coast Guard.

Azione sui muri

Earthquake Kobe, Japan earthquake, Jan. 17, 1995

Magnitude 6.69

Azione sui muri Earthquake Kobe, Japan earthquake, Jan. 17, 1995 Magnitude 6.69

Azione sui riporti

Earthquake Kobe, Japan earthquake, Jan. 17, 1995

Magnitude 6.69

Earthquake Kobe, Japan earthquake, Jan. 17, 1995 Magnitude 6.69 Failure of an embankment above railroad tracks

Failure of an embankment above railroad tracks in Kobe

Azioni sulle dighe

San Fernando Valley California Earthquakes, Feb. 9, 1971

Magnitude 6.5

Valley California Earthquakes, Feb. 9, 1971 Magnitude 6.5 Van Norman Dam (Lower San Fernando Dam). For

Van Norman Dam (Lower San Fernando Dam). For a length of about 1,800 feet, the embankment (including the parapet wall, dam crest, most of the upstream slope, and a portion of the downstream slope) slid into the reservoir. A loss of about 30 feet of dam height resulted when as much as 800,000 cubic yards of dam embankment was displaced into the reservoir. This material slid when liquefaction of the hydraulic fill on the upstream side of the embankment occurred. The dam was about half full at the time. Eighty-thousand people living downstream of the dam were immediately ordered to evacuate, and steps were taken to lower the water level in the reservoir as rapidly as possible

Scuotimento del suolo

On September 19, 1985, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific

coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 km 2 area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter. The underlying geology and geologic history of Mexico City contributed to this unusual concentration of damage at a distance from the epicenter. Of a population of 18 million, an estimated 10,000 people were killed, and 50,000 were injured. In addition, 250,000 people lost their homes and property damage amounted to $5 billion. In contrast to the totally destroyed office building in the foreground, the 44- floor Torre Latinoamericana office building in the background on the right, remained almost totally undamaged, as it did in a 1957 earthquake. The building is a symmetrical steel frame structure built to resist earthquakes. It has 200 piles extending down about 35 meters to the topmost stable and load-bearing earth stratum. The tall transmission tower on the left had also been sufficiently designed to withstand large horizontal forces.

stratum. The tall transmission tower on the left had also been sufficiently designed to withstand large

Scuotimento del suolo

Terremoto

del

23

Novembre

1980,

Campania,

Italia.

Il terremoto di magnitudo 6.8 uccise piu' di 3000 persone, feri' 7750, e causo' gravi danni alle infrastrutture. 250 000 furono i senzatetto.

danni alle infrastrutture. 250 000 furono i senzatetto . Il collasso di questa struttura fu dovuto

Il collasso di questa struttura fu dovuto a rottura generalizzata della strut- tura verosimilmente realizzata con materiali scadenti.

Photo Credit: National Academy Press